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# 6/17/2017 How is reactive power produced? What are the effects of reactive power in the grid?

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## Smart Grid Electrical Grids Electric Power Energy (physics) +2

How is reactive power generated in transmission
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How is reactive power produced? What are the lines?
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effects of reactive power in the grid? Which device generates reactive power?

## How does reactive power flows over the grid? What if

it is unused on load side?

## Let say in a power system grid there are 2 power

Ankush Rajput, studied Electrical Engineering
plant, how is the reactive power coordination between
these 2 plant?
Originally Answered: What is reactive power? What is its physical significance and how is reactive power
compensation performed? How can you prove that reactive power is produced by
synchronous generator?
REACTIVE POWER ASSISTS THE FLOW OF ENERGY IN AC CIRCUITS.
What exactly is Reactive Power or Complex Power?
Below is the explanation in layman's terms -
Can reactive power be utilized?

Consider there is a small river dividing two cities and you need to build bridge over it to
connect both the cities. After building bridge, you also need to construct a house on the
other side of the river.

For the whole work including bridge and house, you've got only 100 wooden planks of
which 10 are used to create bridge over the river. The workers will use this bridge to cross
the river and transport items and construct a house on the other side. Here the main work
is to build the house on the other side for which we've created a bridge to move from one
point to another. In this case, are the wooden planks used in constructing the bridge More Related Questions
directly contributing to the building of house ? NO. We've used 10 wooden planks for
bridge and that cannot be used for building the house. Question Stats

And this - THE BRIDGE is what reactive power does. 60 Public Followers

100 wooden planks is the total complex power of which some amount is used to create 55,068 Views
bridge (10 planks) and remaining active power (90 planks) does the useful work. This is Last Asked Dec 6, 2016
why we say reactive power does not do useful work. 7 Merged Questions
Edits
In transmission lines, reactive power maintains the voltage level of the line so that active
power can flow to do useful work and this is why we compensate reactive power by
external means. It is very much neccessary for the line to operate, for active power to flow.

And for how it is done, a capacitor (to supply reactive power to increase voltage profile) or
an inductor (to absorb reactive power to decrease voltage profile) is connected in parallel
to transmission line.
Nowadays, power electronic compensators are used for automatic and varying degree of
compensation.

Hope it helps.

## Lakshya Mittal, Electrical Engineer, Researcher

Updated Aug 5, 2016
Originally Answered: What is reactive power? What is its physical significance and how is reactive power
compensation performed?

## Thanks for A2A.

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6/17/2017 How is reactive power produced? What are the effects of reactive power in the grid? - Quora
For simple explanation, i"ll take an example :
Consider if you have \$ 1000 and you lent your friends (A) \$ 500.
He returns your money. But asks again for \$500 in another 1/2 hour. Consider this cycle
repeats forever.
(Assume you have to give money, whenever he asks). How is reactive power generated in transmission
lines?

what will be the result? - you won't be able to use those 500 \$ elsewhere because your Which device generates reactive power?
friend asks you money many times a day.
How does reactive power flows over the grid? What if
This results in total wastage of \$ 500. it is unused on load side?
If you compare this to power system scenario .
Is there any correlation between generator rotation
\$ 1000 = total available capacity of a power plant
and reactive power?
\$ 500( that you are lending to your friend) = total reactive power supplied by power
system, Let say in a power system grid there are 2 power
plant, how is the reactive power coordination between
only remaining \$ 500 is useful & that is.. = active power.
these 2 plant?
Actually this reactive power is never used but it travels forward and backward between the
generation side and load side (like your \$ 500 are travelling between you and your friend How can you prove that reactive power is produced by
synchronous generator?
but no one is able to utilise those \$ 500 ) .This creates a big headache for the power plants
to supply this reactive power ( similar to the plight of giving and receiving \$ 500 thousands What exactly is Reactive Power or Complex Power?
times a day) and causes wastage of power plants capacity.
Can reactive power be utilized?
You can't neglect demand of the reactive power from the consumer end otherwise it will
cause voltage change on large scale. Situations of under voltage (in case when supplied
reactive power is less than the demanded) or Over voltage (when supplied reactive power
is more than demanded) can arrive.
Actually AC power systems cant be expected without reactive power demand/supply.
Reactive power demand occurs because of the presence of inductive/capacitive loads(
however mostly are inductive ; 99%).
However, we can compensate the demand using compensation (FACTS devices). It helps
us to avoid wasting power plant capacity.

PS: I have answered the similar question before. What is real, reactive, and apparent
power?

## Umang Karki, studied Electrical Engineering

Updated Jan 12
Originally Answered: How do you explain reactive power to a non-technical audience?

Active power is the power that does useful work. It's quite easy to understand and
visualize.

However, We find the concept of Reactive power little bit confusing because reactive power
does not contribute in doing useful work. From our childhood we are being taught that
Power is tendency to do work. If it does not contribute in doing useful work then how can
it be "Power"?

In case of purely resistive load like incandescent lamp, electrical energy is directly
converted into useful work (light and heat energy in this particular case), no intermediate
electric or magnetic field is required in between. And hence no any power is wasted in
creating electrical or magnetic field. Therefore the total Power is entirely Active Power that
does useful work and there's no any requirement of Reactive Power.

However in case of inductive loads like motors , electrical energy can't directly be
converted into useful work (rotation of motor in this particular case). This is because , to
convert electrical energy into rotational energy, magnetic field has to be created in between
the gaps of stator and rotor of Motor. Hence, some amount of energy has to be used in Related Questions
creating magnetic field. The portion of power that contributes in creating magnetic field is
known as Reactive Power . From view point of efficiency, reactive power may be seen as

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power loss because it's role is limited to creating magnetic field and does not contribute in
driving load. .Nevertheless, reactive power isn't actually a loss because it creates magnetic
field without which electrical energy in stator could not have been converted to rotational
energy in rotor.
How is reactive power generated in transmission
lines?
Let us try to understand the concept of Reactive Power by taking the simple example of
aeroplane carrying crowd of passengers from place A to place B. The main purpose of Which device generates reactive power?
flight is to carry the passengers from place A to place B. The fuel spent in carrying the
How does reactive power flows over the grid? What if
total weight of all passengers combined is analogous to Active Power. This fuel does main it is unused on load side?
work. However some amount of fuel is also spent in lifting the weight of aeroplane itself.
Is there any correlation between generator rotation
This can't be avoided. Without lifting it's own weight , aeroplane can't transport
and reactive power?
passengers form place A to place B. This fuel (used in lifting its own weight) is analogous
to Reactive Power. Let say in a power system grid there are 2 power
plant, how is the reactive power coordination between
Analogy between example of Motor and Aeroplane these 2 plant?

## How can you prove that reactive power is produced by

synchronous generator?

## Can reactive power be utilized?

Therefore, inductive loads like motor demand some amount of reactive power in order to
create magnetic field. Larger is the volume of inductive load in Power system , larger will
be the demand of reactive power.

## Windsor Xen, Did study electrical engineering - electronic communications,

built plant

A pure reactacnce stores energy and does not absorb it. So there are pulses of energy in
and out of a reactive load. However, the extra current causes a real loss in the network
which should be minimised.

In a building there are big savings in using high power factor equipment. High power PSUs
present a resistive load to the rectifier which only has small filter capacitor. Voltage is
Upvote 107 Downvote Comment 1
either smoothed on chopper or converter output. See 80 PLUS PSUs.

Capacitor split twin lights where one lamp circuit is capacitive and the other reactive
reduce lighting circuit requirements.

In rural areas you have the Ferranti effect so excess capacity is installed to provide
inductive reactance to offset that effect. It will also provide capacity when those areas
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become developed.

## Ferranti effect - Wikipedia

2k Views 1 Upvote
How is reactive power generated in transmission
Upvote 1 Downvote Comment lines?

## Which device generates reactive power?

Pranav Koustubh, Electrical Engineer
How does reactive power flows over the grid? What if
it is unused on load side?
Originally Answered: How capacitors generate reactive power?
Is there any correlation between generator rotation
Inductors and capacitors behave in opposite ways when it comes to reactive power.
and reactive power?

The following phasor diagram represents the voltage-current relationship of a pure Let say in a power system grid there are 2 power
inductor and a pure capacitor: plant, how is the reactive power coordination between
these 2 plant?

## How can you prove that reactive power is produced by

synchronous generator?

## Can reactive power be utilized?

Notice how for an applied voltage, the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees in an inductor
and leads the voltage by 90 degrees in a capacitor.

This forms the basis of the convention for reactive power consumption/generation.

Both capacitors and inductors draw current when a voltage is applied across
them.

For the sake of convention, we represent the reactive power associated with an inductor to
be consumption of reactive power. Hence, according to convention, the reactive power
associated with a capacitor is taken to be generation.

To explain further, we represent the apparent power drawn by a load by use of complex
power equation. The equation is as follows:

S=V.I*

## where I* is the conjugate of the complex current I.

This results in a complex power, which can be represented in rectangular form as follows:

## S=P+jQ (or) S=P-jQ

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6/17/2017 How is reactive power produced? What are the effects of reactive power in the grid? - Quora
where P and Q are real and reactive powers respectively. The real power is associated with
the resistive components of the load, and Q is associated with the reactive components
(inductors and capacitors) of the load.

P=V.I.cos(x) and Q=V.I.sin(x), where x is the angle between the current and voltage across
How is reactive power generated in transmission

In an inductor, since x= -90 degrees (lagging phase angle), Q is negative, which can be Which device generates reactive power?

represented as consumption. How does reactive power flows over the grid? What if
it is unused on load side?
In a capacitor, since x= +90 degrees (leading phase angle), Q is positive, which can be
represented as generation. Is there any correlation between generator rotation
and reactive power?
Let say in a power system grid there are 2 power
plant, how is the reactive power coordination between