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52 tayangan49 halamanThis slide is about safety

Jun 17, 2017

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This slide is about safety

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52 tayangan

This slide is about safety

© All Rights Reserved

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Toxic Release

and

Dispersion Models

Chapter Information

Introduction

Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models

Chapter Outline

Pasquill-Gifford Model

Toxic Effect Criteria

Release Mitigation

should be able to do the following:

Identify release incident

Instructional

Develop source model to describe how

Learning Objectives

materials are released and rate of release

Estimate downwind concentrations of

toxic material using dispersion model

Predict impact/effect due to the released

of materials

2

Introduction Dispersion Model

Dispersion models describe the airborne transport of toxic materials

away from the accident site and into the plant and community.

After a release, the airborne toxic is carried away by the wind in a

characteristic plume or a puff

point (which may not be at ground level).

Concentrations downwind are less, due to turbulent mixing and

dispersion of the toxic substance with air.

3

Introduction

4

Introduction

5

Factors Influencing Dispersion

Parameters affecting atmospheric dispersion:

Wind speed

As the wind speed increases, the plume becomes longer and

narrower

Atmospheric stability

During the day the air temperature decreases rapidly with the

height, encouraging vertical motions . Oppositely, at night the air

temperature decrease is less

Classified to three stability classes: unstable, neutral, stable

Unstable the sun heats the ground faster than the heat can

be removed so that the air temperature near the ground is

higher than the temperature at higher elevation

Neutral the air above the ground warms and the wind

speed increases

Stable the sun cannot heat the ground as fast as the ground

cools; the air of higher density is below air of lower density

6

Factors Influencing Dispersion

Parameters affecting atmospheric dispersion:

Ground conditions (buildings, water, trees)

Affect the mechanical mixing at the surface and the wind

profile with height

Trees and buildings increase mixing while lakes and open areas

decrease mixing

Height of release above ground level

As the release height increases, the ground level concentrations

are reduced since the plume must disperse a greater distance

vertically

Momentum and buoyancy of initial material released

Change the effective height of the release.

The momentum of a high-velocity jet will carry the gas higher

than the point of release, resulting much higher effective

release height.

7

Effect of Ground Conditions

Effect of Release Height

concentration.

9

Effect of Momentum and Buoyancy

material affects the plume character. The dispersion models

discussed in this chapter represent only ambient turbulence.

10

Pasquill-Gifford Models

of Kj

Kj changes with position, time, wind velocity,

and weather conditions. It is difficult to get

the experimental value of Kj

Alternative solution was suggested by

Sutton by using a dispersion coefficient

C 2 ut 2n

21

x

2

Similar expressions given for y and z

11

Pasquill-Gifford Models

conditions and the distance downwind from the

release

The atmospheric conditions are classified

according to six different stability classes as

shown in Table 5-1.

The y and z for continuous source are given

in Table 5-2 or alternatively available in Figure

5-10 and 5-11.

x can be assumed as equal to y

12

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Table 5-1 Atmospheric Stability Classes for Use with the Pasquill-

Gifford Dispersion Model (Crowl & Louvar, pg 197)

speed Calm &

(m/s) Strong Medium Slight Cloudy

clear

<2 A AB B F F

23 AB B C E E

35 B BC C D E

56 C CD D D D

>6 C D C D D

B : Moderately unstable E : Slightly stable

C : Slightly unstable F : Moderately stable

13

Pasquill-Gifford Models

14

Pasquill-Gifford Models

The y and z for a puff release are given in Table 5-3 (Crowl &

Louvar, pg 199).

15

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Applies only to neutrally buoyant dispersion of gases in

dispersion.

Typically valid for a distance of 0.1-10 km from the

release point.

The predicted concentrations are time average.

It is possible for instantaneous local concentrations to

exceed the average values predicted and may vary as

much as a factor of 2 compared to Gaussian models

The models presented here assumed 10-minute time

average

16

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 11: Puff with instantaneous point source at ground level,

coordinates fixed at release point, constant wind only in x direction

with constant velocity u

Identical to case 7

*

1 x ut

2

y 2 z 2

C x, y , z , t

Q

m

exp 2 2

2 x y z 2 x y z

3/ 2

Ground level concentration is given at z = 0

*

1 x ut

2

y 2

C x, y,0, t

Q m

exp 2

2 x y z 2 x y

3/ 2

Ground level concentration along the x-axis, y = z = 0

* 1 x ut

2

C x,0,0, t

Q m

exp

2 x y z 2 x

3/ 2

17

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 11

Qm*

C ut ,0,0, t

2 x y z

3/ 2

standing at ground level (fixed coordinates)

Qm* 1 y2

Dtid x, y,0 exp

x y u 2

2

y

Qm*

Dtid x,0,0

x y u

18

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 12: Plume with continuous steady-state source at ground

level and wind moving in x direction at constant velocity u

Identical to case 9

1 y2 2

C x, y, z

Qm z

exp 2 2

x y u 2 y z

Ground-level concentration, z = 0

y

2

C x, y,0

Qm 1

exp

x y u 2 y

Concentration along the centerline of the plume directly

downwind , y = z = 0

C x,0,0

Qm

x y u

19

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 13: Plume with Continuous steady-state source at height

Hr above ground level and wind moving in x direction at

constant velocity u

Identical to case 10

1 y

2

C x, y , z

Qm

exp

2 y z u

2 y

1zH

2

1zH

2

exp r

exp r

2 z 2 z

2

1 y 1 Hr

2

C x, y,0

Qm

exp

y z u 2 y 2 z

20

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 13

1H

2

C x,0,0 exp r

Qm

y z u 2 z

Maximum ground level concentration along the x-axis

2Qm z

C

max

e u H r2

y

The distance downwind at which the max ground level

occurs

Hr

z

2

21

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 14: Puff with instantaneous point source at height Hr

above ground level and a coordinate system on the ground that

moves with the puff

* 1 y

2

C x, y , z , t

Q m

exp

2 3 / 2 x y z 2

y

1zH

2

1zH

2

exp r

exp r

2 z 2 z

* 1 y

2

2

C x, y,0, t

Q

m

exp 1 Hr

2 3 / 2 x y z 2

y

2 z

22

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 14

* 1H

2

C x,0,0, t

Q m

exp r

2 3 / 2 x y z 2 z

* 2

1 y 1 H r

2

Dtid x, y,0

Qm

exp

y z u

2 y 2 z

23

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 15: Puff with instantaneous point source at height Hr

above ground level and a coordinate system fixed on the ground

at the release point

The center of the puff is found at x = u t.

* 1 y

2

C x, y , z , t

Q m

exp

2 3 / 2 x y z 2 y

1zH

2

1zH

2

1 x ut 2

exp r

exp r

exp

2 z 2 z 2 x

2 2 1 x ut 2

1 y 1 H r

*

C x, y,0, t

Q m

exp exp

2 3 / 2 x y z 2 2

2 x

y z

24

Pasquill-Gifford Models

Case 15

Qm* 1H

2

1 x ut 2

C x,0,0, t exp r exp

2 3 / 2 x y z 2 z 2 x

25

Example

is releasing sulfur dioxide at the rate of 80 grams per second.

The wind speed is 6 meters per second.

Determine

downwind.

and 50 meters crosswind.

ground level directly downwind.

Solution

downwind is:

1H

2

C x,0,0

Qm

exp r

y z u 2 z

obtained from Figures 10 and 11. The resulting values are y = 36

meters and z = 18.5 meters. Substituting into the above equation

1 60 m 2

C 500 m,0,0

80 gm s

exp

3.1436 m18.5 m6 m s 2 18.5 m

3.31 10 5 gm m 3

Solution

below equation and setting y = 50. The results from part a are

applied directly,

1 y 2

C 500 m,50 m,0 C 500 m,0,0 exp

2 y

2

5

3.3110 gm m exp

3 1 50 m

2 36 m

1.26 10 5 gm m3

Solution

Hr 60 m

z 42.4 m

2 2

1500 m. At x = 1500 m, from Figure 10, y = 100 m. The

maximum concentration is determined using Equation 52,

2Qm z

C

max

e u H r2 y

280 gm s 42.4 m

2

2.723.146 m s60 m 100 m

3.68 10 4 gm m3

Example

indicates that for a particular accident scenario 1.0 kg of chlorine will be

released instantaneously. The release will occur at ground level. A

residential area is 500 m away from the chlorine source. Determine

a. The time required for the centre of the cloud to reach the residential

area. Assume a wind speed of 2 m/s.

b. The maximum concentration of chlorine in the residential area.

Compare this with a TLV for chlorine of 0.5 ppm. What stability conditions

and wind speed procedures the maximum concentration?

c. Determine the distance the cloud must travel to disperse the cloud to a

maximum concentration below the TLV. Use the conditions of Part b.

d. Determine the size of the cloud, based on the TLV, at a point 5 km

directly downwind on the ground. Assume the conditions of Part b.

Solution

time required for the centre of the cloud to reach the residential

area is

x 500 m

t 250 s 4.2 min

u 2ms

Solution

cloud directly downwind from the release. The concentration is:

Qm*

C ut ,0,0, t

2 3 2 x y z

The stability conditions are selected to maximize <C> in the above

equation. This requires dispersion coefficients of minimum value.

From Figures 12 and 13, this occurs under stable condition. From

Table 2, this will occur at night with a 2 - 3 m/s wind.

Solution

500 m, y = 5.2 m and z = 2.2 m. also assume x = y.

1.0 kg 3

3

C 2.14 10 kg m

2 3.14 5.2 m 2.2 m

32 2

2140 mg m3

concentration in ppm is 737 ppm. This is much higher than the TLV

of 0.5 ppm. Any individuals within the immediate residential area,

and any personnel within the plant will be excessively exposed if

they are outside and downwind from the source.

Solution

6 kg/m. The concentration at the centre of the cloud is given by the

1.0 kg

1.45 10 6 kg m 3

2 3.14 y2 z

32

y2 z 8.76 10 4 m 3

point. A trial and error procedure is required. The procedure is

1. Select a distance, x.

2. Determine x, y, and z using Figures 12 and 13.

3. Check if dispersion coefficients satisfy above equation.

Solution

produces the following results,

Guessed

distance (km) y z y z

1 10 3.2 3.2 10

10 80 12.0 8.07 104

11 88 13.0 1.01 105

substantial distance considering that only 1.0 kg of chlorine is

released.

Solution

* 1 x ut

2

C x,0,0, t

Qm

exp

2 x y z 2 x

32

x 5000 m

t 2500 s

u 2ms

At a downwind distance of 5 km, from Figures 12 and 13,

y x 44 m and z 8 m

1.0 kg 1 x 5000 2

1.45 10 6 kg m 3 exp

2 44 m 8 m 2 44 m

32 2

Solution

where x has units of meters. Rearranging and combining leads to a

quadratic equation,

x 2 10000 x 2.49938 10 7 0

x 5000 82 m

The cloud is 164 meters wide at this point, based on the TLV

concentration. At 2 m/s, it will take approximately,

164 m

82 s

2ms

to pass.

stay indoors with the windows closed and ventilation off until the

cloud passes. An effort by the plant to reduce the quantity of

chlorine released is also indicated.

Toxic Effect Criteria

concentration is considered dangerous?

TLV-TWA is for worker exposures, and not design for

short- term exposures under emergency conditions.

Recommended method by Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) is by using emergency response planning

guidelines (ERPGs) for air contaminants issued by the

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)

Three concentration ranges are provided as a

consequence of exposure to a specific substance:

38

Toxic Effect Criteria

believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hr

without experiencing effects other than mild transient adverse

health effects or perceiving a clearly defined objectionable odor.

believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hr

without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious

health effects or symptoms that could impair their abilities to take

protective action.

believed nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hr

without experiencing or developing life-threatening health effects.

39

Toxic Effect Criteria

Acetaldehyde 10 200 1000

Acrolein 0.1 0.5 3

Vinyl Acetate 5 75 500

40

Realistic and Worst-Case Releases

a high probability of occurring

Worst-case releases are those that assume almost

catastrophic failure of the process, resulting in near

instantaneous release of the entire process inventory or

release over a short period of time

The worst-case releases must be used to determine the

consequences study required by EPA Risk Management

Plan

Table 4-5 lists a number of realistic and worst-case

releases.

41

Realistic and Worst-Case Releases

42

Realistic and Worst-Case Releases

43

Release Mitigation

performing release mitigation.

Release mitigation is defined as lessening the risk of a release

incident by acting on the source (at the point of release) either:

1. in a preventive way by reducing the likelihood of an event

which could generate a hazardous vapour cloud; or

2. in a protective way by reducing the magnitude of the release

and/or the exposure of local persons or property.

Release Mitigation

Release Mitigation

In the event of an accident. Release mitigation involves -

1. Detecting the release as quickly as possible;

2. Stopping the release as quickly as possible; and

3. Invoking a mitigation procedure to reduce the impact of the

release on the surroundings.

Once a release is in vapour form, the resulting cloud is nearly

impossible to control. Thus, an emergency procedure must strive to

reduce the amount of vapour formed.

Table 4 provides additional methods and detail on release mitigation

techniques.

Release Mitigation

Inventory reduction: Less chemicals

inventoried or less in process vessels.

Chemical substitution: Substitute a less

Inherent Safety hazardous chemical for one more

hazardous.

Process attenuation: Use lower temperatures

and pressures.

Plant physical integrity: Use better selas or

materials of construction.

Process integrity: Insure proper operating

Engineering Design conditions and material purity.

Process design features for emergency

control : Emergency relief systems.

Spill containment: Dikes and spill vessels.

Release Mitigation

Operating policies and procedures.

Training for vapor release prevention and

control.

Audits and inspections.

Management Equipment testing.

Maintenance program.

Management of modifications and changes to

prevent new hazards.

Security.

Early Vapor Detection Detection by sensors.

and Warning Detection by personnel.

Release Mitigation

Water sprays.

Water curtains.

Steam curtains.

Countermeasures Air curtains.

Deliberate ignition of explosive cloud.

Dilution.

Foams.

On-site communications.

Emergency shutdown equipment and

procedures.

Site evacuation.

Emergency Response Safe havens.

Personal protective equipment.

Medical treatment.

On-site emergency plans, procedures,

training and drills.

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