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US008362948B2

(12) United States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 8,362,948 B2


Kolinko et a1. (45) Date of Patent: Jan. 29, 2013

(54) LONG RANGE MILLIMETER WAVE (56) References Cited


SURFACE IMAGING RADAR SYSTEM
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
(75) Inventors: Vladimir Kolinko, San Diego, CA (US); 5,592,170 A * 1/1997 Price et a1. .................... .. 342/22
Chris Sexton, San Diego, CA (US); 7,724,180 B2 * 5/2010 Yonak et a1. 342/70
Grant Bishop, Carlsbad, CA (US); John 7,782,251 B2 * 8/2010 Bishop et a1. .. 342/179
Lovberg, San Diego, CA (US) 2005/0134440 A1* 6/2005 Breed ....... .. 340/435
2008/0272955 A1* 11/2008 Yonak et a1. 342/54
2009/0135051 A1* 5/2009 Bishop et a1. .. 342/175
(73) Assignee: Trex Enterprises Corp, San Diego, CA 2011/0199254 A1* 8/2011 Bishop et a1. ............... .. 342/179
(Us)
* cited by examiner
Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. Primary Examiner * John B Sotomayor
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * John R. Ross
(21) Appl. N0.: 13/374,362
(22) Filed: Dec. 22, 2011 (57) ABSTRACT
A long range millimeter Wave imaging radar system. Pre
(65) Prior Publication Data
ferred embodiments are positioned to detect foreign object
US 2012/0249363 A1 Oct. 4, 2012 debris objects on surface of the runWay, taxiWays and other
areas of interest. The system includes electronics adapted to
Related US. Application Data produce millimeter Wave radiation scanned over a frequency
(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 12/806,488, range of a feW gigahertZ. The scanned millimeter Wave radia
?led onAug. 13, 2010. tion is broadcast through a frequency scanned antenna to
produce a narroW scanned transmit beam in a ?rst scanned
(60) Provisional application No. 61/626,660, ?led on Oct. direction (such as the vertical direction) de?ning a narroW,
1, 2011.
approximately one dimensional, electronically scanned ?eld
of vieW corresponding to the scanned millimeter Wave fre
(51) Int. Cl.
quencies. The antenna is mechanically pivoted or scanned in
G01S 13/89 (2006.01)
a second scanned direction perpendicular to the ?rst scanned
(52) US. Cl. ........... .. 342/179; 342/27; 342/58; 342/180
direction so as to de?ne a two-dimensional ?eld of vieW.
(58) Field of Classi?cation Search .................. .. 342/27,
342/57i58, 74475, 81, 90, 100, 103, 1794180
See application ?le for complete search history. 24 Claims, 15 Drawing Sheets

Pixels in horizontal FOV


(second scanned direction)

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1 2
LONG RANGE MILLIMETER WAVE Radar Systems
SURFACE IMAGING RADAR SYSTEM
Radar systems operating at millimeter frequencies also are
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED knoWn. These systems typically modulate a millimeter Wave
APPLICATIONS signal With a tWo or more loWer frequency signals (called
frequency shift keying or FSK) or With a linearly changing
This application is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. (ramping up or ramping doWn in frequency) loWer frequency
12/806,488, ?led Aug. 13, 2010, Mobile Millimeter Wave signals (called linear frequency modulated LFM). And com
Imaging System and claims the bene?t of Provisional Patent binations of FSK and LFM have been proposed. These FSK
Application Ser. No. 61/626,660, ?led Oct. 1, 2011 and LFM systems have been proposed for autonomous motor
vehicle control and motor vehicle collision avoidance. Some
FIELD OF THE INVENTION of the systems provide techniques for angular scanning of
either the transmit beam or the receive beam or both.
The present invention relates to radar systems and in par
ticular to millimeter Wave imaging radar systems. Foreign Object Detection
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Foreign object debris on the airport runWay and other sur
Imaging With Millimeter Waves faces (often referred to as FOD) represents a signi?cant haZ
20 ard for safety of the air traf?c. Objects that fall off the aircraft,
Passive and active imaging systems operating at millimeter equipment on the ground or misplaced by the ground services
Wavelengths (1 cm to 1 mm; 30 GHZ to 300 GHZ) are Well are responsible for large business losses by the commercial
knoWn. Short Wave lengths at mm-Wave frequencies alloW airlines, airports and the military and, in extreme cases, can
narroW beams to be created With relative small antennas and result in a loss of human life. FOD costs the aerospace indus
to produce high resolution passive and active images. Objects 25 try $4 billion per year and causes expensive, signi?cant dam
in the image can be accurately located due to the narroW age every year to aircraft and parts and may cause death and
beams and, When the systems operate in the radar mode, a injury to Workers, pilots and passengers.
high sensitivity for re?ected signals can be achieved. An Attempts to introduce radar systems at the airports for FOD
important quality of millimeter Wave systems is that they are detection are also knoWn. A high costs, complexity of opera
relatively little attenuated by substantial distances of fog or 30 tion, heavy infrastructure and experimental nature of such
smoke compared to visible light. Radiation at these millime systems have been limiting their acceptance by the air trans
ter Wave Wavelengths penetrates substantial distances of fog portation industry. A millimeter Wave radar system designed
and smoke. The millimeter Wave radiation also penetrates and manufactured by a UK based company QinetiQ marketed
clothing and signi?cant thickness of other materials such as under the name Tarsier is an example of an advanced mm
dry Wood and Wallboard. These millimeter Wave imaging 35 Wave FOD detection system. A Tarsier system is presently in
systems have therefore been proposed for aircraft to improve operation at Vancouver International Airport in Canada. The
visibility through fog and for security applications for detec Tarsier radar Was designed as a stationary, long range (up to 2
tion of concealed Weapons and the like. kilometers), frequency modulated radar to detect FOD along
the entire length of the airport surfaces. This system is
Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging 40 described in US. Pat. No. 7,592,943 Which is incorporated
herein by reference. The system utiliZes frequency modulated
Passive millimeter Wave imaging systems are described in continuous Wave radar having improved frequency linearity
US. Pat. Nos. 5,121,124 and 5,365,237, Which are assigned of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) frequency sWeep. It
to Applicants employer. The systems described in those pat utiliZes a frequency discriminator system to correct for non
ents utiliZe antennas in Which the direction of collected mil 45 linearity of the VCO. The discriminator signal is then used to
limeter Wave radiation is a function of frequency. This type of adjust the signal sampling rate using an analog to digital
antenna is referred to as a frequency scanned antenna. The converter. Long range of operation of the Tarsier system
collected millimeter Wave light is analyZed in a spectrum requires high precision mechanical and electronic compo
analyZer to produce a one-dimensional image. In the systems nents as Well as high transmit poWer. These requirements
described in the 124 patent the antenna signal is used to 50 result in a high cost for the system. In order to be able to detect
modulate an acousto-optic device (a Bragg cell) that in turn FOD at long ranges the radar Was designed to have very high
modulates a laser beam to produce a spectral image. In the sensitivity Which reportedly caused signi?cant amount of
systems described in the 237 patent an electro-optic module false alarms from signal clutter at shorter ranges.
is modulated by the antenna signal and the electro-optic mod According to the National Aerospace Standard 412 main
ule in turn modulates the laser beam to impose the millimeter 55 tained by the National Association of FOD Prevention Inc.,
Wave spectral information on a laser beam that then is sepa FOD is generally de?ned as a substance, debris or article alien
rated into spectral components by an etalon to produce an to a vehicle or system Which Would potentially cause damage
image. to the vehicle or system. Foreign object damage is any dam
US. Pat. No. 4,654,666 describes an imaging system age attributed to a foreign object that can be expressed in
Which includes a frequency scanning antenna and a spectrum 60 physical or economic terms that may or may not degrade the
analyZer for converting coded radiation distributions col product s required safety and/ or performance characteristics.
lected by the antenna into a time coded distribution so that a Typically, FOD is an aviation term used to describe debris on
one-dimensional scene can be reproduced. Other frequency or around an aircraft or damage done to an aircraft. Optical
scanned passive millimeter Wave imaging systems are FOD detection systems operating With visible light are
described in US. Pat. Nos. 7,194,236 and 6,937,182. All of 65 described in the Patents Nos. WO/ 2004/ 038675 and
the above identi?ed patents are hereby incorporated by ref US20020080046 Which are also incorporated herein by ref
erence. erence. Stationary millimeter Wave radar systems, such as the
US 8,362,948 B2
3 4
Tarsier, may prove effective on sections of the air?eld that trolled oscillator. The ?xed signal is converted to 36.75 GHz
have clear straight line of sight With a frequency tripler Which is then doubled to 73.5 GHz
What is needed is a long range millimeter Wave imaging With a harmonic mixer. A frequency scanned signal Within 4 .5
system. GHz to 7.5 GHz range from a voltage controlled oscillator is
mixed in a harmonic mixer With the 73.5 GHz signal to
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION provide a scanned millimeter Wave signal betWeen 78 GHz
and 81 GHz. The millimeter Wave signal is then fed to the
The present invention describes a long range millimeter transmit antenna to produce the frequency scanned transmit
Wave imaging radar system. The radar is designed to operate beam. The receive beam similar to that of the transmit beam
as a stationary system to continuously orperiodically monitor is co-aligned With the transmit beam at any given time to
a particular surface region of the airport. Preferred embodi maximize the return signals re?ected by the objects. The
ments are positioned to detect foreign object debris objects on received signal is doWn converted to loW frequencies using
surface of the runWay, taxiWays and other areas of interest. local oscillators common With transmit and receive circuits,
The system includes electronics adapted to produce millime digitized and has its frequency spectrum generated using a
ter Wave radiation scanned over a frequency range of a feW digital Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processor. The transmit
gigahertz. The scanned millimeter Wave radiation is broad ter and receiver beams are electronically scanned in the ver
cast through a frequency scanned antenna to produce a nar tical directions through approximately 4 degrees Wide FOV.
roW scanned transmit beam in a ?rst scanned direction (such The beams are mechanically scanned in the azimuthal direc
as the vertical direction) de?ning a narroW, approximately tion. A computer creates tWo-dimensional images (elevation
one dimensional, electronically scanned ?eld of vieW corre 20 angle and range) based on the vertical scanning direction of
sponding to the scanned millimeter Wave frequencies. The the beams and the transmit-retum time difference and com
antenna is mechanically pivoted or scanned in a second bines them With azmuthal angle based on horizontal scans to
scanned direction perpendicular to the ?rst scanned direction produce three-dimensional images. In the preferred embodi
(such as the horizontal or the azimuthal direction) so as to ment of the POD ?nder the distance to the POD is determined
de?ne a tWo-dimensional ?eld of vieW. Re?ected millimeter 25 based on the radar signal and azimuthal position is deter
Wave radiation is collected by the same frequency scanned mined based on the horizontal scan information recorded by
antenna, Which alloWs the receive beam to be perfectly the systems computer processor. Substantially ?at airport
aligned and co-directed With the transmit beam in the same surfaces re?ect radar energy mostly in the forWard direction
?eld of vieW. The antenna design ensures very loW signal and produce very little return signals to the receive antenna.
coupling from the transmit circuits to the receive circuits. A 30 HoWever, FOD objects on surface produce a large back-scat
circuit dedicated to cancelling signal leakage from transmit tered return signal as the radar beam sWeeps across them.
ter into the receiver can be used to further increase isolation Distance to the targets is determined based on a difference in
betWeen Rx and Tx channels such that the transmit signal frequency of the transmit signal and the receive signal
leakage does not interfere With receive signals from the POD delayed by a roundtrip time of the millimeter Waves re?ected
targets. Computer processor equipment compares the inten 35 from the POD targets. The location of FOD on a runWay is
sity of the receive millimeter radar signals for a pre-deter recorded and displayed on a monitor to represent a map of the
mined set of ranges and knoWn directions of the transmit and POD locations on the runWay. The FOD radar system utilizes
receive beams as a function of time to produce a radar image triangular frequency scan Waveforms, Which alloWs the sys
of at least a desired portion of the ?eld of vieW. tem to discriminate betWeen stationary and moving objects
In a preferred embodiment the radar system is mounted on 40 (such as airplanes, airport vehicles, personnel, Widelife etc.)
a stationary platform in a location assigned by the airport based on the measured Doppler frequency shift of the receive
authorities. Multiple FOD ?nder systems in multiple loca signals.
tions can be deployed to meet the airport FOD surveillance This preferred embodiment includes an integrated hard
needs. The radar system is capable of operating in the milli Ware/software system With external and internal visible and/
meter Wave frequency range betWeen 78 to 81 GHz. The 45 or infrared light image recording in addition to the radar
frequency scanned antenna includes a 24-inches long slotted imaging equipment. The system also includes Wireless (or
Waveguide frequency scanned antenna and an elliptical cylin other) communication and data reporting equipment to inter
drical re?ector adapted to produce a beam narroW in the act With airport personnel.
vertical direction and frequency scanned in the vertical direc In the preferred embodiment the overall system is mounted
tion over a scanning range in elevation of approximately 4 50 on a stationary platform and optionally includes a GPS posi
degrees. The slotted frequency scanned antenna is located at tion tracking system, automatically controlled video camera
the near focus of an elliptical cylinder re?ector. The other for visual object identi?cation and a computerized object
focus of the elliptical re?ector is at about 300 feet from the logging and labeling system. In the second preferred embodi
near focus. The antenna de?nes beams about half of a meter ment the systems is mounted on a platform sloWly moving
Wide in the azimuth direction out to about 300 feet and diverg 55 alongside the runWay using a tracks or other means. A mobile
ing at about 0.35 degrees further out in both azimuth direction platform option may help reduce the overall number of the
and in the vertical direction. The antenna system is pivoted on POD radar systems required to cover the airport surfaces.
rotary platform to de?ne a radar ?eld of vieW (FOV) of about In preferred embodiments microcomputer or program
4 degrees in the vertical direction and up to 360 degrees in the mable gate array circuits and a digital-to-analog converter
azimuthal direction. The antenna is generally directed hori 60 board are programmed to send out a drive voltage to the
zontally or slightly at a doWnWard angle from a raised plat voltage controlled oscillator creating a fully programmable
form to produce a ?eld of vieW on the airport surface from linear frequency ramp Which drives the transmitter frequency.
about 20 meters to 500 meters in any direction from its loca In other embodiments an analog ramp generator is pro
tion. grammed for slope, second and higher derivatives to create a
In the preferred embodiment the millimeter Wave scanning 65 desired voltage ramp signal. These components alloW Appli
frequencies are produced from a ?xed 12.25 GHz signal cants to adjust the sWeep rate, range and accuracy of the
generated by a phase locked oscillator and a voltage con frequency sWeep. The linear frequency ramp de?nes the
US 8,362,948 B2
5 6
range and resolution for the radar system and also sWeeps the The radar of the system consists of a millimeter Wave
antenna beam in elevation. Having this unique vertical angle transmitter, receiver, a common transmit-receive re?ector
steering capability alloWs the radar beam to be selectively antenna, digitizer of the receiver signal and FFT processor.
pointed in elevation to track uneven airport surfaces during The antenna forms narroW beams Which are 0.35 degree Wide
beam sWeeps in the horizontal direction. in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The system
employs a linear frequency modulated triangular chirp radio
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS frequency Waveform sWeeping through 3 GHz Wide fre
quency range betWeen 78 GHz and 81 GHz in 10 millisec
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the foreign object detection onds. The azimuthal resolution is about three meters at 500
radar including transmitter, receiver, antenna and signal pro meters range and the range resolution is about 60 cm.
cessing components;
FIG. 2A shoWs triangular frequency sWeep Waveform of Capabilities
the radar;
FIG. 2B illustrates alignment of the digitized signal data The system provides the folloWing capabilities:
1. Operational range: 20 m to 500 meters.
intervals relative to the frequency sWeep Waveform;
2. Hazard detection range: minimum 500 meters for a 1"><1"
FIG. 3 shoWs con?guration of the common transmit and
metal cylinder target.
receive antenna; 3. Field of vieW: 360 degree horizontally (in azimuth) and 4
FIG. 4 shoWs slotted Waveguide antenna; degree vertically (in elevation). The longitudinal ?eld of vieW
FIG. 5 shoWs design details of the frequency scanned slot 20 is from about 20 meters to 500 meters in front of antenna.
ted Waveguide antenna; 4. Range resolution: 60 cm.
FIG. 6 illustrates the concept of the frequency scanned 5. Transmitter frequency sWeep: linear triangular betWeen 78
beam of the proposed radar system; and 81 GHz;
FIG. 7 shoWs plots of the slotted antenna beam patterns in 6. Transmitter poWer: 200 milliWatt.
the 78-81 GHz frequency range; 25 7. Antenna polarization: vertical.
FIG. 8 illustrates the concept of tracking curved runWay 8. Maximum number of independent (resolved) pixels: hori
surface using frequency scanned property of the antenna; zontal-1030 pixels for 360 degrees scan in azimuth, vertical
FIG. 9A shoWs block diagram of the logarithmic frequency 12 pixels.
response ampli?er; 9. One full 360 deg image acquisition time (horizontal scan):
FIG. 9B is a diagram of the logarithmic frequency response 30 Minimum (Without data averaging)-20 seconds,
ampli?er circuit board; Maximum-20><N seconds, Where N-number of averaged data
FIG. 9C is the gain characteristics of the logarithmic fre per azimuth angle.
quency response ampli?er;
FIG. 10 is block diagram of the data acquisition and FFT Imaging Radar System
processing circuit; 35
FIG. 11 shoWs an example of the FOD radar FFT spectrum Frequency Scanned Radar
With multiple in its beam; A block diagram of an imaging radar system of a preferred
FIG. 12 shoWs typical plot of the slotted antenna return loss embodiment of the present invention is shoWn in FIG. 1. In
in the 78-81 GHz frequency range; preferred embodiments a transmitter module 2 generates a
FIG. 13A is the block diagram of the phase cancellation 40 continuous Wave millimeter Wave signal that is linearly sWept
circuit for improving isolation betWeen transmit and receive back and forth through a 3 GHz Wide frequency range
channels of the radar; betWeen 78 and 81 GHz in 10 milliseconds using an altemat
FIG. 13B shoWs block diagram of a simple phase cancel ing up -doWn see-saW frequency sWeep pattern 30 as shoWn in
lation module; FIG. 2A.
FIG. 14A illustrates transmit and receive frequency sWeep 45 A common transmit and receive antenna unit 4 (FIG. 1)
Waveforms (ramps) for a stationary FOD target; utilizes slotted Waveguide antenna element 41 positioned in
FIG. 14B illustrates an FFT spectrum of the FOD radar for the near focus of the antenna re?ector 40 as shoWn in FIG. 3.
a stationary target; The re?ector is tWo feet Wide and 27 inches high and has a
FIG. 15A illustrates transmit and receive frequency sWeep shape of a vertically oriented elliptical cylinder. The slotted
Waveforms (ramps) for a moving target; 50 Wave guide is located in the near focus of the elliptical surface
FIG. 15B illustrates FFT spectra of the FOD radar for a at distance of 16 inches from the center of the re?ector. The
moving target. second focus of the re?ector is located 300 feet out from the
center. Transmit-receive slotted antenna is made from stan
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED dard WR-10 copper Wave guide With slots 54 cut into their
EMBODIMENTS 55 narroW Wall 55 as shoWn in FIGS. 4 and 5. The slotted section
of the antenna is 24 inches long as shoWn in FIG. 4and it is
First Preferred Embodiment 0.13 inch Wide. Slots are spaced 0.102 of an inch apart and
their angle alternates +/8 degrees as shoWn in FIG. 5. A
A preferred embodiment of the present invention is portion of the narroW Wall 52 of the Wave guide is thinned to
described in FIGS. 1 through 16. This embodiment is a three 60 0.006 of an inch before slots are cut 0.015 inch deep into the
dimensional W-band Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave guide relative to its outer surface to produce the 54 slots
Wave (FMCW) active imaging radar system. The system is through the narroW Wall of the Wave guide. The length of the
capable of accurately determining the bearing and range to slotted Wave guide antenna determines the angular resolution
foreign objects on the airport surfaces and displaying this (half poWer beam Width) of 0.35 degree of the radar in the
information to system operators. The system has up to 500 65 vertical direction. Horizontal angular resolution (half poWer
meters operation range and can be ?xed at a certain location beam Width) of 0.35 degree is determined by the 24 inches
or sloWly moved along a designated track. Wide aperture of the re?ector 40 (FIG. 3) illuminated by the
US 8,362,948 B2
7 8
slotted Wave guide. In the preferred embodiment the slotted of interest. This is illustrated by FIG. 8. As the radar horizon
Waveguide frequency scanned antenna allows high angular tally scans the runWay 81 beams 84a, 84b and 840 frequency
resolution of the beams to be combined With a suf?ciently scan the entire 4 degree FOV, but only pixels 82a, 82b and 820
Wide vertical FOV of the radar. The use of the cylindrical at elevation angles Ang. 1, Ang. 2 and Ang. 3 relative to
elliptical re?ector optimizes side-lobe level of the beam at horizontal 85 Will be used to track FOD on the runWay. A
various ranges. Beam side lobes are also reduced by provid Wider FOV slotted Waveguide can also be designed and
ing maximum mm-Wave poWer near center of the re?ector deployed if necessary.
and gradually reducing illumination toWard its edges. This is Radar Electronics
accomplished by placing the slotted Waveguide antenna in In this preferred embodiment frequency scanning is uti
front of the re?ector at a distance such that the beam from the lized for tWo purposes: ?rst, as explained above, for scanning
Waveguide provides approximately 10 dB less illumination the transmit beam in the vertical direction, and second to
intensity at the edges of the re?ector as compared to the determine the distance to FOD targets. This is feasible
illumination intensity at the center of the re?ector. A beam 42 because the frequency difference betWeen the transmit and
(FIG. 3) radiated from the slotted Waveguide and striking near return signals to and from a target FOD is a linear function of
edge of the re?ector carries approximately 10 dB less poWer the distance to the target. This relationship is explained in the
than the beam striking near center of the re?ector. In this folloWing section. This section describes the electronics uti
preferred embodiment electronics in the radar unit directs the lized in order to compare the transmit signals and the receive
antenna ?eld of vieW to a range betWeen 20 meters to 500 signals so as to extract this frequency difference and to con
meters. The actual range span can be limited by the ?atness of vert it to range.
the runWay, the height of the antenna platform above the 20 FIG. 1 is a diagram of the electronics of the preferred radar
ground or other factors. system. Transmitter 2 and receiver 1 of the POD radar use a
As the millimeter Wave signal frequency varies betWeen 78 high-stability phase locked 12.25 GHz oscillator 5 (such as
and 81 GHz the beam 62 formed by the slotted antenna 61 Model PLO-2000 supplied by MicroWave Dynamics With
(FIG. 6) changes its angular position through as shoWn at 62 o?ices in Tustin, Calif.) as a reference for generating mm
to 64 in FIG. 6 With respect to the runWay surface 65 as 25 Wave signals. The 12.25 GHz signal is initially converted to
illustrated by FIG. 6. (Model vertical beam patterns 70 of the 36.75 GHz by a frequency tripler 711 (such as Model CHX
POD radar at 78, 79, 80 and 81 GHz are shoWn in FIG. 7. The 1094-99F supplied by United Monolithic Semiconductors
model data is shoWn for 8" long slotted Waveguide. The half With of?ces in Orsay, France) in receiver and 7b in transmitter
poWer beam Width in this case is approximately 1.05 degrees and then converted to 73.5 GHz by a sub-harmonic mixer 8a
Which translates into 0.35 degree Wide beam When the 30 in receiver and 8b in transmitter. In the process of frequency
antenna length is increased to 24 inches.) Zero angle corre conversion the resulting signals are ampli?ed to appropriate
sponds to the normal to antenna. Negative angles represent levels by ampli?ers 15, 16 and 18 (such as Models HMC
beam directions toWard the ground When the normal is hori APH510 and HMC-AUH318 supplied by Hittite MicroWave
zontal. In deployment the overall antenna is tilted to align its Corp. With o?ices in Chelmsford, Mass.). A loW phase noise
vertical FOV With the runWay or other surface of interest. The 35 voltage controlled oscillator 6 (such as Model HMC-0028
angular position of the beam axis varies With frequency as supplied by Hittite MicroWave Corp. Chelmsford, Mass.)
shoWn in plot 70, hence the maximum vertical ?eld of vieW of generates a linear frequency modulated signal spanning 3
the POD is approximately 4 degrees. As frequency sWeeps GHz from 4.5 GHz to 7.5 GHz. A frequency modulated
betWeen 78 and 81 GHz a 24 inches long slotted Waveguide transmit signal betWeen 78 GHz and 81 GHz is generated by
antenna having 0.35 degrees beam Width and sWeeping 40 mixing 73.5 GHz and the voltage controlled oscillator signal
though a 4 deg Wide vertical FOV forms approximately in a harmonic mixer 8b. The resulting signal is ampli?ed by a
tWelve resolved beams in the vertical direction. Signal poWer ampli?er 9 combining four poWer ampli?er MMICs
strength for each beam is coded in the POD radar image by a (such as Models HMC-APH333 supplied by Hittite Micro
pixel brightness for a given target range. FOD ?nder therefore Wave Corp. With o?ices in Chelmsford, Mass.) to a poWer
has capacity to form 12 fully resolved image pixels in the 45 level of approximately 200 milliWatts and the ampli?ed sig
elevation direction and 1030 fully resolved azimuth pixels for nal is transmitted from the transmit antenna 4 through a
a 360 degrees horizontal scan. As the beam stays on the target transmit-receive isolation circuit 27. To ensure signal coher
for approximately one 1/12th of the 10 millisecond frequency ence and to achieve high range resolution, as indicated in FIG.
sWeep time, the effective bandWidth of the system per eleva 1, the same 12.25 GHz reference and a voltage controlled
tion pixel is 3 GHz/12:250 MHZ, Which limits system range 50 oscillator sources are employed as local oscillators for up
resolution to 0.6 meters. For optimum system sensitivity the doWn conversion of transmit and receive signals by using tWo
POD radar is collecting 50% overlapping signal samples and Way in phase poWer dividers 25 and 17.
forms a 23><2060 image of half-resolved pixels. FOD radar The transmit signal re?ected from the targets is collected
also generates images at 1024 range bins betWeen 0 and 500 by the slotted Waveguide 41 in the antenna 4 and after passing
meters for an overall maximum size of a 3D image up to 55 through the isolation circuit 27 is ampli?ed by a loW noise
23><2060><1024 pixels. The above image forming description ampli?er 10 (such as Model 86LN4D supplied by HRL Labo
is illustrated by FIG. 8. The radar 80 forms an array of 23 half ratories, LLC With o?ices in Malibu, Calif.). The ampli?er
resolved (50% overlapping) vertical beams for each of its has a typical gain of +20 dB and noise ?gure of 5 dB. The
horizontal angle. The receive signals are converted into ver ampli?ed signal is initially doWn converted by mixing it With
tical pixels in the image. Minimum one each up and one doWn 60 73.5 GHz local oscillator signal in a ?rst mixer 11. The output
frequency sWeep are used to generate the 23 pixel vertical signal of the mixer is ampli?ed by a three stage 50 dB gain
array of pixels to perform discrimination betWeen moving ampli?er 12 (such as Model HMC396 supplied by Hittite
and stationary targets. As the runWay 81 is covered by only MicroWave Corp. With o?ices in Chelmsford, Mass.) fol
one or just a feW pixels, especially at the long ranges, the loWed by a doWn conversion in the second mixer 13 (Model
remaining vertical pixels may not contain FOD information. 65 HMC129 supplied by Hittite MicroWave Corp. With o?ices in
The radar vertical beam scan ability permits selectively pro Chelmsford, Mass.) to a base band DCil .25 KHz frequency
cessing of FOD information only for pixels that contain data range using signal from voltage controlled oscillator 6 span