Transport Phenomena
in Materials Engineering
second edItIon
DaviD R. GaskEll
An Introduction to
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition
An Introduction to
TRANSPORT
PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS
ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition
DAVID R. GASKELL
The first edition of this textbook contained a large number of typographical errors.
In this, the second edition, a serious attempt has been made to correct these errors.
The major difference, however, between the first and this edition is that this edition
contains an additional chapter, Chapter 12, titled Boiling and Condensation. The
material presented in this chapter is particularly important in view of the current
interest in Renewal Energy Resources involving such devices as windmills and solar
panels. Developments in this field require a thorough familiarity with the phenomena
and mechanisms of boiling and condensation.
vii
ix
x Preface
Contents xi
2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 Newtons Lax of Viscosity 32
2.3 Conservation of Momentum in SteadyState Flow 36
2.4 Fluid Flow Between Two Flat Parallel Plates 40
2.5 Fluid Flow down in Inclined Plane 48
2.6 Fluid Flow in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 53
2.7 Capillary Flowmeter 65
xi
xii Contents
Index 651
xvii
xviii List of Symbols
List of Symbols xix
xx List of Symbols
Condensation and Boiling
12.1 Introduction
Evaporation is a process that occurs when a liquid, maintained at a constant tem
perature, exerts a partial vapor pressure in the gas phase, in contact with the liquid,
which is less than the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid at the same temperature.
At any finite temperature, the atoms or molecules in the liquid are in constant mo
tion, vibrating in a cage of adjacent atoms or molecules as a result of the attractive
and repulsive forces on the central atom by its neighbors. The magnitude of this agita
tion, which is determined by the temperature of the liquid, increases with increasing
temperature. Thus, the atoms in the layer of liquid in contact with the gas phase can
attain increases in energy which are greater than the activation energy required for
evaporation, in which case the atom is transferred from the liquid phase to the gas
phase. This process, which is called evaporation, continues until, thereby, the partial
pressure of the component in the gas phase reaches its saturated vapor pressure at the
temperature of interest.
When a liquid is contained in a vessel, its surface tension prevents it from com
pletely filling the invariable imperfections that occur on the inner surface of the vessel.
Thus, small pockets of air or nitrogen are trapped in these imperfections, and atoms
on the liquid side of the interface, when acquiring an increase in energy greater than
the activation energy for evaporation transfer into the trapped bubble. This process
continues until the partial pressure of the component in the bubble reaches the sat
uration pressure. This partial pressure increases with increasing temperature until
it reaches the total pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid, which is, by defi
nition, the boiling temperature of the liquid. During the period during which the
liquid is being heated, the partial pressure of the component in the trapped bubble in
creases, as a consequence of which, the volume of the bubble increases. At the boiling
602 Condensation and Boiling
temperature of the liquid, the geometry of the bubble makes it unstable and it detaches
from the imperfection and, due the difference between densities of the liquid and
vapor phases, rises to the free surface of the liquid where it is ejected into the gas. The
decreasing hydrostatic pressure on the rising bubble causes it to increase in volume.
When the bubble detaches from the imperfection, the volume of gas in the imperfec
tion decreases, and the growth process begins again. This process is the same as that
when a bottle of soft drink, carbonated with CO2 at high pressure, is opened and
poured into a drinking glass. The rapid nucleation, growth, and release of the bubbles
at the surface imperfections can be seen through the glass. When the liquid is a single
component, boiling occurs at a fixed temperature, and the rate of boiling increases
with increasing rate of transfer of heat to the liquid.
Condensation occurs when an atom or molecule in the gas phase strikes the free
surface of the liquid and is captured. The individual atoms or molecules in the gas
phase have velocities within a spectrum of velocities, the extremes of which are deter
mined by the temperature of the gas and the atomic or molecular weights of particles
in the gas. Particles with a high enough velocity, and hence high enough kinetic en
ergy, are captured by the liquid and this process is called condensation. Particles with
less than this velocity undergo elastic collisions with the free surface and bounce back
into the gas phase. When the partial pressure of the component in the gas phase equals
its saturated vapor pressure, the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal and
phase equilibrium occurs.
A knowledge of the mechanisms of the transport of heat between a solid surface
and the fluid with which it is contact is important in the heat treatment of ferrous al
loys. TimeTemperatureTransformation (TTT) Diagrams for ferrous alloys show
the influence of cooling rates (quenching rates) on the microstructure obtained at
room temperature. In the case of plain carbon steels of the eutectoid composition,
increasing the cooling rate causes microstructures to vary in the range of coarse pearl
ite, fine pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite. If the cooling rate is rapid enough that
the variation of temperature with time misses the nose of the TTT curve, austenite
is retained until the Ms (martensite start) temperature is reached. At this point, with
further cooling, the facecentered cubic g phase transforms, by diffusionless shear, to
the bodycentered tetragonal martensite phase. This transformation continues until
the temperature reaches the Mf (martensite finish) temperature. The change in molar
volume accompanying this phase change gives rise to high shear stresses at the phase
boundaries, which causes the martensite phase to be brittle. This brittleness is re
moved by tempering the alloy at a temperature high enough to allow some nucleation
and precipitation of cementite from the martensite.
hL g ( l  v ) L 3 cp DT cp g ( l  v) 2L
= f , , , (12.2)
k 2 DHevap k
or, defining the dimensionless groups,
g( l  v ) L 3
NuL = f Ja , Pr , Bo (12.3)
2
The Prandtl number, Pr = hcp / k , was defined on p. 298 and the Nusselt number,
Nu = hL/ k, was defined on P. 299. The Jacob number, Ja, which is the ratio of the
maximum sensible energy absorbed by the liquid (or vapor) to the latent heat ab
sorbed by the liquid (or vapor) during condensation (or boiling) is given by
g ( f  v )L 2 (12.5)
Bo =
Free Nucleate
convection isolated jets and Transition Film
bubbles columns
107
105
B
qs (w/m 2)
Leidenfrost
point, 9 min
A
104
ONB
103
1 5 10 30 120 1000
Te = Ts Tsat Centigrade Degrees
q "s depends on both the convection coefficient, h, and the excess temperature, DTe.
The various boiling regimes are delineated by their values of DTe.
Nucleate Boiling
Nucleate boiling occurs in the range DTe,A d DTe d DTe,C, where DTe,C 30 centigrade
degrees. Two flow regimes exist in this range. At lower temperatures in the region
AB, isolated bubbles form at nucleation sites and separate from the surface, which,
by causing significant mixing in the fluid adjacent to the surface, substantially in
creases both h and q ".s Most of the heat exchange is by direct transfer from the sur
face to the liquid in motion at the surface. As DTe is increased beyond DTe,B, more
nucleation sites become active and the consequent increased formation of bubbles
causes interference between, and coalescence of, the bubbles. In the region B  C the
vapor escapes in columns, which eventually merge into slugs of vapor. Motion of the
liquid near the surface is inhibited by interference between the densely populated
bubbles. Point P in Fig. 12.1 is a point of inflection on the boiling curve at which h has
a maximum value. At this point h begins to decrease with increasing DTe , although
s which is the product of h and DTe continues to increase. This situation arises be
q ",
cause, for DTe > DTe,P the relative increase in DTe exceeds the relative decrease in h. At
the point C, however, the further increase in DTe is balanced by the decrease in h. The
maximum heat flux, qs,C" = qmax", the critical heat flux, in water at atmospheric pres
sure exceeds 1 MW/m2. At this point, the amount of vapor formed makes it difficult
for the liquid to continuously wet the surface.
Transition boiling
The region DTe,C DTe DTe,D, where DTe,D @ is called, transition boiling, film boiling
or partial film boiling. The rate of formation of bubbles is now so rapid that a film
of vapor begins to form on the surface. At any point on the surface, conditions may
change from film to nucleate boiling, but the fraction of the total surface covered by
the film increases with increasing DTe. Because the thermal conductivity of the vapor
s decrease with increasing DTe .
is much less than that of the liquid, h, and q ",
Film Boiling
Film boiling occurs in the range DTe DTe,D. At the point D on the boiling curve,
referred to as the Leidenfrost point, the heat flux is a minimum, q ",
s = q"min and the sur
face is completely covered with a film of vapor. Heat transfer from the surface to the
liquid occurs by conduction through the vapor. With further increase in the surface
temperature, radiation through the vapor film becomes significant and the heat flux
increases with increasing DTe.
The preceding discussion concerns the condition in which the heat flux, q ", s is de
termined by the imposed value of DTe. The behavior is significantly different if the
heat flux is the independent variable. Consider starting at some point P, shown in
606 Condensation and Boiling
C E
gmax
P
gs
Te,C Te,E
Te = Ts Tsat
FIGURE 12.2 Onset of the boiling crisis.
Fig. 12.2, and increasing the heat flux. The system moves, as before, up the boiling
curve to the point C, but any attempt to further increase the heat flux causes the sys
tem to jump to the point E, which probably occurs at a temperature higher than the
melting temperature of the solid, which, consequently, causes destruction of the solid.
For this reason, point C is called the burnout point, and it is important that the value
of the critical heat flux be known accurately, as it may be required that the system be
operated at a heat flux which is close to the critical value, but which may not exceed
the critical value. Applications involving controlling q include nuclear reactors and
devices heated by resistance to the passage of an electrical current.
q s = C D Tea nb (12.7)
where n is the number of active nucleation sites per unit area, and the exponents are
approximately a = 1.2 and b = 1/3. Although the type of fluidsurface combination
has a considerable influence on the values of C and n, it has been found that, for most
commercial surfaces, n is proportional to DT e5 or DT e6. Thus, from Eq. (12.7), it follows
that q "s is approximately proportional to DT e3. Consideration of Eq. (12.7) led to the
first and most useful correlation
Pool Boiling Correlations 607
n
q s = D Hevap [ g ( l  v )/ ] /2 [ Cp,l D Te / Cs D HevapPr l ] 3
1
(12.8)
where the subscripts l and v, respectively, denote the saturated liquid and vapor states.
The inclusion of the surface tension, s, follows from the large effect that the surface
tension has on the formation and development of bubbles. The coefficient CS and the
exponent n depend on combination of surface and liquids and representative values
are listed in Table 12.1.
2 1/ 4
qs,max = 0.149 D Hevapv[ g ( l  v ) / v ] (12.10)
The critical heat flux depends strongly on pressure, mainly through the dependencies
of surface tension and the heat of vaporization on pressure.
hconv D g ( 1  v) DHev ap D 3 1/ 4
NuD = = C[ ] (12.12)
kv vv kv ( Ts  Tsat)
The correlation constant C is 0.62 for horizontal cylinders and 0.67 for spheres.
The corrected latent heat DHevap accounts for the sensible energy required to maintain
temperatures within the vapor blanket above the saturation temperature. Although it
may be approximated as
D H evap
= D Hevap + 0.8 cp,v ( Ts  Tsat )
it has a weak dependence on the Prandtl number of the vapor. The properties of the
vapor are evaluated at the film temperature
3
h = hconv + hrad (12.14)
4

The effective radiation coefficient h rad is expressed as
(Ts4  Tsat4 )
hrad = (12.15)
Ts  Tsat
where e is the emissivity of the solid and s is the StefanBoltzmann constant.
Note that the analogy between film boiling and film condensation does not hold
for small surfaces with high curvature because of the large difference between vapor
and liquid film thicknesses for the two processes.
EXAMPLE 12.1
The bottom of a copper pan, 0.4 m in diameter, is maintained at 120 C by an elec
tric heater. Estimate the power required to boil water in this pan. What is the rate
of evaporation? Estimate the critical heat flux.
From Appendix G
rl = 958 kg/m3
cpl = 4220 J/kgK
h l = 282 106 kg/ms
Prl = 1.75
Other data
DHevap = 2260 kJ/kg
s = 58.9 103 N/m
rv = 0.596 kg/m3
n
q s = D Hevap [ g ( l  v )/ ] /2 [ Cp,l D Te / Cs D HevapPr l ] 3
1
q s = D Hand
610 Condensation g ( 1  v )/ ]
evap[ Boiling
1/ 2
[ cp,1 D Te / Cs D Hevap Pr 1n] 3
EXAMPLE 12.2
A metalclad heating element 6mm in diameter and with an emissivity e = 1 is
immersed horizontally in a water bath. The surface temperature of the metal is
255C under steadystate boiling conditions. Estimate the power dissipation per
unit length of the heater.
From Appendix F
rl = 958 kg/m3
DHevap = 2260 kJ/kg
rv = 0.441 kg/m3
cp,v = 1977 J/kg.K
kv = 0.0019 W/mK
hv = 1.212 105 kg/ms
DTe = 2325 100 = 125C
qs = q s D = h DD Te
qs = q s D = h DD Te
4/3
h 4/3 = h 4/3 + hrad h
h 4/3 = hconv
conv + hrad h
1/4
kv33 v ( l  v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe 1/4
hconv = 0.62 kv v ( l  v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe
hconv = 0.62 D DTe
D DTe
qs = q s D = h DD Te
4/3
h 4/3 = hconv + hrad h Summary 611
1/4
kv3 v ( l  v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe
hconv = 0.62
D DTe
1/ 4
3 W
3
kg m kg J J
0.0019 0.441 3 9.81 2 (958  0.441) 3 (2260 + 0.8 1977 125
mK m s m kg kgK
= 0.62
5 kg
1.212 10 6 10 ( m) 125
3
ms
W
= 400( )
m2 K
(Ts4  Tsat
4
)
hrad =
Ts  Tsat
W
= 5.67 10  8 2
4.98 4  3734( )
m K 498  373
W
= 19.12 2
m K
W
h = 400
m2 K
Then
W
qs = 400( ) 3.184 6 10  3 (m) 125
m2 K
W
= 955
m
612 Condensation and Boiling
12.5 Summary
The term boiling is used to describe the process of evaporation at the free surface
of a liquid and the modes of boiling are shown graphically on a loglog plot of the
variation of the heat flux, from the solid surface of the liquid, with the excess tem
perature. Newtons Law gives the relationship between the heat flux and the excess
temperature.
The boiling curve shows the various regimes of boiling. With increasing excess
temperature these are (i) free convection boiling, (ii) nucleate boiling, (iii) transition
boiling, and (iv) film boiling. Equations have been developed to give the dependence
of the surface heat flux on the values of the various properties that influence this flux.
The point C on the boiling curve is the critical heat flux, and an expression has been
derived for the dependence of this critical heat flux on the same properties.
The minimum heat flux occurs at the Leidenfrost point, and an equation has been
developed to give the dependence of the value of this minimum heat flux on the vari
ous properties of the system. At elevated temperatures, radiation heat transfer across
the vapor film becomes significant.
Problems
PROBLEM 12.1
Conduct a unit analysis of Eq. (12.9).
PROBLEM 12.2
The surface of a horizontal, 20mm diameter cylinder is maintained at an excess tem
perature of 10C in saturated water at 1 atm. Calculate the heat flux. Use the data in
Appendix G and the data below:
PROBLEM 12.3
A long 2mm diameter wire passes an electric current and reaches a surface tem
perature of 120C when submerged in boiling water at 1 atm pressure. Calculate the
boiling heat transfer coefficient.
PROBLEM 12.4
Calculate the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient for water boiling at at
mospheric pressure on the outer surface of a platinumplated 10mm diameter tube
maintained 10C above the saturation temperature.
Summary 613
PROBLEM 12.5
The bottom of a copper pan, 150 mm in diameter, is maintained at 115C by the heat
ing element of an electric range. Calculate
(i) the power required to boil the water in this pan.
(ii) the rate of evaporation.
(iii) the ratio of the surface heat flux to the critical heat flux.
Contents 615
615
616 Elementary and Derived SI Units and Symbols
617
618 Contents
618
Conversion from British and U.S. Units to SI Units 619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642 Recommended Readings
Answers to Problems 643
644 Answers to Problems
Answers to Problems 645
646 Answers to Problems
Answers to Problems 647
648 Answers to Problems
Chapter Twelve
12.1 LHS = RHS = kg/s3
1/ 4 1/ 2
g ( e  v ) ( e + v)
q s ,max = DH evap
24 v2 e
1/ 4
W J kg J m m 3
2 2 1 1
m2 kg m3 m s kg
1/4
J N.m kg N.m m m 3
s.m 2 kg m3 m2 s 2 kg
1/ 4
N.m m m kg m m m m3
kg 2 kg
s.m 2 s kg m3 s2 m2 s 2 kg
1/ 4 1/ 4
m m kg m 4 kg m 4
kg
s 2 s.m 2 s 2 m s 4 s 2 m s 4
kg kg
s 3 s3
12.2 37.6 W/m
D = 20 mm Te = 10
e = 958 kg/m3 cs = 0.013 n = 1
Ce = 4220 J/kg K Hevap = 2260 103 J/kg
= 0.282 103 kg/m.s = 58.9 103 kg/m.s
Pr = 1.75 v = 0.596 kg/m3
3
C e DT e 3
1/2
g ( e  s ) 1/2
qs = DHevap C e DT e n
g ( e s )
qs = DHevap Cs DH evap Prn
Cs DH evap Pr 1/ 2 3
3 3 9.81 (958  0.596) 1/ 2 4420 10 3
= [0.282 10 2260 10 ] 9.81 (958  0.596) 3
4420 10
3 0.013 2260 103 1.75
= [0.282 10 2260 10 ] 58.9 10 3
3
58.9 10 0.013 2260 103 1.75
637.3 339.3 0.5529
637.3 339.3 0.5529
W 0.02 2
= 11950 2 A= = 3.143 10  4
m 4
\ q = 119500 3.143 10  4
W
= 37.6 m
Answers to Problems 649
12.3 47.8 kW/m K 2
D = 2 mm Te = 20
l = 958 kg/m3 Cs = 0.013 n = 1
Cl = 4220 J/kgK Hevap = 2260 103 J/kg
= 0.282 103 kg/m.s = 58.9 103 kg/m.s
Pr = 1.75 v = 0.596 kg/m3
3
g (  v )
1/2
e
3
) C Ce D T
1/2
e(
= D
\ \s q = HDevap
q g e v e DT e 3
s Hevapg (
e v ) CsC
1/2
DT ePrn n
DHe evap
\ qs = D Hevap C sD HevapnPr
C sD Hevap Pr 1/2 1/2 3
3 9.81 (958  0.596) 4420 20 3
32260 10 ] 3 9.81 (958  0.596) 4420 20
3
= [0.28 2 10
= [0.28 2 10 2260 10]9.81 0.013
1/2 3
3 3 58.9
(958
58.9 10
3
0.596)
10 3 0.013
2260
4420
226010
20
3
1031.75
1.75
= [0.28 2 10 2260 10 ]
637.3 58.9 10
339.3
3
0.013 2260 10 1.75
4.423
3
637.3 339.3 4.423
637.3 339.3 4.423
= 956411 = h D T
= 956411 = hDe Te
= 956411 = hDTe
956411 W
h= = 47820 2
20 m K
kW
= 47.8 2
m K
1/ 2 1/1/21/2 2 3 3 33
3 3 3 9.81
9.81 (958
(958 
0.596)
44204420 15
4420 15 15
===[0.28
= [0.28  310 33
10
[0.28
[0.28 10
1022603 2260
2260
2260 10
103 ]10 ] (9589.81
9.81(958
0.596) 0.596)
0.596) 4420 15
10 ]]58.9
58.9  310 33 3
10 0.013
0.013 2260 3 10 3 3
1.75
10 31.75
58.9
10 10
58.9 0.013
0.0132260
2260 2260
10 10
1.75 1.75
637.3637.3
637.3
637.3 339.3
339.3339.3
339.3 1.861
1.8611.861
1.861
W W
===403469 WW= 403.5Kw Kw Kw
Kw
= 403469403469
403469= 403.5
2 m 2 22
==403.5
403.5
2 m 2 22
m mm m mm
\ qs = qsA D 2 3.142 0.152
\ qs = qsA A= = = 0.0177m 2
4 4
= 403.5 0.0177 = 7.142 kW
= 403.5 0.0177
7.142 kg kg
(ii) qs = m b D Hevap \ m
b = = 3.16 10  3 = 11.4
2260 s h
(iii) surface heat flux 403469
= = 0.2
critical heat flux 2 10 6
Index 651
651
652 Index
Q S
Quanta, 421 Sand casting, 401408, 402f, 405f
Schmidt number, 572, 576, 577f, 580
R Second, 5
Radial flux, 266 Selfdiffusion coefficient, 506510, 507f
Radiation Shape factor, 172, 444f, 445f
constants, 427 Shear force, 141
emission, 422f, 423 Shear stress, 33, 34, 36, 40, 43f, 44, 50,
exchange. See Thermal radiation in 50f, 72, 81, 108, 119, 121, 126f,
heat transport 129, 142, 154, 159, 296, 345
for heat transfer, 466471, 468f, Shekel, 1
469f, 471f Sherwood number, 570, 571, 573, 580,
heat transfer coefficient, 467, 468f 581
shields, 460463, 461f SI (International system of units), 5
Radiosity, 426427, 453 Sieverts law, 481, 498
Randomwalk process, 476479, 477f, Size particles, 173
479f Slag, 51
Raoults law, 506 Small cubit, 1
Rayleigh number, 353, 355f, 358 Small span, 1
Index 661
Solidification of metal castings. See gradient, 347f, 366, 368f, 408, 412
Transient heat flow 416, 412f, 415f, 553
Specific area means, 171 scales, 45
Specific permeability, 167 Thermal boundary layer, 295, 309f
Spectral distribution, 422 Thermal conductivity, 236, 237, 239f,
Spectral emissive power, 425 240f, 256, 298, 368, 369
Spectral intensity, 424 of gas mixtures, 273274, 274f
Spectral irradiation, 426 and kinetic theory of gases, 267273,
Spectral radiosity, 426 269f, 271f, 272t
Spherical particles and Erguns equa of sand, 401
tion, 170175, 175f Thermal diffusivity, 277, 298, 318
Spontaneous escape process, 594, 595, 596 Thermal energy, 4, 36, 269, 336, 366,
Stagnant film 382, 480
diffusion/chemical reaction in, 542 Thermal expansion, 4
547, 543f, 546f Thermal radiation in heat transport
heat transfer in, 550553, 551f absorptivity/reflectivity/transmissiv
Stagnation point, 163 ity, 436437, 436f
Stanton number, 310, 311, 577 blackbody radiation, 427430, 428f,
mass transport, 577 429t
Steadystate diffusion electric analogy, 458460, 458f,
onedimensional, 529536, 531, 532f 459f, 460f
through composite wall, 498501, 498f electromagnetic waves, 421, 422f
Steadystate heat conduction, 278 emissive power, 425
StefanBoltzmann law, 428, 451, 456 emissivity, 431435, 433f, 434f
Stefans apparatus, 531, 532f examples, 430, 435, 443450, 444f,
Stoichiometry coefficients, 545 445f, 445t, 446f, 446t, 447f,
Stokes law, 130, 160, 162 448f, 450t, 451452, 452f, 456
Stress 458, 456f, 461463, 465466,
normal, 108 467471, 468f, 469f, 471f
shear, 33 features of, 421
Stress tensor, 107 heat transfer by convection/radiation,
Sublimation of sphere into stationary 466471, 468f, 469f, 471f
gas, 536537, 538f intensity, 423425, 423f
Substantial derivative, 109, 110 irradiation, 426
Summation rule, 441, 442, 443 Kirchhoffs law and Hohlraum,
Surface radiation resistance, 454 437439, 437f, 438f
Surface roughness, 189 problems, 472475
radiation emission, 422f, 423
T radiation exchange
Temperature between blackbodies, 450452,
on diffusion coefficient, 514518, 450f, 452f
515f, 516f, 519f between diffusegray surfaces,
distribution, 247f, 345f, 346f 453458, 453f, 454f, 456f
662 Index
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Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering
s e c ond edIt Ion, By David R. Gaskell
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