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GMAT Arithmetic Guide


Joern Meissner

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Arithmetic Guide iii

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iv Arithmetic Guide

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Arithmetic Guide v

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Contents

1 Welcome 1

2 Concepts of Arithmetic 3
2.1 Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Profit Loss Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Ratio Proportion Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5 Computational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3 Practice Questions 37
3.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

4 Answer-key 87
4.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

5 Solutions 91
5.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6 Talk to Us 201

vii
viii Arithmetic Guide

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Chapter 1

Welcome

Dear Students,
Here at Manhattan Review, we constantly strive to provide you the best educational content
for standardized test preparation. We make a tremendous effort to keep making things better
and better for you. This is especially important with respect to an examination such as the
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There are umpteen numbers of books on Quantitative Ability for GMAT preparation. What
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You will find a lot of variety in the problems discussed. Alternate approaches to few tricky
questions are worth appreciating. You will find many 700+ level of questions in the book. The
book has a great collection of over 125+ GMAT-like questions.

Apart from books on Number Properties, Word Problem, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry,
Permutation and Combination, and Sets and Statistics which are solely dedicated to GMAT-
QA-PS & DS, the book on GMAT-Math Essentials is solely dedicated to develop your math
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The Manhattan Reviews Arithmetic book is holistic and comprehensive in all respects. Should
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Happy Learning!

Professor Dr. Joern Meissner


& The Manhattan Review Team

1
2 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

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Chapter 2

Concepts of Arithmetic

3
4 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.1 Percents
Percent means out of hundred. A fraction having 100 in the denominator is called a percent.

To convert a fraction into a percent, we need to multiply it with 100.

1 1 25 25 1
For example, the fraction = = = 25%, which is equivalent to doing 100 = 25%.
4 4 25 100 4
Similarly, if we were to compare the scores of a candidate in two tests, in one of which he
obtained 60 out of 80 and in the other 75 out of 90, we can use percent values:

60
In the first test: 100 = 75%
80
75
In the second test: 100 = 83.33%
90

Thus, the candidate fared better in the second test.

There are two aspects of percent calculation:

Calculating a given percent of some number:

If we were to calculate: What is 20% of 120?

This implies that we need to determine a number, which as a percent of 120 represents
20%.

Following unitary method:

If the value is 100, then the required number is 20

20
=> If the value is 120, the required number is 120 = 24
100

Thus, we have:

x
x % of y = y
100

Calculating the percent value of a number with respect to another:

If we were to calculate: 30 represents what percent of 150?

This implies that if we have 30 out of 150, then what is the number that we have out of
100?

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 5

Following unitary method:

If the value is 150, then the required number is 30

30
=> If the value is 100, the required number is 100 = 20
150

Thus, we have:

x
x is what % of y = 100
y

Some fractions and their percent equivalents are shown below:

Fraction Percent Fraction Percent Fraction Percent Fraction Percent

1 1 1 1
100% 16.66% 9.09% 6.25%
1 6 11 16

1 1 1 1
50% 14.28% 8.33% 5.88%
2 7 12 17

1 1 1 1
33.33% 12.50% 7.69% 5.55%
3 8 13 18

1 1 1 1
25% 11.11% 7.14% 5.26%
4 9 14 19

1 1 1 1
20% 10% 6.66% 5.00%
5 10 15 20

Percent change: Percent change is calculated as the change between the initial and final values
calculated as a percent of the initial value.

Thus, we have:

Final value (F) Initial value (I)


Percentage change = 100
Initial value (I)
F I
 
Given that the percent change be n%, we have: n% = 100.
I
Rearranging the terms, we get:

F I n F n
= => 1 =
I 100 I 100
F n
=> = 1 +
I 100

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6 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

n
 
= > F = I 1+
+
100
n
 
Thus, in order to get the final value, the initial value is to be multiplied with 1 + .
100
Some examples are shown below:

Percent change Fraction multiplied Percent change Fraction multiplied

100 100
100% increase 1+ =2 100% decrease 1 =0
100 100

50 3 50 1
50% increase 1+ = 50% decrease 1 =
100 2 100 2

33.33 4 33.33 2
33.33% increase 1+ = 33.33% decrease 1 =
100 3 100 3

25 5 25 3
25% increase 1+ = 25% decrease 1 =
100 4 100 4

20 6 20 4
20% increase 1+ = 20% decrease 1 =
100 5 100 5

Let us take a few examples:

(1) If the price of an article becomes $150 after increasing it by 20%, what was the initial
price of the article?

Explanation:

Since the price is increased by 20%, we have:

20
 
F =I 1+
100
F 150 150 5
=> I = = = = 150 = $125
20 1 6 6
1+ 1+
100 5 5
Alternately, we can say that the final price of the article is (100 + 20) % = 120% of the
initial price.

Thus, we have:

150 = 120% of I

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 7

100
=> I = 150 = $125
120

(2) After two successive discounts of 20% each, the price of a television becomes $12800.
What was the original price?

Explanation:

Let original price = $x.

Thus, we have:

20 20
  
x 1 1 = 12800
100 100
5 5
=> x = 12800 = $20000
4 4

Successive percent change: When back-to-back percent changes happen, then the overall per-
cent change can be calculated using the following relation:

Let there be successive percent changes of x% and y%. If the overall percent change be z%,
then:

xy
 
z= x+y + %
100
Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

Let us take an example:

If there is a 20% decrease followed by a 30% increase in the price of a commodity, what is the
overall percent change in price of the commodity?

Explanation:

Let the price of the commodity be $100.

Thus, after 20% decrease in price, the price = (100 20) % or 80% of $100 = $80.

Thus, after a 30% increase in price, the final price

130
 
= (100 + 30) % or 130% of $80 = $ 80 = $104
100
104 100
Thus, overall percent change (from $100 to $104) = 100 = 4%
100

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8 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Alternate approach:

We can use the successive percent change rule shown above as follows:

We have: x = 20, y = 30

Thus, overall percent change

20 30
= 20 + 30 =20 + 306 = 4%.
100

Percent change in product of two terms: The net percent change in the product of two terms,
when one changes by x% and the other changes by y%, is also given by the same formula:

xy
 
x+y + %
100
Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

Let us take a few examples:

(1) If the length of a rectangle increases by 20% and the breadth decreases by 30%, what is
the percent change in area of the rectangle?

Explanation:

Let the length and breadth of the rectangle be 100x and 100y, respectively.

Thus, the area = Length Breadth = 10000xy

New length = (100 + 20) % of 100x = 120x

New breadth = (100 30) % of 100y = 70y

New area = 120x 70y = 8400xy

10000xy 8400xy
Thus, percent change in area = 100 = 16% (decrease)
10000xy

Alternate approach:

We can use the successive percent change rule shown above as follows:

We have: x = 20, y = 30

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 9

Thus, overall percent change

20 30
= 2030 =106 =16%.
100

(2) The price of an item is increased by 20%. As a result, the number of items sold decreases
by 10%. What is the percent change in the revenue generated as a result?

Explanation:

Revenue = Price Number of items sold

20 10
Thus, percent change in revenue (a product of two commodities) is 2010 = 8%
100

Percent change in the sum of two commodities: Let there be two commodities whose values
are A and B, which have percent changes of x% and y%, the net percent change in the sum of
the two is given by:

Ax + B y
 
100%
A+B
Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

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10 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Let us take an example:

Let the monthly salaries of a couple are $1000 for the husband and $1500 for the wife. If the
husbands salary increases by 10% and the wifes salary increases by 20%, what is the overall
percent increase in their combined salary?

Explanation:

Increased salary of the husband = (100 + 10) % of $1000 = $1100

Increased salary of the wife = (100 + 20) % of $1500 = $1800

Thus, new combined salary = $(1100 + 1800) = $2900

Initial combined salary = $(1000 + 1500) = $2500

2900 2500
Thus, percent increase = 100 = 16%
2500
Alternate approach:

We can use the percent change rule shown above as follows:

We have: A = 1000, B = 1500, x = 10, y = 20

Thus, net percent change

Ax + B y
 
= 100%
A+B
1000 10 + 1500 20 100 (10 10 + 15 20)
= 100 = 100
1000 + 1500 100 (10 + 15)
400
= 100 = 16%
25

Change of base: If the percent difference between two values, expressed in terms of one is to
be calculated in terms of the other, we use the change of base concept.

x
100x
 
A is x % more than B = > B is % less than A
100 + x
x
100x
 
A is x % less than B = > B is % more than A
100 x

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 11

Let us take an example:

If A is 20% more than B, by what percent is B less than A?

Explanation:

We can say that: If B is 100, A = (100 + 20) % of 100 = 120.

120 100
 
Thus, B is 100 = 16.66% less than A.
120
Alternate approach:

We can use the change of base rule shown above as follows:

Since A is 20% more than B, we have: x = 20

100 20 2000
 
Thus, the required percent value = %= % = 16.66%
100 + 20 120

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12 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.2 Profit Loss Discount

Some important points regarding profit, loss and discount are:

The price at which an article is purchased or manufactured is the Cost Price

The price at which the article is sold is the Selling Price

Profit or Loss is the difference between the Cost Price and Selling Price:

Profit = Selling Price Cost Price


Loss = Cost Price Selling Price

Percent Profit or Percent Loss are calculated on the Cost Price

Marked price or List price is the price on which discounts are applicable resulting in the
final Selling Price

Percent Discount is calculated on the Marked (List) Price

Some important relations:

If an article having cost C is sold at P % profit, then the selling price S is


S = (100 + P ) % of C
100 + P
=> S = C
100
P
 
=> S = C 1 +
100

If an article having cost C is sold at L% loss, then the selling price S is


S = (100 L) % of C
100 L
=> S = C
100
L
 
=> S = C 1
100

If an article having marked (list) price M is sold at D% discount, then the selling price S
is
S = (100 D) % of M
100 D
=> S = M
100
D
 
S
=> = M 1
100

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 13

If an article having cost C is sold at a price S, the percent profit or loss is


S C
 
100%
C
If the above value comes positive, it is a profit, else it is a loss

If an article having marked price M is sold at a price S, the percent discount is


M S
 
100%
M

Let us take a few examples:

(1) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If he sells 4 pens
at the price of the cost of 5 pens and he sells all the pens he has with him, what is his
percent profit?

Explanation:

We know that:

Cost price of 5 pens = Selling price of 4 pens = $20 (assumed)

(Note: We assumed the price as $20 since 20 is divisible by both 4 and 5)

20
Thus, the cost of 1 pen = $ = $4
5
20
Selling price of 1 pen = $ = $5
4
4
5
Thus, percent profit = 100 = 25%
4

Alternately, we can say that since the shopkeeper sells 4 pens for the cost of 5, he makes
4) = 1 pen for every 4 pens.
a profit of (5

1
Thus, his percent profit = 100 = 25%
4

Point to be noted:

If Selling Price of n articles = Cost price of m articles

Percent profit or loss

mn
 
= 100%
n

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14 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

If the above is positive, then it is a profit, else it is a loss

(2) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If for every 6 pens
that he sells at cost price, he gives away 1 pen for free, and he sells all the pens he has
with him, what is his percent loss?

Explanation:

Since the shopkeeper gives away 1 pen for free for every 6 pens sold at cost price, we
have:

Cost price of 6 pens = Selling price of 7 pens = $42 (assumed)

(Note: We assumed the price as $42 since 42 is divisible by both 6 and 7)

42
Thus, the cost of 1 pen = $ = $7
6
42
Selling price of 1 pen = $ = $6
7
6
7
Thus, percent loss = 100 = 14.28%
7

Point to be noted:

If y articles
 are given for free for every x articles sold at cost price, we can say that
x + y articles are sold at the cost price of x articles.

Thus, percent loss


!
y
= 100%
x +y

(3) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If for every 10 pens
that he sells at a price 20% higher than the cost, he gives away 1 pen for free. If he sells
all the pens he has with him, what is his percent profit?

Explanation:

Let the cost price of a pen be $10.

+20) % of $10 = $12.


Thus, selling price of a pen = (100+

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 15

The man gives 1 pen for free for every 10 pens sold at a higher price.

+1) =11 pens = $ (10


Thus, selling price of (10+ 12) = $120

10) = $110
Cost price of 11 pens = $ (11

110
120
Thus, percent profit = 100 = 9.11%
110

Alternate approach:

Apparently, the shopkeeper sells each pen at a price 20% above the cost price.

Thus, we have:

6
+20) % of the cost price =
The selling price of 1 pen = (100+ times the cost price
5

= > The selling price of 5 pens = Cost price of 6 pens . . . (i)

The man gives 1 pen for free for every 10 pens sold at a higher price.

Thus, from (i):

The selling price of 10 pens = Cost price of 12 pens

Thus, the man sells 10 pens for the cost of 12 pens and gives 1 pen for free.

+1) = 11 pens is the same as the cost of 12 pens = $132


Thus, the selling price of (10+
(assumed).

132
Thus, the selling price of each pen = $ = $12
11
132
The cost price of each pen = $ = $11
12
11
12
Thus, percent profit = 100 = 9.11%
11

(4) An article is sold at 20% profit. Had it been sold at $60 less than the selling price, there
would have been a loss of 5%. What is the cost price of the article?

Explanation:

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16 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Difference in Selling prices = $60

(
Difference in % Profit = 20 5) = 25% of the Cost price

Thus, we have:

25% of Cost price = $60

100
 

= > Cost price = $ 60 = $240
25

(5) A man sold two tables for $96 each, gaining 20% on one and losing 20% on the other.
What is his overall profit or loss percent?

Explanation:

For the first table:

Selling price = $96 = (100 + 20) % of Cost price

100
 
=> Cost price = $ 96 = $80
120

For the second table:

Selling price = $96 = (100 20) % of Cost price

100
 
=> Cost price = $ 96 = $120
80

Thus, total cost price = $ (80 + 120) = $200

Total selling price = $ (96 2) = $192

200 192
Thus, overall percent loss = 100 = 4%
200

Point to be noted:

! at a profit of k % and the other at a loss


If two items are sold, each at the same price, one
2
k
of k %, there is an overall loss given by: %.
100

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 17

(6) In which of the following cases, is the discounted price the greatest?

(A) Successive discounts of 10% and 20%


(B) Successive discounts of 20% and 10%
(C) Successive discounts of 25% and 5%
(D) Single discount of 30%

Explanation:

 the overall percent change for successive percent changes of x % and y %


We know that
xy
is given by x + y + %
100

Thus, going by options:

10) (
( 20)
20+
(A) Net percent change = 10 + = 28%
100
20) (
( 10)
10+
(B) Net percent change = 20 + = 28%
100
25) (
( 5)
5+
(C) Net percent change = 25 + = 28.75%
100

Since the minimum discount is 28% for both options A and B, the greatest price would
also be for options A and B.

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18 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.3 Ratio Proportion Variation


Ratio: A ratio is defined as the multiple or part a quantity of one kind bears with another
quantity of the same kind.

For example:

Let us have two quantities a and b , such that a = 30 and b = 45

3
Since 30 = 45, we have:
2
3 a 2
a = b => =
2 b 3
=> a : b = 2 : 3

Thus, the ratio of a and b is 3 : 2

Some important relations


If A : B = p : q, we have:

!
p
A= (A + B)
p+q
!
q
B= (A + B)
p+q

Ratio remains same when the two quantities of a ratio are multiplied or divided by the
same number. Thus, we have:

a ak
=
b bk
a k ) : (b
= > a : b = (a b k)

If the ratio of two quantities is less than 1, adding the same positive number to both
quantities of the ratio increases the value. Thus, we have:

a
If < 1, and k is a positive number:
b
a+k a
>
b +k b
a 2 a+1 3 2
For example: = => = >
b 3 b+1 4 3
a
Similarly, if < 1, and k is a positive number:
b
ak a
<
b k b

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 19

a 2 a1 1 2
For example: = => = <
b 3 b1 2 3

If the ratio of two quantities is greater than 1, adding the same positive number to both
quantities of the ratio decreases the value. Thus, we have:

a
If > 1, and k is a positive number:
b
a+k a
<
b +k b
a 3 a+1 4 3
For example: = => = <
b 2 b+1 3 2
a
Similarly, if > 1, and k is a positive number:
b
ak a
>
b k b
a 3 a1 2 3
For example: = => = >
b 2 b1 1 2

a c
If = , we have:
b d
a c
Let = =k
b d
=> a = b k and c = d k
=> a + c = k (b + d)
a+c
=> =k
b+d
a c a+c
=> = =
b d b +d

a c
If = , we have:
b d
a c
Let = =k
b d
=> a = b k and c = d k
Thus, we have:

a + b = bk + b = b (k + 1), a b = bk b = b (k 1)
c + d = dk + d = d (k + 1), c d = dk d = d (k 1)

a+b c +d
=> =
ab c d

If we have: k a = l b = m c , we have:

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20 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

1 1 1
a:b:c = : :
k l m

Proportion: If the ratio of two quantities is equal to the ratio of other two quantities then the
four quantities are said to be in proportion.

Thus, if a : b = c : d, then a, b, c, d are in proportion.

Variation:

If two quantities a & b are such that any increase in b produces a proportionate increase
in a, and vice-versa, then a is directly proportional to b.
Thus, we have:
ab
=> a = kb, where k is a constant
a
=> = constant
b

If two quantities a and b are such that any increase in b will bring about a proportionate
decrease in a and vice-versa, then a is inversely proportional to b.
Thus, we have:
1
a
b
k
=> a = , where k is a constant
b
= > a b = constant

If A, B and C are three quantities, such that A B and B C


=> A C

Joint variation: If A, B and C are three quantities, such that A B if C is constant and
A C if B is constant, we have:
B C ), where both B and C vary
A (B

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 21

Let us take a few examples:

p q 7p 2q
(1) If = = , what is the value of k?
3 8 k

Explanation:

We know that:

p q 7p 2q
= =
3 8 k
p q 7p 2q
Let = = =r
3 8 k

=> p = 3r and q = 8r

Thus, we have:

7p = 21r and 2q = 16r => 7p 2q = 5r

Thus, we have:

7p 2q
=r
k
5r
=> = r => k = 5
k

(2) An alloy has iron and copper mixed in the ratio 2 : 3. If 21 pounds of iron is mixed with
15 pounds of the above alloy, what would be the percent of copper in the final alloy?

Explanation:

3
Amount of copper present in 15 pounds of the original alloy = 15 = 9 pounds
2+3

Since the quantity of copper remains unchanged, while the total alloy quantity becomes
(15 + 21) = 36 pounds, we have:

9
Percent of copper = 100 = 25%
36

(3) The cost of manufacturing an article is partly fixed and partly varies with the number of
articles to be manufactured. If the cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100 and the cost
of manufacturing 20 articles is $180, what is the fixed cost involved?

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22 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Explanation:

Let the cost of manufacturing an article be given by C.

Let the fixed cost be f and the variable cost be v.

Thus, we have:

v n, where n is the number of articles

=> v = kn, where k is a constant of proportionality

Thus, we have:

C = f + v => C = f + kn

For n = 10 : C = 100 = f + 10k . . . (i)

For n = 20 : C = 180 = f + 20k . . . (ii)

From (ii) (i):

80 = 10k => k = 8

Thus, from (i):

100 = f + 80 => f = 20

Thus, the fixed cost is $20

Alternate approach:

The cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100 and that for 20 articles is $180

Thus, the incremental cost for (20 10) = 10 articles = $ (180 100) = $80

Since the cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100, the balance amount, i.e. $ (100 80)
= $20 is the fixed cost.

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 23

1
(4) A telecom operator charges a fixed amount of $f for the first minutes of a call. There-
4
1
after, for every minutes, it charges $v. If the total charge for a call be $c, what is the
2
expression for the duration of the call in terms of f , v and c?

Explanation:

Let the duration of the call be x minutes.

1
Charges for the first minutes = $f
4
1
 
Duration of call remaining = x minutes.
4
1
Call charge every minute = $v
2
1
 
Thus, call charge for x minutes =
4


v 
x 1 1

  
$
1 = $ 2v x


4
4
2
1
  
Thus, total call charge = $ f + 2v x
4

Thus, we have:

1
 
f + 2v x =c
4
1
 
=> 2v x =cf
4
1 cf
=> x =
4 2v
cf 1
=> x = +
2v 4

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24 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.4 Mixtures
Mixture problems involve forming a mixture from two or more things, and determining some
quantity (percentage, price, etc.) of the final mixture.

Mixture problems can be seen in any of (or similar to) the following scenarios:

Combining multiple varieties of commodities having different prices and determining the
average price of the mixture

Combining multiple alloys with different percent purity and determining the percent
purity of the mixture

Combining multiple solutions with different components and determining the ratio of
the components in the mixture

To find the mean value of a mixture:

When X and x quantities of A and B, costing C and cost c, respectively, are mixed, the
average cost, M, of mixture is given by:

CX + cx
M =
X +x

When two solutions A and B, having volume V and v, containing R% concentration of


ingredient X and r % of ingredient X, respectively, are mixed, the concentration, M%, of
ingredient X in the mixture is given by:

R r
   
V + v
100 100 V R + vr
M = 100 =
V +v V +v

Let us take a few examples:

(1) Three varieties of tea priced at $10 per pound, $15 per pound and $24 per pound are
mixed together in the ratio 2 : 1 : 5, respectively. What is the average price of the result-
ing mixture?

Explanation:

We know that the three varieties are mixed in the ratio 2 : 1 : 5

Let the quantities of the three varieties be 2 pounds, 1 pound and 5 pounds, respectively.

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 25

Thus, total prices of the three varieties of tea are:

$ (2 10) = $20, $ (1 15) = $15 and $ (5 24) = $120

Thus, combined price of (2 + 1 + 5) = 8 pounds of tea = $ (20 + 15 + 120) = $155

155 3
Thus, average price of the mixture = $ = $19
8 8

(2) Three varieties of tea priced at $20 per pound, $15 per pound and $24 per pound are
mixed together. If the average price of the resulting mixture is $20 per pound, which of
the following is a possible ratio in which the three varieties of tea were mixed?

(A) 1 : 4 : 5
(B) 2 : 3 : 8
(C) 3 : 8 : 12
(D) 5 : 8 : 10

Explanation:

Let the quantities of the three varieties of tea used are x pounds, y pounds and z pounds.

Thus, total prices of the three varieties of tea are:


$ (x 20) = $20x, $ y 15 = $15y and $ (z 24) = $24z

 
Thus, combined price of x + y + z pounds of tea = $ 20x + 15y + 24z
!
20x + 15y + 24z
Thus, average price of the mixture = $
x+y +z

Thus, we have:

20x + 15y + 24z


= 20
x+y +z

=> 20x + 15y + 24z = 20x + 20y + 20z

y 4
=> 5y = 4z => =
z 5

Since x is not there in the above equation, any value of x can be used. Observe that the
average price of the mixture is the same as the price per pound of the variety having
quantity x.

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26 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Thus, the presence or the absence of that particular variety will not affect the average
price of the mixture.

Thus, we need to choose those options where y : z = 4 : 5

The correct answers are options A and D.

(3) Iron ore mined from Site A has 72% iron, while that from Site B has 56% iron. A certain
quantity of both ores are taken and melted to form a substance having 65% iron. If the
quantity of iron ore taken from Site A is 5 pounds more than that from Site B, what is the
weight of the ore used from Site B?

(A) 12
1
(B) 16
2
1
(C) 17
2
(D) 20

Explanation:

Let the quantity of ore taken from Site B be x pounds and that taken from Site A be
(x + 5) pounds.

Thus, quantity of iron (in pounds) present in the mixture

= 56% of x + 72% of (x + 5)

56x 72 (x + 5) 128x + 360


= + =
100 100 100

Total quantity of the mixture = x + (x + 5) = (2x + 5) pounds

Thus, the percent of iron in the mixture

128x + 360
= 100%
100 (2x + 5)

Thus, we have:

128x + 360
100 = 65
100 (2x + 5)

=> 128x + 360 = 130x + 325

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 27

1
=> 2x = 35 => x = 17
2

Note: Percent of iron present in ores from Site A and Site B = 72% and 56%

72 + 56
If the two ores were mixed in equal ratio, percent of iron in the mixture = = 64%
2

Since the actual percent of iron in the mixture is 65%, i.e. slightly greater than the above
value, there should be slightly higher quantity of ore from Site A.

Alternate approach:

Let the quantities of ores from Site A and Site B be a and b pounds respectively.

Thus, we have:

72a + 56b
= 65
a+b

=> 72a + 56b = 65a + 65b => 7a = 9b

9
=> a = b
7

But, we also know that: a = b + 5

9 2
=> b + 5 = b => b = 5
7 7
1
=> b = 17
2

Method of alligation:

Alligation is the method by which we calculate the ratio in which two different ingredients of
known values are mixed to produce a mixture of a given value. The value of the ingredient
may refer to the price, composition, etc.

In the alligation method, the amount of working required to get to the answer is considerably
reduced.

Let us look into the method for different scenarios:

When P quantity of dearer ingredient A of cost C and p quantity of cheaper ingredient B


of cost c (where C > c) are mixed to get an average cost of mixture M:

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28 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Weight of cheaper ingredient Cost of dearer Cost of mixture


=
Weight of dearer ingredient Cost of mixture Cost of cheaper

The rule can also be represented in the following way:

Conc. of X in A () Conc. of X in B ()

Conc. of X in mixture ()

Conc. in mixture Conc. in B : Conc. in A Conc. in mixture


:

When P quantity of a solution A having R% of constituent X and p quantity of a solution


B having r % of constituent X (where R > r ) are mixed to get an average concentration of
constituent X as M%:

Weight of higher conc.solution Conc. in higher Conc. in mixture


=
Weight of lower conc.solution Conc. in mixture Conc. in lower

The rule can also be represented in the following way:

Price of A per unit () Price of B per unit ()

Price of mixture per unit ()

Price of mixture Price of B : Price of A Price of mixture


:

Let us take a few examples:

(1) A merchant mixes x kg of tea costing $12 per kg and y kg of another variety costing $20
per kg. If the price of the mixture is $15 per kg, what is the ratio of x and y?

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 29

Explanation:

We have: x kg of tea priced at $12 per kg and y kg of tea priced at $20 per kg.

Thus, the average price of the mixture


!
12x + 20y
=$
x+y

Thus, we have:

12x + 20y
= 15
x+y

=> 12x + 20y = 15x + 15y

x 5
=> 3x = 5y => =
y 3

Alternate approach:

Let us solve using the method of alligation:

Price of 1 st variety per kg (12) Price of 2 nd variety per kg (20)

Price of mixture per unit (15)

Price of 2 nd variety Price of mixture : Price of mixture Price of 1 st variety


= = : = =

Thus, the required ratio of x : y = 5 : 3

(2) A solution A contains alcohol and spirit in the ratio 4 : 1 and the solution B contains
alcohol and spirit in the ratio 2 : 3. In what proportion should the solutions to be taken
from A and B to form a mixture having alcohol and spirit in the ratio of 1 : 1?

Explanation:

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30 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Let us consider the concentration of alcohol in the solutions.

4
 
Concentration of alcohol in solution A = 100 = 80%
4+1
2
 
Concentration of alcohol in solution B = 100 = 40%
2+3

Let the quantity taken from solution A and solution B be x and y, respectively.

Thus, average concentration of alcohol in the mixture

80x + 40y
=
x+y
1
 
Concentration of alcohol in the final mixture = 100 = 50%
1+1

Thus, we have:

80x + 40y
= 50
x+y

=> 80x + 40y = 50x + 50y

x 1
=> 30x = 10y => =
y 3

Alternate approach:

Let us solve using the method of alligation:

Conc. of alcohol in A (80%) Conc. of alcohol in B (40%)

Conc. of alcohol in mixture (50%)

Conc. in mixture Conc. in B : Conc. in A Conc. in mixture


= = : = =

Thus, the required ratio of x : y = 1 : 3

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 31

Removal and Replacement


Say, a vessel contains a solution of different ingredients in some ratio. A part of the solution
is removed and some quantity of one of the existing ingredients is added to the solution.

Let us take an example:

A container has 100 liters of spirit. 10 liters of the contents are taken out and replaced with
petrol. This process is repeated one more time. What is the concentration of spirit finally
present in the container?

Explanation:

The idea behind the problem is as follows:

If a vessel having capacity V has two constituents A and B in the ratio a : b, and a part of the
contents of the vessel, say p% are removed, the remaining vessel would still have A and B in
the same ratio a : b. Also, the contents that are removed, would also have A and B in the ratio
a : b.

Since p% of the contents of the vessel are removed, the part remaining is 100 p % of the
vessel. Thus, the remaining parts of the constituents are also 100 p % of their initial values.

Applying the above concept in the problem, we have:

Initial contents of the vessel = 100 liters spirit.

Since 10 liters are removed and replaced with petrol, we have 90 liters spirit and 10 liters
petrol.

After this, again 10 liters of the above solution of 100 liters is removed.

10
Thus, 100 = 10% of the solution is removed.
100
90
Thus, spirit remaining = (100 10) = 90% of 90 = 90 = 81 liters.
100
90
Similarly, alcohol remaining = (100 10) = 90% of 10 = 10 = 9 liters.
100
Since 10 liters alcohol is added again, the final quantity of alcohol = 10 + 9 = 19 liters.

Thus, ratio of spirit and alcohol finally = 81 : 19

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32 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.5 Computational

Computational problems are typically those which cannot be categorized into any fixed cate-
gory.

Such problems are usually solved using basic arithmetic skills applied along with logical rea-
soning skills.

There can be various types of computational problems. A few of the typical ones are men-
tioned below:

Alphanumeric problems: An alphanumeric problem is an arithmetic problem involving ad-


dition, subtraction, multiplication, and in some rare cases, division, where the digits of the
numbers are replaced with letters.

Careful observation of the patterns is necessary to determine the numeric value of each letter.

Let us take an example:

In the multiplication shown below, 1ABCDE is a six-digit number. What is the value of
(A + B + C + D + E)?

1
x 3
_______________________
1

Explanation:

In the above multiplication, we observe:

E3 ends in 1 => E must be 7 => There is a carry of 2

D 3 + 2 ends in E, i.e. 7 => D must be 5 => There is a carry of 1

C 3 + 1 ends in D, i.e. 5 => C must be 8 => There is a carry of 2

B 3 + 2 ends in C, i.e. 8 => B must be 2 => There is no carry

A 3 ends in B, i.e. 2 => A must be 4 => There is a carry of 1

1 3 + 1 = 4 => A = 4, as obtained above

Thus, we have:

A + B + C + D + E = 4 + 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 = 26

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 33

Symbol based problems: In symbol based problems, a symbol is defined, based on which, the
calculations are to be done.

Let us take an example:

If r # s = r s + s r and p @ 0 = p, where @ implies one of +, , , , what is the value of


(2 @ 3) # 5?

Explanation:

We have: p @ 0 = p, where @ implies one of +, , ,

Thus, we may have:

@ implies +: p @ 0 = p + 0 = p

@ implies : p @ 0 = p 0 = p

Working with the above scenarios:

(2 @ 3) # 5 = (2 + 3) # 5 = 5 # 5 = 55 + 55 = 2 55


1 4
(2 @ 3) # 5 = (2 3) # 5 = (1) # 5 = (1)5 + 5(1) = 1 + =
5 5

4
Thus, the possible solutions are: 2 55 OR

5
Calculation intensive: Certain problems may be simply calculation based, where the calcula-
tion may be simplified using some basic identities or rules.

Let us take an example:


( )
n o 100
What is the approximate value of: (0.11 + 0.07)2 (0.11 0.07)2 % of ?
(0.11)2 (0.07)2

(A) 2.4

(B) 3.6

(C) 4.3

(D) 8.1

Explanation:

We have:

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34 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

n o
(0.11 + 0.07)2 (0.11 0.07)2
   
= 0.112 + 2 0.11 0.07 + 0.072 0.112 2 0.11 0.07 + 0.072

= 4 0.11 0.07

Again, we have:

100
(0.11) (0.07)2
2

100
=
(0.11 + 0.07) (0.11 0.07)
100
=
0.18 0.04
Thus, the required value

4 0.11 0.07 100


=
100 0.18 0.04
0.11 0.07
=4
0.18 0.04
11 7
=4
18 4
77
=4
72
77
Since 2 > > 1, the value should be slightly greater than 4 (but definitely less than 8).
72
The correct answer is option C.

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Arithmetic Guide Concepts 35

In the GMAT, only two kinds of questions asked: Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.

Problem Solving
Problem solving (PS) questions may not be new to you. You must have seen these types of
questions in your school or college days. The format is as follows: There is a question stem
and is followed by options, out of which, only one option is correct or is the best option that
answers the question correctly.

PS questions measure your skill to solve numerical problems, interpret graphical data, and
assess information. These questions present to you five options and no option is phrased as
None of these. Mostly the numeric options, unlike algebraic expressions, are presented in an
ascending order from option A through E, occasionally in a descending order until there is a
specific purpose not to do so.

Data Sufficiency
For most of you, Data Sufficiency (DS) may be a new format. The DS format is very unique to the
GMAT exam. The format is as follows: There is a question stem followed by two statements,
labeled statement (1) and statement (2). These statements contain additional information.

Your task is to use the additional information from each statement alone to answer the ques-
tion. If none of the statements alone helps you answer the question, you must use the infor-
mation from both the statements together. There may be questions which cannot be answered
even after combining the additional information given in both the statements. Based on this,
the question always follows standard five options which are always in a fixed order.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to answer the
question asked.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to answer the
question asked.

(C) BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked, but
NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and
additional data specific to the problem are needed.

In the next chapters, you will find 130 GMAT-like quants questions. Best of luck!

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36 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

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Chapter 3

Practice Questions

37
38 Arithmetic Guide Questions

3.1 Problem Solving

1. A man has few articles, all identical. If he sells them at $8 apiece, he loses $250. However,
if he sells them at $9 apiece, he gains $125. How many articles does he have?

(A) 125
(B) 250
(C) 300
(D) 375
(E) 400

Solve yourself:

2. A person sold an article at $56 and got a percentage profit equal to the numerical value
of the cost price. What is the cost price of the article?

(A) $24.64
(B) $31.36
(C) $35.00
(D) $40.00
(E) $42.34

Solve yourself:

3. Ann, Bob and Joe have few marbles. The number of marbles with Ann is 20% greater
than that with Joe and 40% less than that with Bob. The number of marbles with Bob is
what percent of the number of marbles with Joe?

(A) 25%
(B) 50%
(C) 100%
(D) 125%
(E) 200%

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 39

Solve yourself:

4. The ratio of incomes of Ann and Bob is 4 : 7. If the expense ratio of Ann and Bob is 2 :
1
3, and Ann saves of her income, what fraction of his income does Bob save?
3
1
(A)
2
3
(B)
7
4
(C)
7
3
(D)
4
4
(E)
5
Solve yourself:

5. In a study, it was observed that the height of a person is proportional to the square root
of his age up to the age of 25 years. The increase in height is then directly proportional to
the age in excess of 25 years till a maximum age of 50 years, and then remains constant
thereafter. If a 16-year old boy is found to have a height of 4 feet and a 50-year old man
has a height of 6 feet, what is the expected height of a 45-year old man?
(A) 5.2 feet
(B) 5.5 feet
(C) 5.7 feet
(D) 5.8 feet
(E) 5.9 feet
Solve yourself:

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40 Arithmetic Guide Questions

6. The distance traversed by a car is the sum of two quantities, one of which is directly
proportional to the time of travel while the other is directly proportional to the square of
the time of travel. The car travels 50 miles in the first hour and 110 miles in the second
hour. What is its average speed of the car for a journey of 6 hours?

(A) 90 miles per hour


(B) 120 miles per hour
(C) 150 miles per hour
(D) 200 miles per hour
(E) 1200 miles per hour

Solve yourself:

7. The ratio of illiterate males to illiterate females in a village is 5 : 4. 60% of the illiterate
males enroll for a literacy campaign. What is the greatest possible proportion of people
who enroll for the literacy campaign from among the illiterate population?
2
(A)
9
1
(B)
2
2
(C)
3
7
(D)
9
5
(E)
6
Solve yourself:

a b
8. If bc : ca : ab = 2 : 3 : 4, what is the ratio of : ?
bc ac

(A) 2 :1
(B) 9:4

(C) 2 2 :1
(D) 4:1

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 41

(E) 6:1

Solve yourself:

9. In a camp of 100 soldiers, the food supply is estimated to last a certain number of days.
However, after 13 days, 100 more soldiers join the camp and the food supply now lasts
for 12 more days. What was the original time estimate? Assume that each soldier always
consumes the same fixed quantity of food each day.

(A) 24 days
(B) 25 days
(C) 31 days
(D) 37 days
(E) 43 days

Solve yourself:

10. A cistern can be filled by two pipes in 20 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively, and the
third pipe empties the cistern in some time. If all the pipes are turned on in an empty
cistern at once and after 8 minutes the cistern is half full, in what time can the third pipe
empty the full cistern if the other two pipes are closed?

(A) 24 minutes
(B) 45 minutes
(C) 48 minutes
(D) 54 minutes
(E) 60 minutes

Solve yourself:

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42 Arithmetic Guide Questions

11. Ann completes a piece of work in 24 days, Bob in 40 days and Dan in 60 days. They
all begin together but Ann alone continues the work till the end while Bob leaves 2 days
before the completion and Dan, 7 days before the completion of the work. In how many
days is the work completed?
(A) 12 days
(B) 14 days
(C) 16 days
(D) 18 days
(E) 19 days
Solve yourself:

12. Two brothers, A and B, set out for a station 9 miles away from their home. They both
walk at 3 miles per hour. After going one mile, A decided to return to their home for an
urgent work. At what rate (in miles per hour) must A now walk in order that he reaches
the station at the same time as B, given that he spends 30 minutes at his home?
1
(A) 3
2
3
(B) 3
4
8
(C) 4
13
1
(D) 5
3
(E) 6
Solve yourself:

13. If p, q, r , s are distinct numbers such that: p + r = 2s and q + s = 2r , which of the


following statements must be true?
I. p cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s
II. q cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s
III. s cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 43

(A) Only statement I


(B) Only statement II
(C) Only statement III
(D) Both statements I and II
(E) I, II and III

Solve yourself:

14. A manufacturer fixes the sales price of an article by adding together the cost of pro-
duction, excise duty (5% of the cost of the production) and his profit (20% of the cost
of production) and sells the article to the retailer. The retailer marks the price at 20%
above his cost price and allows 6% discount on that price for cash payment. Find the
manufacturing cost of an article for which a customer makes a cash payment of $705 to
the retailer.

(A) $508
(B) $500
(C) $482
(D) $423
(E) $400

Solve yourself:

15. Jacob purchased 100 boxes of oranges at $8 per box. He sold 8 of the boxes at $4 per
box to Company A, and he sold the rest of the boxes to Company B. If Jacobs profit from
the purchase and sale of the 100 boxes of oranges was $336, at what price per box did
he sell the boxes to Company B?

(A) $11.36
(B) $11.60
(C) $12.00
(D) $12.35
(E) $12.90

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44 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

16. During the first week of September, a shoe retailer sold 10 pairs of a certain style of
oxfords at $35.00 a pair. If, during the second week of September, 15 pairs were sold at
the sale price of $27.50 a pair, approximately by what percent did the revenue from the
weekly sales of these oxfords increase during the second week?
(A) 12%
(B) 13%
(C) 15%
(D) 17%
(E) 18%
Solve yourself:

17. During the four years that Ms Lopez owned her car; she found that her total car expenses
1
were $18,000. Fuel and maintenance costs accounted for of the total and depreciation
3
3
accounted for of the remainder. The cost of insurance was 3 times the cost of financ-
5
1
ing, and together these two costs accounted for of the total. If the only other expense
5
was taxes and license fees, then the cost of financing was how much more or less than
the cost of taxes and license fees?
(A) $1500 more
(B) $1200 more
(C) $100 less
(D) $300 less
(E) $1500 less
Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 45

18. Manufacturing a product requires 3 raw materials A, B, C in the ratio 1 : 2 : 4, respectively,


by quantity. The cost per ton of A, B and C is in the ratio 3 : 4 : 6, respectively. The
product is sold at a profit of 20 percent. Due to rising inflation, if the costs of A and B
and C increase by 30 percent, 40 percent and 10 percent, respectively, what should be
the approximate percent increase in the selling price of the product so that the percent
profit remains the same?
(A) 17%
(B) 19%
(C) 20%
(D) 23%
(E) 25%
Solve yourself:

1
19. Enrollment in City College in 1980 was 83 percent of the enrollment in 1990. The per-
3
cent of dropouts in the college in 1980 was 20 percent of the number of enrollments.
If the percent of dropouts in the college in 1990 was 25 percent of the number of en-
rollments, what was the percent increase in the number of dropouts in the college from
1980 to 1990?
(A) 5.0%
(B) 16.6%
(C) 33.3%
(D) 50.0%
(E) 66.6%
Solve yourself:

20. Envelopes can be purchased for $1.50 per pack of 100, $1.00 per pack of 50, or $0.03
each. What is the greatest number of envelopes that can be purchased for $7.30?
(A) 426
(B) 430
(C) 443

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46 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(D) 460
(E) 486
Solve yourself:

21. For a certain race, 3 teams were allowed to enter 3 members each. A team earned (6 n)
points whenever one of its members finished in nth place, where 1 n 5, however, if
n > 5, no points were awarded. There were no ties, disqualifications, or withdrawals. If
no team earned more than 6 points, what is the least possible score a team could have
earned?
(A) 0
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 3
(E) 4
Solve yourself:

22. For an agricultural experiment, 300 seeds were planted in one plot and 200 seeds were
planted in a second plot. If exactly 25 percent of the seeds in the first plot germinated
and exactly 35 percent of the seeds in the second plot germinated, what percent of the
total number of seeds germinated?
(A) 12%
(B) 26%
(C) 29%
(D) 30%
(E) 60%
Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 47

23. For any integer k greater than 1, the symbol k# denotes the product of all the fractions
1
of the form , where t is an integer between 1 and k, inclusive. What is the value of
t
5#
 
?
4#
(A) 5
5
(B)
4
4
(C)
5
1
(D)
4
1
(E)
5
Solve yourself:

24. Jims income comes from his wages and from tips. For a certain month, if Jims income
from his wages was 166.67 percent of his income from tips, approximately what percent
of his total income came from tips?

(A) 20%
(B) 33%
(C) 38%
(D) 60%
(E) 62%

Solve yourself:

25. John, Karen, and Luke collected cans of vegetables for a food drive. The number of cans
2 3
that John collected was the number of cans that Karen collected and the number
3 4
of cans that Luke collected. The number of cans that Luke collected was approximately
what percent of the total number of cans that John, Karen, and Luke collected?

(A) 35%
(B) 30%

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48 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(C) 25%
(D) 20%
(E) 16%
Solve yourself:

26. Last Sunday, a certain store sold copies of Newspaper A for $1.00 each and copies of
Newspaper B for $1.25 each, and the store sold no other newspapers that day. If r
percent of the stores revenue from newspaper sales was from Newspaper A and if p
percent of the newspapers that the store sold were copies of Newspaper A, which of the
following expresses r in terms of p?
100p
(A)
125 p
150p
(B)
250 p
300p
(C)
375 p
400p
(D)
500 p
500p
(E)
625 p
Solve yourself:

27. Last year the price per share of Stock X increased by k percent and the earnings per share
of Stock X increased by m percent, where k is greater than m. By what percent did the
ratio of price per share to earnings per share increase, in terms of k and m?
k
(A) %
m
(B) (k m) %
100 (k m)
(C) %
100 + k
100 (k m)
(D) %
100 + m
100 (k m)
(E) %
100 + k + m

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 49

Solve yourself:

28. Hernandez, who was a resident of State X for only 8 months in the last year, had to pay
tax of $1800 on his income for the year. If the state tax rate were 4 percent of the years
income prorated for the proportion of the year during which the taxpayer was a resident,
what would be Hernandezs income for last year?

(A) $90,000
(B) $75,000
(C) $67,500
(D) $45,000
(E) $27,500

Solve yourself:

29. Ms. Adams sold two properties, X and Y, for $30,000 each. She sold property X for 20
percent more than what she paid for it and sold property Y for 20 percent less than what
she paid for it. What was her total net gain or loss, if any, on the two properties?

(A) $1250 loss


(B) $2500 loss
(C) Neither a loss nor a gain
(D) $1250 gain
(E) $2500 gain

Solve yourself:

30. Of a group of people surveyed in a political poll, 60 percent said that they would vote for
candidate R. Of those who said they would vote for R, 90 percent actually voted for R,

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50 Arithmetic Guide Questions

and of those who did not say they would vote for R, 5 percent actually voted for R. What
percent of the group voted for R?

(A) 56%
(B) 59%
(C) 62%
(D) 65%
(E) 74%

Solve yourself:

31. Of the 2,500 tons of ore mined daily at a quarry, a certain pure metal constitutes only 0.5
percent. If 20 percent of the pure metal is lost during extraction, in how many days of
mining will the total amount of pure metal extracted at the quarry be equal to the daily
amount of ore mined?

(A) 25
(B) 200
(C) 250
(D) 2000
(E) 2500

Solve yourself:

32. Of the families in City X in 1994, 40 percent owned a personal computer. The number of
families in City X owning a computer in 1998 was 30 percent greater than it was in 1994,
and the total number of families in City X was 4 percent greater in 1998 than it was in
1994. What percent of the families in City X owned a personal computer in 1998?

(A) 50%
(B) 52%
(C) 56%
(D) 70%
(E) 74%

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 51

Solve yourself:

33. Of the fruit that arrives at a cannery, 20 percent by weight is rejected before processing.
Of the fruit that is processed, 15 percent by weight is rejected before canning. The fruit
that arrives at the cannery is what percent by weight of the fruit that is canned?
(A) 68%
(B) 95%
(C) 123%
(D) 147%
(E) 160%
Solve yourself:

2 3
34. Of the goose eggs laid at a certain pond, hatched, and of the geese that hatched
3 4
3
from those eggs survived the first month. Of the geese that survived the first month,
5
did NOT survive the first year. If 120 geese survived the first year and if no more than
one goose hatched from each egg, how many goose eggs were laid at the pond?
(A) 280
(B) 400
(C) 540
(D) 600
(E) 840
Solve yourself:

35. Of the total amount that Jane spent on a shopping trip, including taxes, she spent 55
percent on clothing, 23 percent on food, and 22 percent on travel. If Jane paid a 10

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52 Arithmetic Guide Questions

percent tax on the clothing, 15 percent tax on the food and no tax on travel, then the
total tax that she paid was what percent of the total amount that she spent, excluding
taxes?
(A) 3.6%
(B) 4.4%
(C) 6.0%
(D) 8.7%
(E) 10.0%
Solve yourself:

36. On a certain transatlantic crossing, 20 percent of a ships passengers held round-trip


tickets and also took their cars aboard the ship. If 60 percent of the passengers with
round-trip tickets did not take their cars aboard the ship, what percent of the ships
passengers held round-trip tickets?
(A) 33.3%
(B) 40.0%
(C) 50.0%
(D) 60.0%
(E) 66.7%
Solve yourself:

37. One gram of a certain health food contains 7 percent of the minimum daily requirement
of vitamin E and 3 percent of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.
If vitamins E and A are to be obtained from no other source, approximately how many
grams of the health food must be eaten daily to provide at least the minimum daily
requirement of both vitamins?
(A) 3
(B) 7
(C) 10
(D) 14

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 53

(E) 34

Solve yourself:

38. A union contract specifies a 6 percent salary increase along with a $450 bonus for each
employee. For a certain employee, this is equivalent to an 8 percent salary increase. What
was this employees initial salary before the new contract?

(A) $21500
(B) $22500
(C) $23500
(D) $24300
(E) $25000

Solve yourself:

39. The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 25 percent less than the charge for a single
room at Hotel R and 10 percent less than the charge for a single room at Hotel G. The
charge for a single room at Hotel R is what percent greater than the charge for a single
room at Hotel G?

(A) 15%
(B) 20%
(C) 40%
(D) 50%
(E) 150%

Solve yourself:

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54 Arithmetic Guide Questions

40. The cost C of manufacturing a certain product can be estimated by the formula C =
0.03r st 2 , where r and s are the amounts, in pounds, of the two major ingredients and
t is the production time, in hours. If r is increased by 50 percent, s is increased by
20 percent, and t is decreased by 30 percent, by approximately what percent will the
estimated cost of manufacturing the product change?
(A) 40% increase
(B) 12% increase
(C) 4% increase
(D) 12% decrease
(E) 24% decrease
Solve yourself:

41. A manufacturer sells his product to a retailer at 20 percent profit, who sells it to a
shopkeeper at a loss of 20 percent, who, in turn, sells it to a customer for $288 at a
profit of 20 percent. What was the manufacturers cost price?
(A) $240
(B) $250
(C) $300
(D) $375
(E) $400
Solve yourself:

42. John makes wooden bowls and sells each bowl at a price that consists of his cost of
making the bowl and a mark-up amount that is 25 percent of the selling price. What is
the selling price of a bowl that cost John $60 to make?
(A) $80
(B) $75
(C) $60
(D) $50
(E) $45

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 55

Solve yourself:

43. Last years graduating class at a certain college had equal numbers of males and females.
4
If of the males graduated without honors, and if the fraction of the females who
5
graduated with honors was 3 times the fraction of males who graduated with honors,
what fraction of all the students in the graduating class were females who graduated
without honors?
1
(A)
15
1
(B)
5
4
(C)
15
1
(D)
3
2
(E)
5
Solve yourself:

3 2 3
44. In a class, of the students, including of the girls have glasses. If of all students
4 3 5
were girls, what percent of the students not having glasses were girls?
(A) 20%
(B) 33%
(C) 35%
(D) 40%
(E) 80%
Solve yourself:

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56 Arithmetic Guide Questions

1 1
45. In a certain school, 40 more than of all the students are taking a science course and
3 4
1
of those taking a science course are taking physics. If of all the students in the school
8
are taking physics, how many students are in the school?

(A) 240
(B) 300
(C) 480
(D) 720
(E) 960

Solve yourself:

46. Four extra-large sandwiches of exactly the same size were ordered for m students, where
m > 4. Three of the sandwiches were evenly divided among the students. Since 4
students did not have any part of the fourth sandwich, it was evenly divided among the
remaining students. If Carol ate one piece from each of the four sandwiches, the amount
of sandwich that she ate would be what fraction of a whole extra-large sandwich?
m+4
(A)
m (m 4)
2m 4
(B)
m (m 4)
4m 4
(C)
m (m 4)
4m 8
(D)
m (m 4)
4m 12
(E)
m (m 4)
Solve yourself:

47. Four staff members at a certain company worked on a project. The amounts of time that
the four staff members worked on the project were in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5 : 6. If one of the
four staff members worked on the project for 30 hours, which of the following CANNOT
be the total number of hours that the four staff members worked on the project?

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 57

(A) 80
(B) 96
(C) 160
(D) 192
(E) 240
Solve yourself:

48. How many


p bits of computer memory will be required to store the integer x, where
x = 810, 000, if each digit requires 4 bits of memory and the sign of x requires 1 bit?
(A) 25
(B) 24
(C) 17
(D) 13
(E) 12
Solve yourself:

49. Marion rented a car for $18.00 plus $0.10 per mile driven. Craig rented a car for $25.00
plus $0.05 per mile driven. If each drove d miles and each was charged exactly the same
amount for the rental then what was the charge each had to pay?
(A) 32
(B) 68
(C) 100
(D) 135
(E) 140
Solve yourself:

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58 Arithmetic Guide Questions

50. If an automobile averaged 22.5 miles per gallon of gasoline, approximately how many
kilometers per liter of gasoline did the automobile average? (1 mile = 1.6 kilometer and
1 gallon = 3.8 liters, both rounded to the nearest tenth)
(A) 3.7
(B) 9.5
(C) 31.4
(D) 53.4
(E) 136.8
Solve yourself:

51. Of the books standing in a row on a shelf, an atlas is the 30th book from the left and the
33rd book from the right. If 2 books to the left of the atlas and 4 books to the right of
the atlas are removed from the shelf, how many books will be left on the shelf?
(A) 56
(B) 57
(C) 58
(D) 61
(E) 63
Solve yourself:

52. On a certain street, there is an odd number of houses in a row. The houses in the row are
painted in a repeating sequence of white, green and yellow, with the first house painted
white. If the total number of houses in the row is n, and n is one greater than a multiple
of 3, how many of the houses are painted green?
n+3
(A)
3
n1
(B) +1
3
n2
(C) +1
3
n1
(D)
3

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 59

n2
(E)
3
Solve yourself:

53. On an aerial photograph, the surface of a pond appears as a circular region of radius
7
inch. If a distance of 1 inch on the photograph corresponds to an actual distance of
16
2 miles, which of the following is the closest estimate of the actual surface area of the
pond, in square miles?

(A) 1.3
(B) 2.4
(C) 3.0
(D) 3.8
(E) 5.0

Solve yourself:

54. Reggie purchased a car costing $8700. As a down payment he used a $2300 insurance
settlement and an amount from his saving equal to 15 percent of the difference between
the cost of the car and the insurance settlement. If he borrowed the rest of the money
he needed to purchase the car, how much did he borrow?

(A) $6400
(B) $6055
(C) $5440
(D) $5095
(E) $3260

Solve yourself:

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60 Arithmetic Guide Questions

55. The age of the Earth is approximately 1.44 1017 seconds. Assuming one year to consist
of 360 days, which of the following is closest to the age of the Earth in years?

(A) 2.5 109


(B) 4.6 109
(C) 1.9 1010
(D) 2.5 1011
(E) 4.1 1011

Solve yourself:

a b
56. The operation # is defined for all non-zero numbers a and b by a#b = . If x and
b a
y are non-zero numbers, which of the following statements must be true?

I. x#xy = x 1#y

II. x#y = y#x
1 1
III. # = y#x
x y

(A) Only I
(B) Only II
(C) Only III
(D) Only I and II
(E) Only II and III

Solve yourself:

xy
57. The operation $ is defined by the equation x$y = , where y 6= x. If 3$y = 5$4,
x+y
then y =
1
(A)
9
4
(B)
15

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 61

5
(C)
12
12
(D)
5
15
(E)
4
Solve yourself:

x
58. The operation @ is defined for all non-zero x and y by x@y = x + . If a > 0, then
y
1@ (1@a) =

(A) a
(B) a+1
a
(C)
a+1
a+2
(D)
a+1
2a + 1
(E)
a+1
Solve yourself:

1 1
59. The operation is defined by a b = + for all non-zero numbers a and b. If c is a
a b
number greater than 1, which of the following must be true?

I. c (c) = 0
c
 
II. c =1
c1
2 2
III. =c
c c

(A) Only I
(B) Only I and II
(C) Only I and III

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62 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(D) Only II and III


(E) I, II and III

Solve yourself:

60. The weights of four packages are 1, 3, 5, and 7 pounds, respectively. Which of the
following CANNOT be the total weight, in pounds, of any combination of the packages?

(A) 9
(B) 10
(C) 12
(D) 13
(E) 14

Solve yourself:

61. This month, a factory will produce a certain number of articles, a part of which will be
sold. Next month the factory will produce only half the number of articles produced this
month, but for each article that is unsold this month, k articles will be sold next month.
Ignoring the production and sales of articles in all months prior to this month, in terms
of k, what fraction of the number of articles produced this month should be sold this
month so that the cumulative number of articles remaining unsold next month would be
1
equal to the number of articles sold this month?
3
4 (2 k)
(A)
3 (1 k)
2 (4 2k)
(B)
3 (2 3k)
3 (4 3k)
(C)
2 (3 2k)
(3 2k)
(D)
(4 3k)
3 (3 2k)
(E)
2 (4 3k)

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 63

Solve yourself:

62. Each week, Harry is paid x dollars per hour for the first 40 hours and 2x dollars for each
additional hour worked that week. Each week, James is paid x dollars per hour for the
first 30 hours and 1.5x dollars for each additional hour worked that week. Last week
Harry worked a total of 41 hours. If Harry and James were paid the same amount last
week, how many hours did James work last week?

(A) 35
(B) 36
(C) 37
(D) 38
(E) 39

Solve yourself:

63. For all positive integers m and v, the expression (m v) represents the remainder
when m is divided by v. What is the value of [(98 33) 17] [98 (33 17)]?

(A) 10
(B) 2
(C) 8
(D) 13
(E) 17

Solve yourself:

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64 Arithmetic Guide Questions

3.2 Data Sufficiency

Data sufficiency questions have five standard options. They are listed below and will not
be repeated for each question.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to an-
swer the question asked.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to an-
swer the question asked.
(C) both the statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question
asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked,
and additional data specific to the problem are needed.

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 65

64. Is the percent change in perimeter of a right angled isosceles triangle greater than 10%?

(1) A new triangle is formed by increasing only one side of the triangle by 20%.

(2) A new triangle is formed by increasing the longest side of the triangle by 20%.

Solve yourself:

65. What is the percent increase in the area of a trapezium?

(1) The lengths of parallel sides of the trapezium are each increased by 20%.

(2) The distance between the parallel sides is increased by 10%.

Solve yourself:

66. If oil and water are mixed in the ratio 1 : 1 in a beaker, filling it to its capacity, the weight

of the beaker and its contents is 102 grams, by what percent is water heavier than oil?

(1) The combined weight of oil and water mixed in the ratio 2 : 3 in the same beaker as

above is 104 grams.

(2) The combined weight of oil and water mixed in the ratio 3 : 2 in the same beaker as

above is 100 grams.

Solve yourself:

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66 Arithmetic Guide Questions

67. At what percent profit did the dealer sell the article?

(1) Had the dealer sold the article at $1200, his profit would have been 20%.

(2) Had the dealer sold the article after a discount of 20%, his profit would have been

10%.

Solve yourself:

68. If water evaporates at a constant rate, what is the percent of salt in the salt-water solution

at 8:00 pm?

(1) The percent of salt in the solution was 30% at 12:00 noon.

(2) The percent of salt in the solution was 40% at 4:00 pm.

Solve yourself:

69. A solution has milk and honey in the ratio of 1 : 2 by volume. What part of the solution

was removed?

(1) If an equal quantity of milk was added to the solution after the removal process, the

ratio of milk and honey would become 1 : 1.

(2) If an equal quantity of honey was added to the solution after the removal process,

the ratio of milk and honey would become 1 : 3.

Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 67

70. How many marbles should a man sell for $6 to make a profit of 50%?

(1) If the man sells 5 marbles for a dollar, he would make 25% profit.

(2) The profit made by the man by selling all marbles is $40.

Solve yourself:

71. If A, B and C are single digit numbers from 0 to 9, what is the value of B?

(1) The three-digit number 1A4 when multiplied by B gives another three-digit number

BC8

(2) C=8

Solve yourself:

72. Three liquids, A, B and C, are formed by mixing petrol and spirit in varying ratios. What

is the percent of petrol in liquid C?

(1) The ratio of petrol and spirit in A and B are 2 : 3 and 3 : 4, respectively.

(2) If 20 liters of A, 21 liters of B and 27 liters of C are mixed, the resulting ratio of

petrol and spirit is 29 : 39.

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68 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

73. Liquids A and B, priced at $30 per liter and $10 per liter, are mixed in a particular ratio

to form a new liquid C. If it is known that a part of the mixture would be lost during the

mixing process, what should the price per liter of liquid C be, so that there is no loss or

profit incurred in the process?

(1) The liquids A and B are mixed in the ratio 5 : 1.


1
(2) of the mixture is lost during the mixing process.
6

Solve yourself:

2a
74. If = k, what is the value of k?
a + 3b
a
(1) =k
3b
(2) b 6= 0

Solve yourself:

75. What is the profit percent if an article is sold without any discount on the original selling

price?

(1) If the article is sold at x% discount on the original selling price, there is x% profit.

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 69

5x x
(2) If the article is sold at % discount on the original selling price, there is % profit.
4 2

Solve yourself:

76. From a 60 ml sugar solution, a part was removed and replaced with an equal quantity of

pure water. What volume of the mixture was removed?

(1) The resulting mixture contained 10% sugar.

(2) The original solution had 60% sugar.

Solve yourself:

77. What is the number of seats in the seminar-room?

(1) If all employees of the finance department attend an orientation program in the

seminar-room, five people would be left standing.

(2) If only 80% of all employees of the finance department attend an orientation pro-

gram in the seminar-room, 10 seats would be left unoccupied.

Solve yourself:

78. Sugar concentrate is made up by drying sugar solution. How much quantity of sugar

concentrate can be obtained from 80 grams of sugar solution?

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70 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(1) Concentration of sugar in sugar solution is 20%.

(2) Concentration of water in sugar concentrate is 20%.

Solve yourself:

79. A football team has 40% win rate in the first half of the season. What is the minimum

number of additional matches that the team needs to play in order to increase its win

rate to 60%?

(1) The team had played 20 matches in the first half of the season.

(2) The total number of matches the team would play in the season is 36.

Solve yourself:

80. A store sells pulses, each listed at the same price. The store offers the following

discounts on the list price based on the quantity of goods purchased:

Quantity Discount %

Up to 20 lbs 10

More than 20 lbs but less than 45 lbs 20

More than or equal to 45 lbs 30

Two friends, Ann and Bob, purchase different quantities of goods. What percent of their

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 71

expenses would they be able to save if they purchased together instead of purchasing

separately?

(1) Ann and Bob purchased 15 lbs and 30 lbs of goods, respectively.

(2) The list prices of all goods are $20 per lb.

Solve yourself:

81. At what price did a store sell each laptop?

(1) Had the store sold each laptop for $800 more than what it actually did, the total

profit made would have been $64000.

(2) The stores cost price for each laptop was $1200.

Solve yourself:

82. A shopkeeper mixes coffee powder with high quality coffee to make profit. If the shop-

keeper sold the entire mixture at the same rate at which he had purchased the high

quality coffee, what is the percent profit made by the shopkeeper only through adulter-

ation?

(1) In every 100 grams of high quality coffee, the shopkeeper mixes exactly 5 grams of

coffee powder.

(2) The shopkeeper obtains the coffee powder free of cost.

Solve yourself:

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72 Arithmetic Guide Questions

83. If 35 percent of all employees of a company are men, what percent of the total employees

attended a meeting?

(1) 20 percent of the men in the company attended the meeting.

(2) 40 percent of the women attended the meeting.

Solve yourself:

84. Three friends, R, Y and M, each have a different number of toffees. Does M have the least
number of toffees?
1
(1) M has of the total number of toffees with all three friends combined and the
4
1
difference between the toffees of Y and R is of the total number of toffees.
10
1
(2) M has of the total number of toffees with all three friends combined and Y has
4
1
more than the number of toffees with R.
5
Solve yourself:

85. Last year, if Arturo spent a total of $12,000 on his mortgage payments, real estate taxes,
and home insurance, how much did he spend on his real estate taxes?
(1) Last year, the total amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes and home
1
insurance was 33 percent of the amount that he spent on his mortgage payments.
3
(2) Last year, the amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes was 20 percent of
the total amount that he spent on his mortgage payments and home insurance.

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 73

Solve yourself:

86. Yesterday Diana spent a total of 240 minutes attending a training class, responding to
e-mails, and talking on the phone. If she did no two of these three activities at the same
time, how much time did she spend talking on the phone?

(1) Yesterday, the amount of time that Diana spent attending the training class was 90
percent of the amount of time that she spent responding to e-mails.
(2) Yesterday, the amount of time that Diana spent attending the training class was 60
percent of the total amount of time that she spent responding to e-mails and talking
on the phone combined.

Solve yourself:

87. Is the percent change in total surface area (the sum of Curved surface area and Base area)
of the right solid cylinder at least 20 percent?

(1) The base radius of the cylinder is increased by 10 percent.


(2) The height of the cylinder is increased by 20 percent.

Solve yourself:

88. Do 15 percent of a group of people wear glasses?

(1) Of the children in the group, 10 percent have glasses.


(2) Of the adults in the group, 20 percent have glasses.

Solve yourself:

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74 Arithmetic Guide Questions

89. Joe has a bag containing two varieties of beans a cheaper variety and a costlier variety.
The price of the costlier beans forms what percent of the total price of all the beans?

(1) Only one-third of the beans cost $6 each.


(2) The price of each bean of the costlier variety is thrice that of each bean of the
cheaper variety.

Solve yourself:

90. The price of a ticket in a multiplex A is 20 percent higher than that in multiplex B.
After both multiplexes revise their ticket prices, does multiplex A still charge more than
multiplex B per ticket?

(1) Multiplex A reduces its ticket price by 20 percent and adds $5 to the reduced price.
(2) Multiplex B increases its ticket price by 20 percent and adds $10 to the increased
price.

Solve yourself:

91. In a class of 20 students, 60% of the students have a lower GPA than Joe has. If the scores
of 10 new students are also considered, how many students have a higher GPA than that
of Joe?

(1) 80% of the new students have a higher GPA than Joe has.
(2) 10% of the initial students have a GPA equal to that of Joe.

Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 75

92. The price of a certain stock decreased by 20 percent and then increased by x percent. Is
the final price of the stock after the increase less than what it was before the decrease?

(1) x > 20
(2) x < 25

Solve yourself:

93. A father divided his savings of $15000 among his 3 sons A, B and C. How much did B
get?

(1) A gets more than B by the same amount as C gets less than B.
(2) The ratio of shares of A, B, and C is 3 : 2 : 1.

Solve yourself:

94. A, B and C have a total of $800 with them. Does A have the highest amount?

(1) A and B together have 40 percent less than what C alone has.
(2) C has $200 more than A and B together.

Solve yourself:

95. What is the volume of milk present in a mixture of milk and water?

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76 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(1) When 2 liters of milk is added to the mixture, the resultant mixture has equal quan-
tities of milk and water.
(2) The initial mixture had 2 parts of water to 1 part milk.
Solve yourself:

96. A mixture of juice concentrate and water contained 40 percent juice. A part of the
mixture was removed and replaced with an equal quantity of water. What volume of the
mixture was removed?
(1) The volume of the original mixture was 60 ml.
(2) The resulting mixture contained 10 percent juice.

97. An attorney charged a fee for estate planning services for a certain estate. The attorneys
fee was what percent of the assessed value of the estate?
(1) The assessed value of the estate was $1.2 million.
(2) The attorney charged $2,400 for the estate planning services.
Solve yourself:

98. Are at least 10 percent of Country Xs citizens who are 65 years old or older employed?
(1) In Country X, 11.3 percent of the population is 65 years old or older.
(2) In Country X, of the population 65 years old or older, 20 percent of the men and 10
percent of the women are employed.
Solve yourself:

99. By what percent was the price of a certain candy bar increased?
(1) The price of the candy bar was increased by 5 cents.

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 77

(2) The price of the candy bar after the increase was 45 cents.
Solve yourself:

100. Did Sally pay less than x dollars, including sales tax, for her bicycle?
(1) The price Sally paid for her bicycle was 0.9x dollars, excluding the 10 percent sales
tax
(2) The price Sally paid for her bicycle was $170, excluding the 10 percent sales tax
Solve yourself:

101. Does Joe weigh more than Tim?


(1) Tims weight is 80 percent of Joes weight.
(2) Joes weight is 125 percent of Tims weight.
Solve yourself:

102. Each week a certain salesman is paid a fixed amount equal to $300 plus a commission
equal to 5 percent of the amount of total sales that week above a sale of $1,000. What
was the total amount paid to the salesman last week?
(1) The total amount the salesman was paid last week is equal to 10 percent of the
amount of total sales last week.
(2) The salesmans total sales last week was $5,000
Solve yourself:

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78 Arithmetic Guide Questions

103. Each week Connie receives a base salary of $500, plus a 20 percent commission on the
total amount of her sales that week in excess of $1,500. What was the total amount of
Connies sales last week?

(1) Last week Connies base salary and commission totaled $1, 200
(2) Last week Connies commission was $700

Solve yourself:

104. In a class, 30% of the students are boys. 25% of the boys and 50% of the girls wear glasses.
What is the minimum number of students in the class?

(A) 20
(B) 40
(C) 100
(D) 120
(E) 200

Solve yourself:

105. For a certain car repair, the total charge consisted of a charge for parts, a charge for
labor, and a 6 percent sales tax on both the charge for parts and the charge for labor. If
the charge for parts, excluding sales tax, was $50.00, what was the total charge for the
repair?

(1) The sales tax on the charge for labor was $9.60
(2) The total sales tax was $12.60

Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 79

106. Which of the following gives the highest overall percent increase if in each case, the
second percent increase is applied on the value obtained after application of the first
percent Increase?

(A) 10 percent increase followed by 50 percent increase


(B) 25 percent increase followed by 35 percent increase
(C) 30 percent increase followed by 30 percent increase
(D) 40 percent increase followed by 20 percent increase
(E) 45 percent increase followed by 15 percent increase

Solve yourself:

107. If the numbers a, b and c are positive integers, what percent of (a + b + c) does a
constitute?

(1) a% of (b + c) = 40
(2) (a + b) = (b + c) % of (a + b)

Solve yourself:

108. While organizing a cultural event, invitations were sent across to various eminent per-
sonalities. To how many people were the invitations sent?

(1) If all the invitees had attended the event, there would have been 30 invitees left
without any seats in the auditorium where the event was organized.
(2) If 40 percent of the invitees had not turned up, there would have been 60 seats
vacant in the auditorium where the event was organized.

Solve yourself:

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80 Arithmetic Guide Questions

109. For what percent of those tested for a certain infection was the test accurate; that is,
positive for those who had the infection and negative for those who did not have the
infection?
(1) Of those who tested positive for the infection, 8 did not have the infection.
(2) Of those tested for the infection, 90 percent tested negative.
Solve yourself:

110. From 1985 to 1994, what was the percent increase in total trade of the United States?
(1) Total trade of the United States in 1985 was 17 percent of gross domestic product
in 1985.
(2) Total trade of the United States in 1994 was 23 percent of gross domestic product
in 1994.
Solve yourself:

111. From 2004 to 2007, the value of foreign goods consumed annually in the United States
increased by what percent?
(1) In both 2004 and 2007, the value of foreign goods consumed constituted 20 percent
of the total value of goods consumed in the United States that year.
(2) In 2007 the total value of goods consumed in the United States was 20 percent
higher than that in 2004.
Solve yourself:

112. From May 1 to May 30 in the same year, the balance in a checking account had increased.
What was the balance in the checking account on May 30?
(1) If, from May 1 to May 30, the increase in the balance in the checking account had
been 12 percent, then the balance in the account on May 30 would have been $ 504.

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 81

(2) From May 1 to May 30, the increase in the balance in the checking account was 8
percent.
Solve yourself:

113. Guys net income equals his gross income minus his deductions. By what percent did
Guys net income change on January 1, 1989, when both his gross income and his deduc-
tions increased?
(1) Guys gross income increased by 4 percent on January 1, 1989.
(2) Guys deductions increased by 15 percent on January 1, 1989.
Solve yourself:

114. How many of the boys in a group of 100 children have brown hair?
(1) Of the children in the group, 60 percent have brown hair.
(2) Of the children in the group, 40 are boys.
Solve yourself:

115. If Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 were each 10 percent higher than their re-
spective annual salaries in 2004, what was Jacks annual salary in 2004?
(1) The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2004 was $80,000.
(2) The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 was $88,000.
Solve yourself:

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82 Arithmetic Guide Questions

116. If n > 0, is 20% of n greater than 10% of the sum of n and 0.5?

(1) n < 0.1


(2) n > 0.01

Solve yourself:

117. If p and r are positive, is 25 percent of p equal to 10 percent of r ?

(1) r is 300 percent greater than p.


(2) p is 80 percent less than (r + p).

Solve yourself:

118. If the Lincoln Librarys total expenditure for books, periodicals, and newspapers last year
was $35,000, how much of the expenditure was on books?

(1) The expenditures for newspapers were 40 percent greater than the expenditures for
periodicals.
(2) The total of the expenditures for periodicals and newspapers was 25 percent less
than the expenditures for books.

Solve yourself:

119. If the ratio of the incomes of A and B is a : b and the ratio of their expenditures is x : y,
then between A and B, who has a higher savings?

(1) a :b=4 :5
(2) x :y =5 :6

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 83

Solve yourself:

1
120. On Monday, a store had a sale on bottles of juice S and juice T. If the total number of
2
bottles of juice S in stock were sold on Monday, were more bottles of juice sold that day
were of juice S, as compared to juice T?

2
(1) of the total number of bottles of juice T in stock were sold on Monday.
3
(2) At the beginning of the sale, there were a total of 90 bottles of juice S and 60 bottles
of juice T in stock.

Solve yourself:

121. The ratio of the number of women to the number of men to the number of children in a
room is 5 : 2 : 7, respectively. What is the total number of people in the room?

(1) The total number of women and children in the room is a perfect square.
(2) There are fewer than 8 men in the room.

Solve yourself:

122. There were 2 apples and 5 bananas in a basket. After additional apples and bananas
were placed in the basket, the ratio of the number of apples to the number of bananas
1
was . How many apples were added?
2
2
(1) The number of apples added was the number of bananas added.
3
(2) A total of 5 apples and bananas were added.

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84 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

123. Was Lisas annual salary at least twice as much as Julies annual salary?

(1) Lisas annual salary was $20,000 more than Julies annual salary.
(2) Lisas annual salary was less than $40,000.

Solve yourself:

124. What is the number of female employees in Company X?

(1) If Company X were to hire 14 more people and all of these people were females, the
ratio of the number of male employees to the number of female employees would
then be 16 : 9.
(2) Company X has 105 more male employees than female employees.

Solve yourself:

125. When 200 gallons of oil were removed from a tank, the volume of oil left in the tank was
3
of the tanks capacity. What was the tanks capacity?
7

1
(1) Before the 200 gallons were removed, the volume of oil in the tank was of the
2
tanks capacity.
(2) After the 200 gallons were removed, the volume of oil left in the tank was 1,600
gallons less than the tanks capacity.

Solve yourself:

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Arithmetic Guide Questions 85

126. A and B sold articles such that the ratio of cost price of each article of A to that of B was
4 : 5. Did A sell more than twice the number of articles that B sold?

4
(1) Sales revenue of A was more than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined.
7
5
(2) Sales revenue of B was less than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined.
14

Solve yourself:

127. Among Japanese Yen, Australian Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar and Singapore Dollar, does the
Hong Kong Dollar have the minimum value among the other currencies when expressed
in terms of Indian Rupee?

(1) One Australian Dollar is equal to 93 Japanese Yen, 48 Indian Rupee, and 5.51 Hong
Kong Dollar.

(2) Value of Australian Dollar is equal to Singapore Dollar.

Solve yourself:

128. The salaries of A and B are in the ratio 3 : 4. If there is no other source of income for A
and B other than their salaries, what fraction of his salary does B save?

(1) The expenses of A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1.


1
(2) A saves of his salary.
3

Solve yourself:

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86 Arithmetic Guide Questions

129. Three friends A, B and C contributed a total of $255 for a get-together. What was the
ratio in which A, B and C contributed $255?

(1) Had each friend contributed $5 more, the ratio of their contributions would have
been 2 : 3 : 4 respectively.
(2) A contributed $55.

Solve yourself:

130. In an experiment, it was observed that the intensity of sound at a point varies inversely
with the square of the distance of the point from the source of the sound. What was the
initial distance of the point from the source of the sound?

(1) If the distance of the point from the source is increased by 5 meters, the intensity
1
falls to of its initial value.
4
(2) If the distance of the point from the source is reduced by 5 meters, the value of the
intensity increases by 100.

Solve yourself:

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Chapter 4

Answer-key

87
88 Arithmetic Guide Answer Key

4.1 Problem Solving

(1) D (22) C (43) B

(2) D (23) E (44) E

(3) E (24) C (45) A

(4) B (25) A (46) E

(5) D (26) D (47) D

(6) D (27) D (48) D

(7) D (28) C (49) A

(8) B (29) B (50) B

(9) D (30) A (51) A

(10) C (31) C (52) D

(11) A (32) A (53) B

(12) C (33) D (54) C

(13) E (34) D (55) B

(14) B (35) D (56) E

(15) C (36) C (57) D

(16) E (37) E (58) E

(17) D (38) B (59) E

(18) B (39) B (60) E

(19) D (40) E (61) C

(20) D (41) B (62) D

(21) D (42) A (63) D

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Arithmetic Guide Answer Key 89

4.2 Data Sufficiency

(64) D (87) C (110) E

(65) C (88) E (111) C


(66) E (89) E (112) C
(67) B (90) C
(113) E
(68) C (91) C
(114) E
(69) D (92) B
(115) E
(70) A (93) D
(116) A
(71) C (94) D
(117) D
(72) B (95) C

(73) C (96) C (118) B

(74) E (97) C (119) C

(75) C (98) B (120) C

(76) C (99) C (121) C


(77) C (100) A (122) D
(78) C (101) D
(123) C
(79) A (102) D
(124) C
(80) A (103) D
(125) D
(81) E (104) B
(126) B
(82) C (105) D
(127) C
(83) C (106) C

(84) A (107) C (128) C

(85) B (108) C (129) A

(86) C (109) E (130) A

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90 Arithmetic Guide Answer Key

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Chapter 5

Solutions

91
92 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

5.1 Problem Solving

1. Let the number of articles be x.

Total selling price if sold at $8 apiece = $8x

Since his loss is $250, total cost price = $ (8x + 250)

Total selling price if sold at $9 apiece = $9x

Since his loss is $125, total cost price = $ (9x 125)

Thus, we have:

8x + 250 = 9x 125

=> x = 375

The correct answer is option D.

2. Let the cost price be $x

Percent profit = x%

Thus, selling price

= $ (x + x% of x)
x
  
=$ x 1+
100
Thus, we have:
x
 
x 1+ = 56
100
=> x (100 + x) = 5600

=> x 2 + 100x 5600 = 0

=> x 2 + 140x 40x 5600 = 0

=> (x + 140) (x 40) = 0

=> x = 140 OR 40

The correct answer is option D.

Since x must be positive, we have: x = 40

The correct answer is option D.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 93

3. Let the number of marbles with Joe be 100.

Since the number of marbles with Ann is 20% greater than that with Joe, we have:

The number of marbles with Ann = 100 + 20% of 100 = 120

Let the number of marbles with Bob be x.

Since the number of marbles with Ann is 40% less than that with Bob, we have:
40
 
The number of marbles with Ann = x 40% of x = x 1 = 0.6x
100
Thus, we have:

0.6x = 120

=> x = 200

Thus, the number of marbles with Bob = 200

Thus, the required percent


Number of marbles of Bob 200
= = 100 = 200%
Number of marbles of Joe 100
The correct answer is option E.

Alternate approach:

Let the number of marbles with Joe = x

Thus, the number of marbles with Ann = 1.2x

Thus: 1.2x = 60% of the marbles with Bob


1.2x
=> The number of marbles with Bob = = 2x
0.6
Thus, the required percent
Number of marbles of Bob 2x
= = 100 = 200%
Number of marbles of Joe x

4. Since the ratio of incomes of Ann and Bob is 4 : 7, let the incomes of Ann and Bob be

$4x and $7x, respectively.

Since the ratio of expenses of Ann and Bob is 2 : 3, let the expenses of Ann and Bob be

$2y and $3y respectively.


 
Thus, savings of Ann and Bob are $ 4x 2y and $ 7x 3y , respectively.

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94 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

1
Since Ann saves of her income, we have:
3
1
4x 2y = (4x) => 12x 6y = 4x
3
=> 8x = 6y => 4x = 3y

Thus, savings of Bob = $ 7x 3y = $ (7x 4x) = $3x

Thus, the required fraction


0
Bob s savings 3x 3
= 0 = =
Bob s income 7x 7
The correct answer is option B.

5. Since the height (h) of a person is proportional to the square root of his age (a) up to

the age of 25 years, we have:



h a => h = k a, where k is a constant

We have: h = 4, a = 16

=> 4 = k 16 => k = 1

Thus, the height of a 25-year old person



= k 25 = 5 feet

Since the increase height (h) of a person above 25 years is directly proportional to the

age (a) in excess of 25 years till a maximum age of 50 years, we have:

(h 5) (a 25)

=> h 5 = m (a 25), where m is a constant

We have: a = 50, h = 6

=> 6 5 = m (50 25) = 25m


1
=> m =
25
Thus, if the height of a 45-year old person be x feet, we have:

x 5 = m (45 25)
20
=> x = 5 + = 5.8
25
The correct answer is option D.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 95

6. Let the time of travel be t.

Let the distance D = a + b, where a t and b t 2

=> D = kt + mt 2 , where k and m are constants

Since the car travels 50 miles in the first hour, we have: t = 1, D = 50

=> 50 = k + m . . . (i)

Since the car travels 110 miles in the second hour, it has covered 50 + 110 = 160 miles

in 2 hours, thus, we have: t = 2, D = 160

=> 160 = 2k + 4m

=> 80 = k + 2m . . . (ii)

Subtracting (i) from (ii): m = 30

Thus, from (i): k = 20

Thus, we have: D = 20t + 30t 2 . . . (iii)

Since the time is 6 hours, we have:

D = 20 6 + 30 62 = 120 + 1080 = 1200

Thus, average speed, in miles per hour


Total distance 1200
= = = 200
Total time 6
The correct answer is option D.

7. Since the ratio of illiterate males to illiterate females in a village is 5 : 4, let the number

of illiterate males and illiterate females be 5x and 4x.

Thus, the total illiterate population = 4x + 5x = 9x

Since 60% of the illiterate males enroll for a literacy campaign, number of illiterate males
60
who, number of illiterate males who enroll = 5x = 3x
100
We need to maximize the proportion of people who enroll for the literacy campaign,

thus, we assume that all illiterate women enroll for the campaign.

Thus, total number of people who enroll = 3x + 4x = 7x.

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96 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

7x 7
Thus, required proportion = =
9x 9
The correct answer is option D.

8. We have:

bc : ca : ab = 2 : 3 : 4

=> bc = 2x, ca = 3x, ab = 4x, where x is a constant

We need to determine the value of


a b a b
: = :
bc ac b a
a2
=
b2
Multiplying the above three equations:

a2 b2 c 2 = 24x 3

=> abc = 2x 6x

abc 2x 6x
=> a = = = 6x
bc 2x


abc 2x 6x 2 6x
b= = =
ac 3x 3
Thus, we have:
a b a2
: = 2
bc ac b

6x 9
= =
4 4
6x
9

Alternate approach:

bc : ca = 2 : 3 => b : a = 2 : 3 => a : b = 3 : 2

Thus, we have:
 2  2
a b a2 a 3 9
: = 2 = = =
bc ac b b 2 4
The correct answer is option B.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 97

9. Let the original estimate of the number of days = x days.

Let each soldier consume 1 unit of food per day.

Thus, the total food supply for 100 soldiers = 100 x 1 = 100x units.

In 13 days, food consumed = 100 13 1 = 1300 units.

Quantity of food left = (100x 1300) units.

Number of soldiers after the first 13 days = 100 + 100 = 200

Number of days the food lasts = 12 days.

Thus, quantity of food consumed in last 12 days = 200 12 1 = 2400 units.

Thus, we have:

100x 1300 = 2400

=> x = 37

Alternate approach:

We know that, for 200 soldiers, the remaining food lasts for 12 days.

Thus, if there were only 100 soldiers, i.e. no new soldiers joined, the food would have

lasted for 12 2 = 24 days.

However, the food had already been consumed for 13 days initially.

Thus, the initial estimate = 13 + 24 = 37 days.

The correct answer is option D.

10. Let the time taken by the third pipe to empty the full cistern be x minutes.
1
Thus, the third pipe can empty part of the cistern in one minute.
x
The first two pipes can fill the cistern in 20 minutes and 30 minutes.
1 1
Thus, in 1 minute, the filling pipes can fill and part of the cistern, respectively.
20 30
Thus, with all three pipes working together, part of the cistern filled in 1 minute =
1 1 1
+
20 30 x
Since the cistern is half filled in 8 minutes, it would be filled in 2 8 = 16 minutes.

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98 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

1
Thus, of the part of the cistern is filled in 1 minute.
16
Thus, we have:
1 1 1 1
+ =
20 30 x 16
1 1 1 1 1
=> = + =
x 20 30 16 48
=> x = 48

Alternate approach:

The filling pipes can fill the cistern in 20 minutes and 30 minutes.

Since the cistern is half filled in 8 minutes, it would be filled in 2 8 = 16 minutes.


16 16
Thus, the fractions of the cistern they fill in 16 minutes are and part, respectively.
20 30
16 16 16 4
Thus, fraction of the cistern filled = + = =
20 30 12 3
4
> 1 implies that the cistern in filled in excess of its capacity.
3
4 1
Thus, fraction of the cistern emptied by the third pipe = 1 =
3 3
1
Thus, the emptying pipe empties of the cistern in 16 minutes.
3
Thus, it can empty the entire cistern in 3 16 = 48 minutes.

The correct answer is option C.

11. Let the work lasts for x days.

Thus, Ann works for x days, Bob works for (x 2) days and Dan works for (x 7) days.

Since Ann completes a piece of work in 24 days, Bob in 40 days and Dan in 60 days,
1 1 1
fractions of the work completed by them in 1 day are , and , respectively.
24 40 60
Thus, total work completed by Ann in x days, Bob in (x 2) days and Dan in (x 7)

days
x x2 x7 5x + 3 (x 2) + 2 (x 7)
= + + =
24 40 60 120

10x 20
=
120

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 99

x2
=
12
Since the work is completed, we have:
x2
=1
12
=> x = 14

The correct answer is option A.

Alternate approach:

We can say that at the end, Ann worked for 2 days alone, where he completed
2 1
= = of the work
24 12
Before that, Ann and Bob worked for 5 days, in which they completed
1 1 1
 
=5 + = of the work
24 40 3
1 1 7
 
Thus, work left = 1 + =
12 3 12
This was completed by all three working together.
1 1 1 1
 
Since all three together complete + + = of the work in 1 day.
24 40 60 12

7
 

12
Thus, time required =   = 7 days.
1
12

Thus, total time taken = 7 days + 5 days + 2 days = 14 days.

12. Distance to be covered = 9 miles.

Speed of each brother = 3 miles per hour.


9
Thus, time taken by B to reach the station = = 3 hours.
3
1
Time taken by A to cover 1 mile = hour.
3
1
Since A decides to return home, spend 30 minutes ( an hour) there and again travel to
2
1 8
the station, reaching at the same time as B, he needs to complete the above in 3 =
3 3
hours.

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100 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

8 1 13
Thus, time needed to return home and travel to the station = = hours.
3 2 6
Total distance he needs to cover = 1 mile (return) + 9 miles (forward) = 10 miles.

10 60 8
Thus, his speed =  = =4 miles per hour.
13 13 13
6

The correct answer is option C.

13. Since p + r = 2s, we can say that s is the average of p and r .

Thus, if p, r , s are arranged in order, the order would be either p, s, r or r , s, p.

Similarly, since q + s = 2r , we can say that r is the average of q and s.

Thus, if q, s, r are arranged in order, the order would be either q, r , s or s, r , q.

Thus, combining the above two results, we can have the following two orders:

p, s, r , q

OR

q, r , s, p

Since p and q are the numbers in the extreme positions, neither of them can be the

average of the four numbers.

Again, since s is the mean of p and r , s is equidistant from p and r .

Similarly, r is equidistant from q and s.

Thus, when arranged in order, the gap between any two consecutive numbers must be

the same.

Since the four numbers are distinct, we can thus say that the average of the four numbers

would be a number between r and s.

Hence, the average of the four numbers cannot be r or s.

Hence, all the three statements are correct.

The correct answer is option E.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 101

14. Let the manufacturing cost be $100

Thus, the sales price of the manufacturer = (100 + 5% of 100 + 20% of 100) = $125

Thus, the cost price of the retailer = $125

Marked price set by the retailer = $ (125 + 20% of 125) = $150

Discount offered by the retailer for cash payment = $ (6% of 150) = $9

Thus, sales price for cash payment = $ (150 9) = $141

Thus, if the final sales price is $141, the manufacturing cost is $100

Thus, if the final sales price is $705, the manufacturing cost

100
 
=$ 705
141
705
 
= $ 100
141
= $500

The correct answer is option B.

15. Total number of boxes of oranges = 100

Purchase price of each box of orange = $8.

Selling price of each box to company A = $4.

Thus, loss incurred on each box = $ (8 4) = $4.

Number of boxes sold to company A = 8.

Thus, total loss incurred by selling to company A = $ (4 8) = $32.


Overall profit made = $336.

Thus, profit made by selling to company B = $ (336 (32)) = $368.

Number of boxes sold to company B = 100 8 = 92.

368
 
Thus, profit made per box = $ = $4.
92

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102 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, selling price of each box to company B = Cost price per box + Profit made per
box= $(8 + 4)

= $12

The correct answer is option C.

16. We know that, during the first week of September, 10 pairs of oxfords were sold at
$35.00 a pair.

Thus, total revenue in the first week of September


= $ (35 10)

= $350.00

We know that, during the second week of September, 15 pairs were sold at $27.50 a pair.

Thus, total revenue in the second week of September


= $ (27.50 15)

= $412.50

Thus, the required percent

(Revenue in second week) (Revenue in first week)


= 100%
(Revenue in first week)
412.50 350
= 100%
350

62.50
= 100%
350

62.50 2
= 100%
350 2

125
= 100%
700

125
= %
7

= 17.85 = 18%

The correct answer is option E.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 103

17. Total expenses = $18000

1
 
Fuel and maintenance costs = $ 18000 = $6000.
3
3
 
Depreciation = $ (18000 6000) = $7200.
5
1
 
Total cost of insurance and financing = $ 18000 = $3600.
5

Since cost of insurance was 3 times the cost of financing, we have:

1
 
Cost of financing = $ 3600 = $900.
3+1

Total cost accounted for = $ (6000 + 7200 + 3600) = $16800.

Thus, cost of taxes and license fees = $ (18000 16800) = $1200.

Thus, the amount by which the cost of financing is less than the cost of taxes and license
fees

= $ (1200 900) = $300.

The correct answer is option D.

18. Since the problem asks us to find a percent value, we can assume any suitable initial
value of the quantities of A, B and C used as well as their price (since the final answer is
independent of the initial values assumed).

We know that the quantity of A, B and C used is 1 : 2 : 4

Let the quantities of A, B and C used be 1 ton, 2 tons and 4 tons, respectively.

We know that the cost per ton of A, B and C is in the ratio 3 : 4 : 6

Let the cost per ton of A, B and C be $30, $40 and $60, respectively.

Thus, total cost of the product

= $ (1 30 + 2 40 + 4 60)

= $350

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104 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Since the product is sold at 20% profit, the selling price of the product

= $ ((100 + 20) % of 350) = $420

Due to rising inflation, the costs of A and B and C increase by 30 percent, 40 percent
and 10 percent, respectively.

Thus, new cost per ton of A

= $ ((100 + 30) % of 30) = $39

New cost per ton of B

= $ ((100 + 40) % of 40) = $56

New cost per ton of C

= $ ((100 + 10) % of 60) = $66

Since the quantities of A, B and C used are the same, new total cost of the product

= $(1 39 + 2 56 + 4 66)

= $415

Since the product is still sold at 20% profit, the selling price of the product

= $ ((100 + 20) % of 415)

= $498

Thus, the percent increase in the selling price


 
New selling price Old selling price
=  100%
Old selling price
498 420 78
= 100% = 100%
420 420
13
= 100% = 18.57% = 19%
70

Alternately, we can reason that, since the percent profit is the same in both situations,
the percent difference in the selling price is the same as the percent difference in the

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 105

cost price.

Thus, the required answer

350 415
= 100% = 18.57% = 19%
350

The correct answer is option B.

19. Since the problem asks for a percent value, we can assume a convenient value of the
number of enrollments in 1990 since the final answer does not depend on the initial
value assumed.

1 83.33 5
We know that the enrollment in 1980 was 83 percent = of the enrollment
3 100 6
in 1990.

Thus, we take the number of enrollments in 1990 as a multiple of 6, say 60.

5 1 83.33 5
Thus, the number of enrollments in 1980 = 60 = 50; (83 percent = )
6 3 100 6
20
Number of dropouts in 1980 = 20% of 50 = 50 = 10.
100
25
Number of dropouts in 1990 = 25% of 60 = 60 = 15.
100

Thus, the percent increase in the number of dropouts


!
Dropouts in 1990 Dropouts in 1990
=
Dropouts in 1990
15 10
= 100
10

= 50%

The correct answer is option D.

20. Since we need to buy the greatest number of envelopes, we need to purchase at the
cheapest price.

1.50
Envelopes at $1.50 per 100 Each envelope is priced at $ = $0.015 (lowest).
100
1.00
Envelopes at $1.00 per 100 Each envelope is priced at $ = $0.02 (second lowest).
50

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106 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, we must purchase envelopes at $1.50 per 100 (lowest rate).

Number of such lots that can be purchased without exceeding $7.30


7.30
= = 4.86 4 . . . (i)
1.50

Thus, amount spent on 4 such lots (= 4 100 = 400 envelopes)

= $ (1.50 4) = $6.00

Amount left = $ (7.30 6.00) = $1.30

Now, we must purchase envelopes at $1.00 per 50 (second lowest rate).

Number of such lots that can be purchased without exceeding $1.30

1.30
= = 1.3 1 . . . (ii)
1

Thus, amount spent on 1 such lot (= 1 50 = 50 envelopes)

= $ (1.00 1) = $1.00

Amount left = $ (1.30 1.00) = $0.30

Now, we must purchase envelopes at $0.03 each.

Number of such envelopes that can be purchased for $0.30

0.30
= = 10 . . . (iii)
0.03

Thus, from (i), (ii) and (iii), we have:

Total number of envelopes

= 4 lots of 100 envelopes + 1 lot of 50 envelopes + 10 envelopes

= 400 + 50 + 10

= 460

The correct answer is option D.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 107

21. Since there were no ties, no two members obtained the same number of points in the race.

Also, we need to find the least possible score of a team.

Thus, the other two teams must have the highest possible scores.

The available scores are:

First position: 6 1 = 5 points


Second position: 6 2 = 4 points
Third position: 6 3 = 3 points
Fourth position: 6 4 = 2 points
Fifth position: 6 5 = 1 point

Since no team scored more than 6 points, we should try to give two of the teams 6
points each so that the third team gets the least number of points.

Thus, we have:

Team 1: 5 + 1 + 0 = 6 points
Team 2: 4 + 2 + 0 = 6 points

Thus, we have: Team 3: 3 + 0 + 0 = 3 points.

The correct answer is option D.

22. Number of seeds that germinated in the first plot


= 25% of 300
25
= 300
100
= 75

Number of seeds that germinated in the second plot


= 35% of 200
35
= 200
100
= 70

Thus, total seeds that germinated = 75 + 70 = 145.

Thus, percent of total seeds that germinated

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108 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

145
= 100
200 + 300

= 29%

The correct answer is option C.

Alternate approach:

Since the two plots have 25% and 35% rate of germination, the overall percent value
must lie between 25% and 35%.

Thus, only options B, C or D are possible.

Option B:

26% is very close to 25%, implying that the number of seeds with 25% germination rate
is much higher than that of the other variety, which is not true according to the data.

Hence, this is not possible.

Option D:

30% is midway between 25% and 35%, implying that the number of seeds with 25%
germination rate is the same as that of the other variety, which is not true according to
the data.

Hence, this is not possible.

Hence, option C is the only possible option.

23. We have:

1 1 1 1 1
k# =
1 2 3 k1 k

1 1
=> k# = =
1 2 3 k k!

Thus, we have:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 109

1
5# 5! 1 4! 4!
= = =
4# 1 5! 1 5!
4!
4!
=
5 4!
1
=
5

The correct answer is option E.

24. Since the question asks us to find a percent value, we may assume any suitable value of
the income from tips since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Income from wages was 166.67 percent of the income from tips

Income from wages was (100 + 66.67)% of the income from tips

Income from wages 100 + 66.67 2 5


=> = = 1+ =
Income from tips 100 3 3

Let the income from tips be $3

Thus, the income from wages = $5

Thus, total income = $8

3
Thus, required percent = 100
8

= 37.5% = 38%

The correct answer is option C.

25. Since the question asks us to find a percent value, we may assume any suitable value
of the number of cans collected by John since the initial value does not affect the final
answer.

2 3
Number of cans collected by John = of that of Karen = of that of Luke.
3 4

Let the number of cans collected by John


= LCM of 2 and 3 (the numerators of the fractions) = 6

3
Thus, the number of cans collected by Karen = 6=9
2

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110 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

4
The number of cans collected by Luke = 6=8
3

Thus, total number of cans = 6 + 9 + 8 = 23

8
Thus, the required percent = 100%
23
8
= 100%
24
100
= %
3

= 33%

The actual answer should be slightly larger than 33% and hence, the only possible
answer is 35%.

The correct answer is option A.

26. Let the total number of copies of Newspapers A and B = t.

pt
Number of copies of Newspaper A sold = p% of t =
100

Revenue from Newspaper A

pt
  
=$ 1
100
pt
 
=$
100

Number of copies of Newspaper B sold

pt
 
= t
100
p
 
=t 1
100

Revenue from Newspaper B

p
  
= $ 1.25 t 1
100
1.25p
  
= $ t 1.25
100

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 111

Thus, total revenue

pt 1.25p
  
=$ + t 1.25
100 100
p 1.25p
  
=$ t + 1.25
100 100

Thus, we have:

pt p 1.25p
    
= r % of
t + 1.25
100 100 100
pt r p 1.25p
 
=> = t + 1.25
100 100 100 100
p 5 p
 
=> r + =p
100 4 80

4p + 500 5p
=> r =p
400

500 p
=> r =p
400
400p
=> r =
500 p

The correct answer is option D.

27. Let the price per share and earnings per share be $p and $e respectively.

Thus, the initial ratio of price per share to earnings per share

p
=
e

New price per share


= $ (100 + k) % of p

p (100 + k)
 
=$
100

New earnings per share

= $ ((100 + m) % of e)

e (100 + m)
 
=$
100

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112 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, the final ratio of price per share to earnings per share

p (100 + k)
 

100
=
e (100 + m)


100
p (100 + k)
=
e(100 + m)

Thus, the percent change in the ratio

Final ratio Initial ratio


= 100
Initial ratio

p (100 + k) p

e (100 + m) e

= p 100%

e
(100 + k)
 
= 1 100
(100 + m)
100 (k m)
= %
100 + m

The correct answer is option D.

Alternate Approach:

Say p = 100 & e = 100

p 100
Thus, the current ratio = = =1
q 100

Say k = 20% & e = 10%

p0 120
Thus, the new ratio = 0
= = 1.0909
q 110
1.0909 1
Thus, the percent change in the ratio = 100% = 9.09%
1

By plugging in the values of k = 20% & m = 10%, we find that only option D matches it.

100 (k m) 100 (20 10) 100 10


Option D: = %= %= = 9.09%
100 + m 100 + 10 110

28. Tax rate for 12 months (1 year) = 4%

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 113

Thus, tax rate applicable for 8 months

4
 
= 8 %
12
8
= %
3

Thus, we have:

8
% of his Income = $1800
3

100
=> Income = $
1800  8 

3
3
 
= $ 1800 100
8

= $67, 500

The correct answer is option C.

29. For the first property, we have:

Selling price is (100 + 20) % of the cost price

=> Selling price = 120% of the cost price

=> 120% of the cost price = $30,000

(30000 100)
=> Cost price= $ = $25000
120

For the second property, we have:

Selling price is (100 20) % of the cost price

=> Selling price = 80% of the cost price

=> 80% of the cost price = $30,000

(30000 100)
=> Cost price= $ = $37500
80

Thus, total selling price = $(30000 2) = $60000

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114 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Total cost price = $(25000 + 37500) = $62500

Thus, there is a loss of $(62500-60000) = $2500

The correct answer is option B.

30. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since
the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Thus, let the total number of people be 100.

Number of people who said that they would vote for R = 60% of 100 = 60.

Number of people who did not say that they would vote for R = 100 60 = 40.

Since among those who said they would vote for R, 90% actually voted for R, number of
such people who actually voted for R = 90% of 60

90
= 60
100

= 54

Since among those who did not say they would vote for R, 5% actually voted for R,
number of such people who actually voted for R = 5% of 40

5
= 40
100

=2

Thus, total number of people who voted for R = 54 + 2 = 56

56
Thus, the percent of people who voted for R = 100
100

= 56%

The correct answer is option A.

31. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since
the initial value does not affect the final answer.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 115

Let us assume that the quantity of ore mined daily as 1000 tons. (Note: We use 1000
instead of 2500 to make the calculations easier)

Thus, quantity of pure metal present in the ore = 0.5% of 1000

0.5
= 1000
100

= 5 tons

Metal lost during extraction = 20% of 5

20
= 5
100

= 1 ton

Thus, quantity of metal successfully extracted daily = 5 1 = 4 tons.

Thus, number of days required so that the pure metal extracted at the quarry be equal
to the daily amount of ore mined

1000
=
4

= 250 days.

The correct answer is option C.

32. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since
the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Thus, let the total number of families in 1994 be 100.

Thus, the number of families in 1998


= (100 + 4) % of 100
= 104

Number of families owning a personal computer in 1994


= 40% of 100
= 40

Number of families owning a personal computer in 1998


= (100 + 30) % of 40

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116 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

130
= 40
100

= 52

Thus, percent of families owning a personal computer in 1998


52
= 100
104

= 50%

The correct answer is option A.

33. Since the problem asks us a percent value, we may choose a suitable value for the ease
of calculation since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Let the weight of fruit that arrives at the cannery be 100.

Weight of fruit rejected before processing


= 20% of 100
= 20

Weight of fruit which is processed


= 100 20
= 80

Weight of fruit rejected before canning


= 15% of 80

15
= 80
100
= 12

Weight of fruit canned


= 80 12
= 68

Thus, the required percent

Weight of fruit that arrives at the cannery


= 100
Weight of fruit that is canned

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 117

100
= 100%
68
50
= 50%
17
51
= 50%
17

= 3 50%

= 150%

The actual answer would be slightly less than 150% since we increased 50 to 51 for ease
of calculation.

The correct answer is option D.

3
34. We know that of the geese that survived the first month did not survive the first year
5
3 2
 
=> 1 = of the geese that survived the first month, survived the first year
5 5
2
=> (The number of geese that survived the first month) = 120
5
5
=> Number of geese that survived the first month = 120 = 300
2
3
We know that of the geese that hatched from the eggs survived the first month
4
3
=> (Number of geese that hatched from the eggs) = 300
4
4
=> Number of geese that hatched from the eggs = 300 = 400
3
2
We know that of the goose eggs laid actually hatched
3
2
=> (Number of eggs laid) = 400
3
3
=> Number of eggs laid = 400 = 600
2

The correct answer is option D.

35. Since the problem asks for a percent value, we may select a suitable value for the ease
of calculation since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

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118 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Let the total amount spent, including taxes = $100

Amount spent on clothing, including taxes = 55% of $100 = $55

The tax on clothing was 10% of her actual spending on clothing.

Thus, the amount spent on clothing, including taxes


= (100 + 10) % of the amount spent, excluding taxes

Thus, the amount she spent on clothing, excluding taxes


55
 
=$ 100
110
= $50

Amount spent on food, including taxes = 23% of $100 = $23

The tax on food was 15% of her actual spending on food.

Thus, the amount spent on food, including taxes


= (100 + 15) % of the amount spent, excluding taxes

Thus, the amount she spent on food, excluding taxes


23
 
=$ 100
115
= $20

Amount spent on travel = 22% of $100 = $22

There was no tax on the amount spent on travel.

Thus, the amount she spent, excluding taxes


= $ (50 + 20 + 22)
= $92

Thus, the total tax paid


= $ (100 92)
= $8

Thus, the total tax paid, as a percent of the total amount spent, excluding taxes
8
= 100%
92

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 119

The above is clearly, a little less than 10%, since 10% of 92 = 9.2, i.e. a little more than 8.

Thus, the correct answer should be a little less than 10%

The correct answer is option D.

36. We know that 60% of the Passengers with round-trip tickets did not take their cars
aboard the ship

=> (100 60) = 40% of the Passengers with round-trip tickets took their cars aboard
the ship.

We also know that 20% of the Total passengers held round-trip tickets and also took
their cars aboard the ship.

=> 40% of Passengers with round-trip tickets = 20% of Total passengers

20 1
=> Passengers with round-trip tickets = = of Total passengers
40 2
1
=> Percent of the ships passengers who held round-trip tickets = 100 = 50%
2

The correct answer is option C.

37. We know that 1 gram of the health food contains 7% of the minimum daily requirement
of vitamin E and 3% of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

Let x grams of the health food are used so that at least the minimum daily requirement
of both vitamins is provided for.

Thus, x grams of the health food contain (7x)% of the minimum daily requirement of
vitamin E and (3x)% of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

Thus, we have:

7x 100 AND 3x 100

100 100
=> x AND x
7 3

Thus, the values of x satisfying the above inequalities are:


100
x = 33.3
3

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Thus, the minimum value of x = 33.3 = 34 (since we need to satisfy the minimum
requirement, we should NOT round off to the lower value).

The correct answer is option E.

38. Salary increase according to the contract = 6% increase on initial salary and $450 bonus.

Effective salary increase for the employee = 8% increase on initial salary.

Thus, we have:

(6% increase on Initial salary) + ($450) = (8% increase on Initial salary)

=> (8% increase on Initial salary) (6% increase on Initial salary) = $450

=> 2% of Initial salary = $450

100
 
=> Initial salary = $ 450 = $22500.
2

The correct answer is option B.

39. The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 25 percent less than the charge for a single
room at Hotel R
1 3
 
=> The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single
4 4
room at Hotel R

The charge for a single room at Hotel P 3


=> = . . . (i)
The charge for a single room at Hotel R 4

The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 10 percent less than the charge for a single
room at Hotel G
1 9
 
=> The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single
10 10
room at Hotel G

The charge for a single room at Hotel P 9


=> = . . . (ii)
The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10

From (i) and (ii), we see that the charge of a single room at Hotel P is once 3 and once 9.

Thus, we take the charge of a single room at Hotel P to be the LCM of 3 and 9 = 9

Thus, we have:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 121

The charge for a single room at Hotel P 3 9


= =
The charge for a single room at Hotel R 4 12

The charge for a single room at Hotel P 9


=
The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10

Thus, we have:

The charge for a single room at Hotel P = 9


The charge for a single room at Hotel R = 12
The charge for a single room at Hotel G = 10

Thus, the required percent

Charge for a room at Hotel R Charge for a room at Hotel G


= 100%
Charge for a room at Hotel G
12 10
= 100
10

= 20%

The correct answer is option B.

Alternate approach:

We know that:

1 3
 
The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single
4 4
room at Hotel R
1 9
 
The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single
10 10
room at Hotel G

Thus, we have:

3 9
of the charge for a single room at Hotel R = of the charge for a single room at
4 10
Hotel G

The charge for a single room at Hotel R 9 4 6


=> = =
The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10 3 5

Thus, the required percent

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Charge for a room at Hotel R Charge for a room at Hotel G


= 100%
Charge for a room at Hotel G
65
= 100%
5

= 20%

40. C = 0.03 r s t 2

New value of r after a 50% increase

50
 
r0=r 1+
100
3r
=> r 0 =
2

New value of r after a 20% increase

20
 
s0 = s 1 +
100
6s
=> s 0 =
5

New value of t after a 30% decrease

30
 
t0 = t 1
100
7t
=> t 0 =
10

Thus, the new value of C

2
C 0 = 0.03 r 0 s 0 (t 0 )

 2
3r 6s 7t
= 0.03
2 5 10
3 6 49
 
2
= 0.03 r s t
2 5 100
18 49
=C
10 100
18 50
C
10 100
18
=C
10 2

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 123

= 0.9C

10
 
=> C 0 = C 1
100

=> The value of C has decreased by 10%

(Note: The actual value of C 0 will be slightly lesser than 0.9C since 49 had been approxi-
mated to 50. Thus, the required percent decrease will be larger than 10% in magnitude)
The correct answer is option E.

41. Let the manufacturers cost price be $x.

Thus, cost price of the retailer = selling price of the manufacturer


= (100 + 20) % of $x

120
 
=$ x
100
6x
 
=$
5

Thus, cost price of the shopkeeper = selling price of the retailer


6x
 
= (100 20) % of $
5
80 6x
 
=$
100 5
24x
 
=$
25

Thus, cost price of the customer = selling price of the retailer


24x
 
= (100 + 20) % of $
25
120 24x
 
=$
100 25
144x
 
=$
125

Thus, we have:

144x
= 288
125
125
=> x = 288 = 250
144

The correct answer is option B.

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42. Cost price of the bowl = $60.

Let the selling price of the bowl be $x.

Thus, we have:

x = 60 + 25% of x

x
=> x = 60 +
4
3x
=> = 60
4

=> x = 80

The correct answer is option A.

43. Since the question asks us to find a fraction value, we may assume any suitable value of
the number of males and females since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

4
Since of the males graduated without honors, let us assume the number of males to
5
be 5.

Since there are equal numbers of males and females, the number of females = 5.

4
Thus, number of males who graduated without honors = 5 = 4.
5
4 1
Fraction of males who graduated with honors = 1 =
5 5
1 3
Thus, the fraction of females who graduated with honors = 3 =
5 5
3 2
Thus, the fraction of females who graduated without honors = 1 =
5 5
2
Thus, the number of females who graduated without honors = 5 = 2.
5

Thus, the fraction of all the students in the graduating class who were females who
graduated without honors

Number of female students graduated without honors


=
Total number of students
2 1
= =
5+5 5

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 125

The correct answer is option B.

44. Since the problem asks us a percent value, we can choose a suitable initial value for the
ease of calculations, since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

3 2 3
Since the ratios used are , , & , we choose a value of the total students, which is
4 3 5
divisible by 4, 3 and 5, say 60.

Thus, let the total number of students = 60

3
Number of students having glasses = 60 = 45
4

Number of students not having glasses = 60 45 = 15

3
Number of girls = 60 = 36
5
2
Number of girls having glasses = 36 = 24
3

Number of girls not having glasses = 36 24 = 12

Thus, the percent of the students not having glasses, who were girls

Number of girks not having glasses


= 100
Number of students not having glasses
12
= 100%
15

= 80%

The correct answer is option E.

45. Let the number of students in the school = x.

x
 
Thus, number of students taking a science course = 40 + .
3
1 x
 
Thus, the number of students taking physics = 40 + .
4 3
1
Since of the students are taking physics, we have:
8
1 x x
 
40 + =
4 3 8

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x x
=> 40 + =
3 2
x x
=> = 40
2 3
x
=> = 40
6

=> x = 240

The correct answer is option A.

46. Since 3 sandwiches were equally distributed among each of the m students, portion of
3
sandwiches each student received =
m

Since the last sandwich was equally distributed among each of the (m 4) students,
1
portion of sandwiches each of the (m 4) students received =
m4

Since carol had one piece from each of the four sandwiches, portion of all the sandwiches
she had

3 1
= +
m m4
3 (m 4) + m
=
m (m 4)
4m 12
=
m (m 4)

The correct answer is option E.

47. The ratio of the time durations = 2 : 3 : 5 : 6

If the first person worked for 30 hours:

The modified ratio would be

= 2 15 : 3 15 : 5 15 : 6 15

= 30 : 45 : 75 : 90

Thus, total time = 30 + 45 + 75 + 90 = 240 hours Option E is possible

If the second person worked for 30 hours:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 127

The modified ratio would be

= 2 10 : 3 10 : 5 10 : 6 10

= 20 : 30 : 50 : 60

Thus, total time = 20 + 30 + 50 + 60 = 160 hours Option C is possible

If the third person worked for 30 hours:

The modified ratio would be

=26:36:56:66

= 12 : 18 : 30 : 36

Thus, total time = 12 + 18 + 30 + 36 = 96 hours Option B is possible

If the fourth person worked for 30 hours:

The modified ratio would be

=25:35:55:65

= 10 : 15 : 25 : 30

Thus, total time = 10 + 15 + 25 + 30 = 80 hours Option A is possible

Thus option D is not possible.

The correct answer is option D.

p
48. x = 810, 000

p
= 92 104

= 9 102

= 900

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Thus, there are 3 digits in x, each requiring 4 bits of memory and the negative sign
requiring 1 bit of memory.

Thus, total number of bits required

= (3 4) + 1 = 13

The correct answer is option D.

49. Total charge for Marion = $ (18 + 0.1d)

Total charge for Craig = $ (25 + 0.05d)

Thus, we have:

18 + 0.1d = 25 + 0.05d

=> 0.05d = 7

7 700
=> d = = = 140
0.05 5

Thus, the charge each had to pay

= $(18 + 0.1d)

= $(18 + 0.1 140)

= $32

The correct answer is option A.

50. Distance covered using 1 gallon gasoline = 22.5 miles

=> Distance covered using 3.8 liters gasoline = (22.5 1.6) kilometers

=> Distance (in kilometers) covered using 1 liter gasoline

22.5 1.6
=
3.8
22.5 1.6
=
4

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 129

1.6
= 22.5
4

= 22.5 0.4

=9

Since the denominator 3.8 was increased to 4 for ease of calculation, the actual answer
will be slightly greater than 9.
The correct answer is option B.

51. The atlas is the 30th book from the left and 33rd book from the right.

Number of books to the left of the atlas = 29.

Number of books to the right of the atlas = 32.

Thus, total number of books including the atlas = 29 + 32 + 1 = 62.

Total number of books removed = 2 + 4 = 6.

Thus, number of books left

= 62 6

= 56

The correct answer is option A.

52. We can see that in every set of 3 houses, one house is painted green.

We know that n is one greater than a multiple of 3


=> n = 3k + 1, where k is a positive integer

Thus, the number of groups of 3 houses that can be formed


n1
=
3

Each of the above groups has one house painted green.

The last house left over, would have been the first house of the next group of 3 houses,
hence would be painted white.

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130 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

n1
Thus, the number of houses painted green =
3

Alternate approach:

Let us take a suitable value of n, which is one greater than a multiple of 3, say n = 4.

Thus, the houses would be painted: White, Green, Yellow, White.

Thus, there is only one house painted green.

We substitute n = 4 in each option and determine the option which gives 1 as the result.

n1 41
Option D: Number of houses painted green = = =1
3 3

The correct answer is option D.

7
53. Radius of the circular pond on the map = inch
16

We know that a distance of 1 inch on the photograph corresponds to an actual distance


of 2 miles.

7 7
Thus, actual radius of the pond = 2 = miles
16 8

Thus, actual surface area of the pond

 2
7
=
8
22 7 7
=
7 8 8
77
=
32
75
= = 2.5
30

The closest option is B = 2.4.

The correct answer is option B.

54. Value of the insurance settlement = $2300

Difference between cost of the car and the insurance settlement

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 131

= $ (8700 2300)
= $6400

Thus, amount paid as down payment


= $ (2300 + 15% of 6400)

15
 
= $ 2300 + 6400
100

= $ (2300 + 960)

= $3260

Thus, the balance amount, which he had to borrow


= $ (8700 3260)
= $5440

The correct answer is option C.

55. Number of days in a year = 360

Number of seconds in a day


= 24 60 60
= 24 3600

Thus, number of seconds in a year


= (24 3600) 360

Age of the earth in seconds = 1.44 1017

Thus, age of the earth in years


 
1.44 1017
=
(24 3600) 360

144 1015
=
12 2 12 300 12 30

1015
=
216 103

1012
=
216

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132 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

100 1010
=
216

100 1010
=
200

1010
=
2
 
10 109
=
2

= 5 109

The actual answer would be less than 5 109 , but close to it.

The correct answer is option B.

56. Working with the statements:

x xy 1
I. LHS = x#xy = = y
xy x y
!
 1 y x
RHS = x 1#y = x = xy
y 1 y

Thus, LHS 6= RHS Statement is not true

x y
II. LHS = x#y =
y x
!
 y x x y
RHS = y#x = =
x y y x

Thus, LHS = RHS Statement is true


!
1
  1
1 1 x! y y x
III. LHS = # =   =
x y 1 1 x y
y x
y x
RHS = y#x =
x y

Thus, LHS = RHS Statement is true

The correct answer is option E.

57. We have:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 133

3$y = 5$4

3y 54
=> =
3+y 5+4
3y 1
=> =
3+y 9

=> 27 9y = 3 + y

=> 10y = 24

24 12
=> y = =
10 5

The correct answer is option D.

58. 1@ (1@a)

1
 
= 1@ 1 +
a
1
=1+ 
1

1+
a
1
=1+ 
a+1


a
a
=1+
a+1
(a + 1) + a
=
a+1
2a + 1
=
a+1

The correct answer is option E.

59. Working with the statements:

1 1
I. c (c) = + = 0 Statement is true
c (c)
c 1 1 1 c1 1+c1
 
II. c = + = + = = 1 Statement is true
c1 c c c c c
c1
2 2 1 1 c c
III. =   +   = + = c Statement is true
c c 2 2 2 2
c c

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134 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

The correct answer is option E.

60. The sum of weights of all FOUR package weights = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 pounds.

If we leave out only one package, we would get the possible values of the total weight of
any THREE packages:

16 1 = 15 pounds
16 3 = 13 pounds
16 5 = 11 pounds
16 7 = 9 pounds

If we combine any TWO packages, the following total weights are obtained:

1 + 3 = 4 pounds
1 + 5 = 6 pounds
1 + 7 = 8 pounds
3 + 5 = 8 pounds
3 + 7 = 10 pounds
5 + 7 = 12 pounds

Thus, we observe that no combination leads to a total weight of 14 pounds.

The correct answer is option E.

61. Let the number of articles produced this month be x

Let the number of articles sold this month = y


Thus, the number of articles unsold this month = x y

x
Given that the number of articles to be produced next month =
2

From the statement in the question for each article that is unsold this month, k articles
will be sold next month, it follows that,


Number of articles to be sold next month = k x y

Cumulative number of articles remaining unsold next month

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 135

= (# of articles unsold this month) + {(# of articles produced next month) (# of articles
sold next month)}

x
 
 
= xy + k xy
2
3x 
= y k xy
2

Since the cumulative number of articles remaining unsold next month would be equal to
1
the number of articles sold this month, we have:
3
3x  1
y k xy = y
2 3
3x y
=> kx = + y ky
2 3
x (3 2k) y (4 3k)
=> =
2 3
y 3 (3 2k)
=> =
x 2 (4 3k)

Thus, the fraction of income he saves this year

y 3 (3 2k)
= =
x 2 (4 3k)

The correct answer is option C.

62. Amount paid to Harry for the first 40 hours at $x per hour = $40x.

Since he worked for a total of 41 hours, the amount paid for the remaining (41 40) = 1
hour at $2x per hour = $ (2x 1) = $2x.

Thus, total amount paid to Harry = $ (40x + 2x) = $42x.

Amount paid to James for the first 30 hours at $x per hour = $30x.

Since the total amount paid to James and Harry is the same, James received the remain-
ing $ (42x 30x) = $12x at $1.5x per hour.

Thus number of additional hours worked by Harry


12x
= = 8 hours.
1.5x

Thus, total hours worked by Harry = 30 + 8 = 38 hours.

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136 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

The correct answer is option D.

63. We know that (m v) represents the remainder when m is divided by v.

Let us evaluate [(98 33) 17]:

(98 33) is the remainder when 98 is divided by 33 = 32

[(98 33) 17] = [32 17], which is the remainder when 32 is divided by 17 = 15

Thus, we have: [(98 33) 17] = 15

Let us now evaluate [98 (33 17)]:

(33 17) is the remainder when 33 is divided by 17 = 16

[98 (33 17)] = [98 16], which is the remainder when 98 is divided by 16 = 2

Thus, we have: [98 (33 17)] = 2

Hence, we have:

[(98 33) 17] [98 (33 17)] = 15 2 = 13

The correct answer is option D.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 137

5.2 Data Sufficiency

Data sufficiency questions have five standard options. They are listed below and will not
be repeated for each question.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to an-
swer the question asked.
(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to an-
swer the question asked.
(C) both the statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question
asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked,
and additional data specific to the problem are needed.

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64. In a right angled isosceles triangle, the sides are in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2

Let the sides be 10, 10 and 10 2

Thus, perimeter = 20 + 10 2 = 20 + 10 1.4 = 34

From statement 1:

One of the shorter side is increased by 20%:



Thus, the new sides are: 12, 10, 10 2

Thus, new perimeter = 22 + 10 2 = 22 + 10 1.4 = 36
36 34 100
Thus, percent increase in perimeter = 100 = 6%
34 17
Thus, the answer is No.

The longer side is increased by 20%:



Thus, the new sides are: 10, 10, 12 2

Thus, new perimeter = 20 + 12 2 = 20 + 12 1.4 = 36.8
36.8 34 140
Thus, percent increase in perimeter = 100 = 8%
34 17
Thus, the answer is No.

Thus, the answer is No. Sufficient

From statement 2:

We have already seen above that even if the longest side is increased by 20%, the answer

to the question is No. Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

65. Let ABCD be the trapezium where AB and CD are the parallel sides and H is the distance

between the parallel sides.


1
The area of ABCD = (AB + CD) H
2
From statement 1:

There is no information about the percent change in the distance between the parallel

sides. Insufficient

From statement 2:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 139

There is no information about the percent change in the length of the parallel sides.

Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

The new lengths of the parallel sides are:

For AB: New length = 120% of AB = 1.2 AB

For CD: New length = 120% of CD = 1.2 CD

Thus, the new value of (AB + CD) is 1.2 (AB + CD)

The new distance between the parallel sides is 110% of H = 1.1 H

Thus, the new area


1
= 1.2 (AB + CD) 1.1 H
2
1
 
= 1.32 (AB + CD) H
2
Thus, we see that the new area is 1.32 times the earlier area.

Thus, required percent change = 32%. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

66. Let the capacity of the beaker is 100 ml and its weight is x grams.

Let the weight of water and oil per ml be w grams and l grams, respectively.

Thus, quantity of oil and water in the beaker when mixed in the ratio 1 : 1 is 50 ml each.

Since total weight is 102 grams, we have:

x + 50w + 50l = 102 . . . (i)


w l
 
We need to determine the percent by which water is heavier than oil, i.e. 100%.
l
From statement 1:

Since oil and water are mixed in the ratio 2 : 3, we have 40 ml oil and 60 ml water.

Since total weight is 104 grams, we have:

x + 60w + 40l = 104 . . . (ii)

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140 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From (i) and (ii) we have three variables and two equations, we cannot determine the

values of w and l. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Since oil and water are mixed in the ratio 3 : 2, we have 60 ml oil and 40 ml water.

Since total weight is 100 grams, we have:

x + 40w + 60l = 100 . . . (iii)

From (i) and (iii) we have three variables and two equations, we cannot determine the

values of w and l. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

From (ii) (i):

10w 10l = 2 . . . (iv)

From (i) (iii):

10w 10l = 2 . . . (v)

Since (iv) and (v) are the same equation, we still cannot determine the values of w and l.

Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

67. Let the cost price and the actual selling price of the article be $c and $s, respectively.
sc
 
We need to determine the value of 100 %.
c
From statement 1:

We know that if the selling price were $1200, the profit would have been 20%

=> 1200 = 120% of c

=> c = 1000

However, we have no information about the actual selling price. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We know that if there was 20% discount on the actual selling price, the profit would have

been 10%.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 141

Thus, the new selling price = 80% of s = 0.8s

Thus, we have:

0.8s = 110% of c
s 1.1 11
=> = =
c 0.8 8
Thus, we have:
sc 11 8 3
= =
c 8 8
sc 3
=> 100 = 100 = 37.5% - Sufficient
c 8
The correct answer is option B.

68. From statement 1:

We have no information about the rate of evaporation of water. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We have no information about the rate of evaporation of water. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

Let the weight of salt-water solution at 12:00 noon be 100 grams.

Thus, quantity of salt present in the solution = 30% of 100 = 30 grams.

Quantity of water in the solution = 100 30 = 70 grams.

Let the rate of evaporation of water be x grams per hour.

Thus, at 4 pm, i.e. after 4 hours from 12 noon, quantity of water evaporated = 4x grams.

Thus, quantity of water remaining = (70 4x) grams.

Quantity of salt = 30 grams.

Since the concentration of salt in the solution is 40%, we have:


30 30 2
100 = 40 => =
30 + 70 4x 100 4x 5

50
=> 150 = 200 8x => x =
8

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142 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

50
Thus, at 8 pm, i.e. 8 hours after 12 noon, quantity of water evaporated = 8 = 50
8
grams.

Thus, quantity of water left = 70 50 = 20 grams.

Quantity of salt = 30 grams.


30
Thus, required percent = 100 = 60% Sufficient
20 + 30
The correct answer is option C.

Note: There is no need to solve this question. With the help of two statements, we can

get to know per hour evaporation rate; and once we know this, we can get to know the

required percent of salt at any complete hour.

69. Let the initial volume of the solution be x ml.


x 2x
Thus, volume of milk and honey = ml and ml, respectively.
3 3
Let the volume of solution removed = y ml.
y 2y
Thus, volume of milk and honey removed = ml and ml, respectively.
3 3

x y 2x 2y
   
Thus, volume of milk and honey left = ml and ml, respectively.
3 3 3 3
y
 
We need to determine the value of .
x
From statement 1:

Volume of milk added = y ml.


x y x 2y
   
Thus, final volume of milk = +y = + ml.
3 3 3 3
Since milk and honey is finally in the ratio 1 : 1, we have:
x 2y 2x 2y
+ =
3 3 3 3

x 4y
=> =
3 3

y 1
=> = Sufficient
x 4

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 143

From statement 2:

Volume of honey added = y ml.


2x 2y 2x y
   
Thus, final volume of honey = +y = + ml.
3 3 3 3
Since milk and honey is finally in the ratio 1 : 3, we have:
x y 2x y
   
: + =1 :3
3 3 3 3

x y 2x y x 4y
 
=> 3 = + => =
3 3 3 3 3 3

y 1
=> = Sufficient
x 4
The correct answer is option D.

70. From statement 1:

Since the profit is 25% on selling 5 marbles for a dollar, we have:

125% of the cost price of 5 marbles = $1


100
 
=> Cost price of 5 marbles = $ = $0.80
125
Thus, if a profit of 50% is required, we have:

Selling price of 5 marbles = 150% of $0.80 = $ (0.80 1.5) = $1.2

Thus, number of marbles sold for $1.2 = 5


5
=> Number of marbles sold for $6 = 6 = 25 Sufficient
1.2
From statement 2:

We have no information about the number of marbles the man sold.

Thus, the profit made for each marble cannot be determined.

Also, the cost price of the marbles is not known. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

71. From statement 1:

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144 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

We have:

1A4 B = BC8

Considering the unit digits in the above multiplication, we see that:

4 B gives a number having unit digit 8.

Thus, possible values of B are 2 or 7.

Let B = 2:

For the unit place, we have: 4 2 = 8, thus, there is no carry.

For the hundreds place, we have: 2 = 1 2, which satisfies only if there is no carry

from the multiplication of the tens place, i.e. A 2

Thus, possible values of A could be 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.

Thus, the values of C are 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8.

Let B = 7:

For the unit place, we have: 4 7 = 28, thus, there is a carry of 2.

For the hundreds place, we have: B = 1 B, which satisfies only if there is no carry

from the multiplication of the tens place, i.e. A 7

Since B = 7, possible values of A could be 0 or 1.

Thus, the values of C are 2 or 9 (since there is a carry 2 from the units place).

Thus, the value of B cannot be uniquely determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

There is no information about B. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

From the discussion for the first statement, we can observe that the value of C is 8 only

if the value of B is 2. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

72. From statement 1:

There is no information about liquid C. Insufficient

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 145

From statement 2:

There is no information about ratios of petrol and spirit in A or B. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:


2
Quantity of petrol in 20 liters of liquid A = 20 = 8 liters
2+3
3
Quantity of petrol in 21 liters of liquid B = 21 = 9 liters
3+4
Total volume = 20 + 21 + 27 = 68 liters.

Since the final petrol to spirit ratio is 29 : 39, total quantity of petrol in the mixture
29
= 68 = 29 liters.
29 + 39
Thus, quantity of petrol in 27 liters of liquid C = 29 8 9 = 12 liters.
12
Thus, percent of petrol in liquid C = 100 = 44.4% Sufficient
27
The correct answer is option B.

73. From statement 1:

The percent of mixture lost during the mixing process is not known. Insufficient

From statement 2:

The ratio in which A and B are mixed is not known. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

Let 5 liters of A and 1 liter of B are mixed.

Thus, total cost = $ (30 5 + 1 10) = $160

Total volume of the mixture = 6 liters.


1
Part of the mixture lost = of 6 liters = 1 liter.
6
Thus, remaining mixture = 6 1 = 5 liters.

Let the price of the mixture C = $x per liter.

Thus, total price of mixture C = $5x

Since there is neither loss nor profit, we have:

5x = 160 => x = 32 Sufficient

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146 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

The correct answer is option C.

74. We have:
2a
=k
a + 3b
=> 2a = ak + 3bk . . . (i)

From statement 1:
a
=k
3b
=> a = 3bk . . . (ii)

Thus, from (i) and (ii):

2a = ak + a => a (k 1) = 0

=> k = 1 or a = 0
0
Thus, if a = 0, we have: k = =0
3b
Note: Since division by 0 results in indeterminate values, it is implied that b 6= 0.

Thus, the value of k cannot be uniquely determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Only b 6= 0 cannot be used to determine the value of k. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

Even after combining both statements, we still have the possibilities of k = 1 or 0.

Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

75. Let the cost price and the original selling price be $c and $s, respectively.
sc s
 
We need to determine the percent profit, i.e. 100 = 1 100%
c c
From statement 1:
s (100 x)
After x% discount, final selling price = $
100
Since there is x% profit, we have:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 147

s (100 x) c (100 + x)
=
100 100

s 100 + x
=> = . . . (i)
c 100 x

Since the value of x is not known, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:
5x
 
s 100
5x 4
After % discount, final selling price = $
4 100

x
Since there is % profit, we have:
2

5x x
   
s 100 c 100 +
4 2
=
100 100

x
s 100 +
=> = 2 . . . (ii)
c 5x
100
4

Since the value of x is not known, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

% of % of

$
$ $1 $0
initial selling price

5
% of % of
2 4

Thus, from the above diagram: The difference between s1 and s2

x 5x
   
= (x% of c) % of c = % of s (x% of s)
2 4

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148 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

x x
=> % of c = % of s
2 4

s
=> =2
c
s
 
=> Required percent profit = 1 100 = (2 1) 100 = 100% Sufficient
c

Alternatively, from (i) and (ii):

x
100 + x 100 +
= 2
100 x 5x
100
4

100 + x 2(200 + x)
=> =
100 x 4(400 5x)

=> (100 + x) (400 5x) = 2 (100 x) (200 + x)

100
=> 100x = 3x 2 => x = = 33.33%; since x 6= 0, we can cancel it.
3

s 100 + x
   
Thus, the percent profit = 1 100% = 1 100% =
c 100 x
100 + x 100 + x
100%
100 x

100
2x 2
=> 100% = 3 100% = 100%
100 x 100
100
3

The correct answer is option C.

76. From statement 1:

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the original solution.

Insufficient

From statement 2:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 149

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the final solution. Insuffi-

cient

Thus, from both statements together:

Let the volume removed be x ml.

Sugar content in original mixture = 60% of 60 = 36


3x
Sugar present in the volume removed = 60% of x =
5
3x
 
Thus, sugar remaining = 36
5
Since x ml water is added, the volume becomes 60 ml, however, the quantity of sugar in

the new solution remains unchanged.

Since the final sugar concentration is 10%, we have:


3x
36 = 10% of 60
5
3x
=> 36 =6
5
=> x = 50 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

77. Let the number of seats be x.

From statement 1:

Let the number of employees in the finance department be y.

Since 5 employees would be standing, we have:

y = x + 5 . . . (i)

However, the value of x cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Let the number of employees be y.

Since 10 seats would be unoccupied if 80% of the employees attend, we have:



x = 10 + 80% of y
4y
=> x = 10 + . . . (ii)
5

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150 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

However, the value of x cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

From (i) and (ii):


4
x = 10 + (x + 5)
5
=> 5x = 50 + 4x + 20

=> x = 70 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

78. From statement 1:

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the final sugar concentrate.

Note: We cannot assume that sugar concentrate will have 100% sugar.

From statement 2:

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the original sugar solution.

Thus, from both statements together:

We get sugar concentrate by removing water from the sugar solution.

Thus, the quantity of sugar in both the sugar solution and the sugar concentrate would

be the same.

Quantity of sugar in 80 grams sugar solution = 20% of 80 = 16 grams.

Thus, the quantity of sugar in the sugar concentrate is also 16 grams.

Since sugar concentrate contains 20% water, concentration of sugar = 100 20 = 80%.

Let the quantity of sugar concentrate be x grams.

Thus, we have:

80% of x = 16
100
=> x = 16 = 20 grams Sufficient
80
The correct answer is option C.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 151

79. From statement 1:

In the 20 matches, number of wins = 40% of 20 = 8

Thus, the number of losses = 20 8 = 12

Since the problem asks for the minimum number of matches, it implies that the team

needs to win all the additional matches it plays.

Let the team plays x more matches, all of which it wins.

Thus, the number of losses remains the same, i.e. 12

Since the win rate is 60% finally, the loss rate is 40%

Thus, 40% of all matches played = 12


100
=> Total number of matches = 12 = 30
40
Thus, the minimum number of additional matches required = 30 20 = 10 Sufficient

From statement 2:

The number of matches the team would eventually play in the season cannot be used to

calculate the minimum number of matches required. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

80. From statement 1:

Let the list price per lb of goods be $10.

Discounts obtained by Ann and Bob are 10% and 20% respectively.

Total list price for Ann = $ (15 10) = $150

Discount for Ann = 10% of $150 = $15

Total list price for Bob = $ (30 10) = $300

Discount for Bob = 20% of $300 = $60

Thus, total discount (savings) = $15 + $60 = $75

Had they purchased together, they would have purchases 15 lbs + 30 lbs = 45 lbs

Thus, discount applicable = 30%

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152 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Total price of 45 lbs = $ (45 10) = $450

Thus, total discount (savings) = 30% of $450 = $135

Thus, percent increase in savings


135 75 60
= 100 = 100
75 75
= 80% Sufficient

From statement 2:

Since the problem asks for a percent value, the exact value of the list price is not neces-

sary.

Also, there is no information about the quantity of goods purchased by Ann and Bob.

Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

81. From statement 1:

There is no information about the cost price of each laptop for the store. Insufficient

From statement 2:

There is no information about the profit/loss made by selling each laptop. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

If the price of each laptop was increased by $800, additional profit generated per laptop

= $800.

However, there is no information about the number of laptops sold.

Thus, the profit for each laptop cannot be determined.

Thus, the selling price of each laptop cannot be determined. Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

82. From statement 1:

There is no information about the price of the coffee powder relative to the high quality

coffee. Insufficient

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 153

From statement 2:

There is no information about the quantity of coffee powder mixed with high quality

coffee. Insufficient

Thus, from both statements together:

The shopkeeper makes a profit of 5 grams in every 100 grams of high quality coffee sold

(since he does not need to spend anything to purchase the coffee powder and he sells

the entire mixture at the same rate as the high quality coffee).
5
Thus, his profit percentage = 100 = 5% Sufficient
100
The correct answer is option C.

83. Let the total number of employees in the company = 100x.

Thus, the number of men = 35% of x


35
= 100x
100
= 35x

Thus, the number of women = 100x 35x

= 65x

From statement 1:

Number of men in the company who attended the meeting = 20% of 35x
20
= 35x
100
= 7x

However, there is no information on the women who attended the meeting. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Number of women in the company who attended the meeting = 40% of 65x
40
= 65x
100
= 26x

However, there is no information on the men who attended the meeting. Insufficient

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154 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Total number of employees who attended the meeting

= 7x + 26x

= 33x
33x
Thus, the required percent = 100
100x
= 33% Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

84. Let the number of toffees with R, Y and M be r , y and m, respectively.

Also, let the total number of toffees be 100t

=> r + y + m = 100t

From statement 1:

1
Since M has = 25% of the total number of toffees, we have:
4

m = 25% of 100t

=> m = 25t

=> y + r = 100t 25t

=> y + r = 75t . . . (i)

1
Since the difference between the toffees of Y and R is = 10% of the total number of
10
toffees, we have two possibilities (depending on who between Y and R has the greater
number):

(A) y r = 10% of 100t (assuming Y has a greater number of toffees than R)


=> y r = 10t

Adding the above equation and (i) above, we have:

2y = 85t

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 155

=> y = 42.5t

=> r = 75t 42.5t = 32.5t

Thus, we see that M, who has 25t, has the least number of toffees.

(B) r y = 10% of 100t (assuming R has a greater number of toffees than Y)


=> r y = 10t

Adding the above equation and (i) above, we have:

2r = 85t

=> r = 42.5t

=> y = 75t 42.5t = 32.5t

Thus, we see that M, who has 25t, has the least number of toffees.

Thus, M has the least number of toffees. Sufficient

From statement 2:

1
Since M has = 25% of the total number of toffees, we have:
4

m = 25t

=> y + r = 100t 25t = 75t . . . (ii)

Also, we have:

1
y >r+ r
5
6r
=> y >
5
6r
=> y + r > +r
5
11r
=> y + r >
5

Thus, from (i), we have:

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156 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

11r
75t >
5
11r
=> < 75t
5
5
=> r < 75t = 34t
11
5
=> y > 75t 75t
11
5
 
=> y > 75t 1
11
6
=> y > 75t
11
450t
=> y > = 41t
11

Thus, we have the following values:

m = 25t

y > 41t

r < 34t

Thus, the smaller among m and r cannot be determined. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

85. From statement 1:

Amount spent on taxes and home insurance

1
 
= $ 33 % of 12000
3
1
 
=$ 12000
3

= $4000

However, we cannot determine the amount spent on taxes alone. Insufficient

From statement 2:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 157

Amount spent on taxes is 20% of the total amount that he spent on his mortgage
payments and home insurance.

Thus, we have:

1 
Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance
5

=> 5 Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance


=> 5 Taxes + Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance +Taxes

=> 6 Taxes = $12000

1
 
=> Taxes = $ 12000
6

=> Taxes = $2000 Sufficient

The correct answer is option B.

86. Let the times Diana spent attending a training class, responding to e-mails, and talking
on the phone be x minutes, y minutes and z minutes, respectively.

Thus, we have:

x + y + z = 240 . . . (i)

We need to determine the value of z.

From statement 1:

x = 90% of y

9
=> x = y . . . (ii)
10

However, from (i)and (ii), the value of z cannot be determined (since there are only two
equations, but there are three variables). Insufficient

From statement 2:


x = 60% of y + z

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158 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

3 
=> x = y +z
5
5x
=> y + z = . . . (iii)
3

Thus, from (i), we have:

5x
x+ = 240
3

=> x = 90 . . . (iv)

However, we cannot determine the value of z. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

From (ii) and (iv):

9
x= y
10
9y
=> 90 =
10

=> y = 100 . . . (v)

Thus, from (i), (iv) and (v):

x + y + z = 240

=> 90 + 100 + z = 240

=> z = 50 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

87. Let the radius and height of the cylinder be r and h, respectively.

In a right solid cylinder having base radius r and height h, the total surface area is given
by:

Curved surface area + Base area

= 2 r h + 2 r 2

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 159

From statement 1:

10 11
 
Since the base radius is increased by 10%, the new radius = r 1 + = r
100 10

Thus, the base area after increase

11 2
 
= 2 r
10
121
 
= 2 r 2
100

Thus, percent change in base area

(Final base area) (Initial base area)


= 100%
(Initial base area)
121
 
2 r 2 2 r 2
100
= 100%
2 r 2

= 21%

However, we have no information on the percent change in height. If the height is


decreased, percent change in total surface area may be less than 20%. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Percent change in height = 20%

However, we have no information on the percent change in radius. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

We know that the percent change in base area = 21% . . . (i)

11
Also, after the increase, the new radius = r
10
20 12
 
Since the height is increased by 20%, the new height = h 1 + = h
100 10

Thus, the curved surface area after the increase

11 12
  
= 2 r h
10 10

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160 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

132
 
= 2 r h
100

Thus, percent change in curved surface area

(Final curved surface area) (Initial curved surface area)


= 100%
(Initial curved surface area)
132
 
2 r h 2 r h
100
= 100%
2 r h

= 32% . . . (ii)

In general, if we have:

X = A + B, where A increases by k% and B increases by l%, then the percent increase in


X lies between k and l.

In the above problem, we have:

Total area = Curved surface area + Base area

Thus, percent change in Total area lies between 21% and 32%, and hence, is greater
than 20% Sufficient

(Note: To find the exact percent change in total area, we need to know the actual values
of r and h, or, the ratio of r : h)

The correct answer is option C.

88. From statement 1:

Let the number of children in the group = c.

Thus, the number of children with glasses

= 10% of c

c
=
10

However, we have no information about the total number of people in the group.
Insufficient

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 161

From statement 2:

Let the number of adults in the group = a.

Thus, the number of adults with glasses

= 20% of a

a
=
5

However, we have no information about the total number of people in the group.
Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Total number of people in the group = (c + a)

c a
 
Total number of people with glasses = +
10 5

Thus, the percent of people with glasses


c a
+
= 10 5
100

c+a

We need to determine whether:


c a
+
10 5 100 = 15
c+a

If the above is true, it implies that:


c a
+ 3
10 5
=
c+a 20

c + 2a 3
=> =
c+a 2

=> 2c + 4a = 3c + 3a

=> c = a

However, such information is not provided in the problem.

Hence, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient


The correct answer is option E.

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162 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

89. Let the number of beans of the cheaper variety and the costlier variety be x and y,
respectively.

Let the price of each bean of the cheaper variety and the costlier variety be $a and $b
respectively.

Total price of all beans of the cheaper variety = $ax

Total price of all beans of the costlier variety = $by


Thus, total price of all beans = $ ax + by

Thus, the required percent


!
by
= 100%
ax + by

From statement 1:

We have no information about the price of the remaining beans. Insufficient

From statement 2:

b = 3a

However, we have no information about the number of beans of the cheaper variety and
costlier variety. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:


Let the total number of beans be t = x + y

t
Thus, the number of beans priced at $6 each =
3

We know that the price of each bean of the costlier variety is thrice that of each bean of
the cheaper variety.

Thus, we have two possibilities:

Let the price per bean of the cheaper variety be $6.

Thus, the price per bean of the costlier variety = $(3 6) = $18.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 163

Thus, we have:

t t 2t
a = 6, x = , b = 18 and y = t =
3 3 3

Thus, the required percent

2t

18
 3

=  100%
 t 2t
6 + 18
3 3
12t

= 100%
14t
600
= %
7

Let the price per bean of the costlier variety be $6.

6
 
Thus, the price per bean of the cheaper variety = $ = $2.
3

Thus, we have:

t t 2t
b = 6, y = , a = 18 and x = t =
3 3 3

Thus, the required percent

t

6
 3

=  100%
 2t t
18 + 6
 3 3
2t

= 100%
14t
100
= %
7

Thus, there is no unique answer. Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

90. Let the initial price of a ticket in multiplex B be $100x

Thus, the initial price of a ticket in multiplex A

= (100 + 20)% of $100x

= $120x

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164 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From statement 1:

We have no information about the final price of a ticket in multiplex B. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We have no information about the final price of a ticket in multiplex A. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Final price of a ticket in multiplex A

= ((100 20) % of $120x) + $5

= $ (96x + 5)

Final price of a ticket in multiplex B

= ((100 + 20) % of $100x) + $10

= $ (120x + 10)

Thus, it is obvious that the price of a ticket in multiplex B is greater than that in
multiplex A.

The answer to the question is No. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

91. Total number of students initially in the class = 20.

Number of students with a GPA lower than that of Joe

= 60% of 20

= 12

Thus, the number of students with a GPA HIGHER than Joe

= (Total # of students) (# of students with a lower GPA than Joe) 1 (Joe himself) (#
of students with same GPA as that of Joe)

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 165

= 20 12 1 (# of students with same GPA as that of Joe)

= 7 (# of students with same GPA as that of Joe) . . . (i)

Number of new students = 10.

From statement 1:

80% of the new students have a higher GPA than Joe has.

Thus, the number of new students with a higher GPA than Joe

= 80% of 10

= 8 ... (ii)

However, we have no information about the number of students (those present initially)
who have GPA same as that of Joe as per (i). Insufficient

From statement 2:

There is no information about the GPA of the new students. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Number of initial students with a GPA equal to that of Joe

= 10% of 20

=2

Thus, from (i)

The number of initial students who have GPA higher than that of Joe

=72

=5

Thus, from (ii)

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166 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

The total number of students with a GPA higher than that of Joe

= (# of initial students with a GPA higher than that of Joe) + (# of new students with a
GPA higher than that of Joe)

=5+8

= 13 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

92. Let the initial price of the stock be $100.

Thus, price of the stock after 20% decrease

= (100 20)% of $100

= $80

Price of the stock after x% increase


= (100 + x) % of $80

80 (100 + x)
 
=$
100
4 (100 + x)
 
=$
5

We need to determine whether:

4 (100 + x)
 
< 100
5
5
=> 100 + x < 100
4

=> 100 + x < 125

=> x < 25

From statement 1:

x > 20

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 167

Thus, for a value of x = 21, the answer to the question is Yes, whereas, for a value of
x = 30, the answer to the question is No.

Thus, there is no unique answer. Insufficient

From statement 2:

x < 25

This is the same condition that we needed to verify. Sufficient

The correct answer is option B.

Alternate approach:

Lets recall the formula of net percent change.

ab
 
Net percent change (N) = a + b + , where the first percent is a change and the
100
second percent change is b.

Thus, we have:

a = 20%

b = x% (say)

20x
=> N = 20 + x
100

Let us assume that the newly obtained price is less than the original price.

Thus, we have:

N<0

4
=> 20 + x<0
5
4
=> x < 20
5

=> x < 25

This information is given in statement 2.

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168 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

93. Let the amounts received by A, B and C be $a, $b and $c, respectively.

We know that:

a + b + c = 15000 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

A gets more than B by the same amount as C gets less than B.

Thus, we have:

ab =bc

=> a + c = 2b

Adding b to both sides:

a + b + c = 3b

=> 3b = 15000 . . . From (i)

=> b = 5000 Sufficient

From statement 2:

The ratio of shares of A, B, and C is 3 : 2 : 1

=> a : b : c = 3 : 2 : 1

2
 
=> b = (a + b + c)
3+2+1
2
=> b = 15000
6

=> b = 5000 Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

94. Let the amounts with A, B and C be $a, $b and $c, respectively.

We know that:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 169

a + b + c = 800 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

A and B together have 40 percent less than what C alone has.

Since A and B together have an amount less than that of C, individually, both A and B
must have amounts less than that of C.

Thus, the amount with A is definitely less than that with C.

Thus, A cannot have the highest amount. Sufficient

From statement 2:

C has Rs 200 more than A and B together.

Since A and B together have an amount less than that of C, individually, both A and B
must have amounts less than that of C.

Thus, the amount with A is definitely less than that with C.

Thus, A cannot have the highest amount. Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

95. Let the amount of milk and water in the mixture be m and w respectively.

From statement 1:

When 2 liters of milk is added to the mixture, the resultant mixture has equal quantities
of milk and water.

Thus, we have:

(m + 2) = w . . . (i)

However, we cannot determine the value of m. Insufficient

From statement 2:

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The initial mixture had 2 parts of water to 1 part milk.

Thus, we have:

m 1
=
w 2

=> w = 2m . . . (ii)

However, we cannot determine the value of m. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Substituting w from (ii) in (i):

m + 2 = 2m

=> m = 2 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

96. From statement 1:

Volume of the original mixture = 60 ml.

Volume of juice present

= 40% of 60 ml

= 24 ml

Let x ml of the mixture be removed.

Percent of juice present in x ml is also 40%

Thus, volume of juice removed

= 40% of x ml

2
= x ml
5

Thus, volume of juice remaining

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 171

2x
 
= 24 ml . . . (i)
5

Total volume of the mixture left = (60 x) ml

Volume of water added = x ml

Thus, total volume of the final mixture

= (60 x) + x

= 60 ml

Since the final volume of juice present or the percent of juice present finally is not
known, we cannot determine the value of x. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We know that the percent of juice in the final mixture was 10%.

However, the initial volume of the mixture is not known. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Final volume of juice

= 10% of 60

= 6 ml

Thus, from (i), we have:

2x
24 =6
5

=> x = 45 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

97. From statement 1:

We do not have information on the attorneys fees. Insufficient

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From statement 2:

We do not have information on the assessed value of the estate. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

2400
The required percent = 100 = 0.2% Sufficient
1.2 106

The correct answer is option C.

98. From statement 1:

We have no information on the number of people employed. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Since 20% (more than 10%) of the men are employed and 10% of the women are employed
among the population 65 years old or older, we can definitely say that on an average,
more than 10% of that population must be employed (Minimum term Average Maximum
term). Sufficient

The correct answer is option B.

99. From statement 1:

The initial price of the candy bar is not known.


Hence, the percent increase in the price cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

The amount of increase in price of the candy bar is not known.


Hence, the percent increase in the price cannot be determined Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Increase in price of the candy bar = 5 cents.


Price of the candy bar after increase = 45 cents.

Thus, initial price of the candy bar = (45 5) cents = 40 cents.

Hence, the percent increase in the price

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 173

5
= 100 = 12.5% Sufficient
40

The correct answer is option C.

100. From statement 1:

Payment for the bicycle excluding 10% sales tax = $ 0.9x

Thus, payment for the bicycle including sales tax

= $(0.9x + 10% of 0.9x)

=> $(0.9x + 0.09x)

=> $ 0.99x < $ x Sufficient

From statement 2:

The value of x is not given, hence a comparison with x is not possible Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

101. From statement 1:

Tims weight is 80 percent of Joes weight

Tims weight 80 4
=> = =
Joes weight 100 5

=> Joe weighs more than Tim. Sufficient

From statement 2:

Joes weight is 125 percent Of Tims weight

Joes weight 125 5


=> = =
Tims weight 100 4

=> Joe weighs more than Tim. Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

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102. Let the total sales be $x.

Amount paid to the salesman per week is:


$(300 + 5% of (x 1000)); provided (x > 1000)

OR

$300; provided (x 1000).

From statement 1:

If x 1000:
$300 = 10% of x
100
=> x = $300 = $3000
10
However, this contradicts our assumption x 1000.
Thus, we can conclude that x  1000 i.e. x > 1000.

If x > 1000:

$(300 + 5% of (x 1000)) = 10% of x


5 (x 1000) 10x
=> 300 + =
100 100
=> x = 5000

Thus, amount paid to the salesman = 10% of $5000 = $500 Sufficient

From statement 2:

Since the total sales of the salesman was $5000 (> $1000), the amount paid to him was:
$(300 + 5% of (5000 1000) = $500 Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

103. Let the total sales be $x.

Amount paid to Connie per week is:

$(500 + 20% of (x 1500)); provided (x > 1500)

OR

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 175

$500; provided (x 1500).

From statement 1:

Since Connies pay exceeds $500, we can conclude that x > 1500.

Thus, we have:
20 (x 1500)
$(500 + 20% of (x 1500)) = 1200 => 500 + = 1200
100
=> x = 5000 Sufficient

From statement 2:

Since Connie received some commission, we can conclude that x > 1500.

Thus, we have:

20 (x 1500)
20% of (x 1500)) = 1200 => = 1200
100

=> x = 5000 Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

104. Let the number of students in the class be x.

3x
Thus, the number of boys = 30% of x = . . . (i)
10
3x 7x
Number of girls = x = . . . (ii)
10 10
3x 25 3x 3x
 
Number of boys with glasses = 25% of = = . . . (iii)
10 100 10 40
7x 50 7x 7x
 
Number of girls with glasses = 50% of = = . . . (iv)
10 100 10 20

Since the number of students are integers, each of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) must be integers.

Thus, the value of x must be the LCM of the denominators of the above fractions

= LCM (10, 10, 40, 20) = 40

The correct answer is option B.

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105. Charge for parts excluding sales tax = $50.00

Sales tax on charge for parts = $(6% of 50) = $3.

Thus, charge for parts including sales tax = $(50 + 3) = $53.

We need to determine the charge for labor including sales tax to determine the total
charge for the repair.

From statement 1:

Sales tax on labor = 6% of the labor charge = $9.60


100
Thus, labor charge = $9.60 = $160.
6

Hence, charge for labor including sales tax = $(160 + 9.60) = $169.60.

Hence, charge for repair including sales tax = $(169.60+53) = $223.20. Sufficient

From statement 2:

Total sales tax = $12.60.


Sales tax on charge for parts = $3.
Thus, tax on charge for labor = $ (12.60 3) = $9.60.

This is the same information as in statement 1. Subsequent to this, following the


calculation as we did in statement 1, we get the answer. Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

106. Since we need to find the greatest overall percent increase, let us assume a suitable
initial value.

Let the initial value be 100.

Let there be x% increase initially.

Thus, value after x% increase

= (100 + x) % of 100

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 177

100 + x
= 100
100

= (100 + x)

Let there be y% increase next.

Thus, the final value after y% increase


= 100 + y % of (100 + x)

100 + y
= (100 + x)
100

100 + y (100 + x)
=
100

1002 + 100 x + y + xy

=
100

Thus, overall percent increase

(Final value) (Initial value)


= 100%
(Initial value)

1002 + 100 x + y + xy
 !
100
100
= 100%
100
 !
100 x + y + xy
= %
100
xy
 
= x+y + %
100

In each of the above options, we observe that:

x + y = 60

Thus, the option with the highest value of xy will have the highest overall percent
increase.

We know that if the sum of two terms is a constant, the product of the two terms
becomes the maximum only when both the terms are equal

60
=> x = y = = 30
2

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Alternately, working with the options one at a time:

Option A: x = 10, y = 50 => xy = 500

Option B: x = 25, y = 35 => xy = 875

Option C: x = 30, y = 30 => xy = 900

Option D: x = 40, y = 20 => xy = 800

Option E: x = 45, y = 15 => xy = 675

Thus, the correct answer is option C.

107. We need to determine the value the percent of (a + b + c) constituted by a, i.e.

a
 
100%
a+b+c

From statement 1:

a% of (b + c) = 40

a
 
=> (b + c) = 40
100

=> a (b + c) = 4000 . . . (i)

a
  
However, the value of 100 cannot be determined. Insufficient
a+b+c

From statement 2:

(a + b) = (b + c) % of (a + b)

(b + c)
=> (a + b) = (a + b)
100

=> (b + c) = 100 . . . (ii)

However, the value of a is unknown. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 179

Substituting the value of (b + c) from (ii) in (i), we have:

a 100 = 4000

=> a = 40 . . . (iii)

Thus, from (ii) and (iii), we have:

a + b + c = 40 + 100 = 140 . . . (iv)

Thus, from (iii) and (iv), we have:

a
 
100%
a+b+c
40
= 100%
140
200
= % Sufficient
7

The correct answer is option C.

108. Let the number of people to whom invitations were sent be n.

From statement 1:

Let the number of seats in the auditorium be s.

If all the invitees had attended the event, there would have been 30 invitees left without
any seats.

Thus, we have:

n = s + 30

=> n s = 30 . . . (i)

Since the value of s is unknown, the value of n cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Let the number of seats in the auditorium be s.

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If 40 percent of the invitees had not turned up, there would have been 60 seats vacant.

Thus, if 100 40 = 60 percent of the invitees had turned up, there would have been 60
seats vacant.

Thus, we have:

60% of n = (s 60)

3
=> n = s 60
5
3n
=> s = 60 . . . (ii)
5

Since the value of s is unknown, the value of n cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Adding equations (i) and (ii):

3n
n = 90
5
2n
=> = 90
5

=> n = 225 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

Alternate approach:

From both statements together, we know that:

(100% of the invitees) = (total seats + 30) . . . (i)

(60% of the invitees) = (total seats 60) . . . (ii)

Subtracting the above two equations, we have:

(100 60) % of the invitees = (total seats + 30) (total seats 60)

=> 40% of the invitees = 30 (60) = 90

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 181

100
=> Number of invitees = 90 = 225
40

109. From statement 1:

We have no information on the total number of people tested for the infection.
Insufficient

From statement 2:

Since 90% of the people tested negative, (100 10) = 10% of the people tested positive.

However, the specific information about the number of people having the infection
among the ones tested positive, and the number of people not having infection among
the ones tested negative is not known. For example, it may be that of the 10% who
tested positive, not all actually had the infection or that there may be others who had
the infection but were tested negative.

The corresponding information on how many actually had the infection is not available.
Hence, the accuracy of the test cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

We know that of those who tested positive, 8 did not have the infection.
However, we have no information about the number of people who actually had the
infection but were tested negative.

Hence, the accuracy of the test cannot be determined. Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

110. From statement 1:

We have no information about the trade in 1994.


Hence, the percentage change cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We have no information about the trade in 1985.

Hence, the percentage change cannot be determined. Insufficient

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Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

We have no information on the value of the gross domestic product in 1994 as compared
to that in 1985.

Hence, the percentage change cannot be determined. Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

111. From statement 1:

We have no information about the total value of goods consumed in the United States in
2007 as compared to 2004.
Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to
2007 cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We have no information about the value (or proportion) of foreign goods consumed in
2004 and 2007.
Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to
2007 cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Let the total value of goods consumed in the United States in 2004 be $ 100x.

Thus, the total value of goods consumed in the United States in 2007
= $ (120% of 100x) = $ 120x.

The value of foreign goods consumed in the United States in 2004


= $ (20% of 100x) = $ 20x.

The value of foreign goods consumed in the United States in 2007


= $ (20% of 120x) = $ 24x.

Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to 2007

24x 20x
= 100 = 20%
20x

Since the value of foreign goods consumed forms a constant percentage share of the
total value of goods consumed, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 183

consumed must be the same as the percentage change in the total value of goods
consumed, 20%. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

112. From statement 1:

The statement gives us information on the balance on May 30 had the rate been 12%.
This can be used to determine the balance on May 1.

However, since the actual percent increase has not been mentioned, we cannot determine
the actual balance on May 30. Insufficient

From statement 2:

The statement gives us information on the actual percent increase from May 1 to May 30.

However, since the balance on May 1 has not been mentioned, we cannot determine the
actual balance on May 30. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Let the balance on May 1 be $ x.


Thus, at 12% increase, the balance on May 30 = $ (112% of x)

Thus, we have:

112
x = 504
100

=> x = 4500

Thus, actual balance on May 30 (at 8% increase) = $ (108% of 4500) = $4860. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

113. From statement 1:

There is no information about Guys deductions. Insufficient

From statement 2:

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184 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

There is no information about Guys gross income. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

There is no information about Guys actual gross income and actual deductions or the
deductions as a percent of the gross income ratio. Insufficient

Had the deductions d as a percent of the gross income i been known, say k%, the percent
change in net income could have been calculated as follows:

Initial net income: (100 k) % of i

Final net income: (1001.15k)% of 1.04i; from information provided in statements 1 & 2.

Thus, percent change in net income could have been calculated.

The correct answer is option E.

114. From statement 1:

60
We know that the number of children with brown hair = 100 = 60.
100

However, we cannot determine the number of boys with brown hair. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We only know the number of boys is 40.

However, we cannot determine the number of boys with brown hair. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Even after combining the statements, we cannot determine the number of boys with
brown hair (since the percent of boys with brown hair is not known: we cannot assume
that since 60% of the children have brown hair, 60% of the boys would also have brown
hair). Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

115. Since each of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 were 10% higher than that in
2004, the sum of their salaries in 2005 would also be 10% higher than that in 2004.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 185

From statement 1:

The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2004 = $ 80,000.

110
Thus, the sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 = $ 80, 000 = $ 88, 000
100

However, we cannot determine Jacks individual salary in 2004. Insufficient

From statement 2:

The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 = $ 88,000.

100
Thus, the sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2004 = $ 88, 000 = $ 80, 000
110

However, we cannot determine Jacks individual salary in 2004. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

Even after combining both statements, we cannot determine Jacks individual salary in
2004, as we are only aware of the sum of Jacks and Kates salary, but no individual
salary is known. Insufficient

The correct answer is option E.

116. We need to verify if:

20% of n > 10% of (n + 0.5)

20n 10 (n + 0.5)
=> >
100 100
n n + 0.5
=> >
5 10

=> 2n > n + 0.5

=> n > 0.5

From statement 1:

n < 0.1

=> n 0.5

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186 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, the answer to the question is No. Sufficient

From statement 2:

n > 0.01

Thus, we may have n = 0.8(> 0.5) or n = 0.2( 0.5).

Thus, the answer to the question is not unique. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

117. We need to verify whether:

25 10
p =r
100 100
p r
=> =
4 10
2r
=> p =
5

From statement 1:

r = (100 + 300) % of p

=> r = 400% of p

400
=> r = p
100

=> r = 4p

r
=> p = the answer is No Sufficient
4

From statement 2:

p = (100 80) % of (r + p)

=> p = 20% of (r + p)

20 
=> p = r +p
100

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 187

r +p
=> p =
5
p r
=> p =
5 5

4p r
=> =
5 5
r
=> p = the answer is No Sufficient
4

The correct answer is option D.

118. Let the expenditures for books, newspapers and periodicals be $x, $y and $z respec-
tively.

Thus: x + y + z = 35000 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

y = (100 + 40) % of z

=> y = 1.4z . . . (ii)

The above equation along with equation (i) cannot be used to solve for x since there are
three unknowns and only two equations. Insufficient

From statement 2:

y + z = (100 25) % of x

3x
=> y + z = . . . (iii)
4

Substituting (y + z) above in equation (i):

3x
x+ = 35000
4

7x
=> = 35000
4

=> x = 20000 Sufficient

The correct answer is option B.

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119. From statement 1:

We know the ratio of the incomes of A and B.

However, there is no information about their expenditures. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We know the ratio of the expenditures of A and B.

However, there is no information about their incomes. Insufficient

Thus, from statement 1 and 2 together:

Let the incomes of A and B be 4p and 5p respectively.

Let the expenditures of A and B be 5q and 6q respectively.


Thus, the savings of A = 4p 5q .


Also, the savings of B = 5p 6q .

Since the above are savings, we must have:

For A:

4p 5q 0

p 5
=>
q 4

For B:

5p 6q 0

p 6
=>
q 5

Thus, from the above two inequalities, we have:

p 5
. . . (i)
q 4

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 189

Let us assume that A saves more than B. Thus, we have:

4p 5q > 5p 6q

=> p < q

p
=> <1
q

However, condition (i) violates the conclusion above.

Hence, A cannot save more than what B saves.

However, had we assumed that B saves more than what A saves, we would have:

5p 6q > 4p 5q

p
=> >1
q

Thus, condition (i) satisfies the conclusion above.

Thus, B saves more than what A saves. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

120. Let, on Monday, the number of bottles of juice S and juice T in stock be s and t,
respectively.

s
Number of bottles of juice S sold = . . . (i)
2

From statement 1:

2
Number of bottles of juice T sold = t . . . (ii)
3

However, the values of s and t are unknown,

Hence, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

s = 90 . . . (iii)

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t = 60 . . . (iv)

However, we have no information about the number of bottles of juice T sold.

Hence, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

From (i) and (iii):

s 90
Number of bottles of juice S sold = = = 45
2 2

From (ii) and (iv):

2 2
Number of bottles of juice T sold = t = 60 = 40
3 3

Thus, the number of bottles of juice S sold was greater than that of juice T.

Thus, the answer to the question is Yes. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

121. Women : Men : Children = 5 : 2 : 7

Thus, we have:

Number of women, men and children = 5k, 2k and 7k, respectively, where k is a constant
of proportionality.

Thus, the total number of people = 5k + 2k + 7k = 14k

From statement 1:

The total number of women and children = 5k + 7k = 12k = 22 3 k




Since 12k is a perfect square, we have the possible values of k as:

k = 20 31 , 22 33 , 24 35 , and so on . . . (i)
  

Since the value of k cannot be uniquely determined, the total number of people cannot
be determined. Insufficient

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 191

From statement 2:

The number of men is less than 8

Thus, we have:

2k < 8

=> k < 4 . . . (ii)

Since the value of k cannot be uniquely determined, the total number of people cannot
be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

From (i) and (ii), the only value of k is: k = 20 31 = 3

Thus, the total number of people = 14k = 14 3 = 42 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

122. Let the number of additional apples and bananas be a and b, respectively.

Thus, the total number of apples and bananas are (a + 2) and (b + 5), respectively.

Thus, we have:

a+2 1
=
b+5 2

=> 2a = b + 1 . . . (i)

We need to determine the value of a.

From statement 1:

2
a= b
3
3
=> b = a
2

Thus, from (i), we have:

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3
2a = a+1
2

=> a = 2 Sufficient

From statement 2:

a+b =5

=> b = 5 a

Thus, from (i), we have:

2a = (5 a) + 1

=> a = 2 Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

123. Let the salaries of Lisa and Julie be $l and $j, respectively.

We need to determine whether:

l 2j

l
=> 2
j

From statement 1:

l = j + 20000 . . . (i)

l
However, the value of cannot be determined. Insufficient
j

From statement 2:

l < 40000 . . . (ii)

l
However, the value of cannot be determined. Insufficient
j

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 193

From (ii), we have:

l < 40000

=> l + k = 40000, where k is a positive number

=> l = 40000 k . . . (iii)

Thus, from (i), we have:

j + 20000 = 40000 k

=> j = 20000 k . . . (iv)

Thus, from (iii) and (iv), we have:

l 40000 k
=
j 20000 k
2 (20000 k) + k
=
20000 k
k
 
=2+
20000 k

= 2+ a positive quantity

l
=> > 2 Sufficient
j

The correct answer is option C.

124. Let the number of male employees and female employees be m and f , respectively.

From statement 1:

m 16
= . . . (i)
f + 14 9

However, the value of f cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

m = 105 + f . . . (ii)

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However, the value of f cannot be determined. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

From (i) and (ii):

105 + f 16
=
f + 14 9

=> 945 + 9f = 16f + 224

=> 7f = 721

=> f = 103 Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

125. Let the capacity of the tank be x gallons.

Let the volume of oil in the tank initially = y gallons.


After 200 gallons are removed, volume of oil remaining = y 200 gallons.

Thus, we have:

3
y 200 = x . . . (i)
7

From statement 1:

x
y= . . . (ii)
2

Thus, from (i) and (ii):

x 3
200 = x
2 7
x 3x
=> = 200
2 7
x
=> = 200
14

=> x = 2800 Sufficient

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 195

From statement 2:

y 200 = x 1600

=> y = x 1400 . . . (iii)

Thus, from (i) and (iii):

3x
(x 1400) 200 =
7
3x
=> x = 1600
7
4x
=> = 1600
7

=> x = 2800 Sufficient

The correct answer is option D.

126. (Selling price of each article with A) : (Selling price of each article with B) = 4 : 5

Let the number of articles sold by A and B be a and b, respectively.

Thus, ratio of sales revenue of A and B = 4a : 5b

a
We need to determine whether: a > 2b => >2
b

From statement 1:

4
Sales revenue of A was more than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined
7
4
=> 4a > (4a + 5b)
7
4a 4
=> >
4a + 5b 7

=> 7a > 4a + 5b

=> 3a > 5b

a 5
=> >
b 3

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a 5
Thus, may be greater than 2 or lie between 2 and Insufficient
b 3

From statement 2:

5
Sales revenue of B was less than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined
14
5
=> 5b < (4a + 5b)
14

5b 5
=> <
4a + 5b 14

=> 14b < 4a + 5b

=> 4a > 9b

a 9
=> > > 2 Sufficient
b 4

The correct answer is option B.

127. From statement 1:

One Australian Dollar (AD) is equal to 93 Japanese Yen (JY), 48 Indian Rupee (INR), and
5.51 Hong Kong Dollar (HKD).

However, there is no information about Singapore Dollar (SD). Insufficient

From statement 2:

Value of Australian Dollar is equal to Singapore Dollar.

However, there is no information about Indian Rupee and Hong Kong Dollar. Insuffi-
cient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

We have:

48 INR = 1 AD = 93 JY = 5.51 HKD = 1 SD

Thus, it is clear that the number of currency units per 48 INR is the largest for JY.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 197

Thus, JY has the minimum value among the other currencies when expressed in terms
of INR.

The answer to the question is No. Sufficient

The correct answer is option C.

Alternate approach:

It is clear that we need to combine both statements in order to get information about
all the different currencies mentioned in the problem statement. Since the data is of a
numerical type, we are bound to get an answer, either Yes or No.

Thus, combining both statements must be sufficient to answer the question.

128. Let the salaries of A and B be 3x and 4x, respectively, where x is a constant of
proportionality.

From statement 1:

Let the expenses of A and B be 2y and y, respectively, where y is a constant of


proportionality.


Thus, the savings of A = 3x 2y . . . (i)


Also, the savings of B = 4x y

4x y
 
Thus, Bs savings as a fraction of his salary = . . . (ii)
4x

However, the relation between x and y is not known.

Hence, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

1
As savings = 3x = x . . . (iii)
3

However, we cannot determine Bs savings as a fraction of his salary. Insufficient

Thus, from statements 1 and 2 together:

19992016 Manhattan Review www.manhattanreview.com


198 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From (i) and (iii):

3x 2y = x

=> x = y . . . (iv)

Thus, from (ii) and (iv):

Bs savings as a fraction of his salary

4x y
 
=
4x
4x x 3
= = Sufficient
4x 4

The correct answer is option C.

Alternate approach:

Incomes of A and B are 3x and 4x, respectively.

1 1
Now, from statement 2, we have: Since A saves of his salary, his savings = 3x = x
3 3

Thus, As expense = 3x x = 2x

Now, from statement 1, we have: The expenses of A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1

Since As expense is 2x, Bs expense = x.

Thus, Bs savings = 4x x = 3x.

3x 3
Thus, the required fraction = = .
4x 4

129. From statement 1:

If each friend had contributed $5 more than what they actually did, the additional
amount they would have contributed

= $5 3 = $15

Thus, the total amount contributed in that case = $ (255 + 15) = $270.

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Arithmetic Guide Solutions 199

The ratio in which A, B and C would have contributed $270 = 2 : 3 : 4.

2
 
Hence, contribution of A = $ x 270 = $60.
2+3+4
3
 
Contribution of B = $ x 270 = $90.
2+3+4
4
 
Contribution of C = $ x 270 = $120.
2+3+4

Thus, before A, B and C had contributed the additional $5, their respective contributions

= (60 5) : (90 5) : (120 5)

= 55 : 85 : 115

= 11 : 17 : 23 Sufficient

From statement 2:

We have information only about the contribution of A and not about that of B or C.

Hence, the ratio of their contributions cannot be determined. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

130. Let the initial intensity be I and the initial distance of the point from the source be D.

Since the intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the point
from the source, we have:

1
I
D2
k
=> I = , where k is a constant of proportionality
D2

=> I D 2 = k . . . (i)

From statement 1:

I
 
New value of the intensity =
4

New value of the distance = (D + 5)

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200 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, from (i) we have:

I
I D2 = (D + 5)2 =k
4
I
 
D2 4
=> =
(D + 5)2 I
2
D 1

=> =
D+5 4
D 1
 
=> =
D+5 2

=> 2D = D + 5

=> D = 5 Sufficient

From statement 2:

New value of the intensity = (I + 100)

New value of the distance = (D 5)

Thus, from (i) we have:

I D 2 = (I + 100) (D 5)2

However, the value of D cannot be determined from the above equation since there are
two unknowns. Insufficient

The correct answer is option A.

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