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An IntroductIon to

Transport Phenomena
in Materials Engineering
second edItIon

DaviD R. GaskEll
An Introduction to
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition
An Introduction to
TRANSPORT
PHENOMENA
in
MATERIALS
ENGINEERING,
2nd Edition
DAVID R. GASKELL

MOMENTUM PRESS, LLC, NEW JERSEY


An Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering, 2nd Edition
Copyright Momentum Press, LLC, 2013
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopy,
recording or any otherexcept for brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without
the prior permission of the publisher.
First edition published by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York;
Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto; Maxwell Macmillan International in 1991
Second edition published in 2012 by
Momentum Press, LLC
222 East 46th Street
New York, NY 10017
www.momentumpress.net
ISBN-13: 978-1-60650-355-3 (hard cover, case bound)
ISBN-10: 1-60650-355-3 (hard cover, case bound)
ISBN-13: 978-1-60650-357-7 (e-book)
ISBN-10: 1-60650-357-X (e-book)
DOI: 10.5643/9781606503577
Cover design by Jonathan Pennell
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America
For Ivy Jean
Preface to the
Second Edition

The first edition of this textbook contained a large number of typographical errors.
In this, the second edition, a serious attempt has been made to correct these errors.
The major difference, however, between the first and this edition is that this edition
contains an additional chapter, Chapter 12, titled Boiling and Condensation. The
material presented in this chapter is particularly important in view of the current
interest in Renewal Energy Resources involving such devices as windmills and solar
panels. Developments in this field require a thorough familiarity with the phenomena
and mechanisms of boiling and condensation.

vii
ix
x Preface
Contents xi

List of Symbols xvii

1 Engineering Units and Pressure in Static Fluids 1

1.1 Origins of Engineering Units 1


1.2 Concept of Pressure 5
1.3 Measurement of Pressure 11
1.4 Pressure in Incompressible Fluids 15
1.5 Buoyancy 21
1.6 Summary 26
Problems 27

2Momentum Transport and Laminar Flow


of Newtonian Fluids 30

2.1 Introduction 30
2.2 Newtons Lax of Viscosity 32
2.3 Conservation of Momentum in Steady-State Flow 36
2.4 Fluid Flow Between Two Flat Parallel Plates 40
2.5 Fluid Flow down in Inclined Plane 48
2.6 Fluid Flow in a Vertical Cylindrical Tube 53
2.7 Capillary Flowmeter 65
xi
xii Contents

2.8 Fluid Flow in an Annulus 69


2.9 Mean Residence Time 76
2.10 Calculation of Viscosity from the Kinetic Theory of Gases 78
2.11 Viscosities of Liquid Metals 90
2.12 Summary 96
Problems 98

3Equations of Continuity and Conservation


of Momentum and Fluid Flow Past
Submerged Objects 102

3.1 Introduction 102


3.2 Equation of Continuity 102
3.3 Conservation of Momentum 104
3.4Navier-Stokes Equation for Fluids of Constant Density
and Viscosity 108
3.5 Fluid Flow over a Horizontal Flat Plane 115
3.6Approximate Integral Method in Obtaining Boundary
Layer Thickness 117
3.7 Creeping Flow past a Sphere 125
3.8 Summary 132
Problems 133

4Turbelent Flow 135

4.1 Introduction 135


4.2 Graphical Representation of Fluid Flow 139
4.3 Friction Factor and Turbulent Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 141
4.4Flow Over a Flat Plate 153
4.5 Flow Past a Submerged Sphere 160
4.6Flow Past a Submerged Cylinder 163
4.7 Flow Through Packed Beds 167
4.8 Fluidized Beds 175
4.9 Summary 180
Problems 181

5Mechanical Energy Balance and Its Application


to Fluid Flow 185

5.1 Introduction 185


5.2 Bernoullis Equation 185
Contents xiii

5.3 Friction Loss, Ef 188


5.4Influence of Bends, Fittings, and Changes in the
Pipe Radius 190
5.5 Concept of Head 203
5.6Fluid Flow in an Open Channel 205
5.7 Drainage from a Vessel 207
5.8 Emptying a Vessel by Discharge Through an Orifice 209
5.9 Drainage of a Vessel Using a Drainage Tube 213
5.10 Emptying a Vessel by Drainage Through a Drainage Tube 215
5.11 Bernoulli Equation for Flow of Compressible Fluids 219
5.12 Pilot Tube 221
5.13 Orifice Plate 225
5.14 Summary 228
Problems 229

6Transport of Heat by Conduction 235

6.1 Introduction 235


6.2 Fouriers Law and Newtons Law 236
6.3 Conduction 238
6.4Conduction in Heat Sources 256
6.5 Thermal Conductivity and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 267
6.6General Heat Conduction Equation 274
6.7 Conduction of Heat at Steady State in Two Dimensions 278
6.8 Summary 289
Problems 290

7Transport of Heat by Convection 295

7.1 Introduction 295


7.2Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Horizontal Flat Plate
at a Uniform Constant Temperature 295
7.3Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Flat Plate with Uniform Heat Flux
Along the Plate 315
7.4Heat Transfer During Fluid Flow in Cylindrical Pipes 317
7.5Energy Balance in Heat Transfer by Convection Between
a Cylindrical Pipe and a Flowing Fluid 322
7.6Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from
Horizontal Cylinders 331
7.7Heat Transfer by Forced Convection from a Sphere 334
7.8 General Energy Equation 335
7.9 Heat Transfer from a Vertical Plate by Natural Convection 346
xiv Contents

7.10 Heat Transfer from Cylinders by Natural Convection 358


7.11 Summary 360
Problems 361

8Transient Heat Flow 365

8.1 Introduction 365


8.2 Lumped Capacitance Method; Newtonian Cooling 365
8.3 Non-Newtonian Cooling in Semi-infinite Systems 373
8.4Non-Newtonian Cooling in a One-Dimensional
Finite Systems 382
8.5Non-Newtonian Cooling in a Two-Dimensional
Finite Systems 394
8.6Solidification of Metal Castings 401
8.7 Summary 416
Problems 416

9Heat Transport by Thermal Radiation 421

9.1 Introduction 421


9.2 Intensity and Emissive Power 423
9.3 Blackbody Radiation 427
9.4Emissivity 431
9.5Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 436
9.6Kirchhoffs Law and the Hohlraum 437
9.7Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 439
9.8Radiation Exchange Between Blackbodies 450
9.9Radiation Exchange Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces 453
9.10Electric Analogy 458
9.11Radiation Shields 460
9.12Reradiating Surface 463
9.13Heat Transfer from a Surface by Convection and Radiation 466
9.14 Summary 471
Problems 472

10Mass Transport by Diffusion in the Solid State 476

10.1 Introduction 476


10.2 Atomic Diffusion as a Random-Walk Process 476
10.3 Ficks First Law of Diffusion 480
Contents xv

10.4One-Dimensional Non-Steady-State Diffusion in a Solid; Ficks


Second Law of Diffusion 483
10.5Infinite Diffusion Couple 489
10.6One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Semi-infinite System Involving a
Change of Phase 491
10.7Steady-State Diffusion Through a Composite Wall 498
10.8Diffusion in Substitutional Solid Solutions 502
10.9Darkens Analysis 502
10.10Self-Diffusion Coefficient 506
10.11Measurement of the Interdifussion Coefficient: Boltzmann
Matano Analysis 510
10.12Influence of Temperature on the Diffusion Coefficient 514
10.13 Summary 518
Problems 520

11Mass Transport in Fluids 522

11.1 Introduction 522


11.2 Mass and Molar Fluxes in a Fluid 522
11.3Equations of Diffusion with Convection in a Binary
Mixture AB 524
11.4One-Dimensional Transport in a Binary Mixture of
Ideal Gases 527
11.5Equimolar Counterdiffusion 528
11.6One-Dimensional Steady-State Diffusion of Gas A Through
Stationary Gas B 529
11.7Sublimation of a Sphere into a Stationary Gas 536
11.8Film Model 538
11.9Catalytic Surface Reactions 539
11.10Diffusion and Chemical Reaction in Stagnant Film 542
11.11Mass Transfer at Large Fluxes and Large Concentrations 547
11.12Influence of Mass Transport on Heat Transfer in
Stagnant Film 550
11.13Diffusion into a Falling Film of Liquid 553
11.14Diffusion and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 560
11.15Mass Transfer Coefficient and Concentration Boundary Layer on a
Flat Plate 569
11.16Approximate Integral Method 573
11.17Mass Transfer by Free Convection 583
11.18Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer: Evaporate Cooling 586
11.19Chemical Reaction and Mass Transfer: Mixed Control 589
11.20Dissolution of Pure Metal A in Liquid B: Mixed Control 593
11.21 Summary 596
Problems 598
xvi Contents

12Condensation and Boiling 601

12.1 Introduction 601


12.2 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 602
12.3 Modes of Boiling 603
12.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 606
12.5 Summary 612
Problems 612

Appendix AElementary and Derived SI Units


and Symbols 615

Appendix BPrefixes and Symbols for Multiples


and Submultiples of SI Units 617

Appendix CConversion from British and U.S. Units


to SI Units 618

Appendix DProperties of Solid Metals 620

Appendix EProperties of Nonmetallic Solids 623

Appendix FProperties of Gases at 1 Atm Pressure 627

Appendix GProperties of Saturated Liquids 635

Appendix HProperties of Liquid Metals 639

Recommended Readings 642

Answers to Problems 643

Index 651
xvii
xviii List of Symbols
List of Symbols xix
xx List of Symbols
Condensation and Boiling

12.1 Introduction
Evaporation is a process that occurs when a liquid, maintained at a constant tem-
perature, exerts a partial vapor pressure in the gas phase, in contact with the liquid,
which is less than the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid at the same temperature.
At any finite temperature, the atoms or molecules in the liquid are in constant mo-
tion, vibrating in a cage of adjacent atoms or molecules as a result of the attractive
and repulsive forces on the central atom by its neighbors. The magnitude of this agita-
tion, which is determined by the temperature of the liquid, increases with increasing
temperature. Thus, the atoms in the layer of liquid in contact with the gas phase can
attain increases in energy which are greater than the activation energy required for
evaporation, in which case the atom is transferred from the liquid phase to the gas
phase. This process, which is called evaporation, continues until, thereby, the partial
pressure of the component in the gas phase reaches its saturated vapor pressure at the
temperature of interest.
When a liquid is contained in a vessel, its surface tension prevents it from com-
pletely filling the invariable imperfections that occur on the inner surface of the vessel.
Thus, small pockets of air or nitrogen are trapped in these imperfections, and atoms
on the liquid side of the interface, when acquiring an increase in energy greater than
the activation energy for evaporation transfer into the trapped bubble. This process
continues until the partial pressure of the component in the bubble reaches the sat-
uration pressure. This partial pressure increases with increasing temperature until
it reaches the total pressure of the gas in contact with the liquid, which is, by defi-
nition, the boiling temperature of the liquid. During the period during which the
liquid is being heated, the partial pressure of the component in the trapped bubble in-
creases, as a consequence of which, the volume of the bubble increases. At the boiling
602 Condensation and Boiling
temperature of the liquid, the geometry of the bubble makes it unstable and it detaches
from the imperfection and, due the difference between densities of the liquid and
vapor phases, rises to the free surface of the liquid where it is ejected into the gas. The
decreasing hydrostatic pressure on the rising bubble causes it to increase in volume.
When the bubble detaches from the imperfection, the volume of gas in the imperfec-
tion decreases, and the growth process begins again. This process is the same as that
when a bottle of soft drink, carbonated with CO2 at high pressure, is opened and
poured into a drinking glass. The rapid nucleation, growth, and release of the bubbles
at the surface imperfections can be seen through the glass. When the liquid is a single
component, boiling occurs at a fixed temperature, and the rate of boiling increases
with increasing rate of transfer of heat to the liquid.
Condensation occurs when an atom or molecule in the gas phase strikes the free
surface of the liquid and is captured. The individual atoms or molecules in the gas
phase have velocities within a spectrum of velocities, the extremes of which are deter-
mined by the temperature of the gas and the atomic or molecular weights of particles
in the gas. Particles with a high enough velocity, and hence high enough kinetic en-
ergy, are captured by the liquid and this process is called condensation. Particles with
less than this velocity undergo elastic collisions with the free surface and bounce back
into the gas phase. When the partial pressure of the component in the gas phase equals
its saturated vapor pressure, the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal and
phase equilibrium occurs.
A knowledge of the mechanisms of the transport of heat between a solid surface
and the fluid with which it is contact is important in the heat treatment of ferrous al-
loys. Time-Temperature-Transformation (T-T-T) Diagrams for ferrous alloys show
the influence of cooling rates (quenching rates) on the microstructure obtained at
room temperature. In the case of plain carbon steels of the eutectoid composition,
increasing the cooling rate causes microstructures to vary in the range of coarse pearl-
ite, fine pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite. If the cooling rate is rapid enough that
the variation of temperature with time misses the nose of the T-T-T curve, austenite
is retained until the Ms (martensite start) temperature is reached. At this point, with
further cooling, the face-centered cubic g phase transforms, by diffusionless shear, to
the body-centered tetragonal martensite phase. This transformation continues until
the temperature reaches the Mf (martensite finish) temperature. The change in molar
volume accompanying this phase change gives rise to high shear stresses at the phase
boundaries, which causes the martensite phase to be brittle. This brittleness is re-
moved by tempering the alloy at a temperature high enough to allow some nucleation
and precipitation of cementite from the martensite.

12.2 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling


and Condensation
For both the boiling and the condensation processes, the convection coefficient
could depend on the difference between the surface and saturation temperatures,
DTe = Ts - Tsat , the body force caused by the difference between the densities of the
liquid and vapor phases, g ( 1 - v), the latent heat of evaporation D Hevap, the surface
Modes of Boiling 603

tension s, a characteristic length L and the thermophysical properties of the liquid


or vapor, density r, molar heat capacity cp, thermal conductivity k and viscosity h;
that is,

h = h[DT, g (l v), Hevap , , L, , cp , k, ] (12.1)

Straightforward dimensionless gives the relationship

hL g ( l - v ) L 3 cp DT cp g ( l - v) 2L
= f , , , (12.2)
k 2 DHevap k
or, defining the dimensionless groups,

g( l - v ) L 3
NuL = f Ja , Pr , Bo (12.3)
2
The Prandtl number, Pr = hcp / k , was defined on p. 298 and the Nusselt number,
Nu = hL/ k, was defined on P. 299. The Jacob number, Ja, which is the ratio of the
maximum sensible energy absorbed by the liquid (or vapor) to the latent heat ab-
sorbed by the liquid (or vapor) during condensation (or boiling) is given by

cp (Ts - Tsat ) (12.4)


Ja =
D Hevap
and the Bond number, Bo, which is the ratio of the gravitational body force to the
surface tension force, is given by

g ( f - v )L 2 (12.5)
Bo =

12.3 Modes of Boiling


The term boiling is used to describe the process of evaporation at the free surface of a
liquid. The modes of boiling are shown graphically on a log-log plot of the variation
of the heat flux from the solid surface to the liquid, q ",
s with the excess temperature,
DTe = Ts - Tsat , where Ts is the temperature of the surface and Tsat is the temperature
at which the partial pressure of the component in the gas phase is equal to the satu-
rated vapor pressure. Heat is transferred from solid surface to the liquid according to
Newtons Law as

q s = h (Ts - Tsat ) = hDTe (12.6)



The process is characterized by the formation of bubbles of vapor, which grow and,
subsequently, detach from the surface.
The various regimes of boiling are identified in the boiling curve, shown as
Fig. 12.1, which is drawn for water at one atmosphere pressure. Eq. (12.6) shows that
604 Condensation and Boiling
Boiling Regimes

Free Nucleate
convection isolated jets and Transition Film
bubbles columns
107

C ~ Critical heat flux, 9 max


9max
106

105
B
qs (w/m 2)

Leidenfrost
point, 9 min
A
104
ONB

Te,A Te,B Te,C Te,D

103
1 5 10 30 120 1000
Te = Ts Tsat Centigrade Degrees

FIGURE 12.1 The boiling curve for water at 1 atm.

q "s depends on both the convection coefficient, h, and the excess temperature, DTe.
The various boiling regimes are delineated by their values of DTe.

Free Convection Boiling


Free convection boiling occurs when DTe DTe,A 5 centigrade degrees. In this
regime, the amount of vapor in contact with the liquid phase is not enough to cause
boiling at the temperature at which the liquid exerts its saturated vapor pressure. As
the excess temperature is increased, the formation of bubbles eventually begins, but
Modes of Boiling 605
at temperatures lower than the point A, termed the onset of nucleate boiling, ONB,
fluid motion is determined mainly by free convection. According to whether the flow
is laminar or turbulent, h varies with DTe to the 1/4 or 1/3 power, respectively, in which
case q "s varies with DTe to the 5/4 or 4/3 power.

Nucleate Boiling
Nucleate boiling occurs in the range DTe,A d DTe d DTe,C, where DTe,C 30 centigrade
degrees. Two flow regimes exist in this range. At lower temperatures in the region
A-B, isolated bubbles form at nucleation sites and separate from the surface, which,
by causing significant mixing in the fluid adjacent to the surface, substantially in-
creases both h and q ".s Most of the heat exchange is by direct transfer from the sur-
face to the liquid in motion at the surface. As DTe is increased beyond DTe,B, more
nucleation sites become active and the consequent increased formation of bubbles
causes interference between, and coalescence of, the bubbles. In the region B - C the
vapor escapes in columns, which eventually merge into slugs of vapor. Motion of the
liquid near the surface is inhibited by interference between the densely populated
bubbles. Point P in Fig. 12.1 is a point of inflection on the boiling curve at which h has
a maximum value. At this point h begins to decrease with increasing DTe , although
s which is the product of h and DTe continues to increase. This situation arises be-
q ",
cause, for DTe > DTe,P the relative increase in DTe exceeds the relative decrease in h. At
the point C, however, the further increase in DTe is balanced by the decrease in h. The
maximum heat flux, qs,C" = qmax", the critical heat flux, in water at atmospheric pres-
sure exceeds 1 MW/m2. At this point, the amount of vapor formed makes it difficult
for the liquid to continuously wet the surface.

Transition boiling
The region DTe,C DTe DTe,D, where DTe,D @ is called, transition boiling, film boiling
or partial film boiling. The rate of formation of bubbles is now so rapid that a film
of vapor begins to form on the surface. At any point on the surface, conditions may
change from film to nucleate boiling, but the fraction of the total surface covered by
the film increases with increasing DTe. Because the thermal conductivity of the vapor
s decrease with increasing DTe .
is much less than that of the liquid, h, and q ",

Film Boiling
Film boiling occurs in the range DTe DTe,D. At the point D on the boiling curve,
referred to as the Leidenfrost point, the heat flux is a minimum, q ",
s = q"min and the sur-
face is completely covered with a film of vapor. Heat transfer from the surface to the
liquid occurs by conduction through the vapor. With further increase in the surface
temperature, radiation through the vapor film becomes significant and the heat flux
increases with increasing DTe.
The preceding discussion concerns the condition in which the heat flux, q ", s is de-
termined by the imposed value of DTe. The behavior is significantly different if the
heat flux is the independent variable. Consider starting at some point P, shown in
606 Condensation and Boiling

C E
gmax

P
gs

Te,C Te,E
Te = Ts Tsat
FIGURE 12.2 Onset of the boiling crisis.

Fig. 12.2, and increasing the heat flux. The system moves, as before, up the boiling
curve to the point C, but any attempt to further increase the heat flux causes the sys-
tem to jump to the point E, which probably occurs at a temperature higher than the
melting temperature of the solid, which, consequently, causes destruction of the solid.
For this reason, point C is called the burnout point, and it is important that the value
of the critical heat flux be known accurately, as it may be required that the system be
operated at a heat flux which is close to the critical value, but which may not exceed
the critical value. Applications involving controlling q include nuclear reactors and
devices heated by resistance to the passage of an electrical current.

12.4 Pool Boiling Correlations


Nucleate Pool Boiling
Consideration of nucleate boiling involves the prediction of the number of nucleation
sites and the rate at which bubbles nucleate from each site. The first relationship de-
rived showed the influence of nucleation sites on the heat flux, q "s (W/m2) as

q s = C D Tea nb (12.7)

where n is the number of active nucleation sites per unit area, and the exponents are
approximately a = 1.2 and b = 1/3. Although the type of fluid-surface combination
has a considerable influence on the values of C and n, it has been found that, for most
commercial surfaces, n is proportional to DT e5 or DT e6. Thus, from Eq. (12.7), it follows
that q "s is approximately proportional to DT e3. Consideration of Eq. (12.7) led to the
first and most useful correlation
Pool Boiling Correlations 607
n
q s = D Hevap [ g ( l - v )/ ] /2 [ Cp,l D Te / Cs D HevapPr l ] 3
1
(12.8)

where the subscripts l and v, respectively, denote the saturated liquid and vapor states.
The inclusion of the surface tension, s, follows from the large effect that the surface
tension has on the formation and development of bubbles. The coefficient CS and the
exponent n depend on combination of surface and liquids and representative values
are listed in Table 12.1.

TABLE 12.1 Values of Cs,f for various


combinations of fluids and solids.
Surfacefluid combination Cs,f n
Watercopper
Scored 0.0068 1.0
Polished 0.0130 1.0
Waterstainless steel 0.0130 1.0
Chemically etched 0.0130 1.0
Mechanically polished 0.0060 1.0
Ground and polished 0.0060 1.0
Waterbrass 0.0060 1.0
Waternickel 0.0060 1.0
Waterplatinum 0.0130 1.0

The Critical Heat Flux for Nucleate Pool Boiling


The point C on the boiling curve is an important point and, as has been stated, while it
is desirable to operate as close to this point as possible, it is imperative that the actual
heat flux does not exceed the critical value. An expression for the critical heat flux has
been derived as

q s, max = D Hevap v [ g ( 1 - v ) / v2 ]1/ 4 [( v + 1 ) / 1 ]1/ 2 (12.9)
24
which, as a first approximation, is independent of surface material and is only weakly
dependent on geometry. Replacing the constant (p/24) = 0.131 by an experimental
value of 0.149 and approximating the last term in parentheses to unity gives

2 1/ 4
qs,max = 0.149 D Hevapv[ g ( l - v ) / v ] (12.10)

The critical heat flux depends strongly on pressure, mainly through the dependencies
of surface tension and the heat of vaporization on pressure.

Minimum Heat Flux


The transition boiling regime is of little practical interest, as it may be obtained only
by controlling the surface heater temperature. This regime can be characterized by
608 Condensation and Boiling
periodic, unstable contact between the liquid and the heated surface. However, the
upper limit of this regime is of interest because it corresponds to the formation of a
stable blanket or film of vapor and to a minimum heat flux condition. If the heat flux
falls below this minimum, the film collapses, causing the surface to cool and nucleate
boiling to be reestablished.
The use of stability theory allowed derivation of the following equation for the
minimum heat flux, qe,D =qmin
, from a large horizontal plate.
1/ 4
g ( l - v )
q min = Cv D Hevap 2
(12.11)
( l + v )
The constant, C, has been experimentally determined to have the value 0.09, which is
accurate to approximately 50% for most fluids at moderate pressures, but is less ac-
curate at higher pressures.

Film Pool Boiling


At excess temperatures greater than that of the Leidenfrost point, a continuous film
of vapor covers the surface which prevents contact between the liquid and the surface.
One result, obtained from condensation theory, which applies to film boiling on a
cylinder or sphere of diameter D, is of the form

hconv D g ( 1 - v) DHev ap D 3 1/ 4
NuD = = C[ ] (12.12)
kv vv kv ( Ts - Tsat)

The correlation constant C is 0.62 for horizontal cylinders and 0.67 for spheres.
The corrected latent heat DHevap accounts for the sensible energy required to maintain
temperatures within the vapor blanket above the saturation temperature. Although it
may be approximated as

D H evap
= D Hevap + 0.8 cp,v ( Ts - Tsat )

it has a weak dependence on the Prandtl number of the vapor. The properties of the
vapor are evaluated at the film temperature

Tf = (Ts + Tsat )/2

and the density of the liquid is evaluated at the saturation temperature.


At elevated surface temperatures (Ts less than or equal to 300C), radiation heat
transfer across the vapor film becomes significant. Since radiation increases the film
thickness, it cannot be assumed that the radiative and convective processes are simply
additive. Investigation of film boiling from the outer surface of horizontal tubes led
to the suggestion that the total heat transfer coefficient be given by an equation of the
form
4/3
h 4 / 3 = h + h h 1/ 3
conv rad
(12.13)
Pool Boiling Correlations 609
- -
If h rad is less than h conv, a simpler form may be used:

3
h = hconv + hrad (12.14)
4
-
The effective radiation coefficient h rad is expressed as

(Ts4 - Tsat4 )
hrad = (12.15)
Ts - Tsat
where e is the emissivity of the solid and s is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.
Note that the analogy between film boiling and film condensation does not hold
for small surfaces with high curvature because of the large difference between vapor
and liquid film thicknesses for the two processes.

EXAMPLE 12.1
The bottom of a copper pan, 0.4 m in diameter, is maintained at 120 C by an elec-
tric heater. Estimate the power required to boil water in this pan. What is the rate
of evaporation? Estimate the critical heat flux.

Assumptions 1. Steady state


2. 1 atm.
3. Tsat = 100C
4. Polished surface
5. Negligible losses from the heater to the surroundings

From Appendix G
rl = 958 kg/m3
cpl = 4220 J/kgK
h l = 282 10-6 kg/ms
Prl = 1.75

Other data
DHevap = 2260 kJ/kg
s = 58.9 103 N/m
rv = 0.596 kg/m3

DTe = Ts Tsat = 20C. Therefore, From Fig 12.1, nucleate


boiling.

From Eq. (12.8)

n
q s = D Hevap [ g ( l - v )/ ] /2 [ Cp,l D Te / Cs D HevapPr l ] 3
1
q s = D Hand
610 Condensation g ( 1 - v )/ ]
evap[ Boiling
1/ 2
[ cp,1 D Te / Cs D Hevap Pr 1n] 3

q s = D H evap[ g ( kg -1/2 )/ ] 1/ 2 [ c4420 J


p,1 D Te / Cs
(958 - 0.596) 1 3 v
kg J m m kgK
=282 10-6 2260 10 3 9.81 2
ms kg s kg
58.9 10 -3 kg
3
0.013
3 J 2260 10m
D T / C D H Pr n 3
] =282 10-6 ms 2260 10 9.81 2
1 e s evap 1 ms kg s
kW 3
kg
=1042 1/2
J
(958 - 0.596) 3 m2 4420 20
m m kgK kW
9.81 =1042 2
-3 kg 3 J
2
s 58.9 10 0.013 2260 10 1.70 m

ms kg
Thus, the boiling heat transfer rate is
2
D
q = qs A = q s
4
kW 0.42 2
= 1042 3.142 m = 131kW
m 2
4

Under steady-state conditions,


q = m evap D H evap
q 1.31 10 5 W kg kg
evap =
\m = = 0.058 = 209
D Hevap J s hr
2260 103
kg

EXAMPLE 12.2
A metal-clad heating element 6-mm in diameter and with an emissivity e = 1 is
immersed horizontally in a water bath. The surface temperature of the metal is
255C under steady-state boiling conditions. Estimate the power dissipation per
unit length of the heater.

From Appendix F
rl = 958 kg/m3
DHevap = 2260 kJ/kg
rv = 0.441 kg/m3
cp,v = 1977 J/kg.K
kv = 0.0019 W/mK
hv = 1.212 10-5 kg/ms
DTe = 2325 100 = 125C

From Fig 12.1, Film Pool Boiling, \ Convection and radiation

qs = q s D = h DD Te
qs = q s D = h DD Te
4/3
h 4/3 = h 4/3 + hrad h
h 4/3 = hconv
conv + hrad h
1/4
kv33 v ( l - v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe 1/4

hconv = 0.62 kv v ( l - v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe
hconv = 0.62 D DTe
D DTe
qs = q s D = h DD Te
4/3
h 4/3 = hconv + hrad h Summary 611
1/4
kv3 v ( l - v ) g (DH evap + 0.8c p,v DTe
hconv = 0.62
D DTe
1/ 4
3 W
3
kg m kg J J
0.0019 0.441 3 9.81 2 (958 - 0.441) 3 (2260 + 0.8 1977 125
mK m s m kg kgK
= 0.62
-5 kg
1.212 10 6 10 ( m) 125
-3

ms

W
= 400( )
m2 K
(Ts4 - Tsat
4
)
hrad =
Ts - Tsat

W
= 5.67 10 - 8 2
4.98 4 - 3734( )
m K 498 - 373
W
= 19.12 2
m K

Then, from Eq. (12.13)


h 4/3 = hconv
4/3
+ h rad h-1/3
h 4/3 = 4004/3 + 19.12 h -1/3

Trial and error gives

W
h = 400
m2 K

Then
W
qs = 400( ) 3.184 6 10 - 3 (m) 125
m2 K
W
= 955
m
612 Condensation and Boiling

12.5 Summary
The term boiling is used to describe the process of evaporation at the free surface
of a liquid and the modes of boiling are shown graphically on a log-log plot of the
variation of the heat flux, from the solid surface of the liquid, with the excess tem-
perature. Newtons Law gives the relationship between the heat flux and the excess
temperature.
The boiling curve shows the various regimes of boiling. With increasing excess
temperature these are (i) free convection boiling, (ii) nucleate boiling, (iii) transition
boiling, and (iv) film boiling. Equations have been developed to give the dependence
of the surface heat flux on the values of the various properties that influence this flux.
The point C on the boiling curve is the critical heat flux, and an expression has been
derived for the dependence of this critical heat flux on the same properties.
The minimum heat flux occurs at the Leidenfrost point, and an equation has been
developed to give the dependence of the value of this minimum heat flux on the vari-
ous properties of the system. At elevated temperatures, radiation heat transfer across
the vapor film becomes significant.

Problems
PROBLEM 12.1
Conduct a unit analysis of Eq. (12.9).

PROBLEM 12.2
The surface of a horizontal, 20-mm diameter cylinder is maintained at an excess tem-
perature of 10C in saturated water at 1 atm. Calculate the heat flux. Use the data in
Appendix G and the data below:

DHevap = 2260 kJ/kg


s = 58.9 10-3 kg/ms
rv = 0.596 kg/m3

PROBLEM 12.3
A long 2-mm diameter wire passes an electric current and reaches a surface tem-
perature of 120C when submerged in boiling water at 1 atm pressure. Calculate the
boiling heat transfer coefficient.

PROBLEM 12.4
Calculate the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient for water boiling at at-
mospheric pressure on the outer surface of a platinum-plated 10-mm diameter tube
maintained 10C above the saturation temperature.
Summary 613
PROBLEM 12.5
The bottom of a copper pan, 150 mm in diameter, is maintained at 115C by the heat-
ing element of an electric range. Calculate
(i) the power required to boil the water in this pan.
(ii) the rate of evaporation.
(iii) the ratio of the surface heat flux to the critical heat flux.
Contents 615

615
616 Elementary and Derived SI Units and Symbols
617
618 Contents

618
Conversion from British and U.S. Units to SI Units 619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642 Recommended Readings
Answers to Problems 643
644 Answers to Problems
Answers to Problems 645
646 Answers to Problems
Answers to Problems 647
648 Answers to Problems

Chapter Twelve
12.1 LHS = RHS = kg/s3
1/ 4 1/ 2
g ( e - v ) ( e + v)
q s ,max = DH evap

24 v2 e

1/ 4
W J kg J m m 3
2 2 1 1
m2 kg m3 m s kg

1/4
J N.m kg N.m m m 3

s.m 2 kg m3 m2 s 2 kg

1/ 4
N.m m m kg m m m m3
kg 2 kg
s.m 2 s kg m3 s2 m2 s 2 kg

1/ 4 1/ 4
m m kg m 4 kg m 4
kg
s 2 s.m 2 s 2 m s 4 s 2 m s 4

kg kg
s 3 s3
12.2 37.6 W/m
D = 20 mm Te = 10
e = 958 kg/m3 cs = 0.013 n = 1
Ce = 4220 J/kg K Hevap = 2260 103 J/kg
= 0.282 103 kg/m.s = 58.9 103 kg/m.s
Pr = 1.75 v = 0.596 kg/m3
3
C e DT e 3
1/2
g ( e - s ) 1/2
qs = DHevap C e DT e n
g ( e- s )
qs = DHevap Cs DH evap Prn

Cs DH evap Pr 1/ 2 3
-3 3 9.81 (958 - 0.596) 1/ 2 4420 10 3
= [0.282 10 2260 10 ] 9.81 (958 - 0.596) -3

4420 10
-3 0.013 2260 103 1.75
= [0.282 10 2260 10 ] 58.9 10 -3
3

58.9 10 0.013 2260 103 1.75
637.3 339.3 0.5529
637.3 339.3 0.5529
W 0.02 2
= 11950 2 A= = 3.143 10 - 4
m 4
\ q = 119500 3.143 10 - 4
W
= 37.6 m
Answers to Problems 649
12.3 47.8 kW/m K 2

D = 2 mm Te = 20
l = 958 kg/m3 Cs = 0.013 n = 1
Cl = 4220 J/kgK Hevap = 2260 103 J/kg
= 0.282 103 kg/m.s = 58.9 103 kg/m.s
Pr = 1.75 v = 0.596 kg/m3
3
g ( - -v )
1/2
e
3
) C Ce D T
1/2
e(
= D
\ \s q = HDevap
q g e v e DT e 3
s Hevapg (
e- v ) CsC
1/2
DT ePrn n
DHe evap
\ qs = D Hevap C sD HevapnPr
C sD Hevap Pr 1/2 1/2 3
3 9.81 (958 - 0.596) 4420 20 3
-32260 10 ] 3 9.81 (958 - 0.596) 4420 20
-3
= [0.28 2 10
= [0.28 2 10 2260 10]9.81 0.013
1/2 3
-3 3 58.9
(958-
58.9 10

-3
0.596)
10 -3 0.013
2260
4420
226010
20

3
1031.75

1.75
= [0.28 2 10 2260 10 ]
637.3 58.9 10
339.3
-3
0.013 2260 10 1.75
4.423
3
637.3 339.3 4.423
637.3 339.3 4.423
= 956411 = h D T
= 956411 = hDe Te
= 956411 = hDTe
956411 W
h= = 47820 2
20 m K
kW
= 47.8 2
m K

12.4 11.9 kW/m2K


l = 958 kg/m3 Hevap = 2260 kJ/kg
Cl = 4220 J/kgK v = 0.596 kg/m3
l = 282 106 kg/m.s = 58.9 103 J/m2
Pr = 1.75 Cs = 0.013 n = 1
3 3 3
g-e-e v-vv1/2 C CeCD DeTe
1/ 2 1/ 2
gge TeD
eeT
qs q=sqs= D=HD
evap
D H
Hevapevap
Cs n n3
g e - v Cs TrePrnPr
1/ 2
D
Cs
H DeH
CDevap
H DPevap
evap
qs = DHevap DH n
637.3 637.3 339.3
637.3
339.3 Cs
339.3 0.5529 evap Pr
0.5529
0.5529
637.3 339.3 0.5529
= 119313
= =119313
119313=h10
=h10
=h10
119313 W =h10
\ h ==11931
kW
= 11.9 2
2
m K m K
12.5 (i) 7.142 kW (ii) 11.4 kg/h (iii) 0.2
Cu pan D = 0.15 m Te = 15
l = 958 kg/m3 Cs = 0.013 n = 1
Cl = 4220 J/kgK Hevap = 2260 103 J/kg
= 0.282 10 kg/m.s
3
= 58.9 103 kg/m.s
Pr = 1.75 v = 0.596 kg/m3
650 Answers to Problems
3 3 33
1/2
g(lg-g(
g
(
(
lvl)
1/2 1/2
-l- )1/2
-vv)v) C C DCT
CDDT lT
DT
=q
qs(i) =
qsqsD =
H

=D
H
DD
HH
s evap evapevap
l ll l nl l lnnn
evap

sDC D
ssDH
sevap
C H
CC DPHrevapPPr Pr r
Hevap
evap

1/ 2 1/1/21/2 2 3 3 33
3 3 3 9.81
9.81 (958
-(958 ---
0.596)
44204420 15
4420 15 15
===[0.28
= [0.28 - 310 --3-3
10
[0.28
[0.28 10
1022603 2260
2260
2260 10
103 ]10 ] (9589.81
9.81(958
0.596) 0.596)
0.596) 4420 15
10 ]]58.9
58.9 - 310 --3-3 3
10 0.013
0.013 2260 3 10 3 3
1.75
10 31.75
58.9
10 10
58.9 0.013

0.0132260
2260 2260
10 10
1.75 1.75

637.3637.3
637.3
637.3 339.3
339.3339.3
339.3 1.861
1.8611.861
1.861
W W
===403469 WW= 403.5Kw Kw Kw
Kw
= 403469403469
403469= 403.5
2 m 2 22
==403.5
403.5
2 m 2 22
m mm m mm
\ qs = qsA D 2 3.142 0.152
\ qs = qsA A= = = 0.0177m 2
4 4
= 403.5 0.0177 = 7.142 kW
= 403.5 0.0177
7.142 kg kg
(ii) qs = m b D Hevap \ m
b = = 3.16 10 - 3 = 11.4
2260 s h
(iii) surface heat flux 403469
= = 0.2
critical heat flux 2 10 6
Index 651

Page numbers followed by f and t indicate figures and tables, respectively.

A Archimedes principle, 21, 22f


Absolute mass flux, 523 Atmosphere, international standard, 10
Absolute molar flux, 530 Atmospheric air, 8
Absolute pressure, 13 Atmospheric pressure, 9, 11f, 12
Absolute roughness, 148t Atomic diffusion, 476479, 477f, 479f
Absorption of heat, 405 Average heat transfer coefficient, 299,
Absorptivity, 436437, 436f 314, 325
Acceleration, 8 Avogadros number, 81, 267, 505
Activation energy, 95, 515, 516, 518
Adiabatic barrier, 262 B
Adiabatic flow, 224 Babylonian unit of mass, 1
Ampere, 5 Barometer, 12f, 13
Anemometer, 332 Barometric formula, 9, 9f, 193, 348
Annulus, 69 Bell curve, 374
Approximate integral method, 117, 300 Bends/fittings, influence of, 190191,
306, 301f, 348358, 349f, 354f, 190t
355f, 357f, 573583, 574f, 577f Bernoullis equation, 185188, 186f,
for boundary layer thickness, 117 220
124, 118f, 121f, 122f, 123f for compressible fluid flow, 219220
entry length at pipe entrance, 125, example, 221
125f Binary diffusion couple, 511

651
652 Index

Binary mixture Celsius, Anders, 4


diffusion equation in, 524527, 525f Celsius (centigrade) scale, 4
of ideal gases, 527 Chapman-Enskog equation, 85, 270,
Biot number, 368, 369, 371, 385, 389 562, 576
Blackbody, 427 Chemical diffusion coefficients, 498,
Blackbody radiation, 427430, 428f, 504
429t Chemical potential, 505
functions, 429t Chemical reaction
Blake-Kozeny equation, 169, 170 and mass transfer, 589593, 591f,
Blasius friction equation, 144 592f
Blasius one-seventh power law, 137, in stagnant film, 542547, 543f,
138f, 145 546f
Boltzmann-Matano analysis, 510514, Chvorinovs rule, 404
512f, 513f, 514f Circuit diagram, 460f, 461f, 464f
Boltzmanns constant, 78, 267, 427 Coefficient of thermal expansion, 4
Boundary conditions, 39, 120, 298, Collision diameter, 84
302, 486, 556 Collision integral, 85
Boundary layer, 156 Compressible fluid flow, 219
concentration, 569 Concentration boundary layer, 569
momentum, 115 Concentration gradient, 479, 503, 504,
thermal, 295 523
Boundary separation, 165 Conduction, 235, 238240, 239f, 240f
British system of units, 2 in heat sources, 256267, 257f
Buoyancy, 2122, 126, 160, 347 resistance, 368
examples, 2226, 23f, 24f, 24t for transport of heat. See Heat
Burke-Plummer equation, 170 transport by conduction
Conservation of energy, 186, 348
C Conservation of momentum, 104108,
Candela, 5 105f
Capillary flowmeter, 6566, 65f Constant-pressure heat capacity, 277,
example of, 6668 298, 302, 318, 366
Carbon diffusion, 483 Continuous cooling curves, 398f
Carburization of iron, 486 Convection, 235, 236f, 237, 238f
Cartesian coordinates, 102, 103f, for heat transfer, 466471, 468f,
127f 469f, 471f
Casting heat transfer by, 285289, 287f. See
of aluminum, 406, 407, 411 Heat transport by convection
into cooled metal molds, 408411, resistance, 368
408f, 410f, 412f Convective momentum transport, 37,
of copper, 406, 407, 411 37f, 38, 49
Catalytic surface reactions, 539542, Couette flow, 36, 37f, 341, 342, 345f,
540f, 541f 346f
Cavitation, 194 Counterdiffusion, equimolar, 528529
Index 653
Creeping flow, 125130, 126f, 127f, Diffusion equations with convection,
128f, 129f, 130f, 160 524527, 525f
examples, 130132 Digit, 1
Critical radius of insulation, 255 Dimensionless number, 177
Cubit, 1 Directional distribution, 422
Directional emissivity, 431
D Discharge coefficient, 209, 225
D Arcys law, 167 Dissolution of pure metal in liquid,
Darkens analysis, 502506 593596, 593f, 594f, 597f
Decarburization, 491, 493f Drag force, 121, 129, 153, 156, 166
Diffuse emitter, 425 Drainage
Diffuse-gray surface, 438, 453458, from vessel, 207209, 208f
453f, 454f, 456f of vessel using drainage tube,
Diffusion, 520. See also Mass trans- 213215, 214f
port by diffusion Drainage tube
atomic, 476479, 477f, 479f in drainage of vessel, 213215,
into falling film of liquid, 553560, 214f
553f in emptying vessel, 215217, 216t,
flux, 479 217f
and kinetic theory of gases, 560565,
561f, 563t, 564t E
evaporation, maximum rate of, Edgar, King, 2
565568, 567t, 568t Egyptian unit of length, 1
in semi-infinite system, one- Einstein-Smoluchowski equation, 488,
dimensional, 491497, 492f, 508
493f, 496f, 497f Electrical resistance, 265, 266
in solid state. See Mass transport by Electric analogy, 242243, 248,
diffusion 458460, 458f, 459f, 460f
in stagnant film, 542547, 543f, 546f Electric current, 5
steady-state, one-dimensional, 529 flow, 242
536, 531, 532f Electromagnetic waves, 421, 422f
in substitutional solid solutions, Electrostatic dust precipitator, 4548,
502, 502f 48f
Diffusion coefficient, 480 Elevation head, 205
of carbon, 483, 484f, 493, 494 Emissive power, 425
chemical, 504 Emissivity, 431435, 433f, 434f
interdiffusion, 504 Emptying of vessel
self, 506 by discharge through orifice, 209
temperature on, 514518, 515f, 516f, 212, 211f
519f example, 212213
Diffusion couple, 489 by drainage through drainage tube,
infinite, 489491, 490f, 491f 215217, 216t, 217f
Diffusion distance, 487 example, 217219
654 Index

Ending moment, 166 Ficks second law of diffusion, 483


Energy, concept of, 3 489, 484f, 485, 485f, 487f, 488f
Energy balance, 276, 280f, 322331, Film boiling, 608
323f, 324f, 336, 337, 385, 398, Film model, 538539, 538f
402, 453 Film pool boiling, 605
Energy parameters of metals, 93t Finger, 2
Engineering units, origins of, 15 Finite difference technique, 278, 279f,
British system of units, 2 382, 383f, 384, 388, 389
concept of energy, 3 Fittings, 190191, 190t
force measurement, 3 Flow coefficient, 226
International System of Units, 5 Flow energy, 203
metric system, 23 Flowmeter, capillary, 65
pressure measurement, 3 Flow velocity, 198
temperature scales, 45 measurement, 226
unit of power, 4 Flow work, 186
Enthalpy, 297, 302, 366, 382 Fluid flow, 30, 181
flux, 550, 552 in annulus, 6974
Entry length, 125, 125f example of, 7476
Equation of conservation of momen- in cylindrical pipes, 317322, 317f,
tum, 107 319f
Equation of continuity, 102104, 103f, down an inclined plane, 4851, 49f,
111t 50f
Equation of motion equations, 166
cylindrical coordinates, 112113 between flat parallel plates, 4045,
in rectangular coordinates, 111t112t 41f, 43f, 44f
in spherical coordinates, 114t examples, 4548, 48f
Equimolar counterdiffusion, 528529 in noncircular ducts, 151153
Equivalent diameter, 151 in open channel, 205206, 206f
Equivalent length, 190 example, 207
Erguns equation, 170175, 175f over horizontal flat plate, 115117,
Error function, 374376, 374f, 375f, 116f
376t, 403, 486, 487f in pipes, 228
Eukens equation, 272 problems, 133134
Evaporation, maximum rate of, 565 in vertical cylinder tube, 5357,
568, 567t, 568t 53f, 54f, 56f
Evaporative cooling, 586588, 587f example of, 57
wet bulb psychrometer, 588589 Fluid flow equations, 64
Fluidized bed, 144, 175179
F Flux, types of, 423
Farhenheit, Daniel, 4 Force, 33
Ficks first law of diffusion, 480483, balances, 130f
481f, 539 Forced convection, 295, 331, 334
Index 655
Form drag, 129 H
Fourier number, 369, 373 Haalands correlation, 148
Fouriers law, 236238, 237f, 238f, Hagen-Poiseuille equation, 57, 139, 143
300, 319 Hand, 1
Free convection boiling, 604 Head, concept of, 203205
Free convection, mass transfer by, Heat and mass transfer, simultaneous,
583586, 584f, 585f 586589
Friction Heat balance, 302, 368
drag force, 129 Heat conduction
turbulence-induced, 1, 139 general equation, 274277, 275f,
Friction factor, 141151, 144f, 148t, 276f
149f, 153, 165, 170 at steady state, 278285, 279f, 280f,
definition of, 141, 153, 165 281f, 283f, 284f
local, 156 Heat diffusivity, 403
Friction loss, 188189, 204 Heat flow, 242, 263
Friction loss factor, 190 hollow cylinder, 244245
Fully-developed hydrodynamic flow, hollow sphere, 246, 247f
125 in semi-infinite systems, 376379
Fully-developed temperature profile, through composite cylindrical wall,
319 252254, 253f
through composite wall, 248249,
G 248f
Galileo, 3 through plane slab, 243
Galileo number, 177 Heat flux, 254, 256f, 300, 308, 326, 552
Gallon, 2 Heat generation
Gas law, ideal, 59 in plane slab, 257263, 260f
Gauge pressure, 13, 16, 21 rate, 265, 266
Gay-Lussac, Joseph, 4 within solid, 398401, 399f, 401f
General energy equation, 335341 in solid cylinder, 263265, 264f
dissipation factor, 341346 Heat loss, 245
General heat conduction equation, Heat transfer
274277, 275f, 276f by convection, 285289, 287f
Goldschmidts atomic diameter, 91, by convection/radiation, 466471,
93t 468f, 469f, 471f
Gram, 3 Heat transfer coefficient, 237, 248,
Grashof number, 351, 352, 353, 357, 296, 306, 309f, 319, 335, 352,
586 372, 552, 570
mass transfer, 586 Heat transport by conduction
Gravitation, 3 conduction, 238240, 239f, 240f
Gravitational field, 8 conduction in heat sources, 256267,
Gravitational force, 205, 336 257f
Gravity-induced fluid flow, 197, 206f electric analogy, 242243
656 Index

example, 240242, 241f, 242f, 244, from horizontal flat plate


245, 249252, 251f, 254, 259, approximate integral method,
273, 281, 286289 300306, 301f
features of, 235, 236f turbulent boundary flow,
Fouriers law, 236238, 237f, 238f 311315
heat conduction at uniform constant temperature,
general equation, 274277, 275f, 295315, 296f, 297f, 299t,
276f 301f
at steady state, 278285, 279f, with uniform heat flux, 315317
280f, 281f, 283f, 284f problems, 361364
heat flow from sphere, 334335
hollow cylinder, 244245 from vertical plate, 346348, 347f
hollow sphere, 246, 247f approximate integral method,
through composite cylindrical 348358, 349f, 354f, 355f,
wall, 252254, 253f 357f
through composite wall, 248 Heat transport by thermal radiation. See
249, 248f Thermal radiation in heat transport
through plane slab, 243 Hemisperical emissivity, 431, 432, 438
heat generation Hemispherical emissive power, 425
in plane slab, 257263, 260f Henrys law, 506
in solid cylinder, 263265, 264f Hohlraum, 437439, 438f
heat transfer by convection, 285 Hydraulic radius, 168
289, 287f Hydrodynamic flow, 323
Newtons law, 236238, 237f, 238f Hydrogen diffusion, 480, 481f, 498
problems, 290294 Hydrometer, 24
resistance heating of electric wires,
265267, 265f I
thermal conductivity Ideal fluid, 115
of gas mixtures, 273274, 274f Ideal gas law, 527
and kinetic theory of gases, Incompressible fluid flow, 186f
267273, 269f, 271f, 272t Incompressible fluid pressure, 1517,
Heat transport by convection 16f
from cylinders, 358360, 359t Inertial force, 135136
energy balance, 322331, 323f, 324f Infinite diffusion couple, 489491,
examples, 307311, 309f, 312315, 490f, 491f
313f, 316317, 326331, 328f, Intensity
331333, 331t, 344346, 345f, of emission, 423425, 423f
346f, 353358, 354f, 355f, 357f of turbulence, 137
during fluid flow in cylindrical Interdiffusion coefficient, 504, 505, 561,
pipes, 317322, 317f, 319f 562, 564
general energy equation, 335341 measurement, 510514, 512f, 513f,
dissipation factor, 341346 514f
from horizontal cylinders, 331333 Intermediate law, 162
Index 657
Internal energy, 336, 338 Laplaces equation, 277
International standard atmosphere, 10 Large span, 1
International System of Units, 5 Latent heat, 586
Inviscid fluid, 115 of solidification, 402, 404
Iron-carbon phase diagram, 491, 492f Leidenfrost point, 605, 608
Irradiation, 426 Lennard-Jones function, 562
Isobaric system, 505 Lennard-Jones potential, 84, 86t, 92f
Isobaric thermal expansivity, 340, 348, Lewis number, 573, 577f
583 Libra, 2
Isotherm(s), 274, 275f Light intensity, 5
Isothermal cavity, 437, 437f, 438, 438f Local flow velocity, 136, 136f, 138f
Isothermal compressibility, 340 Log mean temperature difference, 325
Loss of head, 204
J Lumped capacitance method (Newto-
Joule, James, 4 nian cooling), 365373, 367f, 368f
Lumped thermal capacitance, 365
K
Ka, 2 M
Kelvin, Lord, 5 Manometer, 13, 13f, 14, 14f, 65, 65f, 66
Kilogram, 5 Mass and molar fluxes, 522524
Kinematic viscosity, 58, 277, 315 Mass flow rate, 44, 45, 51, 57, 186,
Kinetic energy, 141, 163, 186, 187, 220, 322
188, 203, 336 Mass flux, 522
Kinetic theory of gases, 78, 97, 267, Mass transfer
560565, 561f, 563t, 564t by free convection, 583586, 584f,
and thermal conductivity, 267273, 585f
269f, 271f, 272t at large fluxes/concentrations, 547
viscosity calculation from, 7890, 550, 549f, 550f
79f, 80f, 83f, 84f, 85f, 86f, 86t, Mass transfer coefficient, 570, 579,
87t, 89f 580, 581
Kiogram, 3 and concentration boundary layer,
Kirchhoffs law and Hohlraum, 569573, 571f
437439, 437f, 438f Mass transport by diffusion
Kirkendall effect, 502, 502f atomic diffusion, 476479, 477f,
Kus, 1 479f
Boltzmann-Matano analysis, 510
L 514, 512f, 513f, 514f
Laminar flow, 30, 31, 31f, 51, 97, 135, Darkens analysis, 502506
137, 138, 139, 139f, 143, 152, diffusion in substitutional solid
169, 187, 296, 313f, 322, 323 solutions, 502, 502f
to turbulent flow, transition from, examples, 480483, 481f, 486489,
154f 487f, 488f, 495497, 496f,
Langmuir equation, 566 497f, 499501, 501f, 509510
658 Index

Ficks first law of diffusion, 480 mass transfer coefficient, 569573,


483, 481f 571f
Ficks second law of diffusion, 483 mixed control, 589593, 591f, 592f,
489, 484f, 485f, 487f, 488f 593596, 593f, 594f, 597f
infinite diffusion couple, 489491, one-dimensional steady-state diffu-
490f, 491f sion, 529536, 531, 532f
phase change, 491497, 492f, 493f, one-dimensional transport, 527
496f, 497f problems, 598600
problems, 520521 in stagnant film, 542547, 543f,
self-diffusion coefficient, 506510, 546f
507f sublimation of sphere into station-
steady-state diffusion, 498501, ary gas, 536537, 538f
498f Mass transport Stanton number, 577
temperature on diffusion coefficient, Matano interface, 511
514518, 515f, 516f, 519f Matrix inversion method, 393
Mass transport in fluids Maxwells equation, 339
approximate integral method, Mean free path, 80
573583, 574f, 577f Mean residence time, 7678, 77f, 78f
catalytic surface reactions, 539 Mean square distance, 477
542, 540f, 541f Mean temperature, 319
diffusion and kinetic theory of gases, Mechanical energy, 338, 344
560565, 561f, 563t, 564t Mechanical energy balance
evaporation, maximum rate of, bends/fittings, influence of, 190191,
565568, 567t, 568t 190t
diffusion into falling film of liquid, Bernoullis equation, 185188, 186f
553560, 553f for compressible fluid flow,
equations of diffusion with convec- 219220
tion, 524527, 525f drainage from vessel, 207209, 208f
equimolar counterdiffusion, drainage tube, use of, 213215, 214f
528529 emptying of vessel
evaporative cooling, 586588, 587f by discharge, 209212, 211f
wet bulb psychrometer, 588589 by drainage, 215217, 216t, 217f
examples, 532536, 535f, 537, examples, 191203, 197f, 207,
538f, 546547, 559560, 212213, 217219, 221,
564565, 566, 569, 578580, 223224
581, 582583, 587588, 589, fluid flow in open channel, 205
592593, 592f 206, 206f
film model, 538539, 538f friction loss, 188189
on heat transfer, 550553, 551f head, concept of, 203205
at large fluxes, 547550, 549f, 550f orifice plate, 225228, 226f, 227f,
mass and molar fluxes, 522524 228f
mass transfer by free convection, pitot tube, 221223, 222f
583586, 584f, 585f problems, 229234, 230f, 232f, 233f
Index 659
Mercury, 12 Nernst-Einstein equation, 506
Mesh Biot number, 385, 386, 388, 389, Newton, Sir Isaac, 3
397, 400 Newtonian cooling (lumped capacitance
Mesh Fourier number, 385, 387, 388, method), 365373, 367f, 368f
389, 392f Newtonian fluids, 33
Metal castings, solidification of Newtons law, 160, 163, 236238,
into cooled metal molds, 408411, 237f, 238f, 296
408f, 410f, 412f of cooling, 237
sand casting, 401408, 402f, 405f of viscosity, 3235, 480
Meter, 5 examples, 3536, 36f
Mina, 1 Node, 278
Minimum heat flux, 607 Non-Newtonian cooling. See Transient
Mixed control, 589593, 591f, 592f, heat flow
593596, 593f, 594f, 597f Non-Newtonian fluids, 33
Mobility, 505 Non-steady-state diffusion in solid,
Modes of boiling, 603 one-dimensional, 483489, 484f,
Modified Bernoulli equation, 188 485f, 487f, 488f
Molar flux, 522 Nucleate boiling, 605
Molar heat capacity, 224, 272 Nucleate pool boiling, 606
Momentum, 6 Nusseldt number, 299, 300, 313, 315,
convective, 37 316, 331, 352, 355f, 357, 357f,
viscous, 37 368, 570, 571
Momentum balance, 36, 41, 49, 55,
70, 72, 118 O
Momentum boundary layer, 115, 116f, Ohms law, 265, 458
118f Opaque medium, 437
Momentum conservation, 3640, 37f, Orifice plate, 225228, 226f, 227f,
38f 228f
Momentum flux, 81
Momentum transport, 34 P
Monatomic gas, 78, 267 Palm, 1
Monochromatic emissivity, 431 Permanent gas, 4, 5
Monochromatic intensity, 424 Permeability, specific, 167
Monochromatic radiation emission, 422f Permeability coefficient, 167, 169
Monton, Gabriel, 2 Phase change, 491497, 492f, 493f,
Moody diagram, 148, 149f 496f, 497f
Phase diagram, 593, 593f
N Photons, 421
Natural convection, 349f, 361 Pikes peak, 10, 11, 11f
Navier-Stokes equation, 108113, Pipe flow, 322
111t112t Pi theorem, 142
application to simple flow system, Pitot tube, 221223, 222f
113115, 114t example, 223224
660 Index

Pitot tube coefficient, 222 Real packed beds, 171


Plancks distribution, 427, 428f Reciprocity relation, 441, 443
Porosity, 167, 168 Reduced pressure, 566
Potential energy, 83, 84, 84f, 186, 193 Reduced temperature, 91, 566
Power, unit of, 4 Reduced viscosity, 91
Prandtl number, 298, 305, 331, 335, Reduced volume, 91, 566
349, 356, 572, 577f Reflectivity, 436437, 436f
Pressure, 3 Relative roughness, 148, 149f
absolute, 12 Reradiating surface, 463466, 464f
gauge, 12 Resistance heating of electric wires,
gradient, 181, 298 265267, 265f
head, 205 Reynolds analogy, 311
in static fluids Reynolds number, 31, 51, 64, 67, 126,
concept, 511, 6f, 9f, 11f 136, 138f, 139f, 140, 149f, 157f,
examples, 1721, 18f, 19f, 20f 199, 326, 331, 332, 351, 357, 372,
in incompressible fluids, 1517, 588
16f defined, 169
measurement of, 1115, 12f, 13f, Rigorous theory of rigid-sphere mol-
14f ecules, 81
Pressure drop, 6264, 63f, 68, 167, Roman unit of mass, 2
189, 201, 228 Roughness
calculation, 182 absolute, 148, 148t
Psychrometer, wet bulb, 588 relative, 148

Q S
Quanta, 421 Sand casting, 401408, 402f, 405f
Schmidt number, 572, 576, 577f, 580
R Second, 5
Radial flux, 266 Self-diffusion coefficient, 506510, 507f
Radiation Shape factor, 172, 444f, 445f
constants, 427 Shear force, 141
emission, 422f, 423 Shear stress, 33, 34, 36, 40, 43f, 44, 50,
exchange. See Thermal radiation in 50f, 72, 81, 108, 119, 121, 126f,
heat transport 129, 142, 154, 159, 296, 345
for heat transfer, 466471, 468f, Shekel, 1
469f, 471f Sherwood number, 570, 571, 573, 580,
heat transfer coefficient, 467, 468f 581
shields, 460463, 461f SI (International system of units), 5
Radiosity, 426427, 453 Sieverts law, 481, 498
Random-walk process, 476479, 477f, Size particles, 173
479f Slag, 51
Raoults law, 506 Small cubit, 1
Rayleigh number, 353, 355f, 358 Small span, 1
Index 661
Solidification of metal castings. See gradient, 347f, 366, 368f, 408, 412
Transient heat flow 416, 412f, 415f, 553
Specific area means, 171 scales, 45
Specific permeability, 167 Thermal boundary layer, 295, 309f
Spectral distribution, 422 Thermal conductivity, 236, 237, 239f,
Spectral emissive power, 425 240f, 256, 298, 368, 369
Spectral intensity, 424 of gas mixtures, 273274, 274f
Spectral irradiation, 426 and kinetic theory of gases, 267273,
Spectral radiosity, 426 269f, 271f, 272t
Spherical particles and Erguns equa- of sand, 401
tion, 170175, 175f Thermal diffusivity, 277, 298, 318
Spontaneous escape process, 594, 595, 596 Thermal energy, 4, 36, 269, 336, 366,
Stagnant film 382, 480
diffusion/chemical reaction in, 542 Thermal expansion, 4
547, 543f, 546f Thermal radiation in heat transport
heat transfer in, 550553, 551f absorptivity/reflectivity/transmissiv-
Stagnation point, 163 ity, 436437, 436f
Stanton number, 310, 311, 577 blackbody radiation, 427430, 428f,
mass transport, 577 429t
Steady-state diffusion electric analogy, 458460, 458f,
one-dimensional, 529536, 531, 532f 459f, 460f
through composite wall, 498501, 498f electromagnetic waves, 421, 422f
Steady-state heat conduction, 278 emissive power, 425
Stefan-Boltzmann law, 428, 451, 456 emissivity, 431435, 433f, 434f
Stefans apparatus, 531, 532f examples, 430, 435, 443450, 444f,
Stoichiometry coefficients, 545 445f, 445t, 446f, 446t, 447f,
Stokes law, 130, 160, 162 448f, 450t, 451452, 452f, 456
Stress 458, 456f, 461463, 465466,
normal, 108 467471, 468f, 469f, 471f
shear, 33 features of, 421
Stress tensor, 107 heat transfer by convection/radiation,
Sublimation of sphere into stationary 466471, 468f, 469f, 471f
gas, 536537, 538f intensity, 423425, 423f
Substantial derivative, 109, 110 irradiation, 426
Summation rule, 441, 442, 443 Kirchhoffs law and Hohlraum,
Surface radiation resistance, 454 437439, 437f, 438f
Surface roughness, 189 problems, 472475
radiation emission, 422f, 423
T radiation exchange
Temperature between blackbodies, 450452,
on diffusion coefficient, 514518, 450f, 452f
515f, 516f, 519f between diffuse-gray surfaces,
distribution, 247f, 345f, 346f 453458, 453f, 454f, 456f
662 Index

between surfaces, 439443, 440f, temperature gradients, 412416,


441f, 442f, 443450, 444f, 412f, 415f
445f, 445t, 446f, 446t, 447f, Transition boiling, 605
448f, 450t Transmissivity, 436437, 436f
radiation shields, 460463, 461f Tser, 1
radiosity, 426427 Tube bundle theory, 167170, 167f
reradiating surface, 463466, 464f Turbine, efficiency of, 196
Thermal resistance, 365 Turbulence
to heat flow, 251 definition of, 136
Thermodynamic temperature, 5 intensity of, 137
Thompson, Benjamin, 4 Turbulent boundary flow, 311315
Torricelli, 11 Turbulent flow, 30, 31, 31f, 135
Torricelli vacuum, 12 concept of, 135138, 136f, 138f,
Transient heat flow 139f
examples, 369373, 379382, 380f, in cylindrical pipes
382f, 386394, 387t, 388t, fluid flow in noncircular ducts,
389f, 390f, 391f, 392f, 394t, 151153
396398, 396f, 398f, 399401, and friction factor, 141151,
399f, 401f, 405408, 411, 412f, 144f, 148t, 149f
414416, 415f examples, 145147, 148, 150151,
lumped capacitance method (New- 157160, 160163, 166,
tonian cooling), 365373, 367f, 173175, 177179
368f fluid flow equations, 166
non-Newtonian cooling, 373379 graphical representation of,
error function, 374376, 374f, 139141, 140f
375f, 376t inertial force, 135136
heat generation within solid, over flat plate, 153160, 157f, 159f
398401, 399f, 401f past submerged cylinder, 163165,
in one-dimensional finite sys- 164f, 165f
tems, 382394, 383f, 387t, past submerged sphere, 160163,
388t, 389f, 390f, 391f, 392f, 161f
394t problems (116), 181184
in semi-infinite systems, 376379 Reynolds number, 61, 136, 138f,
in two-dimensional finite sys- 140, 149f, 157f
tems, 394401, 396f, 398f, through packed beds
399f, 401f DArcys law, 167
problems, 416420 fluidized beds, 175179
solidification of metal castings spherical particles and Erguns
into cooled metal molds, 408 equation, 170175, 175f
411, 408f, 410f, 412f tube bundle theory, 167170,
sand casting, 401408, 402f, 405f 167f
Index 663
turbulence, definition of, 136 of helium, 82, 83f
viscous force, 135136 of liquid metals, 9094, 91f, 92f, 93t,
94f
U example of, 9496, 94f, 96t
Uniform heat flux, 315317 of Ne, 82, 83f
Unit of power, 4 Viscous force, 135136
Viscous momentum transport, 37, 37f,
V 38, 48, 69
Velocity Void fraction, 167168
average, 44 Volume flow rate, 44, 45
gradient, 33, 34, 347f Von Krmn integral, 119, 155
head, 205
local mass average, 524 W
local molar average, 524 Water, flow of, 141
Vena contracta, 225 Watt, James, 4
View factor, 439, 446f, 450t Wet bulb psychrometer, 588589
View resistance, 455 Wiens displacement law, 427
Viscosity, 33, 135 Wilkes formula, 87, 273
calculation from kinetic theory of Winchester standard, 2
gases, 7885, 79f, 80f, 83f, Wind chill factor, 295
84f, 85f
example of, 8590, 86f, 86t, 87t, X
89f X-ray scattering curves, 91, 92f
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This classic text on fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport has been brought up to
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The book provides you and other materials science and engineering students and pro-
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materials engineering. You will benefit from:
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properties and geometry on fluid flow.
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About the Author


David r. Gaskell was born in Glasgow, Scotland and received B.Sc. degrees in metal-
lurgy and technical chemistry from the University of Glasgow in 1962. From 1962 to
1964, he was employed as the Metallurgist with Laporte Chemical Ltd., a manufacturer
of industrial chemicals, with two plants in England. He obtained his Ph.D. from McMas-
ter University in 1967, and from 1967 to 1982 he was a professor of metallurgy, materials
science and geology at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1982 he came to Purdue, where
he has won five departmental teaching awards. He has taught a variety of courses dealing
with materials properties, structures and processing, and he is the author of two texts,
one on the thermodynamics of materials, which is in its sixth edition, and this book on
transport phenomena in materials engineering, which is now in its second edition. His
research interests include chemical and extraction metallurgy, thermodynamics, kinetics,
transport phenomena and materials processing.

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