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Module 1: DOING SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

We may not know it but almost every day, we are doing investigations. Or at least, we are 1. II see that the plant is extremely wilted.
applying some principles in scientific investigations. As we wake up in the morning, we 2. It sounds like the car stopped running
observe things. Some of these things make us wonder. Normally, we try to explain this 3. The Titans are leading their division
.
wonderment especially about things which concern us
Inferences:
Scientific Investigation is the way in which scientists and researchers used a
1. That plant is extremely wilted due to a lack of water.
systematic approach to answer questions. It is a quest to find the answer to a
2. The car stopped running because it was out of gas.
question using scientific method. 3. The Titans are leading their division because they are playing well right now
Scientific Method - the logical process of learning facts through observation and
experimentation from which, certain conclusions or theories drawn. 4. Classifying To sort/Organize
We classify when we use observations to group objects or events according to
Scientific Skills similarities and differences (criteria).
To solve problems the scientific way, one must develop and apply the following skills in
making scientific investigations. Example: Classification of Animals according to:

1. Observation
We observe when we use one or more of our senses to find out about objects,
events, or living things. An observation is a FACT learned directly through the senses.
Sight
Touch
Smell
Taste
Hearing

Two (2) types of observation:


1. Qualitative describe qualities (features and descriptions)
The eye appears to be green.
The kid is eating a red strawberry. 5. Making Measurements
Length or distance, times, mass, temperature and volume are some
2. Quantitative describe quantities (amounts) common measurable quantities.
I see four pictures on this slide The International System (SI) is the system used internationally.
The hand has five fingers

3. Making Inferences
Inferences are interpretation of things observed.
Observations:
1. Controlled Experiment compares the results obtained form an experimental
sample against the control sample. The observer tests the hypothesis by looking for
changes brought about by alteration to a variable.

Variable a characteristic, number or quantity that increases or decreases over time


or against the control sample.

Three (3) Kinds of variable:

a. Controlled variable variables that are kept constant. They do not receive any
treatment.
b. Independent Variable are factors that you change or later during the
experiment. These variables cause corresponding effect in other variables.
Scientific Method - is an orderly process of empirical investigation that is focused on c. Dependent Variable the variables that you observe and they considered
solving a problem. response to an independent variable.

Components of Scientific Investigation The part of the experiment without the variable being tested is called control group.

1. Statement of the Research Problem The part that contains the variable being tested is called the experimental group.
Choosing a problem to be explored who requires preliminary steps to ensure a The control group is necessary for comparison.
successful investigation. This part answers the following questions: What questions do you
have about your topic? What do you want to know? 2. Natural or Quasi Experiments those that are rely solely on observations of
variables of system under the study. The observer does not manipulate any variable
2. Formulation of Hypothesis but simply collects all the possible data to determine the factors affecting a
A hypothesis is a simple statement that presents the possible solution to the particular phenomenon.
problem. It can be tested and is based on the knowledge and research.
A hypothesis can be an overall statement about the observation (descriptive) or a 3. Field Experiment to draw a contrast with laboratory experiments. It examines
guess about what caused the pattern in the observation (explanatory). the real world using scientific method, and is often used in social sciences such as
Hypothesis may be stated in two ways: political sciences, economics and psychology.
1. Null Hypothesis (Ho) states that there is no relationship between variables.
2. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) - states a relationship between variables. 4. Analyzing and Presenting Data
Data obtained from experiments should be analyzed and presented systematically.
3. Testing the Hypothesis The data can be presented using a table for easy interpretation. It is easy to make
Test hypothesis by conducting an experiment. comparisons, see patterns and trends and show relationship of two factors , which will serve
as the basis for drawing conclusion.
Experiment a set of manipulations or specific observations of nature, and it is
considered the most important part of the scientific method.
5. Creating Conclusion
Three (3) types of Experiment :
Conclusion is a summary of the results of the experiment and the statement of how the Independent variable?
results match up to the hypothesis. Two options for a conclusion; accept or reject the Controlled variables?
hypothesis. Dependent variable: The growth of plants.
A good conclusion has been tested enough and showed valid and reliable results Independent variable: The amount of fertilizer.
each time, it becomes theory, a scientifically accepted fact. Controlled variable: The amount of water, amount of sunlight and the kind and initial size of
A theory that has been tested and confirmed by various experiments becomes a plants.
scientific law, a statement or principle that is universally accepted.
4. Analyzing and Presenting the Data
6. Report of Findings
This stage is important in perpetuating the body of knowledge gathered in
conducting the scientific method.

Example of a Scientific Investigation

1. Statement of the Research Problem

How does fertilizer affect the growth of plants?

2. Formulation of Hypothesis
1. Null Hypothesis (Ho)
Ex. The fertilizer does not affect the growth of plants.
2. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)
Ex. There is a significant relationship between the growth of plants and the
use of fertilizer. 1. Which plants has the greatest growth rate?
3. Testing the Hypothesis and Gathering Data 2. What factors affect the growth of the plant?
3. What is the table all about?
First you will need to gather your materials. Second, you need to come up with the
step-by-step procedure in carrying out the experiment. Experimental designs must consist of The table shows that Group A was the control group while Group B was the experimental
setups. Try to identify all possible variables which can interfere the experiment. By group.
controlling these variables (control variables), you will have a fair test.
5. Creating a Conclusion
In this case, a group of pupils tested the effect of fertilizer on the growth of plants.
They used six plants that are all 15 cm tall. They grouped the plants into two: Group A and Is the hypothesis ACCEPTED OR REJECTED?
Group B. They watered the plants in Group A with 200ml of plain water and in Group B with
200 ml of fertilizer solution. I therefore conclude that fertilizers have an effect on the growth of plants. Plants
with fertilizers will grow bigger.
They watered the plants twice a week with the same amount of water and exposed Identifying Variables
them to the same amount of sunlight. After three weeks, they measured the growth of
plants in each group. 1. Independent Variable
What is the dependent variable? What factors do I want to change or manipulate?
The experiment shows a germinated bean that is exposed to sunlight and a
For an instance, in an investigation of earthworms, the students want to see the bean seed that is kept in a box and away from the sunlight. The experiment is
effect of earthworms and soil quality. The independent variable is earthworm. designed to determine the effect of sunlight on seed germination.

2. Dependent Variable 1. Independent Variable? Sunlight exposure


What factors do I want to observe or measure? 2. Dependent Variable? Seed germination
3. Control group? Plant without sunlight
This is the result of the change in independent variable. In the investigation of the 4. Experimental group? Plant exposed to sunlight
earthworms, the dependent variable is the soil quality, which can be measured or observed
through ocular observation or testing with measuring instruments.

3. Controlled Variables
What factors will I keep constant or the same?

These are factors that have to be kept the same for all the setups. In the earthworm
experiment, these will be the type of soil, the species of earthworms, and the size of
container.

Example 1:

You want to prove that trees lower the air temperature under the leaves because of
the shade. You stand under the tree, hold out a thermometer under the shade for a few
minutes, and record the air temperature. You then move to an area where there are no trees
and you take and record the air pressure.

1. What is the independent variable? Shared offered by the trees.


2. What is dependent variable? Air temperature
3. What is the controlled variable?
use of the same thermometer
time of day
location where there are trees and no trees
length of time the thermometer is exposed.
4. What is the experimental group? Thermometer under the tree shade
5. What is the control group? Thermometer in the open area (no shade)

Example 2: