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iv Arithmetic Guide

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Contents

1 Welcome 1

2 Concepts of Arithmetic 3

2.1 Percents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.2 Profit Loss Discount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3 Ratio Proportion Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.4 Mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.5 Computational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3 Practice Questions 37

3.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

4 Answer-key 87

4.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

4.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

5 Solutions 91

5.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

5.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6 Talk to Us 201

vii

viii Arithmetic Guide

Chapter 1

Welcome

Dear Students,

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1

2 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Chapter 2

Concepts of Arithmetic

3

4 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.1 Percents

Percent means out of hundred. A fraction having 100 in the denominator is called a percent.

1 1 25 25 1

For example, the fraction = = = 25%, which is equivalent to doing 100 = 25%.

4 4 25 100 4

Similarly, if we were to compare the scores of a candidate in two tests, in one of which he

obtained 60 out of 80 and in the other 75 out of 90, we can use percent values:

60

In the first test: 100 = 75%

80

75

In the second test: 100 = 83.33%

90

This implies that we need to determine a number, which as a percent of 120 represents

20%.

20

=> If the value is 120, the required number is 120 = 24

100

Thus, we have:

x

x % of y = y

100

This implies that if we have 30 out of 150, then what is the number that we have out of

100?

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 5

30

=> If the value is 100, the required number is 100 = 20

150

Thus, we have:

x

x is what % of y = 100

y

1 1 1 1

100% 16.66% 9.09% 6.25%

1 6 11 16

1 1 1 1

50% 14.28% 8.33% 5.88%

2 7 12 17

1 1 1 1

33.33% 12.50% 7.69% 5.55%

3 8 13 18

1 1 1 1

25% 11.11% 7.14% 5.26%

4 9 14 19

1 1 1 1

20% 10% 6.66% 5.00%

5 10 15 20

Percent change: Percent change is calculated as the change between the initial and final values

calculated as a percent of the initial value.

Thus, we have:

Percentage change = 100

Initial value (I)

F I

Given that the percent change be n%, we have: n% = 100.

I

Rearranging the terms, we get:

F I n F n

= => 1 =

I 100 I 100

F n

=> = 1 +

I 100

6 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

n

= > F = I 1+

+

100

n

Thus, in order to get the final value, the initial value is to be multiplied with 1 + .

100

Some examples are shown below:

100 100

100% increase 1+ =2 100% decrease 1 =0

100 100

50 3 50 1

50% increase 1+ = 50% decrease 1 =

100 2 100 2

33.33 4 33.33 2

33.33% increase 1+ = 33.33% decrease 1 =

100 3 100 3

25 5 25 3

25% increase 1+ = 25% decrease 1 =

100 4 100 4

20 6 20 4

20% increase 1+ = 20% decrease 1 =

100 5 100 5

(1) If the price of an article becomes $150 after increasing it by 20%, what was the initial

price of the article?

Explanation:

20

F =I 1+

100

F 150 150 5

=> I = = = = 150 = $125

20 1 6 6

1+ 1+

100 5 5

Alternately, we can say that the final price of the article is (100 + 20) % = 120% of the

initial price.

Thus, we have:

150 = 120% of I

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 7

100

=> I = 150 = $125

120

(2) After two successive discounts of 20% each, the price of a television becomes $12800.

What was the original price?

Explanation:

Thus, we have:

20 20

x 1 1 = 12800

100 100

5 5

=> x = 12800 = $20000

4 4

Successive percent change: When back-to-back percent changes happen, then the overall per-

cent change can be calculated using the following relation:

Let there be successive percent changes of x% and y%. If the overall percent change be z%,

then:

xy

z= x+y + %

100

Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

If there is a 20% decrease followed by a 30% increase in the price of a commodity, what is the

overall percent change in price of the commodity?

Explanation:

Thus, after 20% decrease in price, the price = (100 20) % or 80% of $100 = $80.

130

= (100 + 30) % or 130% of $80 = $ 80 = $104

100

104 100

Thus, overall percent change (from $100 to $104) = 100 = 4%

100

8 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Alternate approach:

We can use the successive percent change rule shown above as follows:

We have: x = 20, y = 30

20 30

= 20 + 30 =20 + 306 = 4%.

100

Percent change in product of two terms: The net percent change in the product of two terms,

when one changes by x% and the other changes by y%, is also given by the same formula:

xy

x+y + %

100

Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

(1) If the length of a rectangle increases by 20% and the breadth decreases by 30%, what is

the percent change in area of the rectangle?

Explanation:

Let the length and breadth of the rectangle be 100x and 100y, respectively.

10000xy 8400xy

Thus, percent change in area = 100 = 16% (decrease)

10000xy

Alternate approach:

We can use the successive percent change rule shown above as follows:

We have: x = 20, y = 30

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 9

20 30

= 2030 =106 =16%.

100

(2) The price of an item is increased by 20%. As a result, the number of items sold decreases

by 10%. What is the percent change in the revenue generated as a result?

Explanation:

20 10

Thus, percent change in revenue (a product of two commodities) is 2010 = 8%

100

Percent change in the sum of two commodities: Let there be two commodities whose values

are A and B, which have percent changes of x% and y%, the net percent change in the sum of

the two is given by:

Ax + B y

100%

A+B

Here x and y have to be taken with their sign, positive for increase and negative for decrease.

10 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Let the monthly salaries of a couple are $1000 for the husband and $1500 for the wife. If the

husbands salary increases by 10% and the wifes salary increases by 20%, what is the overall

percent increase in their combined salary?

Explanation:

2900 2500

Thus, percent increase = 100 = 16%

2500

Alternate approach:

Ax + B y

= 100%

A+B

1000 10 + 1500 20 100 (10 10 + 15 20)

= 100 = 100

1000 + 1500 100 (10 + 15)

400

= 100 = 16%

25

Change of base: If the percent difference between two values, expressed in terms of one is to

be calculated in terms of the other, we use the change of base concept.

x

100x

A is x % more than B = > B is % less than A

100 + x

x

100x

A is x % less than B = > B is % more than A

100 x

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 11

Explanation:

120 100

Thus, B is 100 = 16.66% less than A.

120

Alternate approach:

100 20 2000

Thus, the required percent value = %= % = 16.66%

100 + 20 120

12 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Profit or Loss is the difference between the Cost Price and Selling Price:

Loss = Cost Price Selling Price

Marked price or List price is the price on which discounts are applicable resulting in the

final Selling Price

S = (100 + P ) % of C

100 + P

=> S = C

100

P

=> S = C 1 +

100

S = (100 L) % of C

100 L

=> S = C

100

L

=> S = C 1

100

If an article having marked (list) price M is sold at D% discount, then the selling price S

is

S = (100 D) % of M

100 D

=> S = M

100

D

S

=> = M 1

100

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 13

S C

100%

C

If the above value comes positive, it is a profit, else it is a loss

M S

100%

M

(1) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If he sells 4 pens

at the price of the cost of 5 pens and he sells all the pens he has with him, what is his

percent profit?

Explanation:

We know that:

20

Thus, the cost of 1 pen = $ = $4

5

20

Selling price of 1 pen = $ = $5

4

4

5

Thus, percent profit = 100 = 25%

4

Alternately, we can say that since the shopkeeper sells 4 pens for the cost of 5, he makes

4) = 1 pen for every 4 pens.

a profit of (5

1

Thus, his percent profit = 100 = 25%

4

Point to be noted:

mn

= 100%

n

14 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

(2) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If for every 6 pens

that he sells at cost price, he gives away 1 pen for free, and he sells all the pens he has

with him, what is his percent loss?

Explanation:

Since the shopkeeper gives away 1 pen for free for every 6 pens sold at cost price, we

have:

42

Thus, the cost of 1 pen = $ = $7

6

42

Selling price of 1 pen = $ = $6

7

6

7

Thus, percent loss = 100 = 14.28%

7

Point to be noted:

If y articles

are given for free for every x articles sold at cost price, we can say that

x + y articles are sold at the cost price of x articles.

!

y

= 100%

x +y

(3) A shopkeeper has a stock of pens, each having the same cost price. If for every 10 pens

that he sells at a price 20% higher than the cost, he gives away 1 pen for free. If he sells

all the pens he has with him, what is his percent profit?

Explanation:

Thus, selling price of a pen = (100+

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 15

The man gives 1 pen for free for every 10 pens sold at a higher price.

Thus, selling price of (10+ 12) = $120

10) = $110

Cost price of 11 pens = $ (11

110

120

Thus, percent profit = 100 = 9.11%

110

Alternate approach:

Apparently, the shopkeeper sells each pen at a price 20% above the cost price.

Thus, we have:

6

+20) % of the cost price =

The selling price of 1 pen = (100+ times the cost price

5

The man gives 1 pen for free for every 10 pens sold at a higher price.

Thus, the man sells 10 pens for the cost of 12 pens and gives 1 pen for free.

Thus, the selling price of (10+

(assumed).

132

Thus, the selling price of each pen = $ = $12

11

132

The cost price of each pen = $ = $11

12

11

12

Thus, percent profit = 100 = 9.11%

11

(4) An article is sold at 20% profit. Had it been sold at $60 less than the selling price, there

would have been a loss of 5%. What is the cost price of the article?

Explanation:

16 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

(

Difference in % Profit = 20 5) = 25% of the Cost price

Thus, we have:

100

= > Cost price = $ 60 = $240

25

(5) A man sold two tables for $96 each, gaining 20% on one and losing 20% on the other.

What is his overall profit or loss percent?

Explanation:

100

=> Cost price = $ 96 = $80

120

100

=> Cost price = $ 96 = $120

80

200 192

Thus, overall percent loss = 100 = 4%

200

Point to be noted:

If two items are sold, each at the same price, one

2

k

of k %, there is an overall loss given by: %.

100

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 17

(6) In which of the following cases, is the discounted price the greatest?

(B) Successive discounts of 20% and 10%

(C) Successive discounts of 25% and 5%

(D) Single discount of 30%

Explanation:

We know that

xy

is given by x + y + %

100

10) (

( 20)

20+

(A) Net percent change = 10 + = 28%

100

20) (

( 10)

10+

(B) Net percent change = 20 + = 28%

100

25) (

( 5)

5+

(C) Net percent change = 25 + = 28.75%

100

Since the minimum discount is 28% for both options A and B, the greatest price would

also be for options A and B.

18 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Ratio: A ratio is defined as the multiple or part a quantity of one kind bears with another

quantity of the same kind.

For example:

3

Since 30 = 45, we have:

2

3 a 2

a = b => =

2 b 3

=> a : b = 2 : 3

If A : B = p : q, we have:

!

p

A= (A + B)

p+q

!

q

B= (A + B)

p+q

Ratio remains same when the two quantities of a ratio are multiplied or divided by the

same number. Thus, we have:

a ak

=

b bk

a k ) : (b

= > a : b = (a b k)

If the ratio of two quantities is less than 1, adding the same positive number to both

quantities of the ratio increases the value. Thus, we have:

a

If < 1, and k is a positive number:

b

a+k a

>

b +k b

a 2 a+1 3 2

For example: = => = >

b 3 b+1 4 3

a

Similarly, if < 1, and k is a positive number:

b

ak a

<

b k b

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 19

a 2 a1 1 2

For example: = => = <

b 3 b1 2 3

If the ratio of two quantities is greater than 1, adding the same positive number to both

quantities of the ratio decreases the value. Thus, we have:

a

If > 1, and k is a positive number:

b

a+k a

<

b +k b

a 3 a+1 4 3

For example: = => = <

b 2 b+1 3 2

a

Similarly, if > 1, and k is a positive number:

b

ak a

>

b k b

a 3 a1 2 3

For example: = => = >

b 2 b1 1 2

a c

If = , we have:

b d

a c

Let = =k

b d

=> a = b k and c = d k

=> a + c = k (b + d)

a+c

=> =k

b+d

a c a+c

=> = =

b d b +d

a c

If = , we have:

b d

a c

Let = =k

b d

=> a = b k and c = d k

Thus, we have:

a + b = bk + b = b (k + 1), a b = bk b = b (k 1)

c + d = dk + d = d (k + 1), c d = dk d = d (k 1)

a+b c +d

=> =

ab c d

If we have: k a = l b = m c , we have:

20 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

1 1 1

a:b:c = : :

k l m

Proportion: If the ratio of two quantities is equal to the ratio of other two quantities then the

four quantities are said to be in proportion.

Variation:

If two quantities a & b are such that any increase in b produces a proportionate increase

in a, and vice-versa, then a is directly proportional to b.

Thus, we have:

ab

=> a = kb, where k is a constant

a

=> = constant

b

If two quantities a and b are such that any increase in b will bring about a proportionate

decrease in a and vice-versa, then a is inversely proportional to b.

Thus, we have:

1

a

b

k

=> a = , where k is a constant

b

= > a b = constant

=> A C

Joint variation: If A, B and C are three quantities, such that A B if C is constant and

A C if B is constant, we have:

B C ), where both B and C vary

A (B

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 21

p q 7p 2q

(1) If = = , what is the value of k?

3 8 k

Explanation:

We know that:

p q 7p 2q

= =

3 8 k

p q 7p 2q

Let = = =r

3 8 k

=> p = 3r and q = 8r

Thus, we have:

Thus, we have:

7p 2q

=r

k

5r

=> = r => k = 5

k

(2) An alloy has iron and copper mixed in the ratio 2 : 3. If 21 pounds of iron is mixed with

15 pounds of the above alloy, what would be the percent of copper in the final alloy?

Explanation:

3

Amount of copper present in 15 pounds of the original alloy = 15 = 9 pounds

2+3

Since the quantity of copper remains unchanged, while the total alloy quantity becomes

(15 + 21) = 36 pounds, we have:

9

Percent of copper = 100 = 25%

36

(3) The cost of manufacturing an article is partly fixed and partly varies with the number of

articles to be manufactured. If the cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100 and the cost

of manufacturing 20 articles is $180, what is the fixed cost involved?

22 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Explanation:

Thus, we have:

Thus, we have:

C = f + v => C = f + kn

80 = 10k => k = 8

100 = f + 80 => f = 20

Alternate approach:

The cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100 and that for 20 articles is $180

Thus, the incremental cost for (20 10) = 10 articles = $ (180 100) = $80

Since the cost of manufacturing 10 articles is $100, the balance amount, i.e. $ (100 80)

= $20 is the fixed cost.

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 23

1

(4) A telecom operator charges a fixed amount of $f for the first minutes of a call. There-

4

1

after, for every minutes, it charges $v. If the total charge for a call be $c, what is the

2

expression for the duration of the call in terms of f , v and c?

Explanation:

1

Charges for the first minutes = $f

4

1

Duration of call remaining = x minutes.

4

1

Call charge every minute = $v

2

1

Thus, call charge for x minutes =

4

v

x 1 1

$

1 = $ 2v x

4

4

2

1

Thus, total call charge = $ f + 2v x

4

Thus, we have:

1

f + 2v x =c

4

1

=> 2v x =cf

4

1 cf

=> x =

4 2v

cf 1

=> x = +

2v 4

24 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.4 Mixtures

Mixture problems involve forming a mixture from two or more things, and determining some

quantity (percentage, price, etc.) of the final mixture.

Mixture problems can be seen in any of (or similar to) the following scenarios:

Combining multiple varieties of commodities having different prices and determining the

average price of the mixture

Combining multiple alloys with different percent purity and determining the percent

purity of the mixture

Combining multiple solutions with different components and determining the ratio of

the components in the mixture

When X and x quantities of A and B, costing C and cost c, respectively, are mixed, the

average cost, M, of mixture is given by:

CX + cx

M =

X +x

ingredient X and r % of ingredient X, respectively, are mixed, the concentration, M%, of

ingredient X in the mixture is given by:

R r

V + v

100 100 V R + vr

M = 100 =

V +v V +v

(1) Three varieties of tea priced at $10 per pound, $15 per pound and $24 per pound are

mixed together in the ratio 2 : 1 : 5, respectively. What is the average price of the result-

ing mixture?

Explanation:

Let the quantities of the three varieties be 2 pounds, 1 pound and 5 pounds, respectively.

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 25

155 3

Thus, average price of the mixture = $ = $19

8 8

(2) Three varieties of tea priced at $20 per pound, $15 per pound and $24 per pound are

mixed together. If the average price of the resulting mixture is $20 per pound, which of

the following is a possible ratio in which the three varieties of tea were mixed?

(A) 1 : 4 : 5

(B) 2 : 3 : 8

(C) 3 : 8 : 12

(D) 5 : 8 : 10

Explanation:

Let the quantities of the three varieties of tea used are x pounds, y pounds and z pounds.

$ (x 20) = $20x, $ y 15 = $15y and $ (z 24) = $24z

Thus, combined price of x + y + z pounds of tea = $ 20x + 15y + 24z

!

20x + 15y + 24z

Thus, average price of the mixture = $

x+y +z

Thus, we have:

= 20

x+y +z

y 4

=> 5y = 4z => =

z 5

Since x is not there in the above equation, any value of x can be used. Observe that the

average price of the mixture is the same as the price per pound of the variety having

quantity x.

26 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Thus, the presence or the absence of that particular variety will not affect the average

price of the mixture.

(3) Iron ore mined from Site A has 72% iron, while that from Site B has 56% iron. A certain

quantity of both ores are taken and melted to form a substance having 65% iron. If the

quantity of iron ore taken from Site A is 5 pounds more than that from Site B, what is the

weight of the ore used from Site B?

(A) 12

1

(B) 16

2

1

(C) 17

2

(D) 20

Explanation:

Let the quantity of ore taken from Site B be x pounds and that taken from Site A be

(x + 5) pounds.

= 56% of x + 72% of (x + 5)

= + =

100 100 100

128x + 360

= 100%

100 (2x + 5)

Thus, we have:

128x + 360

100 = 65

100 (2x + 5)

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 27

1

=> 2x = 35 => x = 17

2

Note: Percent of iron present in ores from Site A and Site B = 72% and 56%

72 + 56

If the two ores were mixed in equal ratio, percent of iron in the mixture = = 64%

2

Since the actual percent of iron in the mixture is 65%, i.e. slightly greater than the above

value, there should be slightly higher quantity of ore from Site A.

Alternate approach:

Let the quantities of ores from Site A and Site B be a and b pounds respectively.

Thus, we have:

72a + 56b

= 65

a+b

9

=> a = b

7

9 2

=> b + 5 = b => b = 5

7 7

1

=> b = 17

2

Method of alligation:

Alligation is the method by which we calculate the ratio in which two different ingredients of

known values are mixed to produce a mixture of a given value. The value of the ingredient

may refer to the price, composition, etc.

In the alligation method, the amount of working required to get to the answer is considerably

reduced.

of cost c (where C > c) are mixed to get an average cost of mixture M:

28 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

=

Weight of dearer ingredient Cost of mixture Cost of cheaper

Conc. of X in A () Conc. of X in B ()

Conc. of X in mixture ()

:

B having r % of constituent X (where R > r ) are mixed to get an average concentration of

constituent X as M%:

=

Weight of lower conc.solution Conc. in mixture Conc. in lower

:

(1) A merchant mixes x kg of tea costing $12 per kg and y kg of another variety costing $20

per kg. If the price of the mixture is $15 per kg, what is the ratio of x and y?

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 29

Explanation:

We have: x kg of tea priced at $12 per kg and y kg of tea priced at $20 per kg.

!

12x + 20y

=$

x+y

Thus, we have:

12x + 20y

= 15

x+y

x 5

=> 3x = 5y => =

y 3

Alternate approach:

= = : = =

(2) A solution A contains alcohol and spirit in the ratio 4 : 1 and the solution B contains

alcohol and spirit in the ratio 2 : 3. In what proportion should the solutions to be taken

from A and B to form a mixture having alcohol and spirit in the ratio of 1 : 1?

Explanation:

30 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

4

Concentration of alcohol in solution A = 100 = 80%

4+1

2

Concentration of alcohol in solution B = 100 = 40%

2+3

Let the quantity taken from solution A and solution B be x and y, respectively.

80x + 40y

=

x+y

1

Concentration of alcohol in the final mixture = 100 = 50%

1+1

Thus, we have:

80x + 40y

= 50

x+y

x 1

=> 30x = 10y => =

y 3

Alternate approach:

= = : = =

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 31

Say, a vessel contains a solution of different ingredients in some ratio. A part of the solution

is removed and some quantity of one of the existing ingredients is added to the solution.

A container has 100 liters of spirit. 10 liters of the contents are taken out and replaced with

petrol. This process is repeated one more time. What is the concentration of spirit finally

present in the container?

Explanation:

If a vessel having capacity V has two constituents A and B in the ratio a : b, and a part of the

contents of the vessel, say p% are removed, the remaining vessel would still have A and B in

the same ratio a : b. Also, the contents that are removed, would also have A and B in the ratio

a : b.

Since p% of the contents of the vessel are removed, the part remaining is 100 p % of the

vessel. Thus, the remaining parts of the constituents are also 100 p % of their initial values.

Since 10 liters are removed and replaced with petrol, we have 90 liters spirit and 10 liters

petrol.

After this, again 10 liters of the above solution of 100 liters is removed.

10

Thus, 100 = 10% of the solution is removed.

100

90

Thus, spirit remaining = (100 10) = 90% of 90 = 90 = 81 liters.

100

90

Similarly, alcohol remaining = (100 10) = 90% of 10 = 10 = 9 liters.

100

Since 10 liters alcohol is added again, the final quantity of alcohol = 10 + 9 = 19 liters.

32 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

2.5 Computational

Computational problems are typically those which cannot be categorized into any fixed cate-

gory.

Such problems are usually solved using basic arithmetic skills applied along with logical rea-

soning skills.

There can be various types of computational problems. A few of the typical ones are men-

tioned below:

dition, subtraction, multiplication, and in some rare cases, division, where the digits of the

numbers are replaced with letters.

Careful observation of the patterns is necessary to determine the numeric value of each letter.

In the multiplication shown below, 1ABCDE is a six-digit number. What is the value of

(A + B + C + D + E)?

1

x 3

_______________________

1

Explanation:

Thus, we have:

A + B + C + D + E = 4 + 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 = 26

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 33

Symbol based problems: In symbol based problems, a symbol is defined, based on which, the

calculations are to be done.

(2 @ 3) # 5?

Explanation:

@ implies +: p @ 0 = p + 0 = p

@ implies : p @ 0 = p 0 = p

(2 @ 3) # 5 = (2 + 3) # 5 = 5 # 5 = 55 + 55 = 2 55

1 4

(2 @ 3) # 5 = (2 3) # 5 = (1) # 5 = (1)5 + 5(1) = 1 + =

5 5

4

Thus, the possible solutions are: 2 55 OR

5

Calculation intensive: Certain problems may be simply calculation based, where the calcula-

tion may be simplified using some basic identities or rules.

( )

n o 100

What is the approximate value of: (0.11 + 0.07)2 (0.11 0.07)2 % of ?

(0.11)2 (0.07)2

(A) 2.4

(B) 3.6

(C) 4.3

(D) 8.1

Explanation:

We have:

34 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

n o

(0.11 + 0.07)2 (0.11 0.07)2

= 0.112 + 2 0.11 0.07 + 0.072 0.112 2 0.11 0.07 + 0.072

= 4 0.11 0.07

Again, we have:

100

(0.11) (0.07)2

2

100

=

(0.11 + 0.07) (0.11 0.07)

100

=

0.18 0.04

Thus, the required value

=

100 0.18 0.04

0.11 0.07

=4

0.18 0.04

11 7

=4

18 4

77

=4

72

77

Since 2 > > 1, the value should be slightly greater than 4 (but definitely less than 8).

72

The correct answer is option C.

Arithmetic Guide Concepts 35

In the GMAT, only two kinds of questions asked: Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.

Problem Solving

Problem solving (PS) questions may not be new to you. You must have seen these types of

questions in your school or college days. The format is as follows: There is a question stem

and is followed by options, out of which, only one option is correct or is the best option that

answers the question correctly.

PS questions measure your skill to solve numerical problems, interpret graphical data, and

assess information. These questions present to you five options and no option is phrased as

None of these. Mostly the numeric options, unlike algebraic expressions, are presented in an

ascending order from option A through E, occasionally in a descending order until there is a

specific purpose not to do so.

Data Sufficiency

For most of you, Data Sufficiency (DS) may be a new format. The DS format is very unique to the

GMAT exam. The format is as follows: There is a question stem followed by two statements,

labeled statement (1) and statement (2). These statements contain additional information.

Your task is to use the additional information from each statement alone to answer the ques-

tion. If none of the statements alone helps you answer the question, you must use the infor-

mation from both the statements together. There may be questions which cannot be answered

even after combining the additional information given in both the statements. Based on this,

the question always follows standard five options which are always in a fixed order.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to answer the

question asked.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to answer the

question asked.

(C) BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked, but

NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and

additional data specific to the problem are needed.

In the next chapters, you will find 130 GMAT-like quants questions. Best of luck!

36 Arithmetic Guide Concepts

Chapter 3

Practice Questions

37

38 Arithmetic Guide Questions

1. A man has few articles, all identical. If he sells them at $8 apiece, he loses $250. However,

if he sells them at $9 apiece, he gains $125. How many articles does he have?

(A) 125

(B) 250

(C) 300

(D) 375

(E) 400

Solve yourself:

2. A person sold an article at $56 and got a percentage profit equal to the numerical value

of the cost price. What is the cost price of the article?

(A) $24.64

(B) $31.36

(C) $35.00

(D) $40.00

(E) $42.34

Solve yourself:

3. Ann, Bob and Joe have few marbles. The number of marbles with Ann is 20% greater

than that with Joe and 40% less than that with Bob. The number of marbles with Bob is

what percent of the number of marbles with Joe?

(A) 25%

(B) 50%

(C) 100%

(D) 125%

(E) 200%

Arithmetic Guide Questions 39

Solve yourself:

4. The ratio of incomes of Ann and Bob is 4 : 7. If the expense ratio of Ann and Bob is 2 :

1

3, and Ann saves of her income, what fraction of his income does Bob save?

3

1

(A)

2

3

(B)

7

4

(C)

7

3

(D)

4

4

(E)

5

Solve yourself:

5. In a study, it was observed that the height of a person is proportional to the square root

of his age up to the age of 25 years. The increase in height is then directly proportional to

the age in excess of 25 years till a maximum age of 50 years, and then remains constant

thereafter. If a 16-year old boy is found to have a height of 4 feet and a 50-year old man

has a height of 6 feet, what is the expected height of a 45-year old man?

(A) 5.2 feet

(B) 5.5 feet

(C) 5.7 feet

(D) 5.8 feet

(E) 5.9 feet

Solve yourself:

40 Arithmetic Guide Questions

6. The distance traversed by a car is the sum of two quantities, one of which is directly

proportional to the time of travel while the other is directly proportional to the square of

the time of travel. The car travels 50 miles in the first hour and 110 miles in the second

hour. What is its average speed of the car for a journey of 6 hours?

(B) 120 miles per hour

(C) 150 miles per hour

(D) 200 miles per hour

(E) 1200 miles per hour

Solve yourself:

7. The ratio of illiterate males to illiterate females in a village is 5 : 4. 60% of the illiterate

males enroll for a literacy campaign. What is the greatest possible proportion of people

who enroll for the literacy campaign from among the illiterate population?

2

(A)

9

1

(B)

2

2

(C)

3

7

(D)

9

5

(E)

6

Solve yourself:

a b

8. If bc : ca : ab = 2 : 3 : 4, what is the ratio of : ?

bc ac

(A) 2 :1

(B) 9:4

(C) 2 2 :1

(D) 4:1

Arithmetic Guide Questions 41

(E) 6:1

Solve yourself:

9. In a camp of 100 soldiers, the food supply is estimated to last a certain number of days.

However, after 13 days, 100 more soldiers join the camp and the food supply now lasts

for 12 more days. What was the original time estimate? Assume that each soldier always

consumes the same fixed quantity of food each day.

(A) 24 days

(B) 25 days

(C) 31 days

(D) 37 days

(E) 43 days

Solve yourself:

10. A cistern can be filled by two pipes in 20 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively, and the

third pipe empties the cistern in some time. If all the pipes are turned on in an empty

cistern at once and after 8 minutes the cistern is half full, in what time can the third pipe

empty the full cistern if the other two pipes are closed?

(A) 24 minutes

(B) 45 minutes

(C) 48 minutes

(D) 54 minutes

(E) 60 minutes

Solve yourself:

42 Arithmetic Guide Questions

11. Ann completes a piece of work in 24 days, Bob in 40 days and Dan in 60 days. They

all begin together but Ann alone continues the work till the end while Bob leaves 2 days

before the completion and Dan, 7 days before the completion of the work. In how many

days is the work completed?

(A) 12 days

(B) 14 days

(C) 16 days

(D) 18 days

(E) 19 days

Solve yourself:

12. Two brothers, A and B, set out for a station 9 miles away from their home. They both

walk at 3 miles per hour. After going one mile, A decided to return to their home for an

urgent work. At what rate (in miles per hour) must A now walk in order that he reaches

the station at the same time as B, given that he spends 30 minutes at his home?

1

(A) 3

2

3

(B) 3

4

8

(C) 4

13

1

(D) 5

3

(E) 6

Solve yourself:

following statements must be true?

I. p cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s

II. q cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s

III. s cannot be the average (arithmetic mean) of p, q, r , s

Arithmetic Guide Questions 43

(B) Only statement II

(C) Only statement III

(D) Both statements I and II

(E) I, II and III

Solve yourself:

14. A manufacturer fixes the sales price of an article by adding together the cost of pro-

duction, excise duty (5% of the cost of the production) and his profit (20% of the cost

of production) and sells the article to the retailer. The retailer marks the price at 20%

above his cost price and allows 6% discount on that price for cash payment. Find the

manufacturing cost of an article for which a customer makes a cash payment of $705 to

the retailer.

(A) $508

(B) $500

(C) $482

(D) $423

(E) $400

Solve yourself:

15. Jacob purchased 100 boxes of oranges at $8 per box. He sold 8 of the boxes at $4 per

box to Company A, and he sold the rest of the boxes to Company B. If Jacobs profit from

the purchase and sale of the 100 boxes of oranges was $336, at what price per box did

he sell the boxes to Company B?

(A) $11.36

(B) $11.60

(C) $12.00

(D) $12.35

(E) $12.90

44 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

16. During the first week of September, a shoe retailer sold 10 pairs of a certain style of

oxfords at $35.00 a pair. If, during the second week of September, 15 pairs were sold at

the sale price of $27.50 a pair, approximately by what percent did the revenue from the

weekly sales of these oxfords increase during the second week?

(A) 12%

(B) 13%

(C) 15%

(D) 17%

(E) 18%

Solve yourself:

17. During the four years that Ms Lopez owned her car; she found that her total car expenses

1

were $18,000. Fuel and maintenance costs accounted for of the total and depreciation

3

3

accounted for of the remainder. The cost of insurance was 3 times the cost of financ-

5

1

ing, and together these two costs accounted for of the total. If the only other expense

5

was taxes and license fees, then the cost of financing was how much more or less than

the cost of taxes and license fees?

(A) $1500 more

(B) $1200 more

(C) $100 less

(D) $300 less

(E) $1500 less

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 45

by quantity. The cost per ton of A, B and C is in the ratio 3 : 4 : 6, respectively. The

product is sold at a profit of 20 percent. Due to rising inflation, if the costs of A and B

and C increase by 30 percent, 40 percent and 10 percent, respectively, what should be

the approximate percent increase in the selling price of the product so that the percent

profit remains the same?

(A) 17%

(B) 19%

(C) 20%

(D) 23%

(E) 25%

Solve yourself:

1

19. Enrollment in City College in 1980 was 83 percent of the enrollment in 1990. The per-

3

cent of dropouts in the college in 1980 was 20 percent of the number of enrollments.

If the percent of dropouts in the college in 1990 was 25 percent of the number of en-

rollments, what was the percent increase in the number of dropouts in the college from

1980 to 1990?

(A) 5.0%

(B) 16.6%

(C) 33.3%

(D) 50.0%

(E) 66.6%

Solve yourself:

20. Envelopes can be purchased for $1.50 per pack of 100, $1.00 per pack of 50, or $0.03

each. What is the greatest number of envelopes that can be purchased for $7.30?

(A) 426

(B) 430

(C) 443

46 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(D) 460

(E) 486

Solve yourself:

21. For a certain race, 3 teams were allowed to enter 3 members each. A team earned (6 n)

points whenever one of its members finished in nth place, where 1 n 5, however, if

n > 5, no points were awarded. There were no ties, disqualifications, or withdrawals. If

no team earned more than 6 points, what is the least possible score a team could have

earned?

(A) 0

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 3

(E) 4

Solve yourself:

22. For an agricultural experiment, 300 seeds were planted in one plot and 200 seeds were

planted in a second plot. If exactly 25 percent of the seeds in the first plot germinated

and exactly 35 percent of the seeds in the second plot germinated, what percent of the

total number of seeds germinated?

(A) 12%

(B) 26%

(C) 29%

(D) 30%

(E) 60%

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 47

23. For any integer k greater than 1, the symbol k# denotes the product of all the fractions

1

of the form , where t is an integer between 1 and k, inclusive. What is the value of

t

5#

?

4#

(A) 5

5

(B)

4

4

(C)

5

1

(D)

4

1

(E)

5

Solve yourself:

24. Jims income comes from his wages and from tips. For a certain month, if Jims income

from his wages was 166.67 percent of his income from tips, approximately what percent

of his total income came from tips?

(A) 20%

(B) 33%

(C) 38%

(D) 60%

(E) 62%

Solve yourself:

25. John, Karen, and Luke collected cans of vegetables for a food drive. The number of cans

2 3

that John collected was the number of cans that Karen collected and the number

3 4

of cans that Luke collected. The number of cans that Luke collected was approximately

what percent of the total number of cans that John, Karen, and Luke collected?

(A) 35%

(B) 30%

48 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(C) 25%

(D) 20%

(E) 16%

Solve yourself:

26. Last Sunday, a certain store sold copies of Newspaper A for $1.00 each and copies of

Newspaper B for $1.25 each, and the store sold no other newspapers that day. If r

percent of the stores revenue from newspaper sales was from Newspaper A and if p

percent of the newspapers that the store sold were copies of Newspaper A, which of the

following expresses r in terms of p?

100p

(A)

125 p

150p

(B)

250 p

300p

(C)

375 p

400p

(D)

500 p

500p

(E)

625 p

Solve yourself:

27. Last year the price per share of Stock X increased by k percent and the earnings per share

of Stock X increased by m percent, where k is greater than m. By what percent did the

ratio of price per share to earnings per share increase, in terms of k and m?

k

(A) %

m

(B) (k m) %

100 (k m)

(C) %

100 + k

100 (k m)

(D) %

100 + m

100 (k m)

(E) %

100 + k + m

Arithmetic Guide Questions 49

Solve yourself:

28. Hernandez, who was a resident of State X for only 8 months in the last year, had to pay

tax of $1800 on his income for the year. If the state tax rate were 4 percent of the years

income prorated for the proportion of the year during which the taxpayer was a resident,

what would be Hernandezs income for last year?

(A) $90,000

(B) $75,000

(C) $67,500

(D) $45,000

(E) $27,500

Solve yourself:

29. Ms. Adams sold two properties, X and Y, for $30,000 each. She sold property X for 20

percent more than what she paid for it and sold property Y for 20 percent less than what

she paid for it. What was her total net gain or loss, if any, on the two properties?

(B) $2500 loss

(C) Neither a loss nor a gain

(D) $1250 gain

(E) $2500 gain

Solve yourself:

30. Of a group of people surveyed in a political poll, 60 percent said that they would vote for

candidate R. Of those who said they would vote for R, 90 percent actually voted for R,

50 Arithmetic Guide Questions

and of those who did not say they would vote for R, 5 percent actually voted for R. What

percent of the group voted for R?

(A) 56%

(B) 59%

(C) 62%

(D) 65%

(E) 74%

Solve yourself:

31. Of the 2,500 tons of ore mined daily at a quarry, a certain pure metal constitutes only 0.5

percent. If 20 percent of the pure metal is lost during extraction, in how many days of

mining will the total amount of pure metal extracted at the quarry be equal to the daily

amount of ore mined?

(A) 25

(B) 200

(C) 250

(D) 2000

(E) 2500

Solve yourself:

32. Of the families in City X in 1994, 40 percent owned a personal computer. The number of

families in City X owning a computer in 1998 was 30 percent greater than it was in 1994,

and the total number of families in City X was 4 percent greater in 1998 than it was in

1994. What percent of the families in City X owned a personal computer in 1998?

(A) 50%

(B) 52%

(C) 56%

(D) 70%

(E) 74%

Arithmetic Guide Questions 51

Solve yourself:

33. Of the fruit that arrives at a cannery, 20 percent by weight is rejected before processing.

Of the fruit that is processed, 15 percent by weight is rejected before canning. The fruit

that arrives at the cannery is what percent by weight of the fruit that is canned?

(A) 68%

(B) 95%

(C) 123%

(D) 147%

(E) 160%

Solve yourself:

2 3

34. Of the goose eggs laid at a certain pond, hatched, and of the geese that hatched

3 4

3

from those eggs survived the first month. Of the geese that survived the first month,

5

did NOT survive the first year. If 120 geese survived the first year and if no more than

one goose hatched from each egg, how many goose eggs were laid at the pond?

(A) 280

(B) 400

(C) 540

(D) 600

(E) 840

Solve yourself:

35. Of the total amount that Jane spent on a shopping trip, including taxes, she spent 55

percent on clothing, 23 percent on food, and 22 percent on travel. If Jane paid a 10

52 Arithmetic Guide Questions

percent tax on the clothing, 15 percent tax on the food and no tax on travel, then the

total tax that she paid was what percent of the total amount that she spent, excluding

taxes?

(A) 3.6%

(B) 4.4%

(C) 6.0%

(D) 8.7%

(E) 10.0%

Solve yourself:

tickets and also took their cars aboard the ship. If 60 percent of the passengers with

round-trip tickets did not take their cars aboard the ship, what percent of the ships

passengers held round-trip tickets?

(A) 33.3%

(B) 40.0%

(C) 50.0%

(D) 60.0%

(E) 66.7%

Solve yourself:

37. One gram of a certain health food contains 7 percent of the minimum daily requirement

of vitamin E and 3 percent of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

If vitamins E and A are to be obtained from no other source, approximately how many

grams of the health food must be eaten daily to provide at least the minimum daily

requirement of both vitamins?

(A) 3

(B) 7

(C) 10

(D) 14

Arithmetic Guide Questions 53

(E) 34

Solve yourself:

38. A union contract specifies a 6 percent salary increase along with a $450 bonus for each

employee. For a certain employee, this is equivalent to an 8 percent salary increase. What

was this employees initial salary before the new contract?

(A) $21500

(B) $22500

(C) $23500

(D) $24300

(E) $25000

Solve yourself:

39. The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 25 percent less than the charge for a single

room at Hotel R and 10 percent less than the charge for a single room at Hotel G. The

charge for a single room at Hotel R is what percent greater than the charge for a single

room at Hotel G?

(A) 15%

(B) 20%

(C) 40%

(D) 50%

(E) 150%

Solve yourself:

54 Arithmetic Guide Questions

40. The cost C of manufacturing a certain product can be estimated by the formula C =

0.03r st 2 , where r and s are the amounts, in pounds, of the two major ingredients and

t is the production time, in hours. If r is increased by 50 percent, s is increased by

20 percent, and t is decreased by 30 percent, by approximately what percent will the

estimated cost of manufacturing the product change?

(A) 40% increase

(B) 12% increase

(C) 4% increase

(D) 12% decrease

(E) 24% decrease

Solve yourself:

41. A manufacturer sells his product to a retailer at 20 percent profit, who sells it to a

shopkeeper at a loss of 20 percent, who, in turn, sells it to a customer for $288 at a

profit of 20 percent. What was the manufacturers cost price?

(A) $240

(B) $250

(C) $300

(D) $375

(E) $400

Solve yourself:

42. John makes wooden bowls and sells each bowl at a price that consists of his cost of

making the bowl and a mark-up amount that is 25 percent of the selling price. What is

the selling price of a bowl that cost John $60 to make?

(A) $80

(B) $75

(C) $60

(D) $50

(E) $45

Arithmetic Guide Questions 55

Solve yourself:

43. Last years graduating class at a certain college had equal numbers of males and females.

4

If of the males graduated without honors, and if the fraction of the females who

5

graduated with honors was 3 times the fraction of males who graduated with honors,

what fraction of all the students in the graduating class were females who graduated

without honors?

1

(A)

15

1

(B)

5

4

(C)

15

1

(D)

3

2

(E)

5

Solve yourself:

3 2 3

44. In a class, of the students, including of the girls have glasses. If of all students

4 3 5

were girls, what percent of the students not having glasses were girls?

(A) 20%

(B) 33%

(C) 35%

(D) 40%

(E) 80%

Solve yourself:

56 Arithmetic Guide Questions

1 1

45. In a certain school, 40 more than of all the students are taking a science course and

3 4

1

of those taking a science course are taking physics. If of all the students in the school

8

are taking physics, how many students are in the school?

(A) 240

(B) 300

(C) 480

(D) 720

(E) 960

Solve yourself:

46. Four extra-large sandwiches of exactly the same size were ordered for m students, where

m > 4. Three of the sandwiches were evenly divided among the students. Since 4

students did not have any part of the fourth sandwich, it was evenly divided among the

remaining students. If Carol ate one piece from each of the four sandwiches, the amount

of sandwich that she ate would be what fraction of a whole extra-large sandwich?

m+4

(A)

m (m 4)

2m 4

(B)

m (m 4)

4m 4

(C)

m (m 4)

4m 8

(D)

m (m 4)

4m 12

(E)

m (m 4)

Solve yourself:

47. Four staff members at a certain company worked on a project. The amounts of time that

the four staff members worked on the project were in the ratio 2 : 3 : 5 : 6. If one of the

four staff members worked on the project for 30 hours, which of the following CANNOT

be the total number of hours that the four staff members worked on the project?

Arithmetic Guide Questions 57

(A) 80

(B) 96

(C) 160

(D) 192

(E) 240

Solve yourself:

p bits of computer memory will be required to store the integer x, where

x = 810, 000, if each digit requires 4 bits of memory and the sign of x requires 1 bit?

(A) 25

(B) 24

(C) 17

(D) 13

(E) 12

Solve yourself:

49. Marion rented a car for $18.00 plus $0.10 per mile driven. Craig rented a car for $25.00

plus $0.05 per mile driven. If each drove d miles and each was charged exactly the same

amount for the rental then what was the charge each had to pay?

(A) 32

(B) 68

(C) 100

(D) 135

(E) 140

Solve yourself:

58 Arithmetic Guide Questions

50. If an automobile averaged 22.5 miles per gallon of gasoline, approximately how many

kilometers per liter of gasoline did the automobile average? (1 mile = 1.6 kilometer and

1 gallon = 3.8 liters, both rounded to the nearest tenth)

(A) 3.7

(B) 9.5

(C) 31.4

(D) 53.4

(E) 136.8

Solve yourself:

51. Of the books standing in a row on a shelf, an atlas is the 30th book from the left and the

33rd book from the right. If 2 books to the left of the atlas and 4 books to the right of

the atlas are removed from the shelf, how many books will be left on the shelf?

(A) 56

(B) 57

(C) 58

(D) 61

(E) 63

Solve yourself:

52. On a certain street, there is an odd number of houses in a row. The houses in the row are

painted in a repeating sequence of white, green and yellow, with the first house painted

white. If the total number of houses in the row is n, and n is one greater than a multiple

of 3, how many of the houses are painted green?

n+3

(A)

3

n1

(B) +1

3

n2

(C) +1

3

n1

(D)

3

Arithmetic Guide Questions 59

n2

(E)

3

Solve yourself:

53. On an aerial photograph, the surface of a pond appears as a circular region of radius

7

inch. If a distance of 1 inch on the photograph corresponds to an actual distance of

16

2 miles, which of the following is the closest estimate of the actual surface area of the

pond, in square miles?

(A) 1.3

(B) 2.4

(C) 3.0

(D) 3.8

(E) 5.0

Solve yourself:

54. Reggie purchased a car costing $8700. As a down payment he used a $2300 insurance

settlement and an amount from his saving equal to 15 percent of the difference between

the cost of the car and the insurance settlement. If he borrowed the rest of the money

he needed to purchase the car, how much did he borrow?

(A) $6400

(B) $6055

(C) $5440

(D) $5095

(E) $3260

Solve yourself:

60 Arithmetic Guide Questions

55. The age of the Earth is approximately 1.44 1017 seconds. Assuming one year to consist

of 360 days, which of the following is closest to the age of the Earth in years?

(B) 4.6 109

(C) 1.9 1010

(D) 2.5 1011

(E) 4.1 1011

Solve yourself:

a b

56. The operation # is defined for all non-zero numbers a and b by a#b = . If x and

b a

y are non-zero numbers, which of the following statements must be true?

I. x#xy = x 1#y

II. x#y = y#x

1 1

III. # = y#x

x y

(A) Only I

(B) Only II

(C) Only III

(D) Only I and II

(E) Only II and III

Solve yourself:

xy

57. The operation $ is defined by the equation x$y = , where y 6= x. If 3$y = 5$4,

x+y

then y =

1

(A)

9

4

(B)

15

Arithmetic Guide Questions 61

5

(C)

12

12

(D)

5

15

(E)

4

Solve yourself:

x

58. The operation @ is defined for all non-zero x and y by x@y = x + . If a > 0, then

y

1@ (1@a) =

(A) a

(B) a+1

a

(C)

a+1

a+2

(D)

a+1

2a + 1

(E)

a+1

Solve yourself:

1 1

59. The operation is defined by a b = + for all non-zero numbers a and b. If c is a

a b

number greater than 1, which of the following must be true?

I. c (c) = 0

c

II. c =1

c1

2 2

III. =c

c c

(A) Only I

(B) Only I and II

(C) Only I and III

62 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(E) I, II and III

Solve yourself:

60. The weights of four packages are 1, 3, 5, and 7 pounds, respectively. Which of the

following CANNOT be the total weight, in pounds, of any combination of the packages?

(A) 9

(B) 10

(C) 12

(D) 13

(E) 14

Solve yourself:

61. This month, a factory will produce a certain number of articles, a part of which will be

sold. Next month the factory will produce only half the number of articles produced this

month, but for each article that is unsold this month, k articles will be sold next month.

Ignoring the production and sales of articles in all months prior to this month, in terms

of k, what fraction of the number of articles produced this month should be sold this

month so that the cumulative number of articles remaining unsold next month would be

1

equal to the number of articles sold this month?

3

4 (2 k)

(A)

3 (1 k)

2 (4 2k)

(B)

3 (2 3k)

3 (4 3k)

(C)

2 (3 2k)

(3 2k)

(D)

(4 3k)

3 (3 2k)

(E)

2 (4 3k)

Arithmetic Guide Questions 63

Solve yourself:

62. Each week, Harry is paid x dollars per hour for the first 40 hours and 2x dollars for each

additional hour worked that week. Each week, James is paid x dollars per hour for the

first 30 hours and 1.5x dollars for each additional hour worked that week. Last week

Harry worked a total of 41 hours. If Harry and James were paid the same amount last

week, how many hours did James work last week?

(A) 35

(B) 36

(C) 37

(D) 38

(E) 39

Solve yourself:

63. For all positive integers m and v, the expression (m v) represents the remainder

when m is divided by v. What is the value of [(98 33) 17] [98 (33 17)]?

(A) 10

(B) 2

(C) 8

(D) 13

(E) 17

Solve yourself:

64 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Data sufficiency questions have five standard options. They are listed below and will not

be repeated for each question.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to an-

swer the question asked.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to an-

swer the question asked.

(C) both the statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question

asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked,

and additional data specific to the problem are needed.

Arithmetic Guide Questions 65

64. Is the percent change in perimeter of a right angled isosceles triangle greater than 10%?

(1) A new triangle is formed by increasing only one side of the triangle by 20%.

(2) A new triangle is formed by increasing the longest side of the triangle by 20%.

Solve yourself:

(1) The lengths of parallel sides of the trapezium are each increased by 20%.

Solve yourself:

66. If oil and water are mixed in the ratio 1 : 1 in a beaker, filling it to its capacity, the weight

of the beaker and its contents is 102 grams, by what percent is water heavier than oil?

(1) The combined weight of oil and water mixed in the ratio 2 : 3 in the same beaker as

(2) The combined weight of oil and water mixed in the ratio 3 : 2 in the same beaker as

Solve yourself:

66 Arithmetic Guide Questions

67. At what percent profit did the dealer sell the article?

(1) Had the dealer sold the article at $1200, his profit would have been 20%.

(2) Had the dealer sold the article after a discount of 20%, his profit would have been

10%.

Solve yourself:

68. If water evaporates at a constant rate, what is the percent of salt in the salt-water solution

at 8:00 pm?

(1) The percent of salt in the solution was 30% at 12:00 noon.

(2) The percent of salt in the solution was 40% at 4:00 pm.

Solve yourself:

69. A solution has milk and honey in the ratio of 1 : 2 by volume. What part of the solution

was removed?

(1) If an equal quantity of milk was added to the solution after the removal process, the

(2) If an equal quantity of honey was added to the solution after the removal process,

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 67

70. How many marbles should a man sell for $6 to make a profit of 50%?

(1) If the man sells 5 marbles for a dollar, he would make 25% profit.

(2) The profit made by the man by selling all marbles is $40.

Solve yourself:

71. If A, B and C are single digit numbers from 0 to 9, what is the value of B?

(1) The three-digit number 1A4 when multiplied by B gives another three-digit number

BC8

(2) C=8

Solve yourself:

72. Three liquids, A, B and C, are formed by mixing petrol and spirit in varying ratios. What

(1) The ratio of petrol and spirit in A and B are 2 : 3 and 3 : 4, respectively.

(2) If 20 liters of A, 21 liters of B and 27 liters of C are mixed, the resulting ratio of

68 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

73. Liquids A and B, priced at $30 per liter and $10 per liter, are mixed in a particular ratio

to form a new liquid C. If it is known that a part of the mixture would be lost during the

mixing process, what should the price per liter of liquid C be, so that there is no loss or

1

(2) of the mixture is lost during the mixing process.

6

Solve yourself:

2a

74. If = k, what is the value of k?

a + 3b

a

(1) =k

3b

(2) b 6= 0

Solve yourself:

75. What is the profit percent if an article is sold without any discount on the original selling

price?

(1) If the article is sold at x% discount on the original selling price, there is x% profit.

Arithmetic Guide Questions 69

5x x

(2) If the article is sold at % discount on the original selling price, there is % profit.

4 2

Solve yourself:

76. From a 60 ml sugar solution, a part was removed and replaced with an equal quantity of

Solve yourself:

(1) If all employees of the finance department attend an orientation program in the

(2) If only 80% of all employees of the finance department attend an orientation pro-

Solve yourself:

78. Sugar concentrate is made up by drying sugar solution. How much quantity of sugar

70 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

79. A football team has 40% win rate in the first half of the season. What is the minimum

number of additional matches that the team needs to play in order to increase its win

rate to 60%?

(1) The team had played 20 matches in the first half of the season.

(2) The total number of matches the team would play in the season is 36.

Solve yourself:

80. A store sells pulses, each listed at the same price. The store offers the following

Quantity Discount %

Up to 20 lbs 10

Two friends, Ann and Bob, purchase different quantities of goods. What percent of their

Arithmetic Guide Questions 71

expenses would they be able to save if they purchased together instead of purchasing

separately?

(1) Ann and Bob purchased 15 lbs and 30 lbs of goods, respectively.

(2) The list prices of all goods are $20 per lb.

Solve yourself:

(1) Had the store sold each laptop for $800 more than what it actually did, the total

(2) The stores cost price for each laptop was $1200.

Solve yourself:

82. A shopkeeper mixes coffee powder with high quality coffee to make profit. If the shop-

keeper sold the entire mixture at the same rate at which he had purchased the high

quality coffee, what is the percent profit made by the shopkeeper only through adulter-

ation?

(1) In every 100 grams of high quality coffee, the shopkeeper mixes exactly 5 grams of

coffee powder.

Solve yourself:

72 Arithmetic Guide Questions

83. If 35 percent of all employees of a company are men, what percent of the total employees

attended a meeting?

Solve yourself:

84. Three friends, R, Y and M, each have a different number of toffees. Does M have the least

number of toffees?

1

(1) M has of the total number of toffees with all three friends combined and the

4

1

difference between the toffees of Y and R is of the total number of toffees.

10

1

(2) M has of the total number of toffees with all three friends combined and Y has

4

1

more than the number of toffees with R.

5

Solve yourself:

85. Last year, if Arturo spent a total of $12,000 on his mortgage payments, real estate taxes,

and home insurance, how much did he spend on his real estate taxes?

(1) Last year, the total amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes and home

1

insurance was 33 percent of the amount that he spent on his mortgage payments.

3

(2) Last year, the amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes was 20 percent of

the total amount that he spent on his mortgage payments and home insurance.

Arithmetic Guide Questions 73

Solve yourself:

86. Yesterday Diana spent a total of 240 minutes attending a training class, responding to

e-mails, and talking on the phone. If she did no two of these three activities at the same

time, how much time did she spend talking on the phone?

(1) Yesterday, the amount of time that Diana spent attending the training class was 90

percent of the amount of time that she spent responding to e-mails.

(2) Yesterday, the amount of time that Diana spent attending the training class was 60

percent of the total amount of time that she spent responding to e-mails and talking

on the phone combined.

Solve yourself:

87. Is the percent change in total surface area (the sum of Curved surface area and Base area)

of the right solid cylinder at least 20 percent?

(2) The height of the cylinder is increased by 20 percent.

Solve yourself:

(2) Of the adults in the group, 20 percent have glasses.

Solve yourself:

74 Arithmetic Guide Questions

89. Joe has a bag containing two varieties of beans a cheaper variety and a costlier variety.

The price of the costlier beans forms what percent of the total price of all the beans?

(2) The price of each bean of the costlier variety is thrice that of each bean of the

cheaper variety.

Solve yourself:

90. The price of a ticket in a multiplex A is 20 percent higher than that in multiplex B.

After both multiplexes revise their ticket prices, does multiplex A still charge more than

multiplex B per ticket?

(1) Multiplex A reduces its ticket price by 20 percent and adds $5 to the reduced price.

(2) Multiplex B increases its ticket price by 20 percent and adds $10 to the increased

price.

Solve yourself:

91. In a class of 20 students, 60% of the students have a lower GPA than Joe has. If the scores

of 10 new students are also considered, how many students have a higher GPA than that

of Joe?

(1) 80% of the new students have a higher GPA than Joe has.

(2) 10% of the initial students have a GPA equal to that of Joe.

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 75

92. The price of a certain stock decreased by 20 percent and then increased by x percent. Is

the final price of the stock after the increase less than what it was before the decrease?

(1) x > 20

(2) x < 25

Solve yourself:

93. A father divided his savings of $15000 among his 3 sons A, B and C. How much did B

get?

(1) A gets more than B by the same amount as C gets less than B.

(2) The ratio of shares of A, B, and C is 3 : 2 : 1.

Solve yourself:

94. A, B and C have a total of $800 with them. Does A have the highest amount?

(1) A and B together have 40 percent less than what C alone has.

(2) C has $200 more than A and B together.

Solve yourself:

95. What is the volume of milk present in a mixture of milk and water?

76 Arithmetic Guide Questions

(1) When 2 liters of milk is added to the mixture, the resultant mixture has equal quan-

tities of milk and water.

(2) The initial mixture had 2 parts of water to 1 part milk.

Solve yourself:

96. A mixture of juice concentrate and water contained 40 percent juice. A part of the

mixture was removed and replaced with an equal quantity of water. What volume of the

mixture was removed?

(1) The volume of the original mixture was 60 ml.

(2) The resulting mixture contained 10 percent juice.

97. An attorney charged a fee for estate planning services for a certain estate. The attorneys

fee was what percent of the assessed value of the estate?

(1) The assessed value of the estate was $1.2 million.

(2) The attorney charged $2,400 for the estate planning services.

Solve yourself:

98. Are at least 10 percent of Country Xs citizens who are 65 years old or older employed?

(1) In Country X, 11.3 percent of the population is 65 years old or older.

(2) In Country X, of the population 65 years old or older, 20 percent of the men and 10

percent of the women are employed.

Solve yourself:

99. By what percent was the price of a certain candy bar increased?

(1) The price of the candy bar was increased by 5 cents.

Arithmetic Guide Questions 77

(2) The price of the candy bar after the increase was 45 cents.

Solve yourself:

100. Did Sally pay less than x dollars, including sales tax, for her bicycle?

(1) The price Sally paid for her bicycle was 0.9x dollars, excluding the 10 percent sales

tax

(2) The price Sally paid for her bicycle was $170, excluding the 10 percent sales tax

Solve yourself:

(1) Tims weight is 80 percent of Joes weight.

(2) Joes weight is 125 percent of Tims weight.

Solve yourself:

102. Each week a certain salesman is paid a fixed amount equal to $300 plus a commission

equal to 5 percent of the amount of total sales that week above a sale of $1,000. What

was the total amount paid to the salesman last week?

(1) The total amount the salesman was paid last week is equal to 10 percent of the

amount of total sales last week.

(2) The salesmans total sales last week was $5,000

Solve yourself:

78 Arithmetic Guide Questions

103. Each week Connie receives a base salary of $500, plus a 20 percent commission on the

total amount of her sales that week in excess of $1,500. What was the total amount of

Connies sales last week?

(1) Last week Connies base salary and commission totaled $1, 200

(2) Last week Connies commission was $700

Solve yourself:

104. In a class, 30% of the students are boys. 25% of the boys and 50% of the girls wear glasses.

What is the minimum number of students in the class?

(A) 20

(B) 40

(C) 100

(D) 120

(E) 200

Solve yourself:

105. For a certain car repair, the total charge consisted of a charge for parts, a charge for

labor, and a 6 percent sales tax on both the charge for parts and the charge for labor. If

the charge for parts, excluding sales tax, was $50.00, what was the total charge for the

repair?

(1) The sales tax on the charge for labor was $9.60

(2) The total sales tax was $12.60

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 79

106. Which of the following gives the highest overall percent increase if in each case, the

second percent increase is applied on the value obtained after application of the first

percent Increase?

(B) 25 percent increase followed by 35 percent increase

(C) 30 percent increase followed by 30 percent increase

(D) 40 percent increase followed by 20 percent increase

(E) 45 percent increase followed by 15 percent increase

Solve yourself:

107. If the numbers a, b and c are positive integers, what percent of (a + b + c) does a

constitute?

(1) a% of (b + c) = 40

(2) (a + b) = (b + c) % of (a + b)

Solve yourself:

108. While organizing a cultural event, invitations were sent across to various eminent per-

sonalities. To how many people were the invitations sent?

(1) If all the invitees had attended the event, there would have been 30 invitees left

without any seats in the auditorium where the event was organized.

(2) If 40 percent of the invitees had not turned up, there would have been 60 seats

vacant in the auditorium where the event was organized.

Solve yourself:

80 Arithmetic Guide Questions

109. For what percent of those tested for a certain infection was the test accurate; that is,

positive for those who had the infection and negative for those who did not have the

infection?

(1) Of those who tested positive for the infection, 8 did not have the infection.

(2) Of those tested for the infection, 90 percent tested negative.

Solve yourself:

110. From 1985 to 1994, what was the percent increase in total trade of the United States?

(1) Total trade of the United States in 1985 was 17 percent of gross domestic product

in 1985.

(2) Total trade of the United States in 1994 was 23 percent of gross domestic product

in 1994.

Solve yourself:

111. From 2004 to 2007, the value of foreign goods consumed annually in the United States

increased by what percent?

(1) In both 2004 and 2007, the value of foreign goods consumed constituted 20 percent

of the total value of goods consumed in the United States that year.

(2) In 2007 the total value of goods consumed in the United States was 20 percent

higher than that in 2004.

Solve yourself:

112. From May 1 to May 30 in the same year, the balance in a checking account had increased.

What was the balance in the checking account on May 30?

(1) If, from May 1 to May 30, the increase in the balance in the checking account had

been 12 percent, then the balance in the account on May 30 would have been $ 504.

Arithmetic Guide Questions 81

(2) From May 1 to May 30, the increase in the balance in the checking account was 8

percent.

Solve yourself:

113. Guys net income equals his gross income minus his deductions. By what percent did

Guys net income change on January 1, 1989, when both his gross income and his deduc-

tions increased?

(1) Guys gross income increased by 4 percent on January 1, 1989.

(2) Guys deductions increased by 15 percent on January 1, 1989.

Solve yourself:

114. How many of the boys in a group of 100 children have brown hair?

(1) Of the children in the group, 60 percent have brown hair.

(2) Of the children in the group, 40 are boys.

Solve yourself:

115. If Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 were each 10 percent higher than their re-

spective annual salaries in 2004, what was Jacks annual salary in 2004?

(1) The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2004 was $80,000.

(2) The sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 was $88,000.

Solve yourself:

82 Arithmetic Guide Questions

116. If n > 0, is 20% of n greater than 10% of the sum of n and 0.5?

(2) n > 0.01

Solve yourself:

(2) p is 80 percent less than (r + p).

Solve yourself:

118. If the Lincoln Librarys total expenditure for books, periodicals, and newspapers last year

was $35,000, how much of the expenditure was on books?

(1) The expenditures for newspapers were 40 percent greater than the expenditures for

periodicals.

(2) The total of the expenditures for periodicals and newspapers was 25 percent less

than the expenditures for books.

Solve yourself:

119. If the ratio of the incomes of A and B is a : b and the ratio of their expenditures is x : y,

then between A and B, who has a higher savings?

(1) a :b=4 :5

(2) x :y =5 :6

Arithmetic Guide Questions 83

Solve yourself:

1

120. On Monday, a store had a sale on bottles of juice S and juice T. If the total number of

2

bottles of juice S in stock were sold on Monday, were more bottles of juice sold that day

were of juice S, as compared to juice T?

2

(1) of the total number of bottles of juice T in stock were sold on Monday.

3

(2) At the beginning of the sale, there were a total of 90 bottles of juice S and 60 bottles

of juice T in stock.

Solve yourself:

121. The ratio of the number of women to the number of men to the number of children in a

room is 5 : 2 : 7, respectively. What is the total number of people in the room?

(1) The total number of women and children in the room is a perfect square.

(2) There are fewer than 8 men in the room.

Solve yourself:

122. There were 2 apples and 5 bananas in a basket. After additional apples and bananas

were placed in the basket, the ratio of the number of apples to the number of bananas

1

was . How many apples were added?

2

2

(1) The number of apples added was the number of bananas added.

3

(2) A total of 5 apples and bananas were added.

84 Arithmetic Guide Questions

Solve yourself:

123. Was Lisas annual salary at least twice as much as Julies annual salary?

(1) Lisas annual salary was $20,000 more than Julies annual salary.

(2) Lisas annual salary was less than $40,000.

Solve yourself:

(1) If Company X were to hire 14 more people and all of these people were females, the

ratio of the number of male employees to the number of female employees would

then be 16 : 9.

(2) Company X has 105 more male employees than female employees.

Solve yourself:

125. When 200 gallons of oil were removed from a tank, the volume of oil left in the tank was

3

of the tanks capacity. What was the tanks capacity?

7

1

(1) Before the 200 gallons were removed, the volume of oil in the tank was of the

2

tanks capacity.

(2) After the 200 gallons were removed, the volume of oil left in the tank was 1,600

gallons less than the tanks capacity.

Solve yourself:

Arithmetic Guide Questions 85

126. A and B sold articles such that the ratio of cost price of each article of A to that of B was

4 : 5. Did A sell more than twice the number of articles that B sold?

4

(1) Sales revenue of A was more than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined.

7

5

(2) Sales revenue of B was less than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined.

14

Solve yourself:

127. Among Japanese Yen, Australian Dollar, Hong Kong Dollar and Singapore Dollar, does the

Hong Kong Dollar have the minimum value among the other currencies when expressed

in terms of Indian Rupee?

(1) One Australian Dollar is equal to 93 Japanese Yen, 48 Indian Rupee, and 5.51 Hong

Kong Dollar.

Solve yourself:

128. The salaries of A and B are in the ratio 3 : 4. If there is no other source of income for A

and B other than their salaries, what fraction of his salary does B save?

1

(2) A saves of his salary.

3

Solve yourself:

86 Arithmetic Guide Questions

129. Three friends A, B and C contributed a total of $255 for a get-together. What was the

ratio in which A, B and C contributed $255?

(1) Had each friend contributed $5 more, the ratio of their contributions would have

been 2 : 3 : 4 respectively.

(2) A contributed $55.

Solve yourself:

130. In an experiment, it was observed that the intensity of sound at a point varies inversely

with the square of the distance of the point from the source of the sound. What was the

initial distance of the point from the source of the sound?

(1) If the distance of the point from the source is increased by 5 meters, the intensity

1

falls to of its initial value.

4

(2) If the distance of the point from the source is reduced by 5 meters, the value of the

intensity increases by 100.

Solve yourself:

Chapter 4

Answer-key

87

88 Arithmetic Guide Answer Key

Arithmetic Guide Answer Key 89

(66) E (89) E (112) C

(67) B (90) C

(113) E

(68) C (91) C

(114) E

(69) D (92) B

(115) E

(70) A (93) D

(116) A

(71) C (94) D

(117) D

(72) B (95) C

(77) C (100) A (122) D

(78) C (101) D

(123) C

(79) A (102) D

(124) C

(80) A (103) D

(125) D

(81) E (104) B

(126) B

(82) C (105) D

(127) C

(83) C (106) C

90 Arithmetic Guide Answer Key

Chapter 5

Solutions

91

92 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, we have:

8x + 250 = 9x 125

=> x = 375

Percent profit = x%

= $ (x + x% of x)

x

=$ x 1+

100

Thus, we have:

x

x 1+ = 56

100

=> x (100 + x) = 5600

=> x = 140 OR 40

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 93

Since the number of marbles with Ann is 20% greater than that with Joe, we have:

Since the number of marbles with Ann is 40% less than that with Bob, we have:

40

The number of marbles with Ann = x 40% of x = x 1 = 0.6x

100

Thus, we have:

0.6x = 120

=> x = 200

Number of marbles of Bob 200

= = 100 = 200%

Number of marbles of Joe 100

The correct answer is option E.

Alternate approach:

1.2x

=> The number of marbles with Bob = = 2x

0.6

Thus, the required percent

Number of marbles of Bob 2x

= = 100 = 200%

Number of marbles of Joe x

4. Since the ratio of incomes of Ann and Bob is 4 : 7, let the incomes of Ann and Bob be

Since the ratio of expenses of Ann and Bob is 2 : 3, let the expenses of Ann and Bob be

Thus, savings of Ann and Bob are $ 4x 2y and $ 7x 3y , respectively.

94 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

1

Since Ann saves of her income, we have:

3

1

4x 2y = (4x) => 12x 6y = 4x

3

=> 8x = 6y => 4x = 3y

Thus, savings of Bob = $ 7x 3y = $ (7x 4x) = $3x

0

Bob s savings 3x 3

= 0 = =

Bob s income 7x 7

The correct answer is option B.

5. Since the height (h) of a person is proportional to the square root of his age (a) up to

h a => h = k a, where k is a constant

We have: h = 4, a = 16

=> 4 = k 16 => k = 1

= k 25 = 5 feet

Since the increase height (h) of a person above 25 years is directly proportional to the

(h 5) (a 25)

We have: a = 50, h = 6

1

=> m =

25

Thus, if the height of a 45-year old person be x feet, we have:

x 5 = m (45 25)

20

=> x = 5 + = 5.8

25

The correct answer is option D.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 95

=> 50 = k + m . . . (i)

Since the car travels 110 miles in the second hour, it has covered 50 + 110 = 160 miles

=> 160 = 2k + 4m

=> 80 = k + 2m . . . (ii)

Total distance 1200

= = = 200

Total time 6

The correct answer is option D.

7. Since the ratio of illiterate males to illiterate females in a village is 5 : 4, let the number

Since 60% of the illiterate males enroll for a literacy campaign, number of illiterate males

60

who, number of illiterate males who enroll = 5x = 3x

100

We need to maximize the proportion of people who enroll for the literacy campaign,

thus, we assume that all illiterate women enroll for the campaign.

96 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

7x 7

Thus, required proportion = =

9x 9

The correct answer is option D.

8. We have:

bc : ca : ab = 2 : 3 : 4

a b a b

: = :

bc ac b a

a2

=

b2

Multiplying the above three equations:

a2 b2 c 2 = 24x 3

=> abc = 2x 6x

abc 2x 6x

=> a = = = 6x

bc 2x

abc 2x 6x 2 6x

b= = =

ac 3x 3

Thus, we have:

a b a2

: = 2

bc ac b

6x 9

= =

4 4

6x

9

Alternate approach:

bc : ca = 2 : 3 => b : a = 2 : 3 => a : b = 3 : 2

Thus, we have:

2 2

a b a2 a 3 9

: = 2 = = =

bc ac b b 2 4

The correct answer is option B.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 97

Thus, the total food supply for 100 soldiers = 100 x 1 = 100x units.

Thus, we have:

=> x = 37

Alternate approach:

We know that, for 200 soldiers, the remaining food lasts for 12 days.

Thus, if there were only 100 soldiers, i.e. no new soldiers joined, the food would have

However, the food had already been consumed for 13 days initially.

10. Let the time taken by the third pipe to empty the full cistern be x minutes.

1

Thus, the third pipe can empty part of the cistern in one minute.

x

The first two pipes can fill the cistern in 20 minutes and 30 minutes.

1 1

Thus, in 1 minute, the filling pipes can fill and part of the cistern, respectively.

20 30

Thus, with all three pipes working together, part of the cistern filled in 1 minute =

1 1 1

+

20 30 x

Since the cistern is half filled in 8 minutes, it would be filled in 2 8 = 16 minutes.

98 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

1

Thus, of the part of the cistern is filled in 1 minute.

16

Thus, we have:

1 1 1 1

+ =

20 30 x 16

1 1 1 1 1

=> = + =

x 20 30 16 48

=> x = 48

Alternate approach:

The filling pipes can fill the cistern in 20 minutes and 30 minutes.

16 16

Thus, the fractions of the cistern they fill in 16 minutes are and part, respectively.

20 30

16 16 16 4

Thus, fraction of the cistern filled = + = =

20 30 12 3

4

> 1 implies that the cistern in filled in excess of its capacity.

3

4 1

Thus, fraction of the cistern emptied by the third pipe = 1 =

3 3

1

Thus, the emptying pipe empties of the cistern in 16 minutes.

3

Thus, it can empty the entire cistern in 3 16 = 48 minutes.

Thus, Ann works for x days, Bob works for (x 2) days and Dan works for (x 7) days.

Since Ann completes a piece of work in 24 days, Bob in 40 days and Dan in 60 days,

1 1 1

fractions of the work completed by them in 1 day are , and , respectively.

24 40 60

Thus, total work completed by Ann in x days, Bob in (x 2) days and Dan in (x 7)

days

x x2 x7 5x + 3 (x 2) + 2 (x 7)

= + + =

24 40 60 120

10x 20

=

120

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 99

x2

=

12

Since the work is completed, we have:

x2

=1

12

=> x = 14

Alternate approach:

We can say that at the end, Ann worked for 2 days alone, where he completed

2 1

= = of the work

24 12

Before that, Ann and Bob worked for 5 days, in which they completed

1 1 1

=5 + = of the work

24 40 3

1 1 7

Thus, work left = 1 + =

12 3 12

This was completed by all three working together.

1 1 1 1

Since all three together complete + + = of the work in 1 day.

24 40 60 12

7

12

Thus, time required = = 7 days.

1

12

9

Thus, time taken by B to reach the station = = 3 hours.

3

1

Time taken by A to cover 1 mile = hour.

3

1

Since A decides to return home, spend 30 minutes ( an hour) there and again travel to

2

1 8

the station, reaching at the same time as B, he needs to complete the above in 3 =

3 3

hours.

100 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

8 1 13

Thus, time needed to return home and travel to the station = = hours.

3 2 6

Total distance he needs to cover = 1 mile (return) + 9 miles (forward) = 10 miles.

10 60 8

Thus, his speed = = =4 miles per hour.

13 13 13

6

Thus, combining the above two results, we can have the following two orders:

p, s, r , q

OR

q, r , s, p

Since p and q are the numbers in the extreme positions, neither of them can be the

Thus, when arranged in order, the gap between any two consecutive numbers must be

the same.

Since the four numbers are distinct, we can thus say that the average of the four numbers

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 101

Thus, the sales price of the manufacturer = (100 + 5% of 100 + 20% of 100) = $125

Thus, if the final sales price is $141, the manufacturing cost is $100

100

=$ 705

141

705

= $ 100

141

= $500

Overall profit made = $336.

368

Thus, profit made per box = $ = $4.

92

102 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, selling price of each box to company B = Cost price per box + Profit made per

box= $(8 + 4)

= $12

16. We know that, during the first week of September, 10 pairs of oxfords were sold at

$35.00 a pair.

= $ (35 10)

= $350.00

We know that, during the second week of September, 15 pairs were sold at $27.50 a pair.

= $ (27.50 15)

= $412.50

= 100%

(Revenue in first week)

412.50 350

= 100%

350

62.50

= 100%

350

62.50 2

= 100%

350 2

125

= 100%

700

125

= %

7

= 17.85 = 18%

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 103

1

Fuel and maintenance costs = $ 18000 = $6000.

3

3

Depreciation = $ (18000 6000) = $7200.

5

1

Total cost of insurance and financing = $ 18000 = $3600.

5

1

Cost of financing = $ 3600 = $900.

3+1

Thus, the amount by which the cost of financing is less than the cost of taxes and license

fees

18. Since the problem asks us to find a percent value, we can assume any suitable initial

value of the quantities of A, B and C used as well as their price (since the final answer is

independent of the initial values assumed).

Let the quantities of A, B and C used be 1 ton, 2 tons and 4 tons, respectively.

Let the cost per ton of A, B and C be $30, $40 and $60, respectively.

= $ (1 30 + 2 40 + 4 60)

= $350

104 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Since the product is sold at 20% profit, the selling price of the product

Due to rising inflation, the costs of A and B and C increase by 30 percent, 40 percent

and 10 percent, respectively.

Since the quantities of A, B and C used are the same, new total cost of the product

= $(1 39 + 2 56 + 4 66)

= $415

Since the product is still sold at 20% profit, the selling price of the product

= $498

New selling price Old selling price

= 100%

Old selling price

498 420 78

= 100% = 100%

420 420

13

= 100% = 18.57% = 19%

70

Alternately, we can reason that, since the percent profit is the same in both situations,

the percent difference in the selling price is the same as the percent difference in the

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 105

cost price.

350 415

= 100% = 18.57% = 19%

350

19. Since the problem asks for a percent value, we can assume a convenient value of the

number of enrollments in 1990 since the final answer does not depend on the initial

value assumed.

1 83.33 5

We know that the enrollment in 1980 was 83 percent = of the enrollment

3 100 6

in 1990.

5 1 83.33 5

Thus, the number of enrollments in 1980 = 60 = 50; (83 percent = )

6 3 100 6

20

Number of dropouts in 1980 = 20% of 50 = 50 = 10.

100

25

Number of dropouts in 1990 = 25% of 60 = 60 = 15.

100

!

Dropouts in 1990 Dropouts in 1990

=

Dropouts in 1990

15 10

= 100

10

= 50%

20. Since we need to buy the greatest number of envelopes, we need to purchase at the

cheapest price.

1.50

Envelopes at $1.50 per 100 Each envelope is priced at $ = $0.015 (lowest).

100

1.00

Envelopes at $1.00 per 100 Each envelope is priced at $ = $0.02 (second lowest).

50

106 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

7.30

= = 4.86 4 . . . (i)

1.50

= $ (1.50 4) = $6.00

1.30

= = 1.3 1 . . . (ii)

1

= $ (1.00 1) = $1.00

0.30

= = 10 . . . (iii)

0.03

= 400 + 50 + 10

= 460

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 107

21. Since there were no ties, no two members obtained the same number of points in the race.

Thus, the other two teams must have the highest possible scores.

Second position: 6 2 = 4 points

Third position: 6 3 = 3 points

Fourth position: 6 4 = 2 points

Fifth position: 6 5 = 1 point

Since no team scored more than 6 points, we should try to give two of the teams 6

points each so that the third team gets the least number of points.

Thus, we have:

Team 1: 5 + 1 + 0 = 6 points

Team 2: 4 + 2 + 0 = 6 points

= 25% of 300

25

= 300

100

= 75

= 35% of 200

35

= 200

100

= 70

108 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

145

= 100

200 + 300

= 29%

Alternate approach:

Since the two plots have 25% and 35% rate of germination, the overall percent value

must lie between 25% and 35%.

Option B:

26% is very close to 25%, implying that the number of seeds with 25% germination rate

is much higher than that of the other variety, which is not true according to the data.

Option D:

30% is midway between 25% and 35%, implying that the number of seeds with 25%

germination rate is the same as that of the other variety, which is not true according to

the data.

23. We have:

1 1 1 1 1

k# =

1 2 3 k1 k

1 1

=> k# = =

1 2 3 k k!

Thus, we have:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 109

1

5# 5! 1 4! 4!

= = =

4# 1 5! 1 5!

4!

4!

=

5 4!

1

=

5

24. Since the question asks us to find a percent value, we may assume any suitable value of

the income from tips since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Income from wages was 166.67 percent of the income from tips

Income from wages was (100 + 66.67)% of the income from tips

=> = = 1+ =

Income from tips 100 3 3

3

Thus, required percent = 100

8

= 37.5% = 38%

25. Since the question asks us to find a percent value, we may assume any suitable value

of the number of cans collected by John since the initial value does not affect the final

answer.

2 3

Number of cans collected by John = of that of Karen = of that of Luke.

3 4

= LCM of 2 and 3 (the numerators of the fractions) = 6

3

Thus, the number of cans collected by Karen = 6=9

2

110 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

4

The number of cans collected by Luke = 6=8

3

8

Thus, the required percent = 100%

23

8

= 100%

24

100

= %

3

= 33%

The actual answer should be slightly larger than 33% and hence, the only possible

answer is 35%.

pt

Number of copies of Newspaper A sold = p% of t =

100

pt

=$ 1

100

pt

=$

100

pt

= t

100

p

=t 1

100

p

= $ 1.25 t 1

100

1.25p

= $ t 1.25

100

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 111

pt 1.25p

=$ + t 1.25

100 100

p 1.25p

=$ t + 1.25

100 100

Thus, we have:

pt p 1.25p

= r % of

t + 1.25

100 100 100

pt r p 1.25p

=> = t + 1.25

100 100 100 100

p 5 p

=> r + =p

100 4 80

4p + 500 5p

=> r =p

400

500 p

=> r =p

400

400p

=> r =

500 p

27. Let the price per share and earnings per share be $p and $e respectively.

Thus, the initial ratio of price per share to earnings per share

p

=

e

= $ (100 + k) % of p

p (100 + k)

=$

100

= $ ((100 + m) % of e)

e (100 + m)

=$

100

112 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, the final ratio of price per share to earnings per share

p (100 + k)

100

=

e (100 + m)

100

p (100 + k)

=

e(100 + m)

= 100

Initial ratio

p (100 + k) p

e (100 + m) e

= p 100%

e

(100 + k)

= 1 100

(100 + m)

100 (k m)

= %

100 + m

Alternate Approach:

p 100

Thus, the current ratio = = =1

q 100

p0 120

Thus, the new ratio = 0

= = 1.0909

q 110

1.0909 1

Thus, the percent change in the ratio = 100% = 9.09%

1

By plugging in the values of k = 20% & m = 10%, we find that only option D matches it.

Option D: = %= %= = 9.09%

100 + m 100 + 10 110

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 113

4

= 8 %

12

8

= %

3

Thus, we have:

8

% of his Income = $1800

3

100

=> Income = $

1800 8

3

3

= $ 1800 100

8

= $67, 500

(30000 100)

=> Cost price= $ = $25000

120

(30000 100)

=> Cost price= $ = $37500

80

114 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

30. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since

the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Number of people who said that they would vote for R = 60% of 100 = 60.

Number of people who did not say that they would vote for R = 100 60 = 40.

Since among those who said they would vote for R, 90% actually voted for R, number of

such people who actually voted for R = 90% of 60

90

= 60

100

= 54

Since among those who did not say they would vote for R, 5% actually voted for R,

number of such people who actually voted for R = 5% of 40

5

= 40

100

=2

56

Thus, the percent of people who voted for R = 100

100

= 56%

31. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since

the initial value does not affect the final answer.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 115

Let us assume that the quantity of ore mined daily as 1000 tons. (Note: We use 1000

instead of 2500 to make the calculations easier)

0.5

= 1000

100

= 5 tons

20

= 5

100

= 1 ton

Thus, number of days required so that the pure metal extracted at the quarry be equal

to the daily amount of ore mined

1000

=

4

= 250 days.

32. Since the problem asks about a percent value, we can assume any suitable value since

the initial value does not affect the final answer.

= (100 + 4) % of 100

= 104

= 40% of 100

= 40

= (100 + 30) % of 40

116 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

130

= 40

100

= 52

52

= 100

104

= 50%

33. Since the problem asks us a percent value, we may choose a suitable value for the ease

of calculation since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

= 20% of 100

= 20

= 100 20

= 80

= 15% of 80

15

= 80

100

= 12

= 80 12

= 68

= 100

Weight of fruit that is canned

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 117

100

= 100%

68

50

= 50%

17

51

= 50%

17

= 3 50%

= 150%

The actual answer would be slightly less than 150% since we increased 50 to 51 for ease

of calculation.

3

34. We know that of the geese that survived the first month did not survive the first year

5

3 2

=> 1 = of the geese that survived the first month, survived the first year

5 5

2

=> (The number of geese that survived the first month) = 120

5

5

=> Number of geese that survived the first month = 120 = 300

2

3

We know that of the geese that hatched from the eggs survived the first month

4

3

=> (Number of geese that hatched from the eggs) = 300

4

4

=> Number of geese that hatched from the eggs = 300 = 400

3

2

We know that of the goose eggs laid actually hatched

3

2

=> (Number of eggs laid) = 400

3

3

=> Number of eggs laid = 400 = 600

2

35. Since the problem asks for a percent value, we may select a suitable value for the ease

of calculation since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

118 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

= (100 + 10) % of the amount spent, excluding taxes

55

=$ 100

110

= $50

= (100 + 15) % of the amount spent, excluding taxes

23

=$ 100

115

= $20

= $ (50 + 20 + 22)

= $92

= $ (100 92)

= $8

Thus, the total tax paid, as a percent of the total amount spent, excluding taxes

8

= 100%

92

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 119

The above is clearly, a little less than 10%, since 10% of 92 = 9.2, i.e. a little more than 8.

36. We know that 60% of the Passengers with round-trip tickets did not take their cars

aboard the ship

=> (100 60) = 40% of the Passengers with round-trip tickets took their cars aboard

the ship.

We also know that 20% of the Total passengers held round-trip tickets and also took

their cars aboard the ship.

20 1

=> Passengers with round-trip tickets = = of Total passengers

40 2

1

=> Percent of the ships passengers who held round-trip tickets = 100 = 50%

2

37. We know that 1 gram of the health food contains 7% of the minimum daily requirement

of vitamin E and 3% of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

Let x grams of the health food are used so that at least the minimum daily requirement

of both vitamins is provided for.

Thus, x grams of the health food contain (7x)% of the minimum daily requirement of

vitamin E and (3x)% of the minimum daily requirement of vitamin A.

Thus, we have:

100 100

=> x AND x

7 3

100

x = 33.3

3

120 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, the minimum value of x = 33.3 = 34 (since we need to satisfy the minimum

requirement, we should NOT round off to the lower value).

38. Salary increase according to the contract = 6% increase on initial salary and $450 bonus.

Thus, we have:

=> (8% increase on Initial salary) (6% increase on Initial salary) = $450

100

=> Initial salary = $ 450 = $22500.

2

39. The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 25 percent less than the charge for a single

room at Hotel R

1 3

=> The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single

4 4

room at Hotel R

=> = . . . (i)

The charge for a single room at Hotel R 4

The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 10 percent less than the charge for a single

room at Hotel G

1 9

=> The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single

10 10

room at Hotel G

=> = . . . (ii)

The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10

From (i) and (ii), we see that the charge of a single room at Hotel P is once 3 and once 9.

Thus, we take the charge of a single room at Hotel P to be the LCM of 3 and 9 = 9

Thus, we have:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 121

= =

The charge for a single room at Hotel R 4 12

=

The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10

Thus, we have:

The charge for a single room at Hotel R = 12

The charge for a single room at Hotel G = 10

= 100%

Charge for a room at Hotel G

12 10

= 100

10

= 20%

Alternate approach:

We know that:

1 3

The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single

4 4

room at Hotel R

1 9

The charge for a single room at Hotel P is 1 = of the charge for a single

10 10

room at Hotel G

Thus, we have:

3 9

of the charge for a single room at Hotel R = of the charge for a single room at

4 10

Hotel G

=> = =

The charge for a single room at Hotel G 10 3 5

122 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

= 100%

Charge for a room at Hotel G

65

= 100%

5

= 20%

40. C = 0.03 r s t 2

50

r0=r 1+

100

3r

=> r 0 =

2

20

s0 = s 1 +

100

6s

=> s 0 =

5

30

t0 = t 1

100

7t

=> t 0 =

10

2

C 0 = 0.03 r 0 s 0 (t 0 )

2

3r 6s 7t

= 0.03

2 5 10

3 6 49

2

= 0.03 r s t

2 5 100

18 49

=C

10 100

18 50

C

10 100

18

=C

10 2

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 123

= 0.9C

10

=> C 0 = C 1

100

(Note: The actual value of C 0 will be slightly lesser than 0.9C since 49 had been approxi-

mated to 50. Thus, the required percent decrease will be larger than 10% in magnitude)

The correct answer is option E.

= (100 + 20) % of $x

120

=$ x

100

6x

=$

5

6x

= (100 20) % of $

5

80 6x

=$

100 5

24x

=$

25

24x

= (100 + 20) % of $

25

120 24x

=$

100 25

144x

=$

125

Thus, we have:

144x

= 288

125

125

=> x = 288 = 250

144

124 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, we have:

x = 60 + 25% of x

x

=> x = 60 +

4

3x

=> = 60

4

=> x = 80

43. Since the question asks us to find a fraction value, we may assume any suitable value of

the number of males and females since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

4

Since of the males graduated without honors, let us assume the number of males to

5

be 5.

Since there are equal numbers of males and females, the number of females = 5.

4

Thus, number of males who graduated without honors = 5 = 4.

5

4 1

Fraction of males who graduated with honors = 1 =

5 5

1 3

Thus, the fraction of females who graduated with honors = 3 =

5 5

3 2

Thus, the fraction of females who graduated without honors = 1 =

5 5

2

Thus, the number of females who graduated without honors = 5 = 2.

5

Thus, the fraction of all the students in the graduating class who were females who

graduated without honors

=

Total number of students

2 1

= =

5+5 5

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 125

44. Since the problem asks us a percent value, we can choose a suitable initial value for the

ease of calculations, since the initial value does not affect the final answer.

3 2 3

Since the ratios used are , , & , we choose a value of the total students, which is

4 3 5

divisible by 4, 3 and 5, say 60.

3

Number of students having glasses = 60 = 45

4

3

Number of girls = 60 = 36

5

2

Number of girls having glasses = 36 = 24

3

Thus, the percent of the students not having glasses, who were girls

= 100

Number of students not having glasses

12

= 100%

15

= 80%

x

Thus, number of students taking a science course = 40 + .

3

1 x

Thus, the number of students taking physics = 40 + .

4 3

1

Since of the students are taking physics, we have:

8

1 x x

40 + =

4 3 8

126 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

x x

=> 40 + =

3 2

x x

=> = 40

2 3

x

=> = 40

6

=> x = 240

46. Since 3 sandwiches were equally distributed among each of the m students, portion of

3

sandwiches each student received =

m

Since the last sandwich was equally distributed among each of the (m 4) students,

1

portion of sandwiches each of the (m 4) students received =

m4

Since carol had one piece from each of the four sandwiches, portion of all the sandwiches

she had

3 1

= +

m m4

3 (m 4) + m

=

m (m 4)

4m 12

=

m (m 4)

= 2 15 : 3 15 : 5 15 : 6 15

= 30 : 45 : 75 : 90

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 127

= 2 10 : 3 10 : 5 10 : 6 10

= 20 : 30 : 50 : 60

=26:36:56:66

= 12 : 18 : 30 : 36

=25:35:55:65

= 10 : 15 : 25 : 30

p

48. x = 810, 000

p

= 92 104

= 9 102

= 900

128 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, there are 3 digits in x, each requiring 4 bits of memory and the negative sign

requiring 1 bit of memory.

= (3 4) + 1 = 13

Thus, we have:

18 + 0.1d = 25 + 0.05d

=> 0.05d = 7

7 700

=> d = = = 140

0.05 5

= $(18 + 0.1d)

= $32

=> Distance covered using 3.8 liters gasoline = (22.5 1.6) kilometers

22.5 1.6

=

3.8

22.5 1.6

=

4

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 129

1.6

= 22.5

4

= 22.5 0.4

=9

Since the denominator 3.8 was increased to 4 for ease of calculation, the actual answer

will be slightly greater than 9.

The correct answer is option B.

51. The atlas is the 30th book from the left and 33rd book from the right.

= 62 6

= 56

52. We can see that in every set of 3 houses, one house is painted green.

=> n = 3k + 1, where k is a positive integer

n1

=

3

The last house left over, would have been the first house of the next group of 3 houses,

hence would be painted white.

130 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

n1

Thus, the number of houses painted green =

3

Alternate approach:

Let us take a suitable value of n, which is one greater than a multiple of 3, say n = 4.

We substitute n = 4 in each option and determine the option which gives 1 as the result.

n1 41

Option D: Number of houses painted green = = =1

3 3

7

53. Radius of the circular pond on the map = inch

16

of 2 miles.

7 7

Thus, actual radius of the pond = 2 = miles

16 8

2

7

=

8

22 7 7

=

7 8 8

77

=

32

75

= = 2.5

30

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 131

= $ (8700 2300)

= $6400

= $ (2300 + 15% of 6400)

15

= $ 2300 + 6400

100

= $ (2300 + 960)

= $3260

= $ (8700 3260)

= $5440

= 24 60 60

= 24 3600

= (24 3600) 360

1.44 1017

=

(24 3600) 360

144 1015

=

12 2 12 300 12 30

1015

=

216 103

1012

=

216

132 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

100 1010

=

216

100 1010

=

200

1010

=

2

10 109

=

2

= 5 109

The actual answer would be less than 5 109 , but close to it.

x xy 1

I. LHS = x#xy = = y

xy x y

!

1 y x

RHS = x 1#y = x = xy

y 1 y

x y

II. LHS = x#y =

y x

!

y x x y

RHS = y#x = =

x y y x

!

1

1

1 1 x! y y x

III. LHS = # = =

x y 1 1 x y

y x

y x

RHS = y#x =

x y

57. We have:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 133

3$y = 5$4

3y 54

=> =

3+y 5+4

3y 1

=> =

3+y 9

=> 27 9y = 3 + y

=> 10y = 24

24 12

=> y = =

10 5

58. 1@ (1@a)

1

= 1@ 1 +

a

1

=1+

1

1+

a

1

=1+

a+1

a

a

=1+

a+1

(a + 1) + a

=

a+1

2a + 1

=

a+1

1 1

I. c (c) = + = 0 Statement is true

c (c)

c 1 1 1 c1 1+c1

II. c = + = + = = 1 Statement is true

c1 c c c c c

c1

2 2 1 1 c c

III. = + = + = c Statement is true

c c 2 2 2 2

c c

134 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

If we leave out only one package, we would get the possible values of the total weight of

any THREE packages:

16 1 = 15 pounds

16 3 = 13 pounds

16 5 = 11 pounds

16 7 = 9 pounds

If we combine any TWO packages, the following total weights are obtained:

1 + 3 = 4 pounds

1 + 5 = 6 pounds

1 + 7 = 8 pounds

3 + 5 = 8 pounds

3 + 7 = 10 pounds

5 + 7 = 12 pounds

Thus, the number of articles unsold this month = x y

x

Given that the number of articles to be produced next month =

2

From the statement in the question for each article that is unsold this month, k articles

will be sold next month, it follows that,

Number of articles to be sold next month = k x y

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 135

= (# of articles unsold this month) + {(# of articles produced next month) (# of articles

sold next month)}

x

= xy + k xy

2

3x

= y k xy

2

Since the cumulative number of articles remaining unsold next month would be equal to

1

the number of articles sold this month, we have:

3

3x 1

y k xy = y

2 3

3x y

=> kx = + y ky

2 3

x (3 2k) y (4 3k)

=> =

2 3

y 3 (3 2k)

=> =

x 2 (4 3k)

y 3 (3 2k)

= =

x 2 (4 3k)

62. Amount paid to Harry for the first 40 hours at $x per hour = $40x.

Since he worked for a total of 41 hours, the amount paid for the remaining (41 40) = 1

hour at $2x per hour = $ (2x 1) = $2x.

Amount paid to James for the first 30 hours at $x per hour = $30x.

Since the total amount paid to James and Harry is the same, James received the remain-

ing $ (42x 30x) = $12x at $1.5x per hour.

12x

= = 8 hours.

1.5x

136 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

[(98 33) 17] = [32 17], which is the remainder when 32 is divided by 17 = 15

[98 (33 17)] = [98 16], which is the remainder when 98 is divided by 16 = 2

Hence, we have:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 137

Data sufficiency questions have five standard options. They are listed below and will not

be repeated for each question.

(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) ALONE is not sufficient to an-

swer the question asked.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) ALONE is not sufficient to an-

swer the question asked.

(C) both the statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question

asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked,

and additional data specific to the problem are needed.

138 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

64. In a right angled isosceles triangle, the sides are in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2

Let the sides be 10, 10 and 10 2

Thus, perimeter = 20 + 10 2 = 20 + 10 1.4 = 34

From statement 1:

Thus, the new sides are: 12, 10, 10 2

Thus, new perimeter = 22 + 10 2 = 22 + 10 1.4 = 36

36 34 100

Thus, percent increase in perimeter = 100 = 6%

34 17

Thus, the answer is No.

Thus, the new sides are: 10, 10, 12 2

Thus, new perimeter = 20 + 12 2 = 20 + 12 1.4 = 36.8

36.8 34 140

Thus, percent increase in perimeter = 100 = 8%

34 17

Thus, the answer is No.

From statement 2:

We have already seen above that even if the longest side is increased by 20%, the answer

65. Let ABCD be the trapezium where AB and CD are the parallel sides and H is the distance

1

The area of ABCD = (AB + CD) H

2

From statement 1:

There is no information about the percent change in the distance between the parallel

sides. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 139

There is no information about the percent change in the length of the parallel sides.

Insufficient

1

= 1.2 (AB + CD) 1.1 H

2

1

= 1.32 (AB + CD) H

2

Thus, we see that the new area is 1.32 times the earlier area.

66. Let the capacity of the beaker is 100 ml and its weight is x grams.

Let the weight of water and oil per ml be w grams and l grams, respectively.

Thus, quantity of oil and water in the beaker when mixed in the ratio 1 : 1 is 50 ml each.

w l

We need to determine the percent by which water is heavier than oil, i.e. 100%.

l

From statement 1:

Since oil and water are mixed in the ratio 2 : 3, we have 40 ml oil and 60 ml water.

140 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From (i) and (ii) we have three variables and two equations, we cannot determine the

From statement 2:

Since oil and water are mixed in the ratio 3 : 2, we have 60 ml oil and 40 ml water.

From (i) and (iii) we have three variables and two equations, we cannot determine the

Since (iv) and (v) are the same equation, we still cannot determine the values of w and l.

Insufficient

67. Let the cost price and the actual selling price of the article be $c and $s, respectively.

sc

We need to determine the value of 100 %.

c

From statement 1:

We know that if the selling price were $1200, the profit would have been 20%

=> c = 1000

From statement 2:

We know that if there was 20% discount on the actual selling price, the profit would have

been 10%.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 141

Thus, we have:

0.8s = 110% of c

s 1.1 11

=> = =

c 0.8 8

Thus, we have:

sc 11 8 3

= =

c 8 8

sc 3

=> 100 = 100 = 37.5% - Sufficient

c 8

The correct answer is option B.

From statement 2:

Thus, at 4 pm, i.e. after 4 hours from 12 noon, quantity of water evaporated = 4x grams.

30 30 2

100 = 40 => =

30 + 70 4x 100 4x 5

50

=> 150 = 200 8x => x =

8

142 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

50

Thus, at 8 pm, i.e. 8 hours after 12 noon, quantity of water evaporated = 8 = 50

8

grams.

30

Thus, required percent = 100 = 60% Sufficient

20 + 30

The correct answer is option C.

Note: There is no need to solve this question. With the help of two statements, we can

get to know per hour evaporation rate; and once we know this, we can get to know the

x 2x

Thus, volume of milk and honey = ml and ml, respectively.

3 3

Let the volume of solution removed = y ml.

y 2y

Thus, volume of milk and honey removed = ml and ml, respectively.

3 3

x y 2x 2y

Thus, volume of milk and honey left = ml and ml, respectively.

3 3 3 3

y

We need to determine the value of .

x

From statement 1:

x y x 2y

Thus, final volume of milk = +y = + ml.

3 3 3 3

Since milk and honey is finally in the ratio 1 : 1, we have:

x 2y 2x 2y

+ =

3 3 3 3

x 4y

=> =

3 3

y 1

=> = Sufficient

x 4

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 143

From statement 2:

2x 2y 2x y

Thus, final volume of honey = +y = + ml.

3 3 3 3

Since milk and honey is finally in the ratio 1 : 3, we have:

x y 2x y

: + =1 :3

3 3 3 3

x y 2x y x 4y

=> 3 = + => =

3 3 3 3 3 3

y 1

=> = Sufficient

x 4

The correct answer is option D.

100

=> Cost price of 5 marbles = $ = $0.80

125

Thus, if a profit of 50% is required, we have:

5

=> Number of marbles sold for $6 = 6 = 25 Sufficient

1.2

From statement 2:

144 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

We have:

1A4 B = BC8

Let B = 2:

For the hundreds place, we have: 2 = 1 2, which satisfies only if there is no carry

Let B = 7:

For the hundreds place, we have: B = 1 B, which satisfies only if there is no carry

Thus, the values of C are 2 or 9 (since there is a carry 2 from the units place).

From statement 2:

From the discussion for the first statement, we can observe that the value of C is 8 only

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 145

From statement 2:

2

Quantity of petrol in 20 liters of liquid A = 20 = 8 liters

2+3

3

Quantity of petrol in 21 liters of liquid B = 21 = 9 liters

3+4

Total volume = 20 + 21 + 27 = 68 liters.

Since the final petrol to spirit ratio is 29 : 39, total quantity of petrol in the mixture

29

= 68 = 29 liters.

29 + 39

Thus, quantity of petrol in 27 liters of liquid C = 29 8 9 = 12 liters.

12

Thus, percent of petrol in liquid C = 100 = 44.4% Sufficient

27

The correct answer is option B.

The percent of mixture lost during the mixing process is not known. Insufficient

From statement 2:

1

Part of the mixture lost = of 6 liters = 1 liter.

6

Thus, remaining mixture = 6 1 = 5 liters.

146 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

74. We have:

2a

=k

a + 3b

=> 2a = ak + 3bk . . . (i)

From statement 1:

a

=k

3b

=> a = 3bk . . . (ii)

2a = ak + a => a (k 1) = 0

=> k = 1 or a = 0

0

Thus, if a = 0, we have: k = =0

3b

Note: Since division by 0 results in indeterminate values, it is implied that b 6= 0.

From statement 2:

Insufficient

75. Let the cost price and the original selling price be $c and $s, respectively.

sc s

We need to determine the percent profit, i.e. 100 = 1 100%

c c

From statement 1:

s (100 x)

After x% discount, final selling price = $

100

Since there is x% profit, we have:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 147

s (100 x) c (100 + x)

=

100 100

s 100 + x

=> = . . . (i)

c 100 x

Since the value of x is not known, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

5x

s 100

5x 4

After % discount, final selling price = $

4 100

x

Since there is % profit, we have:

2

5x x

s 100 c 100 +

4 2

=

100 100

x

s 100 +

=> = 2 . . . (ii)

c 5x

100

4

Since the value of x is not known, the answer cannot be determined. Insufficient

% of % of

$

$ $1 $0

initial selling price

5

% of % of

2 4

x 5x

= (x% of c) % of c = % of s (x% of s)

2 4

148 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

x x

=> % of c = % of s

2 4

s

=> =2

c

s

=> Required percent profit = 1 100 = (2 1) 100 = 100% Sufficient

c

x

100 + x 100 +

= 2

100 x 5x

100

4

100 + x 2(200 + x)

=> =

100 x 4(400 5x)

100

=> 100x = 3x 2 => x = = 33.33%; since x 6= 0, we can cancel it.

3

s 100 + x

Thus, the percent profit = 1 100% = 1 100% =

c 100 x

100 + x 100 + x

100%

100 x

100

2x 2

=> 100% = 3 100% = 100%

100 x 100

100

3

Insufficient

From statement 2:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 149

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the final solution. Insuffi-

cient

3x

Sugar present in the volume removed = 60% of x =

5

3x

Thus, sugar remaining = 36

5

Since x ml water is added, the volume becomes 60 ml, however, the quantity of sugar in

3x

36 = 10% of 60

5

3x

=> 36 =6

5

=> x = 50 Sufficient

From statement 1:

y = x + 5 . . . (i)

From statement 2:

x = 10 + 80% of y

4y

=> x = 10 + . . . (ii)

5

150 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

4

x = 10 + (x + 5)

5

=> 5x = 50 + 4x + 20

=> x = 70 Sufficient

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the final sugar concentrate.

Note: We cannot assume that sugar concentrate will have 100% sugar.

From statement 2:

There is no information about the concentration of sugar in the original sugar solution.

Thus, the quantity of sugar in both the sugar solution and the sugar concentrate would

be the same.

Since sugar concentrate contains 20% water, concentration of sugar = 100 20 = 80%.

Thus, we have:

80% of x = 16

100

=> x = 16 = 20 grams Sufficient

80

The correct answer is option C.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 151

Since the problem asks for the minimum number of matches, it implies that the team

Since the win rate is 60% finally, the loss rate is 40%

100

=> Total number of matches = 12 = 30

40

Thus, the minimum number of additional matches required = 30 20 = 10 Sufficient

From statement 2:

The number of matches the team would eventually play in the season cannot be used to

Discounts obtained by Ann and Bob are 10% and 20% respectively.

Had they purchased together, they would have purchases 15 lbs + 30 lbs = 45 lbs

152 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

135 75 60

= 100 = 100

75 75

= 80% Sufficient

From statement 2:

Since the problem asks for a percent value, the exact value of the list price is not neces-

sary.

Also, there is no information about the quantity of goods purchased by Ann and Bob.

Insufficient

There is no information about the cost price of each laptop for the store. Insufficient

From statement 2:

There is no information about the profit/loss made by selling each laptop. Insufficient

If the price of each laptop was increased by $800, additional profit generated per laptop

= $800.

There is no information about the price of the coffee powder relative to the high quality

coffee. Insufficient

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 153

From statement 2:

There is no information about the quantity of coffee powder mixed with high quality

coffee. Insufficient

The shopkeeper makes a profit of 5 grams in every 100 grams of high quality coffee sold

(since he does not need to spend anything to purchase the coffee powder and he sells

the entire mixture at the same rate as the high quality coffee).

5

Thus, his profit percentage = 100 = 5% Sufficient

100

The correct answer is option C.

35

= 100x

100

= 35x

= 65x

From statement 1:

Number of men in the company who attended the meeting = 20% of 35x

20

= 35x

100

= 7x

However, there is no information on the women who attended the meeting. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Number of women in the company who attended the meeting = 40% of 65x

40

= 65x

100

= 26x

However, there is no information on the men who attended the meeting. Insufficient

154 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

= 7x + 26x

= 33x

33x

Thus, the required percent = 100

100x

= 33% Sufficient

=> r + y + m = 100t

From statement 1:

1

Since M has = 25% of the total number of toffees, we have:

4

m = 25% of 100t

=> m = 25t

1

Since the difference between the toffees of Y and R is = 10% of the total number of

10

toffees, we have two possibilities (depending on who between Y and R has the greater

number):

=> y r = 10t

2y = 85t

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 155

=> y = 42.5t

Thus, we see that M, who has 25t, has the least number of toffees.

=> r y = 10t

2r = 85t

=> r = 42.5t

Thus, we see that M, who has 25t, has the least number of toffees.

From statement 2:

1

Since M has = 25% of the total number of toffees, we have:

4

m = 25t

Also, we have:

1

y >r+ r

5

6r

=> y >

5

6r

=> y + r > +r

5

11r

=> y + r >

5

156 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

11r

75t >

5

11r

=> < 75t

5

5

=> r < 75t = 34t

11

5

=> y > 75t 75t

11

5

=> y > 75t 1

11

6

=> y > 75t

11

450t

=> y > = 41t

11

m = 25t

y > 41t

r < 34t

1

= $ 33 % of 12000

3

1

=$ 12000

3

= $4000

From statement 2:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 157

Amount spent on taxes is 20% of the total amount that he spent on his mortgage

payments and home insurance.

Thus, we have:

1

Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance

5

=> 5 Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance

=> 5 Taxes + Taxes = Mortgage + Insurance +Taxes

1

=> Taxes = $ 12000

6

86. Let the times Diana spent attending a training class, responding to e-mails, and talking

on the phone be x minutes, y minutes and z minutes, respectively.

Thus, we have:

x + y + z = 240 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

x = 90% of y

9

=> x = y . . . (ii)

10

However, from (i)and (ii), the value of z cannot be determined (since there are only two

equations, but there are three variables). Insufficient

From statement 2:

x = 60% of y + z

158 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

3

=> x = y +z

5

5x

=> y + z = . . . (iii)

3

5x

x+ = 240

3

=> x = 90 . . . (iv)

9

x= y

10

9y

=> 90 =

10

x + y + z = 240

=> z = 50 Sufficient

87. Let the radius and height of the cylinder be r and h, respectively.

In a right solid cylinder having base radius r and height h, the total surface area is given

by:

= 2 r h + 2 r 2

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 159

From statement 1:

10 11

Since the base radius is increased by 10%, the new radius = r 1 + = r

100 10

11 2

= 2 r

10

121

= 2 r 2

100

= 100%

(Initial base area)

121

2 r 2 2 r 2

100

= 100%

2 r 2

= 21%

decreased, percent change in total surface area may be less than 20%. Insufficient

From statement 2:

11

Also, after the increase, the new radius = r

10

20 12

Since the height is increased by 20%, the new height = h 1 + = h

100 10

11 12

= 2 r h

10 10

160 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

132

= 2 r h

100

= 100%

(Initial curved surface area)

132

2 r h 2 r h

100

= 100%

2 r h

= 32% . . . (ii)

In general, if we have:

X lies between k and l.

Thus, percent change in Total area lies between 21% and 32%, and hence, is greater

than 20% Sufficient

(Note: To find the exact percent change in total area, we need to know the actual values

of r and h, or, the ratio of r : h)

= 10% of c

c

=

10

However, we have no information about the total number of people in the group.

Insufficient

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 161

From statement 2:

= 20% of a

a

=

5

However, we have no information about the total number of people in the group.

Insufficient

c a

Total number of people with glasses = +

10 5

c a

+

= 10 5

100

c+a

c a

+

10 5 100 = 15

c+a

c a

+ 3

10 5

=

c+a 20

c + 2a 3

=> =

c+a 2

=> 2c + 4a = 3c + 3a

=> c = a

The correct answer is option E.

162 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

89. Let the number of beans of the cheaper variety and the costlier variety be x and y,

respectively.

Let the price of each bean of the cheaper variety and the costlier variety be $a and $b

respectively.

Thus, total price of all beans = $ ax + by

!

by

= 100%

ax + by

From statement 1:

From statement 2:

b = 3a

However, we have no information about the number of beans of the cheaper variety and

costlier variety. Insufficient

Let the total number of beans be t = x + y

t

Thus, the number of beans priced at $6 each =

3

We know that the price of each bean of the costlier variety is thrice that of each bean of

the cheaper variety.

Thus, the price per bean of the costlier variety = $(3 6) = $18.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 163

Thus, we have:

t t 2t

a = 6, x = , b = 18 and y = t =

3 3 3

2t

18

3

= 100%

t 2t

6 + 18

3 3

12t

= 100%

14t

600

= %

7

6

Thus, the price per bean of the cheaper variety = $ = $2.

3

Thus, we have:

t t 2t

b = 6, y = , a = 18 and x = t =

3 3 3

t

6

3

= 100%

2t t

18 + 6

3 3

2t

= 100%

14t

100

= %

7

= $120x

164 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From statement 1:

From statement 2:

= $ (96x + 5)

= $ (120x + 10)

Thus, it is obvious that the price of a ticket in multiplex B is greater than that in

multiplex A.

= 60% of 20

= 12

= (Total # of students) (# of students with a lower GPA than Joe) 1 (Joe himself) (#

of students with same GPA as that of Joe)

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 165

From statement 1:

80% of the new students have a higher GPA than Joe has.

Thus, the number of new students with a higher GPA than Joe

= 80% of 10

= 8 ... (ii)

However, we have no information about the number of students (those present initially)

who have GPA same as that of Joe as per (i). Insufficient

From statement 2:

= 10% of 20

=2

The number of initial students who have GPA higher than that of Joe

=72

=5

166 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

The total number of students with a GPA higher than that of Joe

= (# of initial students with a GPA higher than that of Joe) + (# of new students with a

GPA higher than that of Joe)

=5+8

= 13 Sufficient

= $80

= (100 + x) % of $80

80 (100 + x)

=$

100

4 (100 + x)

=$

5

4 (100 + x)

< 100

5

5

=> 100 + x < 100

4

=> x < 25

From statement 1:

x > 20

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 167

Thus, for a value of x = 21, the answer to the question is Yes, whereas, for a value of

x = 30, the answer to the question is No.

From statement 2:

x < 25

Alternate approach:

ab

Net percent change (N) = a + b + , where the first percent is a change and the

100

second percent change is b.

Thus, we have:

a = 20%

b = x% (say)

20x

=> N = 20 + x

100

Let us assume that the newly obtained price is less than the original price.

Thus, we have:

N<0

4

=> 20 + x<0

5

4

=> x < 20

5

=> x < 25

168 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

93. Let the amounts received by A, B and C be $a, $b and $c, respectively.

We know that:

a + b + c = 15000 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

Thus, we have:

ab =bc

=> a + c = 2b

a + b + c = 3b

From statement 2:

=> a : b : c = 3 : 2 : 1

2

=> b = (a + b + c)

3+2+1

2

=> b = 15000

6

94. Let the amounts with A, B and C be $a, $b and $c, respectively.

We know that:

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 169

a + b + c = 800 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

Since A and B together have an amount less than that of C, individually, both A and B

must have amounts less than that of C.

From statement 2:

Since A and B together have an amount less than that of C, individually, both A and B

must have amounts less than that of C.

95. Let the amount of milk and water in the mixture be m and w respectively.

From statement 1:

When 2 liters of milk is added to the mixture, the resultant mixture has equal quantities

of milk and water.

Thus, we have:

(m + 2) = w . . . (i)

From statement 2:

170 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

Thus, we have:

m 1

=

w 2

=> w = 2m . . . (ii)

m + 2 = 2m

=> m = 2 Sufficient

= 40% of 60 ml

= 24 ml

= 40% of x ml

2

= x ml

5

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 171

2x

= 24 ml . . . (i)

5

= (60 x) + x

= 60 ml

Since the final volume of juice present or the percent of juice present finally is not

known, we cannot determine the value of x. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We know that the percent of juice in the final mixture was 10%.

= 10% of 60

= 6 ml

2x

24 =6

5

=> x = 45 Sufficient

172 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From statement 2:

2400

The required percent = 100 = 0.2% Sufficient

1.2 106

From statement 2:

Since 20% (more than 10%) of the men are employed and 10% of the women are employed

among the population 65 years old or older, we can definitely say that on an average,

more than 10% of that population must be employed (Minimum term Average Maximum

term). Sufficient

Hence, the percent increase in the price cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

Hence, the percent increase in the price cannot be determined Insufficient

Price of the candy bar after increase = 45 cents.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 173

5

= 100 = 12.5% Sufficient

40

From statement 2:

The value of x is not given, hence a comparison with x is not possible Insufficient

Tims weight 80 4

=> = =

Joes weight 100 5

From statement 2:

=> = =

Tims weight 100 4

174 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

$(300 + 5% of (x 1000)); provided (x > 1000)

OR

From statement 1:

If x 1000:

$300 = 10% of x

100

=> x = $300 = $3000

10

However, this contradicts our assumption x 1000.

Thus, we can conclude that x 1000 i.e. x > 1000.

If x > 1000:

5 (x 1000) 10x

=> 300 + =

100 100

=> x = 5000

From statement 2:

Since the total sales of the salesman was $5000 (> $1000), the amount paid to him was:

$(300 + 5% of (5000 1000) = $500 Sufficient

OR

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 175

From statement 1:

Since Connies pay exceeds $500, we can conclude that x > 1500.

Thus, we have:

20 (x 1500)

$(500 + 20% of (x 1500)) = 1200 => 500 + = 1200

100

=> x = 5000 Sufficient

From statement 2:

Since Connie received some commission, we can conclude that x > 1500.

Thus, we have:

20 (x 1500)

20% of (x 1500)) = 1200 => = 1200

100

3x

Thus, the number of boys = 30% of x = . . . (i)

10

3x 7x

Number of girls = x = . . . (ii)

10 10

3x 25 3x 3x

Number of boys with glasses = 25% of = = . . . (iii)

10 100 10 40

7x 50 7x 7x

Number of girls with glasses = 50% of = = . . . (iv)

10 100 10 20

Since the number of students are integers, each of (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) must be integers.

Thus, the value of x must be the LCM of the denominators of the above fractions

176 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

We need to determine the charge for labor including sales tax to determine the total

charge for the repair.

From statement 1:

100

Thus, labor charge = $9.60 = $160.

6

Hence, charge for labor including sales tax = $(160 + 9.60) = $169.60.

Hence, charge for repair including sales tax = $(169.60+53) = $223.20. Sufficient

From statement 2:

Sales tax on charge for parts = $3.

Thus, tax on charge for labor = $ (12.60 3) = $9.60.

calculation as we did in statement 1, we get the answer. Sufficient

106. Since we need to find the greatest overall percent increase, let us assume a suitable

initial value.

= (100 + x) % of 100

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 177

100 + x

= 100

100

= (100 + x)

= 100 + y % of (100 + x)

100 + y

= (100 + x)

100

100 + y (100 + x)

=

100

1002 + 100 x + y + xy

=

100

= 100%

(Initial value)

1002 + 100 x + y + xy

!

100

100

= 100%

100

!

100 x + y + xy

= %

100

xy

= x+y + %

100

x + y = 60

Thus, the option with the highest value of xy will have the highest overall percent

increase.

We know that if the sum of two terms is a constant, the product of the two terms

becomes the maximum only when both the terms are equal

60

=> x = y = = 30

2

178 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

a

100%

a+b+c

From statement 1:

a% of (b + c) = 40

a

=> (b + c) = 40

100

a

However, the value of 100 cannot be determined. Insufficient

a+b+c

From statement 2:

(a + b) = (b + c) % of (a + b)

(b + c)

=> (a + b) = (a + b)

100

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 179

a 100 = 4000

=> a = 40 . . . (iii)

a

100%

a+b+c

40

= 100%

140

200

= % Sufficient

7

From statement 1:

If all the invitees had attended the event, there would have been 30 invitees left without

any seats.

Thus, we have:

n = s + 30

=> n s = 30 . . . (i)

From statement 2:

180 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

If 40 percent of the invitees had not turned up, there would have been 60 seats vacant.

Thus, if 100 40 = 60 percent of the invitees had turned up, there would have been 60

seats vacant.

Thus, we have:

60% of n = (s 60)

3

=> n = s 60

5

3n

=> s = 60 . . . (ii)

5

3n

n = 90

5

2n

=> = 90

5

Alternate approach:

(100 60) % of the invitees = (total seats + 30) (total seats 60)

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 181

100

=> Number of invitees = 90 = 225

40

We have no information on the total number of people tested for the infection.

Insufficient

From statement 2:

Since 90% of the people tested negative, (100 10) = 10% of the people tested positive.

However, the specific information about the number of people having the infection

among the ones tested positive, and the number of people not having infection among

the ones tested negative is not known. For example, it may be that of the 10% who

tested positive, not all actually had the infection or that there may be others who had

the infection but were tested negative.

The corresponding information on how many actually had the infection is not available.

Hence, the accuracy of the test cannot be determined. Insufficient

We know that of those who tested positive, 8 did not have the infection.

However, we have no information about the number of people who actually had the

infection but were tested negative.

Hence, the percentage change cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

182 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

We have no information on the value of the gross domestic product in 1994 as compared

to that in 1985.

We have no information about the total value of goods consumed in the United States in

2007 as compared to 2004.

Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to

2007 cannot be determined. Insufficient

From statement 2:

We have no information about the value (or proportion) of foreign goods consumed in

2004 and 2007.

Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to

2007 cannot be determined. Insufficient

Let the total value of goods consumed in the United States in 2004 be $ 100x.

Thus, the total value of goods consumed in the United States in 2007

= $ (120% of 100x) = $ 120x.

= $ (20% of 100x) = $ 20x.

= $ (20% of 120x) = $ 24x.

Hence, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods consumed from 2004 to 2007

24x 20x

= 100 = 20%

20x

Since the value of foreign goods consumed forms a constant percentage share of the

total value of goods consumed, the percentage change in the value of foreign goods

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 183

consumed must be the same as the percentage change in the total value of goods

consumed, 20%. Sufficient

The statement gives us information on the balance on May 30 had the rate been 12%.

This can be used to determine the balance on May 1.

However, since the actual percent increase has not been mentioned, we cannot determine

the actual balance on May 30. Insufficient

From statement 2:

The statement gives us information on the actual percent increase from May 1 to May 30.

However, since the balance on May 1 has not been mentioned, we cannot determine the

actual balance on May 30. Insufficient

Thus, at 12% increase, the balance on May 30 = $ (112% of x)

Thus, we have:

112

x = 504

100

=> x = 4500

Thus, actual balance on May 30 (at 8% increase) = $ (108% of 4500) = $4860. Sufficient

From statement 2:

184 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

There is no information about Guys actual gross income and actual deductions or the

deductions as a percent of the gross income ratio. Insufficient

Had the deductions d as a percent of the gross income i been known, say k%, the percent

change in net income could have been calculated as follows:

Final net income: (1001.15k)% of 1.04i; from information provided in statements 1 & 2.

60

We know that the number of children with brown hair = 100 = 60.

100

However, we cannot determine the number of boys with brown hair. Insufficient

From statement 2:

However, we cannot determine the number of boys with brown hair. Insufficient

Even after combining the statements, we cannot determine the number of boys with

brown hair (since the percent of boys with brown hair is not known: we cannot assume

that since 60% of the children have brown hair, 60% of the boys would also have brown

hair). Insufficient

115. Since each of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 were 10% higher than that in

2004, the sum of their salaries in 2005 would also be 10% higher than that in 2004.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 185

From statement 1:

110

Thus, the sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2005 = $ 80, 000 = $ 88, 000

100

From statement 2:

100

Thus, the sum of Jacks and Kates annual salaries in 2004 = $ 88, 000 = $ 80, 000

110

Even after combining both statements, we cannot determine Jacks individual salary in

2004, as we are only aware of the sum of Jacks and Kates salary, but no individual

salary is known. Insufficient

20n 10 (n + 0.5)

=> >

100 100

n n + 0.5

=> >

5 10

From statement 1:

n < 0.1

=> n 0.5

186 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From statement 2:

n > 0.01

25 10

p =r

100 100

p r

=> =

4 10

2r

=> p =

5

From statement 1:

r = (100 + 300) % of p

=> r = 400% of p

400

=> r = p

100

=> r = 4p

r

=> p = the answer is No Sufficient

4

From statement 2:

p = (100 80) % of (r + p)

=> p = 20% of (r + p)

20

=> p = r +p

100

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 187

r +p

=> p =

5

p r

=> p =

5 5

4p r

=> =

5 5

r

=> p = the answer is No Sufficient

4

118. Let the expenditures for books, newspapers and periodicals be $x, $y and $z respec-

tively.

From statement 1:

y = (100 + 40) % of z

The above equation along with equation (i) cannot be used to solve for x since there are

three unknowns and only two equations. Insufficient

From statement 2:

y + z = (100 25) % of x

3x

=> y + z = . . . (iii)

4

3x

x+ = 35000

4

7x

=> = 35000

4

188 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

From statement 2:

Thus, the savings of A = 4p 5q .

Also, the savings of B = 5p 6q .

For A:

4p 5q 0

p 5

=>

q 4

For B:

5p 6q 0

p 6

=>

q 5

p 5

. . . (i)

q 4

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 189

4p 5q > 5p 6q

=> p < q

p

=> <1

q

However, had we assumed that B saves more than what A saves, we would have:

5p 6q > 4p 5q

p

=> >1

q

120. Let, on Monday, the number of bottles of juice S and juice T in stock be s and t,

respectively.

s

Number of bottles of juice S sold = . . . (i)

2

From statement 1:

2

Number of bottles of juice T sold = t . . . (ii)

3

From statement 2:

s = 90 . . . (iii)

190 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

t = 60 . . . (iv)

s 90

Number of bottles of juice S sold = = = 45

2 2

2 2

Number of bottles of juice T sold = t = 60 = 40

3 3

Thus, the number of bottles of juice S sold was greater than that of juice T.

Thus, we have:

Number of women, men and children = 5k, 2k and 7k, respectively, where k is a constant

of proportionality.

From statement 1:

k = 20 31 , 22 33 , 24 35 , and so on . . . (i)

Since the value of k cannot be uniquely determined, the total number of people cannot

be determined. Insufficient

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 191

From statement 2:

Thus, we have:

2k < 8

Since the value of k cannot be uniquely determined, the total number of people cannot

be determined. Insufficient

122. Let the number of additional apples and bananas be a and b, respectively.

Thus, the total number of apples and bananas are (a + 2) and (b + 5), respectively.

Thus, we have:

a+2 1

=

b+5 2

=> 2a = b + 1 . . . (i)

From statement 1:

2

a= b

3

3

=> b = a

2

192 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

3

2a = a+1

2

=> a = 2 Sufficient

From statement 2:

a+b =5

=> b = 5 a

2a = (5 a) + 1

=> a = 2 Sufficient

123. Let the salaries of Lisa and Julie be $l and $j, respectively.

l 2j

l

=> 2

j

From statement 1:

l = j + 20000 . . . (i)

l

However, the value of cannot be determined. Insufficient

j

From statement 2:

l

However, the value of cannot be determined. Insufficient

j

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 193

l < 40000

j + 20000 = 40000 k

l 40000 k

=

j 20000 k

2 (20000 k) + k

=

20000 k

k

=2+

20000 k

= 2+ a positive quantity

l

=> > 2 Sufficient

j

124. Let the number of male employees and female employees be m and f , respectively.

From statement 1:

m 16

= . . . (i)

f + 14 9

From statement 2:

m = 105 + f . . . (ii)

194 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

105 + f 16

=

f + 14 9

=> 7f = 721

After 200 gallons are removed, volume of oil remaining = y 200 gallons.

Thus, we have:

3

y 200 = x . . . (i)

7

From statement 1:

x

y= . . . (ii)

2

x 3

200 = x

2 7

x 3x

=> = 200

2 7

x

=> = 200

14

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 195

From statement 2:

y 200 = x 1600

3x

(x 1400) 200 =

7

3x

=> x = 1600

7

4x

=> = 1600

7

126. (Selling price of each article with A) : (Selling price of each article with B) = 4 : 5

a

We need to determine whether: a > 2b => >2

b

From statement 1:

4

Sales revenue of A was more than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined

7

4

=> 4a > (4a + 5b)

7

4a 4

=> >

4a + 5b 7

=> 7a > 4a + 5b

=> 3a > 5b

a 5

=> >

b 3

196 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

a 5

Thus, may be greater than 2 or lie between 2 and Insufficient

b 3

From statement 2:

5

Sales revenue of B was less than of the total sales revenue of A and B combined

14

5

=> 5b < (4a + 5b)

14

5b 5

=> <

4a + 5b 14

=> 4a > 9b

a 9

=> > > 2 Sufficient

b 4

One Australian Dollar (AD) is equal to 93 Japanese Yen (JY), 48 Indian Rupee (INR), and

5.51 Hong Kong Dollar (HKD).

From statement 2:

However, there is no information about Indian Rupee and Hong Kong Dollar. Insuffi-

cient

We have:

Thus, it is clear that the number of currency units per 48 INR is the largest for JY.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 197

Thus, JY has the minimum value among the other currencies when expressed in terms

of INR.

Alternate approach:

It is clear that we need to combine both statements in order to get information about

all the different currencies mentioned in the problem statement. Since the data is of a

numerical type, we are bound to get an answer, either Yes or No.

128. Let the salaries of A and B be 3x and 4x, respectively, where x is a constant of

proportionality.

From statement 1:

proportionality.

Thus, the savings of A = 3x 2y . . . (i)

Also, the savings of B = 4x y

4x y

Thus, Bs savings as a fraction of his salary = . . . (ii)

4x

From statement 2:

1

As savings = 3x = x . . . (iii)

3

198 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

3x 2y = x

=> x = y . . . (iv)

4x y

=

4x

4x x 3

= = Sufficient

4x 4

Alternate approach:

1 1

Now, from statement 2, we have: Since A saves of his salary, his savings = 3x = x

3 3

Thus, As expense = 3x x = 2x

Now, from statement 1, we have: The expenses of A and B are in the ratio 2 : 1

3x 3

Thus, the required fraction = = .

4x 4

If each friend had contributed $5 more than what they actually did, the additional

amount they would have contributed

= $5 3 = $15

Thus, the total amount contributed in that case = $ (255 + 15) = $270.

Arithmetic Guide Solutions 199

2

Hence, contribution of A = $ x 270 = $60.

2+3+4

3

Contribution of B = $ x 270 = $90.

2+3+4

4

Contribution of C = $ x 270 = $120.

2+3+4

Thus, before A, B and C had contributed the additional $5, their respective contributions

= 55 : 85 : 115

= 11 : 17 : 23 Sufficient

From statement 2:

We have information only about the contribution of A and not about that of B or C.

130. Let the initial intensity be I and the initial distance of the point from the source be D.

Since the intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the point

from the source, we have:

1

I

D2

k

=> I = , where k is a constant of proportionality

D2

=> I D 2 = k . . . (i)

From statement 1:

I

New value of the intensity =

4

200 Arithmetic Guide Solutions

I

I D2 = (D + 5)2 =k

4

I

D2 4

=> =

(D + 5)2 I

2

D 1

=> =

D+5 4

D 1

=> =

D+5 2

=> 2D = D + 5

=> D = 5 Sufficient

From statement 2:

I D 2 = (I + 100) (D 5)2

However, the value of D cannot be determined from the above equation since there are

two unknowns. Insufficient

Chapter 6

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