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Bishwajit Mazumder

Nursing Instructor
Dhaka Nursing College, Dhaka
Class room management

Definition of class room management


Classroom discipline and management causes the most fear and anxiety in new
teachers. However, classroom management is a skill that is not only learned but practiced
daily.
According to Evertson & Weinstein, (2006) classroom management has been defined
broadly as any action a teacher takes to create an environment that supports and facilitates
both academic and social-emotional learning.
According to Tan, Parsons, Hinson, & Sardo-Brown, (2003) Classroom management
is teachers strategies that create and maintain an orderly learning environment and discipline
means teachers responses to students misbehavior.
According to Krause, Bouchner & Duchesne, (2003)Classroom management is be
defined as involving the planning, organization and control of learners, the learning process
and the classroom environment to create and maintain an effective learning experience.
According to Wong, H. K., Classroom management consists of practice and
procedures that a teacher uses to maintain and environment in which instruction and learning
can occur.

Steps of effective classroom management


These are the steps of effective classroom management-
1. Effective classroom management is based on a learnable set of skills.
2. Establish a positive relationship with the class.
3. Create a safe learning environment
4. Establish eye contact.
5. Develop a set of written expectations you can live with and enforce.
6. Use a normal, natural voice.
7. Give a quiet reminder
8. Begin a new activity
9. Offer a choice.
10. Use humor and be consistent.
11. Provide positive reinforcement. Use hand signals and other non-verbal communication
12. Wait quietly until everyone is on task.
13. Ask a directed question. Speak only when students are quiet and ready.
14. Address behavior issues quickly and wisely.
15. Don't talk too much. Use the first 15 minutes of class for lectures or presentations, then
get the kids working.
16. Break the class period into two or three different activities. Be sure each activity segues
smoothly into the next.
17. Begin at the very beginning of each class period and end at the very end.
18. Keep all students actively involved. For example, while a student does a presentation,
involve the other students in evaluating it.
19. Discipline individual students quietly and privately. Never engage in a disciplinary
conversation across the room.
20. Keep your sense of perspective and your sense of humor.
22. Know when to ask for help. Praise is a powerful tool.
23. Always have a well-designed, engaging lesson.
24. Welcome feedback from your students.

Tips/ List for arranging the classroom


1. Have extra supplies available at a location in the classroom where students who have
forgotten supplies will be able to go without disrupting other students.
2. Set a good example for students by providing a neat and organized classroom.
3. Make your classroom look attractive. Use plants, bulletin boards, banners, warm colors, or
anything to help make your classroom look aesthetically pleasing.
4. The classroom structure will avoid chaos and promote learning. For instance, do not place
a talkative student next to the pencil sharpener because this creates many opportunities for
disruptive behavior.
5. The teacher should be able to observe all students at all times and be able to see the door
from his/her desk.
6. Students should be able to see the teacher/presentation area without having to move or turn
around.
7. Arrange the room as to allow easy movement.
8. Main idea: Make the classroom fun, attractive, motivating, & functional

Physical environments/ facilities in the class room


These are the physical environment/ facilities in the class room:
Seating Arrangements:
1. Place the teachers desk in a low-traffic area or near the door if there is a need to
control in-hand out student traffic.
2. Organize students in circles if interaction by the students is sought.
3. Organize students in rows or a straight-sided U shape for teacher-led instruction.
Provide for quiet independent work areas. (e.g., chairs, books, headphones).
4. Provide for small-group work centers and/or reward areas.
Space:
1. Plan for easy access to materials by the teacher and the students.
2. Plan for a smooth traffic flow to enable students to move around without disrupting
others.
Bulletin Boards:
1. Decide on a theme for one board.
2. Leave a couple of bulletin boards and other areas empty to display students work.
3. Encourage students to suggest and design a display.
4. Place any bulletin board containing items that may distract students from
instructional time in a high-traffic area located behind the students.

Good teaching and motivational activities in your class room


1. Set attainable but challenging goals for the students. Provide opportunities for each
student to succeed.
2. Provide appealing, interesting, and novel activities.
3. Supply new or better tools, supplies, or materials, including the use of personal
computers.
4. Encourage students to actively participate and respond.
5. Solicit, listen to, and act on useful suggestions from students.
6. Provide opportunities for students to interact with peers.
7. Be friendlygreet students cordially, get to know them well enough to converse
with them, and include illustrations of the things that interest them.
8. Teach students to assess their own performance and to set goals.
9. Express enthusiasm for the teaching material.
10. Provide a pleasant, physical classroom environment.
11. Comment on and praise students accomplishments, even those that they are
expected to perform.

How to students learn in their class room


There are three major learning styles of student in the classroom. These are the visual,
auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic.
Visual (Learn by Seeing.):
1. Display key concepts (charts, tables, bulletin boards).
2. Use visual practice activities (look and say, recopy, fill in blanks).
3. Develop/use visual support materials (pictures, flash cards, outlines, films, TV).
4. Provide directions in written form.
Auditory (Learn by Listening.):
1. Verbalize information (lectures, verbal instructions, verbal questions, discussion
groups).
2. Use other auditory approaches (tape recorders, group readings).
Tactile/Kinesthetic (Learn by Doing.)
1. Encourage movement (centers, work groups).
2. Provide hands-on activities (touch, move, construct).
3. Encourage creativity (students develop own bulletin boards, Notebooks, and/or
calendars).
Male students tend to be more visual and tactual/kinesthetic and need more mobility
than females do.
Female students tend to be more auditory in their learning styles.
The younger the student, the more tactual/ kinesthetic their learning style is likely to
be. As students get older, the more their auditory and visual modalities develop.

Providing instructional tips for class room management


These are the instructional tips for class room management:
1. Give directions one step at a time and avoid long and detailed directions.
2. Use visual aids to help present and review concepts and directions.
3. Provide a variety of learning experiences, including peer teaching, cooperative learning,
small group instruction, and lecture.
4. Provide homework assignments and activities that are meaningful, relevant, and
instructional.
5. Teach students good study habits and provide a variety of different study suggestions.
6. Have your class summarize the lesson or activity at the end of each class.
7. Provide students with feedback (about what they did right and wrong).
8. Help your students set realistic goals.

Identify classroom-related factors that teachers can change or modify


These are the classroom-related factors that teachers can change or modify:
1. Reducing the use of punitive methods of control.
2. Addressing students academic failure experiences.
3. Teaching students critical social skills.
4. Providing clear rules for student conduct.
5. Appropriately using behavior management procedures by delivering consequences
consistently, reinforcing positive behaviors, and using consequences that are suitable for
individual students due to their distinctive learning histories.
6. Respecting and understanding ethnic/cultural differences.
7. Supporting students involvement in academic and after-school activities.
8. Assessing support in developing and enforcing discipline standards.
a. A variety of antisocial behaviors (including vandalism and classroom disruptions)
are reduced.
b. Attendance improves.
c. Dropout and suspension rates decrease.
d. Students spend increased time on assigned tasks in the classroom.
e. Cooperation and positive feelings among students and staff increase.

Classroom management strategies


These are the classroom management strategies:
1. Hold and communicate high behavioral expectations.
2. Establish clear rules and procedures, and instruct students in how to follow them;
3. Make clear to students the consequences of misbehavior.
4. Enforce classroom rules promptly, consistently, and equitably from the very first day of
school.
5. Work to instill a sense of self-discipline in students; devote time to teaching self
monitoring skills.
6. Maintain a brisk instructional pace and make smooth transitions between activities.
7. Monitor classroom activities; give students feedback and reinforcement regarding their
behavior.
8. Create opportunities for students (particularly those with behavioral problems) to
experience success in their learning and social behavior.
9. Identify students who seem to lack a sense of personal efficacy and work to help them
achieve an internal locus of control.
10. Make use of cooperative learning groups, as appropriate.
11. Make use of humor, when suitable, to stimulate student interest or reduce classroom
tensions.
12. Remove distracting materials (athletic equipment, art materials, etc.) from view when
instruction is in progress.
13. Group alerting. Involving all the students in recitation tasks and keeping all students
alerted to the task at hand.
14. Stimulating seatwork. Provide seatwork activities that offer variety and challenge.
Duties and responsibilities of a teacher in his/her class
Major duties and responsibilities of the teacher are to:
1. Meet and instruct assigned classes in the locations and at the times designated.
2. Develop and maintain a classroom environment conducive to effective learning within the
limits of the resources provided by the division, with responsibility for the order and progress
of his/her classes.
3. Prepare for classes assigned, and show written evidence of preparation upon request of the
immediate supervisor.
4. Assist students in setting and maintaining standards of classroom behavior.
5. Take all necessary and reasonable precautions to protect students, equipment, materials,
and facilities with responsibility for the neatness of his/her room and the proper care of all
furniture and supplies.
6. Evaluate student progress on a regular basis.
7. Employ a variety of instructional techniques and instructional media, consistent with the
physical limitations of the location provided and the needs and capabilities of the individuals
or student groups involved.
8. Maintain accurate, complete, and correct records as required by law.
9. Be available to students and parents for education-related purposes outside the
instructional day when required or requested to do so under the reasonable term.
10. Comply with and enforce college rules, administrative regulations, and relevant university
policies.
11. Attend and participate in faculty meetings as well as other professional meetings called
by the administrative staff.
12. Cooperate with other members of staff in planning instructional goals, objectives, and
methods.
13. Assist in selecting books, equipment, and other instructional materials.
14. Establish and maintain cooperative relations with others.
15. Accomplish reasonable special assignments as assigned by the principal.
16. Provide for his/her own professional growth through an ongoing program of study,
including workshops, seminars, conferences, and/or advanced course work at institutions of
higher learning.
17. Perform other school duties as assigned.

Essential tasks of a teacher the class room


As a teacher, the essential tasks of the class room are as follows:
1. Plan a program of study that, as much as possible, meet the needs, interests and abilities of
students.
2. On a regular and consistent basis, meets and instructs assigned classes in the locations and
at the times designated.
3. Create a classroom environment that provides for student involvement in the learning
process and enable each student to achieve learning objectives.
4. Provide an instructional program to meet the needs of all students.
5. Prepare for classes assigned, and show written evidence of preparation upon request of
immediate superior.
6. Guide the learning process toward the achievement of curriculum goals and in harmony
with the goals;
7. Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, projects and the like to communicate these
objectives to students.
8. Establish learning objectives consistent with appraisal of student needs, requirements of
curriculum framework and knowledge of human growth and development.
9. Plan for and utilize instructional methods, resources and evaluation techniques which
motivate and enable each student to achieve learning objectives.
10. Take all necessary and safety precautions to protect students, equipment, materials and
facilities.
11. Maintain accurate and complete records as required by law, policy and administrative
regulation.
12. Assist the administration in implementing all policies and rules governing student life and
conduct and, for the classroom, develops reasonable rules of classroom behavior and
procedure, and maintain order in the classroom in a fair and just manner.
13. Make provision for being available to students and parents for education-related purposes
outside the instructional day when required or requested to do so under reasonable terms.
14. Establish relationships with colleagues, students, parents and community which reflect
recognition of and respect for every individual.
15. Plan and supervise purposeful assignments for teacher assistants.
16. Appraise his/her own effectiveness and demonstrate successful application of skills and
information acquired to increase effectiveness. Strive to maintain and improve professional
competence.
17. Participate in school management and share responsibility for the total s college program.
18. Attend staff meetings and serve on staff committees as required.
Effective techniques and teaching approaches in classroom
The effective techniques and teaching approaches in classroom as follows:
1. Drawing on students backgrounds and experiences in teaching (with a positive attitude
towards students).
2. Increasing met cognition, self-regulation and self-directed learning.
3. Responsive feedback to students (including teacher feedback; sustained and inclusive).
4. Collaborative learning (with mastery learning and peer-support; peer
tutoring, pair and group work).
5. Lesson planning that incorporates variety (that is, drawing on a variety of teaching
approaches).
6. Oral language interventions (interactive questioning style, dialogue, language learning and
the use of local languages and/or code switching).
7. The use of learning materials (digital and non-digital, local resources).

Teacher can prevent irritating behaviors in classroom


As a teacher prevent irritating classroom behaviors are as follows:
1. The students and teacher should first discuss and then write a "group" contract adopting
acceptable classroom rules and procedures by the end of the first week of school.
2. Periodically review the rules and procedures of the classroom until the students can
successfully adhere to them.
3. Use simple verbal reprimands when the misbehavior occurs. Make sure that they are to the
point, moderate in tone, and private.
4. Give praise to the entire class as frequently as possible.
5. A student who continually exhibits an unacceptable behavior might profit from an
"individualized" contract pinpointing the "desired" behavior and delineating the
consequences.
6. Intervene as soon as possible in order to prevent the misbehavior from occurring.
7. Use facial expressions to convey to the student that the misbehavior was not totally
overlooked.
8. Circulate around the room frequently, to prevent potential behavior problems.

Guidelines for creating a positive classroom environment


The guidelines for creating a positive classroom environment are as follows:
1. Use humor.
2. Greet students at the doorway and in the halls.
3. Show enthusiasm and be animated.
4. Provide opportunities for every student to succeed.
5. Model good listening skills by paying attention when student speak.
6. Create anticipation for lessons or tasks.
7. If a particular student is struggling, provide the student with a classroom buddy who is
mature and responsible.
8. Create classroom rituals and traditions which build a sense of community.
9. Encourage parental and community involvement.

Guideline building positive relationship/ teacher relationships


These are the guideline building positive relationship/ teacher relationships:-
1. Follow the golden rule Treat each student with respect and kindness.
2. Identify a few students each class period and find ways to individually praise them so that
by the end of the week every student in your class has been praised.
3. Be available before and after school in case a student needs help or simply needs to talk to
you.
4. Praise students for good work.
5. Praise students for effort.
6. Establish appropriate levels of dominance and cooperation.
7. Create one-to-one interactions with students.
8. Display students successful work in the classroom.
9. Disclose appropriate personal information that your students might find helpful (i.e. share a
personal story that helps you describe a particular point of the lesson).

Strategies to overcoming nervousness in the class


These are the strategies to overcoming nervousness in the class:
1. Be prepared.
2. Practice and/or visualize.
3. Concentrate on the ideas.
4. Make a strong start.
5. Use audiovisual aids or multimedia.
6. Assume a confident attitude.
7. Bring something familiar to the lecture.
8. Wear clothing in which you feel comfortable and confident.
9. If you get dry mouth, make sure to bring something to drink.
10. Do a classroom reconnaissance.
11. If your hands shake, keep them clasped together or hold a clipboard or hold on to the
lectern.
12. If your voice trembles, take some deep breaths and try to speak in a lower tone.
13. If you suddenly forget what you were about to say or you forget your position, glance at
your notes or ask a question.
14. If you do make a mistake, remember that you probably notice your errors more than your
students.
15. Talk to others who have already taught the course.
16. Realize that some nervousness may be inevitable.

Processes of learning model


These are the process of learning mode:
1. A climate for active learning:
a. Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students.
b. Learning does not occur in a vacuum.
c. Learners want to learn.
d. The learning environment is important.
e. They encourage the learner to introduces past experiences into the process in order
to reexamine that experience in the light for new data.
2. A structure for mutual planning:
a. Encourage contacts between students and faculty.
b. Personality influences learning.
c. Learners like challenges.
d. The learning environment (planning, conducting, evaluating, is a mutual activity
between learner and instructor).
3. Learner's needs, interests, and values:
a. Respect diverse talents and way of learning.
b. Learners link new knowledge to existing information in ways that make sense to
learner.
c. Learners are individuals.
d. They are problem centered rather than content centered.
4. Formulation of objectives:
a. Communicative high expectation.
b. The climate of learning must be collaborative.
5. Designs for learning:
a. Use active learning techniques.
b. Past experiences matters.
c. Activities are experimental, not transmittal and absorption.
6. Carrying out to design:
a. Emphasizes time on task.
b. More information doesn't necessary mean to more learning.
c. The permit and encourage the active participation of the learner.
7. Mutual evaluation, leading to reappraisal and revision of the learning objectives:
a. Give prompt feedback
b. Learner like positive reinforcement
c. Evaluation leads to appraisal of needs and interests and therefore to redesign and
new learning activities.

References
1. Ashley, O.S., & Chilcoat, D. (2014). Classroom management. Washington, DC:
Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau
2. Classroom management, A California Resource Guide, (2000). Los Angeles County Office
of Education, Imperial Highway, Downey,
California-9300
3. Cashin, B. (1990). Learning in adulthood; a comprehensive guide. Retrieved Feb 18 2005.
http://www.msu.edu/user/mckinl31/adult_learning_and_the_construct.htm
3. Evertson, C. M. & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.) (2006). Handbook of classroom management.
Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Larence Erlbaum Associates, Inc
4. Krause, K. L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2003). Educational psychology for learning
and teaching. Australia:Thomson
5. Tan O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L., & Sardo-Brown, D. (2003). Educational
psychology: A practitioner-researcher approach. Australia: Thomson.
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http://www.positivityblog.com/index.php/2014/11/05/overcome-nervousness/
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