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Review Test

• We have done today the review test.


http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/Reactors/Notes/2008/ReviewTest.ppt
• We will discuss it next time.
• Please study the review test of last year (2007-2008).
http://nuclear.bau.edu.jo/Reactors/Notes/2007/ReviewTest.ppt

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 1


(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
ν Fast second
• 235U + n Î X + Y + (~2.4)n generation neutrons
• Moderation of second generation neutrons X Chain reaction
reaction.
• Water, D2O or graphite moderator.
• Ratio of number of “neutrons” (fissions) in one generation to
the di ≡ k∞ (neutron
th preceding ( t reproduction
d ti or multiplication
lti li ti
factor).
Infinite medium (ignoring leakage at the surface).

• k ≥ 1 X Chain reaction.
Chain reacting pile
• k < 1 X subcritical.
• k = 1 X critical system
system.
• k > 1 X supercritical.
For steady release of energy (steady-
state
t t operation)
ti ) we need d k =1.
1
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 2
(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Average number of all neutrons released per fission
Æ ν (for thermal neutrons, 0.0253 eV).
• 233U : 2
2.492
492
• 235U : 2.418

• 239Pu : 2.871

• 241Pu : 2.927

• Reactor is critical (k = 1): rate of neutrons produced by fission = rate of


neutrons absorbed + leaked.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 3
(Saed Dababneh). Size and composition of the reactor.
Controlled Fission
235U thermal cross sections Probability for a thermal neutron to
cause fission on 235U is
σfission ≈ 584 b
σscattering ≈ 9 b.
b. Check σf 1
numbers! ≈ =
σradiative capture ≈ 97 b. σ f + σγ 1+ α

If each fission produces an average of ν neutrons,


neutrons then the mean
number of fast fission neutrons produced per thermal neutron = η

σf σf ν
η =ν =ν = η <ν
σa σ f + σγ 1+ α

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 4


(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Assume natural uranium: 235U
99.2745% 238U, 0.7200% 235U.
Thermal σf = 0 b Why? 584 b
Thermal σγ = 2.75 b 97 b 4πR 2

Σ = Σ x + Σ y = N xσ x + N yσ y
= (γ xσ x + γ yσ y ) N
238U
• Σf / N = (0.992745)(0) + Doppler effect?
((0.0072)(584)
)( ) 4πR 2
= 4.20 b.
• Σγ / N = (0.992745)(2.75) +
(0 0072)(97)
(0.0072)(97)
= 3.43 b. Using the experimental elastic
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 scattering data the radius of the 5
(Saed Dababneh). nucleus can be estimated.
Moderation (to compare x-section)
2H 1H
(n n)
(n,n) ( )
(n,n)

(n,γ) (n,γ)

• Resonances?
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 6
(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Probability for a thermal neutron to cause fission in natural
uranium 4.20 Compare to
= = 0.55
4.20 + 3.43 pure 235U.
• If eachh fission
fi i produces
d an average off ν = 2.4
2 4 neutrons,
t th
then th
the
mean number of fast fission neutrons produced per thermal
neutron = η = 2.4 x 0.55 ≈ 1.3
• This is close to 1. If neutrons are still to be lost, there is a danger
of losing criticality. (Heavy water?).
• For enriched uranium (235U = 3%) η = ????? (> ( 1.3).
1 3) (Light
water?).
• In this case η is further from 1 and allowing for more neutrons to
be lost while maintaining criticality
criticality.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 7
(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
HW 11
1
• Verify η=
Σa
∑ν (i)Σ
i
f (i )

• Comment on the calculation for thermal neutrons


and a mixture of fissile and non-fissile materials,
giving an example.
• Comment
C t ffor fast
f t neutrons
t and
d a mixture
i t off
fissionable materials, giving an example.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 8


(Saed Dababneh).
Conversion and Breeding

Converters: Convert non-thermally-fissionable material


to a thermally-fissionable material.
_
U + n → U ⎯⎯⎯→
238 239 23 min 239
Np + β + ν

_
⎯2⎯

.3 d
→ 239
Pu + β − + ν
σf,th = 742 b
_
232
Th + n → 233Th ⎯22
⎯min P + β − +ν
⎯→ 233 Pa
India _
⎯27
⎯→
⎯d → 233
U + β − +ν
σf,th = 530 b
Nuclear
NuclearReactors,
Reactors,BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009
BAU,1st 2007-2008 9
(Saed
(Saed Dababneh).
Dababneh).
Conversion and Breeding

• If η = 2 X Conversion and fission.


• If η > 2 X Breeder
B d reactor. t
• 239Pu: Thermal neutrons (η ~ 2.1) X hard for breeding.
Fast neutrons (η ~ 3)) X p g X fast
possible breeding
breeder reactors.

• After sufficient time of breeding,


g, fissile material can be easilyy
(chemically) separated from fertile material.
Compare to separating 235U from 238U.
• Reprocessing.
Reprocessing

Nuclear
NuclearReactors,
Reactors,BAU, st Semester,
BAU,11st Semester,2007-2008
2008-2009 10
(Saed
(SaedDababneh).
Dababneh).
Conversion and Breeding

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 11


(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• N thermal neutrons in one generation have produced so far ηN
fast neutrons.
• Some of these fast neutrons can cause 238U fission X more fast
neutrons X fast fission factor = ε (= 1.03 for natural uranium).
• Now we have εηN fast neutrons.
• We need to moderate these fast neutrons X use graphite as an
example X for 2 MeV neutrons we need ??? collisions. How many
for 1 MeV neutrons?
• The neutron will pass through the 10 - 100 eV region during the
moderation process. This energy region has many strong 238U
capture resonances (up to ????? b) X Can not mix uranium and
moderator.
• In g
graphite,
ap te, an
a average
a e age ddistance
sta ce o
of 19
9 ccm is
s needed
eeded for
o
thermalization X the resonance escape probability p (≈ 0.9).
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 Reactor design. 12
(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Now we have pεηN thermal neutrons.
• Moderator must not be too large to capture thermal neutrons;
when
h thermalized,
th li d neutrons
t should
h ld have
h reached
h d the
th fuel.
f l
• Graphite thermal cross section = 0.0034 b, but there is a lot
of it present.
• Capture can also occur in the material encapsulating the fuel
elements.
• The thermal utilization factor f (≈ 0.9)
0 9) gives the fraction of
thermal neutrons that are actually available for the fuel.
• Now we have fpεηN thermal neutrons
neutrons, could be > or < N
th determining
thus d t i i th
the criticality
iti lit off th
the reactor.
t
k = fpεη
∞ The four
four--factor formula.
f εη(1-l
k = keff = fp (1 lfast)(1-l
)(1 lthermal)
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 13
(Saed Dababneh). Fractions lost at surface
Controlled Fission

k∞ = fpεη, keff = fρεηPnon −leak


1
thermal η =
• Fast from thermal,
Σ
∑ ν (i )Σ f (i ) as defined in HW 11.
• Fast from fast, ε. a i

• Thermal from fast, p.


p
∑ afuel
• Thermal available for fission f = ∑ fuel + ∑ clad + ∑ mod erator + ∑ poison
a a a a

Thinking QUIZ
• For each thermal neutron absorbed, how many fast
neutrons
t are produced?
d d? Will need this when discuss two-group diffusion.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 14
(Saed Dababneh).
Neutron
reproduction
factor
k = 1.000
x 0.9
Thermal
utilization xη
factor “f”

x 0.9
Resonance
escape
probability ”p”
What is:
• Migration length? x 1.03
Fast fission
• Critical size? factor “ε”
How does the
geometry affect the
reproduction factor?

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 15


(Saed Dababneh).
Neutron Life Cycle

Why should we
worry about these?

How?

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 16


(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
k = fpεη(1-lfast)(1-lthermal) Not fixed…!
• Thermal utilization factor f can be changed, as an
example, by adding absorber to coolant (PWR)
(chemical shim, boric acid), or
by inserting movable control rods in & out.
• Reactors can also be controlled by altering neutron
leakages using movable neutron reflectors.
• f and p factors change as ffuel
el is b
burned.
rned
• f, p, η change as fertile material is converted to fissile
material
material.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 17
(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Attention should be paid also to the fact that reactor
power changes occur due to changes in resonance
escape probability p. If Fuel T↑, p↓ due to Doppler
broadening g of
resonance peaks.

Under-moderation
and
over-moderation.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 18


(Saed Dababneh).
Controlled Fission
• Note that η is greater than 2
at thermal energies and
almost 3 at high energies. Variations in η
• These “extra” neutrons are
Used to convert fertile into
fissile fuel.
• Plutonium economy.
economy
• India and thorium.
• Efficiency of this process is
determined by neutron
energygy spectrum.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2008-2009 19


(Saed Dababneh).