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C Technology Rubenzer May161

- FEMConvergence.pdf
- [B. F. Shorr (Auth.)] the Wave Finite Element Met(BookZa.org)
- f Gey Trg 536356
- Efficient Modelling of Complex Adhesively Bonded Structures by Standard Finite Element Techniques
- Plates
- fds45sdaf56sd
- MMJ1153-B_Review of 1D Problems_part1
- DSF54Y6DFV546
- 2435SDF34SDF
- Behavior and Analysis of a Curved and Skewed I-Girder Bridge
- Influence Lines
- WRE3DSFA
- gsdgd346g
- 23dsdferer
- Libro Fico
- FE3658D14
- Werert 365
- DFGETRERT
- FE435FD5654
- SDF54456SFD5674U

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the impact of technology on

structural engineering Line elements. | Plate/shell elements. | Solid (brick) element.

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oftware programs for structural engineers creating elements that more closely represent a

continue to escalate in complexity, as structural components behavior.

engineers become increasingly reliant on

those tools to increase accuracy in analysis General Comments

about

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and efficiency during design. To solve complex

problems efficiently, and to gain a more in-depth

Finite Element Modeling

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understanding of the elements being analyzed, Finite element models are created by modeling

structural engineers are using Finite Element line, plate/shell, and solid (or brick) elements,

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Analysis (FEA). Of course, ht each of the different with associated end nodes.

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FEACop programs has their idio- Complicated three-dimensional elements, such

syncrasies, all of which require as solid (or brick) elements, are not usually avail-

Finite Element Modeling,

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designers to pay close attention able in most commercial design software. In

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when using these programs. structural engineering, most problems can be

Analysis, and Design What exactly is finite ele-

n modeled with one-dimensional line elements,

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ment analysis? It is the process or two-dimensional plate or shell elements,

for Masonry z

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of reducing (simplifying) a and result in reasonably accurate solutions.

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problem with infinite degrees When creating a model, the line and plate/

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of freedom to a finite number shell elements with their associated properties

By Samuel M. Rubenzer, P.E., S.E. a

of elements with unique material properties. are defined, and the end nodes are defined with

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FEA programs can resolve even the most com-

plex problems in a reasonable amount of time.

translational or rotational degrees of freedom.

The properties assigned to the line and plate

The process of finite element modeling and elements must be defined to associate a reason-

analysis is an approximate solution which closely able stiffness with each element. Columns and

mimics an actual structure in a way that allows beams (not masonry lintels) can be modeled

structural engineers to design for the stresses, with line elements, and walls and slabs can be

forces, and deflections that are determined using modeled with plate/shell elements. Many soft-

the FEA method. ware programs allow you to define the geometric

Samuel M. Rubenzer is the Some of the more commonly used software boundaries of entire wall panels from movement

founder of FORSE Consulting programs for FEA with masonry design are RAM joint to movement joint (a movement joint is

and assists with designs on a Elements (soon to be released as STAAD(X) from either an expansion joint in brick or control

variety of projects and building Bentley Systems, Inc.), as well as RISA Floor and joint in concrete masonry) and discretize those

types. He has also been the RISA 3D (from RISA Technologies). Other FEA large geometries into smaller finite elements by

structural engineering consultant programs with high-end analysis features, such as a process called meshing. Sometimes meshing

to Structural Masonry Coalitions SCIA Engineer, are important tools for structural is a manual process, and other times software

in several states. He can be reached engineers because they offer more options for programs will offer automatic meshing.

at sam@forseconsulting.com.

Node Ty Wall Element

Ry

Rz Tx

R Properties:

Tz x

Axial

Vertical Bending

Horizontal Bending

Torsion

Vertical Shear

Horizontal Shear

Node degrees of freedom and wall element properties.

14 May 2016

Example of bending modification factors available

in SCIA Engineer.

Wall Geometry with opening. | Wall discretized into nite elements example of automatic

meshing from RAM Elements. element behaves as an isotropic material, a

material having the same properties in all direc-

Pre-Processing and impact the element in all properties of bend- tions. When the factors are different from each

ing, shear, and axial deformation. This type of other, the slab elements

behave as orthotropic

Masonry Modeling

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modification must be used with caution, and materials, having different properties along

Many of the analysis procedures used today may not always be appropriate. three perpendicular axes.

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assume thin plate theory and linear elastic Masonry is unique in that it is often reinforced Caution is prudent when using stiffness fac-

behavior for the plate elements. The elasticity in the vertical direction, but unreinforced in tors. With certain combinations of factors, the

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of the material is described by a stress-strain the horizontal direction.

ht Therefore, the ele- structure can become unstable and the results

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curve, which shows the relationship between ment may only Copspan horizontally if it remains can become unreliable. Also, the interaction

internal force per unit area and the relative uncracked in that direction. If the anticipated of the stiffness factors may be more complex

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deformation. Linear elasticity is a simplifica- design demand stresses are beyond the allowed than it appears upon first inspection.

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tion, assuming linear relationships between cracking stresses, the engineer should consider Masonry design also requires custom mate-

the components of stress and strain. This sim- reducing stiffness by using a reduced element

i n rial types be used to account for attributes that

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plification is valid only for stress states that do modification factor. Again, this emphasizes are unique to the material, such as grouting

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not produce yielding or fracture. Reinforced the need for the modification factors to be only reinforced cells (partial grouting). Partial

masonry and reinforced concrete elements are a

considered separately in each orthogonal direc-

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grouting affects both the loading aspect (from

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not linearly elastic because once a concrete tion. When all of the factors are equal, the slab the self-weight contribution) of the finite

element cracks, steel reinforcement is a

engaged. Of course, masonry is made up of

several different components which closely m

mimic this behavior when it is reinforced.

Many times, finite element software

provides element modification factors to

Important

account for the reduced stiffness of the

masonry or concrete element once it has

cracked. In some programs this factor is

news for

automatically applied, sometimes it must

Bentley Users

be manually defined, and in others, it is not

an option. Some programs offer multiple SofTrack controls

element modification factors including Bentley usage by

bending in each direction, torsion, shear, Prevent Quarterly Overages Product ID code and

and axial deformations. The engineer when you use SofTracks counts (pipe, inlet,

must confirm that the element modifica- pond, and all others)

automated license usage control and can actively

tion factor in the program accounts for

the reduced stiffness from cracking and of all Bentley applications. block unwanted

only applies to the bending stiffness in product usage

the direction of the cracked behavior, and ContaCt us now:

is not used with the shear stiffness or the (866) 372 8991 (USA & Canada) SofTrack also

axial stiffness of the element. (512) 372 8991 (Worldwide) supports Autodesk

When the analysis program does not Cascading Licensing

www.softwaremetering.com

have an appropriate element modification

factor, an adjustment to the actual prop- and

erties of the element might be necessary.

SofTrack directly

An adjustment may mean modifying the

reports and controls

elastic modulus of the element. The elastic Additionally, SofTrack provides software license control for all your applications including

ESRI ArcGIS license

modulus is used to determine the stiffness full workstation auditing of files accessed and websites visited. Many customers also

for the element in each of the deformation

benefit from SofTracks workstation specific logon activity reporting. usage

categories. Therefore, an adjustment will Integrity Software, Inc. Bentley is a registered trademark of Bentley Systems, Incorporated

a good starting point for determining plate/

shell size in finite element models for walls.

Care should be exercised when modeling

masonry wall systems with finite element

analysis programs to ensure all of the bound-

ary conditions, the stiffness of the elements,

and weights of the elements are accurately

accounted for in the development of the finite

element model.

Some may wonder if it is worth this amount

of effort for a masonry wall. It is necessary

Image from RISA showing wall areas, image to the right of RAM Elements showing wall strips. if the engineer wants to understand the true

behavior of complex wall systems, such as

element model, as well as the stiffness of the the finer the mesh (smaller plates/shells and in-plane shear wall capacity of perforated

masonry finite elements. There are some more of them) the higher the probability that shear walls (wall panels with openings in the

programs, such as RISA 3D, which account the elements will be square. This is especially middle), and gain an even better understand-

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for partial grouting of the masonry wall. For true in complex models. However, the smaller ing of the out-of-plane behavior in walls with

programs that do not, modifications must be the mesh, the more plate/shells and nodes, openings. Of course, modeling masonry finite

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made to the finite element properties (such as and larger the demand for computation. Even elements is also essential in the following lat-

altering the thickness of the element). with the advances in software, finite element eral analysis scenarios:

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There are advantages and disadvantages models with a very righ

t fine mesh can result in Lateral dynamic analysis for any

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associated with modifying the thickness of opy

unreasonableCcomputational times. building with masonry lateral-resisting

an element to accommodate for the actual Lastly, consideration should be made for elements. Appropriate load and

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condition of partially-grouted masonry. The material properties. It could be argued that stiffness is required to understand the

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axial and shear stiffness of the wall may be masonry and concrete have an inherent mini- true dynamic behavior, which yields

accurately modified; however, the reduction mum element size due to what is referred to as

i n building fundamental periods.

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to the bending stiffness of the finite elements the chunkiness of concrete. It is unreason- Lateral analysis load distribution

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would not be accurate and result in elements able to have differential movement between (through rigid or semi-rigid

that are much weaker than they are in a real a

nodes that are closer together than the thick-

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diaphragms) between masonry and

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partially-grouted wall. Therefore, engineering ness of the masonry element. This is similar other systems or materials, such as

judgment must be used when the software a

to evaluating one-way shear no closer than concrete or structural steel frames.

does not account for partial grouting, and the

engineer is required to make modifications m

the depth of element away from a support.

Considering all of these size recommenda-

Post-processing and Design

which may bring unintended consequences. tions, there is also the point of diminishing

It is also important to recognize that overall return. When a models approximate solu- The next challenge involves taking the results

geometric wall modeling for masonry walls tion starts to converge, using a finer mesh from the finite element model and analysis

must account for the physical separation doesnt result in any significant changes to the and converting them into information that

between walls due to control joints. RAM final solution. In general, the recommended can be compared to code-defined maximum

Elements allows for quickly separating linked maximum plate/shell size would be the span stresses or forces that determine the capacity

wall panels (panels that share end nodes) into distance divided by ten and the minimum of the masonry wall. Finite element programs

separate wall panels with unique end nodes. plate size should be no less than the thickness for masonry combine the results of several

Whether there is a tool to create this sepa- of the masonry wall. For example, a twelve- plate/shell elements within geometric areas

ration, or the walls are manually modeled inch thick, thirty-foot tall wall would have a or strips of the model, as defined by the user.

separately with unique end nodes, separation minimum plate size of twelve inches and a Areas above openings are rationalized into

in the finite element model is required to maximum plate size of three feet [span/eight]. an area that will be checked against lintel

ensure each wall can act independently. Of course, there may be unique situations capacities. Engineers must study software

There are a few items to consider regarding when these guidelines must be re-evaluated programs and the combination (summation)

finite element meshing. Finite element pro- but, in general, they have been found to be of finite element results, and make modifica-

grams are based on plate elements that are tions when necessary.

quadrilateral (four nodes per plate/shell), and Generally, structural engineering software will

the ideal shape is a square. Without going into check for in-plane bending and shear capacity,

the theory of why this is ideal, it is important out-of-plane bending and shear capacity, and

to know that the further plate/shell elements axial capacity of masonry walls. Lintel shear

are from a square, the less accurate the finite and bending capacities must also be evaluated.

element approximations become. When Lintels (not in a finite element model) have tra-

considering the ideal size of the plate/shell ditionally been checked by assuming a simply

elements when meshing a wall geometry supported beam element. Finite element

(manually or by auto meshing), the designer approximation and design of the area above

must consider the accuracy of the results, com- Example of complete finite element model with the openings are fundamentally different, as the

putational processing time, and the material masonry walls, which has concrete slabs, steel beams plates/shells in this area are interlocked by shar-

being modeled. When considering accuracy, connecting to the walls (model from SCIA Engineer). ing nodes with the other surrounding elements

of the wall. When evaluating bending moment

in walls, software programs often evaluate only

vertical bending and do not evaluate horizontal

bending and shear. Therefore, the engineer is

left to manually check the horizontal bend-

ing moment against an unreinforced masonry

bending capacity. If horizontal bond beams

are used within a masonry wall, the horizontal

bending moment may be manually checked

against the allowable bending capacity of a

reinforced element.

Some software programs may or may not

be able to correctly define the finite element State-of-the-Art Products

model. If it does not, the designer must decide

STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGIES provides a wide range of custom

if manual modifications can be made to the

model without adversely affecting other attri- designed systems which restore and enhance theload-carrying

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butes and the results. Further, evaluation of capacity of reinforced concrete and other structure types, including

the post-processing design features of pro-

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masonry, timber and steel. Our products can be used stand-alone or

grams and design checks show that programs

are not always complete, and must be supple- in combination to solve complex structural challenges.

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mented with manual checks of the analysis righ

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results. Ultimately, careful evaluation when Cop

selecting software that is best suited for the V-Wrap

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scenario at hand is required. Supplementing Carbon Fiber System

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with additional calculations may be needed.

Therefore, it is recommended the engineer

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thoroughly review the element response to DUCON

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applied forces. The simplest and most reveal-

ing check can be made by animating the

g a

Micro-Reinforced Concrete Systems

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deflections of the elements. For example, a

simply supported wall element should have a

VSL

a deflected animated shape that is a simple

curve, and a wall with moments fixed at the m External Post-Tensioning Systems

top or with a parapet (cantilevered element

above the roof ) should have a compound

curved. To review the forces in the element,

a quick manual calculation should be within

Tstrata

Enlargement Systems

20-25% of the anticipated forces in any par-

ticular element within a finite element model.

Lastly, reviewing the reactions to the applied Engineered Solutions

forces is a good study to make sure the ele-

Our team integrates with engineers and owners to produce

ments have been modeled properly.

The finite element models structural engi- high value, low impact solutions for repair and retrofit of existing

neers create often contain other materials and structures. We provide comprehensive technical support services

elements that connect to the masonry wall including feasibility, preliminary product design, specification

elements. It is important to consider how

those elements connect to the masonry. Areas support, and construction budgets. Contact us today for assistance

to watch for include: Should the beams (line with your project needs.

elements) framing into the wall be modeled as

pinned or fixed? Should the end of the beam

be offset from the centerline of the masonry

wall panel to model eccentricities? Are the

shell/plate slab elements pinned or fixed to

the masonry walls?

www.structuraltechnologies.com

There are many items to consider when using

FEA software programs to model masonry +1-410-859-6539

walls. However, there are very good software To learn more about Structural Group companies visit www.structuralgroup.com

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VSL is the registered trademark of VSL International Ltd.

make us better engineers once we learn how

to use them correctly.

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