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DISCOURSE MARKERS ON GRAMMATICAL COHESION

FOUND IN DONALD TRUMPS INAUGURATION SPEECH

Lecturer: Nurul Chojimah

Mini Research on Discourse Analysis by:

Galih Ajeng Saptia Y. (145110100111018)


Avia Hemawati (145110100111027)

STUDY PROGRAM OF ENGLISH


FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES
UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA
2017
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of background of the study, research questions, and


research objectives.
1.1. Background
Humans as social creatures definitely feel the need to interact with each
other on daily basis. One thing that we know has the most important role in
communication is language, which we use as a tool in delivering messages to
other people. Language is like the mitochondria of a cell, where the cell is the
society. We do realize that without language, all sorts of activities within our
society would not function as it should do. Thus, the existence of language is
inevitably important in order to support the activities of people in the community.
Language varies in many ways, including in its usage. It may have a great
impact on peoples lives, especially when it comes to political businesses.
Politicians often use speeches to express their ideologies which are realized
through some kind of persuasive and encouraging words. The fact that politicians
can impress and influence people by their speeches has strengthened the emphasis
that language is very powerful. Recently, a businessman and politician Donald
Trump has been chosen by the American people to be the president of the United
States for the next four years. Like the other newly-elected presidents, Donald
Trump also gave a speech addressed towards his people at the time of his
inauguration. Through his speech he told the people that starting from that day the
United States of America can be a much better country with much better people.
Related to the context of linguistic studies, the researchers here are
interested in analyzing the discourse markers in the transcript of Donald Trumps
inauguration speech. The main theory that is used for this study is the theory
about cohesion by Halliday and Hasan (1976). The study focuses on the
grammatical cohesiveness of text in the inauguration speech. The aims of the
study are to know the kind of grammatical cohesive devices and the grammatical
cohesiveness in Donald Trumps inauguration speech. By conducting this study,
the researchers intend to apply their knowledge in discourse analysis study and

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hope that this study can give some contribution to the field, especially in term of
grammatical cohesion in inauguration speeches.
1.2. Research Questions
Based on the background of the study, the researchers attempt to find the
answers of the following questions:
1. What kinds of grammatical cohesive devices are used in Donald
Trumps inauguration speech?
2. How are those grammatical cohesive devices used in the speech?
1.3. Research Objectives
In line with the research questions, the objectives of the study are also
specified into two objectives as follows:
1. To find the kinds of grammatical cohesive devices used in Donald
Trumps inauguration speech.
2. To investigate how those grammatical cohesive devices are used in the
speech.

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CHAPTER II
RELEVANT THEORIES

This chapter provides some relevant theories used for conducting this
study.
2.1 Discourse Analysis
Discourse is a linguistic unit larger than sentence. It is a stretch of
language which has the quality of unity or interconnection. Discourse Analysis is
a study about the methods of analyzing text. According to McCarthy (1991, p.9),
a discourse analysis describes the language above the sentence: its context and
the cultural influence, which affect language in use. The form of a discourse does
not always carry the meaning directly. Instead, we have to analyze the form and
the function separately in order to find the real meaning of a discourse. Simpson
and Mayr (2010, p.5) stated that, discourse operates above the level of grammar
and semantic to capture what happens when these language forms are played out
in different social, political, and cultural arenas. Discourse Analysis focuses on
how language is used in real life in activities such stating, arguing, persuading,
and even expressing feelings. By using discourse analysis, the researchers are able
to know the function of a discourse and the meaning it carries.
2.2 Discourse Markers
A discourse marker is a word or phrase that is used to direct or redirect the
flow of a discourse. They are more commonly found in informal speech rather
than in most forms of writing. Since the main function of discourse markers is at
the level of discourse, in most cases, discourse markers are syntactically
independent: that is, removing a marker from a sentence still leaves the sentence
structure intact, Nordquist (2017). To indentify the discourse markers of a text,
we can examine the cohesiveness of the discourse. Cohesion is the condition of
being interconnected between sentences because of internal factors of the
language. There are two types of cohesion in English: the grammatical cohesion
and the lexical cohesion. Grammatical cohesion is the condition where sentences
are interconnected because of the presence of some grammatical features. Lexical

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cohesion is the condition where sentences are interconnected because of the
presence of some particular choice of vocabularies.
2.3 Grammatical Cohesion
2.3.1 Reference
Reference is the relation between a word or phrase and the object
or idea it refers. According to Halliday and Hasan (1976, p.37), there are
three types of reference: personal, demonstrative, and comparative.
a) Personal reference is a reference by means of function in the
speech situation, through the categories of person. The
categorization of personal reference can be seen on the table
below:
Table 1. Personal reference
Existential Possessive
Head Modifier
Noun (pronoun) Determiner
I me Mine My
You Yours Your
We us Ours Our
He him His His
She her Hers Her
They them Theirs Their
It [its] Its
One One

b) Demonstrative reference is reference by means of location. As


stated by Halliday and Hasan, this, these, and here imply
proximity to the speaker; that, those, and there imply distance
from the speaker. The categorization of demonstrative
reference can be seen on the table as follows:

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Table 2. Demonstrative reference
Selective Non-selective
Modifier/Head Adjunct Modifier
determiner Adverb determiner

this these Here [now]


that those There [then]
the

c) Comparative reference is reference by means of identity or


similarity. The categorization of comparative reference can be
seen on the following table:
Table 3. Comparative reference
Modifier: Sub modifier/Adjunct
Deictic/Epithet
(see below)
Adjective Adverb

same identical equal identically


similar additional similarly likewise
so such

other different else differently otherwise

better more etc. so more less equally


[comparative adjectives
and quantifiers]

2.3.2 Substitution
As stated by Halliday and Hasan (1976, p.88) substitution is a
replacement of one item by another, such as in words or phrases. They also
added that the difference between reference and substitution is that

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reference is a relation on the semantic level while substitution is a relation
on the lexicogrammatical level. For example:
A: Do you like my shoes?
B: Actually I have the same ones.
(Substituted item is ones from shoes in the second utterance)
2.3.3 Ellipsis
Ellipsis is the omission of words or phrases in a sentence in order
to make it more concise and more understandable. It differs with
substitution since substitution is a replacement while ellipsis does not
replace the omitted words with anything. For example:
A: Have you done your homework?
B: Yes, I have.
(The omitted item is done my home work in the second utterance)
2.3.4 Conjunction
Conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, clauses, or
even sentences. Conjunction indicates a relation between what has been
said and what is being said by a speaker. In this context of discourse
marker analysis, what is meant by conjunction is the words like and, but,
so, yet, then, and the like that relate to something from the previous
statements (sentences). For examples:
A: I have studied so hard yesterday.
B: But you failed the test anyway.

C: I passed my test!
D: And you got the best score!

E: Id like to go shopping right now.


F: Then youll go shopping again tomorrow.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter presents the research methods, data and data source, the data
collection method, and the data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
In doing the research, the researchers used qualitative method. According
to Ary, et al. (2010), qualitative method is a method to understand a
phenomenon to find a depth understanding. It analyzes the total picture of a
phenomenon. The data of this method are shown in narrative description. The
researchers used document analysis to analyze the grammatical cohesion of
Donald Trumps inauguration speech. Ary, et al (2010, p.29) stated that
document analysis focuses on analyzing and interpreting recorded material
to learn about human behavior.
3.2 Data and Data Source
The data from this research are utterances which contain grammatical
cohesion. And the data source is the transcript of inauguration speech of
Donald Trump.
3.3 Data Collection Methods
In collecting the data, the researchers followed some steps:
1. Watch the video of inauguration speech by Donald Trump twice
2. Read the transcript of the inauguration speech by Donald Trump at least
three times
3. Collecting the utterances which contain grammatical cohesion
3.4 Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the researchers used the theory about grammatical
cohesion by Halliday and Hasan and followed some steps:
1. Classify the utterances which contain grammatical cohesion based on the
classification proposed by Halliday and Hasan.
2. Explaining the use of each category of grammatical cohesion found in the
Donald Trumps inauguration speech.
3. Making discussion and conclusion based on the analyzed data.

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CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSION

This chapter presents the findings, the discussion, and the conclusion of
the study.
4.1 Findings and Analysis
The findings and analysis in this study are intended to answer the research
questions presented in the first chapter. The first objective is to find out the kinds
of grammatical cohesive devices in Donald Trumps inauguration speech, and the
second objective is to investigate how those devices are used in the speech.
4.1.1 Grammatical Cohesive Devices in the Speech
After following the research procedures explained in the third chapter, the
researchers managed to find the answer of the first research question.
Based on the theory of cohesion proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976),
there are two kinds of grammatical cohesive devices found in Donald
Trumps inauguration speech transcript. The first kind of cohesive devices
that are common is reference (personal and demonstrative) and the second
is conjunction. The other kinds of grammatical cohesive devices such as
substitution and ellipsis were not found (see table 4, List of Grammatical
Cohesive Devices in the Speech, on Appendix).
Based on the data, we can see that personal reference is used more
frequently than demonstrative reference. The most common personal
reference that is used in the speech is the subject pronoun we which also
relates to its possessive adjective determiner our. The pronoun we and the
possessive adjective our are used in the speech more frequently than the
other pronouns functioning as discourse markers. Another pronoun
functioning as discourse markers that is commonly found in the speech is
the word you, it refers both to the subject pronoun and the direct object
pronoun. The other pronouns found in the speech which function as
discourse markers are the word uswhich is the direct object pronoun of
weand the words they and it. On the other hand, demonstrative reference
is not used as much as the personal reference. As discourse markers, the

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determiner that and this only occur once in the speech while the
determiner these occurs twice. Compared to personal reference, the use of
demonstrative reference functioning as discourse markers in the speech is
quite infrequent.
The other kind of cohesive devices that can be found in Donald
Trumps inauguration speech is conjunction. In this context of discourse
marker analysis, it is a word that connects one sentence/paragraph with
another, indicating that their ideas are related to each other. The most
common conjunction that can be found in the speech transcript is the word
and. It occurs more frequently than the other conjunctions found in the
speech combined. It is not unusual since even in daily basis the
conjunction and is often used to connect one idea to another, whether the
context is a discourse or smaller. The conjunction but is also found in the
speech transcript but it only occurs just as few as the other ones, so and
finally. Regardless all the conjunctions existing in the speech, reference
especially personal referenceis still the most common kind of
grammatical cohesive devices functioning as discourse markers found in
Donald Trumps inauguration speech.
4.1.2 The Use of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in the Speech
Besides finding out the kinds of grammatical cohesive devices
functioning as discourse markers in Donald Trumps inauguration speech,
the researchers also intend to investigate how those grammatical cohesive
devices are used in the speech. This analysis will answer the research
question number two that has already been presented in the introduction.
a. The Use of Personal References
1. The use of you and your
The pronoun you which is a personal reference is used by Donald
Trump in his speech to refer to his people which are the citizens of the
United States. From this sentence (paragraph 23, see appendix), Everyone
is listening to you now. You came by the tens of millions to become part of
a historic movement, the likes of which the world has never seen before.
we would not know to whom the word you is addressed if we did not

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understand the context when the utterance happened. We need to observe
beyond the particular sentence to find out the connection between the
sentence and the others. We know that the word you here refers to the
citizens of the United States since Donald Trump himself mentioned that
you is the people in his previous statement. It can be seen in the fifth
paragraph, [] but we are transferring power from Washington, D.C.
and giving it back to you, the people. From those two utterances, we can
suppose that the pronoun you here functions as discourse marker since it
connects the idea of a sentence to another one in the particular discourse. It
also applies to the determiner your since both words have related
meanings.
2. The use of pronoun they
The pronoun they occurs twice in the speech and each of them
refers to different people. The first utterance is, They have been
magnificent. in the fourth paragraph. It refers to Michelle and Barrack
Obama which can be proven by a preceding sentence in the same
paragraph, [] and we are grateful to President Obama and First Lady
Michelle Obama for their gracious aid throughout this transition. The
second utterance is, And while they celebrated in our nation's capital,
there was little to celebrate for struggling families all across our land.
from the sixth paragraph. The word they here refers to politicians which
can be proven by a preceding sentence in the same paragraph, Politicians
prospered, but the jobs left and the factories closed.[] Thence, we can
suppose that the word they here functions as discourse marker since it
connects the idea of a particular sentence to another in the context of
discourse.
3. The use of we, us, and our
The pronoun we here refers to all the citizens of the United States,
including the President Trump himself. It can be seen in this sentence from
paragraph 3, together, we will determine the course of America and the
world for many, many years to come. which is preceded by the sentence,
We, the citizens of America, are now joined in a great national effort to

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rebuild our country and restore its promise for all of our people.
(paragraph 4). From those sentences we can see that the pronoun we here
functions as discourse marker since it refers to an idea proposed in
different sentence, indicating that the sentences are related to each other as
a discourse. This also applies to the pronoun us and the determiner our
since they have related meanings. They both also function as discourse
markers since they connect the ideas of particular sentences to the others in
the same discourse.
4. The use of pronoun it
The pronoun it occurs twice in this context of discourse marker
analysis. The first is used to refer to the moment of Donald Trumps
inauguration itself. It can be seen in the following sentence, It belongs to
everyone gathered here today and everyone watching all across America.
in paragraph 4 which is preceded by the sentence, That all changes
starting right here and right now because this moment is your moment, it
belongs to you. from the third paragraph. The second is used to refer to
an action. It can be seen in the following sentence from paragraph 35, Do
not allow anyone to tell you that it cannot be done. which is preceded by
the sentence, The time for empty talk is over. Now arrives the hour of
action. Thence, we can say that it here functions as discourse marker
since it shows that those sentences are related to each other.
5. The use of this, these, and that
The words like this, these, that, and those in this context are called
demonstrative references. Demonstrative references are used to point
something in which the addresser and addressee need to share the same
context to understand the actual reference of those words. From the
sentence This American carnage stops right here and stops right now.
(paragraph 15), the word this functions as discourse marker since it is
related to the preceding paragraph which says, But for too many of our
citizens, a different reality exists: mothers and children trapped in poverty
in our inner cities; rusted out factories []. The other words such as

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these and that also function as discourse marker since they are related to
other ideas of other sentences.
6. The use of now
The demonstrative reference (adverb) now is used in the speech to
refer to this time, this moment. It is often used after the speaker said
something about the past. We can see in the paragraph 20, But that is the
past. And now, we are looking only to the future. The word now is
mentioned in a different sentence but it is still related to the previous
statement. It means that the word now functions as discourse marker in this
context because it connects the idea of particular sentence to another.
b. The use of conjunction
The conjunction words that are found in this speech transcript are
and, but, so, and finally. The researchers identify them as discourse
markers in this context because they occur in different sentences rather
than in the same ones with the same ideas. Thence, the sentences are
related to each other, meaning that they are bounded in the same discourse.
Just like in the paragraph 42, Together, we will make America strong
again. We will make America wealthy again. We will make America proud
again. We will make America safe again. And yes, together we will make
America great again. the conjunction and is mentioned in a different
sentence, making it a discourse marker.
4.2 Discussion
From this study, the researchers found that the most common used
grammatical cohesive device is personal reference and conjunction. They are
pronoun we, pronoun you, and conjunction and. Based on the analysis above,
pronoun we refers to the citizens of America and President Donald Trump
himself and pronoun you refers to the citizens of America. Since it is an
inauguration speech, the use of those references are common because this
speech was delivered to all the citizens of United States. In this speech
President Trump seem to try to convince all his people that he will work for
his people and persuade them to work with him.

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Our findings that resulted on the commonly used cohesive devices is
personal reference is replicated the result of Muqorronatul (2015) in her study
about lexical and grammatical cohesion on advertisement of The Jakarta Post
newspaper. But, we found different result that in our research, the most used
personal reference is pronoun we.
A speech usually tries to persuade people to do something. The use of
pronoun we is effective to invite people to do an action. An advertisement
usually is used to advertise or promote a product. This also persuade people
to buy the product but advertisement used pronoun you to convince that
buying the product will give the customer a satisfaction.
4.3 Conclusion
From the research that weve conducted, we can conclude that cohesive
devices that are commonly used by President Donald Trump in his
inauguration speech are reference and conjunction. President Donald Trump
mostly used reference rather than conjunction. Commonly used references in
this speech are pronoun we and you and determiner our and your. Commonly
used conjunction is and. Based on the mostly used reference, which are we
and you, we can conclude that this speech was intended to convince the
citizens of United States that President Trump will work for them and to
persuade the citizens of United States to work with him.

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REFERENCES

Ary, et al. 2010. Introduction to Research in Education Eight Edition. Belmont:


Wadsworth.
Blake, Aaron. (2017, January 20). Trumps full inauguration speech transcript,
annotated. Retrieved from https://www.thewashingtonpost.com/news/the-
fix/wp/ 2017/01/20/donald-trumps-full-inauguration-speech-transcript-
annotated/
Halliday, M.A.K. and Ruqaiya Hasan. (1976). Cohesion in English. London:
Longman Group Ltd.
Laeli, Muqorronatul. (2015). An Analysis of Lexical and Grammatical Cohesion
on Advertisement of The Jakarta Post Newspaper: an Undergraduate
Thesis. Jakarta: State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah.
McCarthy, Michael. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Nordquist, Richard. (2017, March 03). Discourse Marker (DM). Retrieved from
https://www.thoughtco.com/discourse-marker-or-dm-1690463
Simpson, P. and A. Mayr. (2010). Language and Power: A Resource Book for
Students. London: Routledge.

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APPENDIX

Donald Trumps Inauguration Speech Transcript


(January 20th, 2017)

1. TRUMP: Chief Justice Roberts, President Carter, President Clinton, President


Bush, President Obama, fellow Americans and people of the world, thank
you.

2. (APPLAUSE) We, the citizens of America, are now joined in a great national
effort to rebuild our country and restore its promise for all of our people.

3. (APPLAUSE) Together, we will determine the course of America and the


world for many, many years to come. We will face challenges, we will
confront hardships, but we will get the job done.

4. Every four years, we gather on these steps to carry out the orderly and
peaceful transfer of power, and we are grateful to President Obama and First
Lady Michelle Obama for their gracious aid throughout this transition. They
have been magnificent. Thank you.

5. (APPLAUSE) Today's ceremony, however, has very special meaning because


today, we are not merely transferring power from one administration to
another or from one party to another, but we are transferring power from
Washington, D.C. and giving it back to you, the people.

6. (APPLAUSE) For too long, a small group in our nation's capital has reaped
the rewards of government while the people have borne the cost. Washington
flourished, but the people did not share in its wealth. Politicians prospered,
but the jobs left and the factories closed. The establishment protected itself,
but not the citizens of our country. Their victories have not been your
victories. Their triumphs have not been your triumphs. And while they
celebrated in our nation's capital, there was little to celebrate for struggling
families all across our land.

7. (APPLAUSE) That all changes starting right here and right now because this
moment is your moment, it belongs to you.

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8. (APPLAUSE) It belongs to everyone gathered here today and everyone
watching all across America. This is your day. This is your celebration. And
this, the United States of America, is your country.

9. (APPLAUSE) What truly matters is not which party controls our government,
but whether our government is controlled by the people.

10. (APPLAUSE) January 20th, 2017 will be remembered as the day the people
became the rulers of this nation again.

11. (APPLAUSE) The forgotten men and women of our country will be forgotten
no longer.

12. (APPLAUSE) Everyone is listening to you now. You came by the tens of
millions to become part of a historic movement, the likes of which the world
has never seen before.

13. (APPLAUSE) At the center of this movement is a crucial conviction, that a


nation exists to serve its citizens. Americans want great schools for their
children, safe neighborhoods for their families, and good jobs for themselves.
These are just and reasonable demands of righteous people and a righteous
public.

14. But for too many of our citizens, a different reality exists: mothers and
children trapped in poverty in our inner cities; rusted out factories scattered
like tombstones across the landscape of our nation; an education system flush
with cash, but which leaves our young and beautiful students deprived of all
knowledge; and the crime and the gangs and the drugs that have stolen too
many lives and robbed our country of so much unrealized potential.

15. This American carnage stops right here and stops right now.

16. (APPLAUSE) We are one nation and their pain is our pain. Their dreams are
our dreams. And their success will be our success. We share one heart, one
home, and one glorious destiny. The oath of office I take today is an oath of
allegiance to all Americans.

17. (APPLAUSE) For many decades, we've enriched foreign industry at the
expense of American industry; subsidized the armies of other countries, while
allowing for the very sad depletion of our military. We've defended other
nations' borders while refusing to defend our own.

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18. (APPLAUSE) And spent trillions and trillions of dollars overseas while
America's infrastructure has fallen into disrepair and decay. We've made
other countries rich, while the wealth, strength and confidence of our country
have dissipated over the horizon.

19. One by one, the factories shuttered and left our shores, with not even a
thought about the millions and millions of American workers that were left
behind. The wealth of our middle class has been ripped from their homes and
then redistributed all across the world.

20. But that is the past. And now, we are looking only to the future.

21. (APPLAUSE) We assembled here today are issuing a new decree to be heard
in every city, in every foreign capital, and in every hall of power. From this
day forward, a new vision will govern our land. From this day forward, it's
going to be only America first, America first.

22. (APPLAUSE) Every decision on trade, on taxes, on immigration, on foreign


affairs will be made to benefit American workers and American families. We
must protect our borders from the ravages of other countries making our
products, stealing our companies and destroying our jobs.

23. (APPLAUSE) Protection will lead to great prosperity and strength. I will
fight for you with every breath in my body and I will never ever let you
down.

24. (APPLAUSE) America will start winning again, winning like never before.

25. (APPLAUSE) We will bring back our jobs. We will bring back our borders.
We will bring back our wealth. And we will bring back our dreams.

26. (APPLAUSE) We will build new roads and highways and bridges and
airports and tunnels and railways all across our wonderful nation. We will get
our people off of welfare and back to work, rebuilding our country with
American hands and American labor.

27. (APPLAUSE) We will follow two simple rules; buy American and hire
American.

28. (APPLAUSE) We will seek friendship and goodwill with the nations of the
world, but we do so with the understanding that it is the right of all nations to

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put their own interests first. We do not seek to impose our way of life on
anyone, but rather to let it shine as an example. We will shine for everyone to
follow.

29. (APPLAUSE) We will reinforce old alliances and form new ones and unite
the civilized world against radical Islamic terrorism, which we will eradicate
from the face of the Earth.

30. (APPLAUSE) At the bedrock of our politics will be a total allegiance to the
United States of America, and through our loyalty to our country, we will
rediscover our loyalty to each other. When you open your heart to patriotism,
there is no room for prejudice.

31. (APPLAUSE) The Bible tells us how good and pleasant it is when God's
people live together in unity. We must speak our minds openly, debate our
disagreements honestly, but always pursue solidarity. When America is
united, America is totally unstoppable.

32. (APPLAUSE) There should be no fear. We are protected and we will always
be protected. We will be protected by the great men and women of our
military and law enforcement. And most importantly, we will be protected by
God.

33. (APPLAUSE) Finally, we must think big and dream even bigger. In America,
we understand that a nation is only living as long as it is striving. We will no
longer accept politicians who are all talk and no action, constantly
complaining, but never doing anything about it.

34. (APPLAUSE) The time for empty talk is over. Now arrives the hour of
action.

35. (APPLAUSE) Do not allow anyone to tell you that it cannot be done. No
challenge can match the heart and fight and spirit of America. We will not
fail. Our country will thrive and prosper again.

36. We stand at the birth of a new millennium, ready to unlock the mysteries of
space, to free the earth from the miseries of disease, and to harness the
energies, industries and technologies of tomorrow. A new national pride will
stir ourselves, lift our sights and heal our divisions.

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37. It's time to remember that old wisdom our soldiers will never forget, that
whether we are black or brown or white, we all bleed the same red blood of
patriots.

38. (APPLAUSE) We all enjoy the same glorious freedoms and we all salute the
same great American flag.

39. (APPLAUSE) And whether a child is born in the urban sprawl of Detroit or
the wind-swept plains of Nebraska, they look up at the same night sky, they
fill their heart with the same dreams, and they are infused with the breath of
life by the same almighty creator.

40. (APPLAUSE) So to all Americans in every city near and far, small and large,
from mountain to mountain, from ocean to ocean, hear these words: You will
never be ignored again.

41. (APPLAUSE) Your voice, your hopes, and your dreams will define our
American destiny. And your courage and goodness and love will forever
guide us along the way.

42. Together, we will make America strong again. We will make America
wealthy again. We will make America proud again. We will make America
safe again. And yes, together we will make America great again.

43. (APPLAUSE) Thank you. God bless you. And God bless America.

44. (APPLAUSE) Thank you.

45. (APPLAUSE) God bless America.

46. (APPLAUSE)

Source: The Washington Post

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Table 4. List of Grammatical Cohesive Devices in the Speech
No. Type Linguistic Evidences
1. Personal Everyone is listening to you now. You came by
reference the tens of millions to become part of a historic
a) Noun movement, the likes of which the world has
(pronoun) never seen before. (paragraph 12, see appendix)
I will fight for you with every breath in my body
and I will never ever let you down. (paragraph
you 31)
When you open your heart to patriotism, there is
no room for prejudice. (paragraph 30)
Do not allow anyone to tell you that it cannot be
done. (paragraph 35)
[] hear these words: You will never be
ignored again. (paragraph 40)
[] and we are grateful to President Obama
and First Lady Michelle Obama for their
gracious aid throughout this transition. They
have been magnificent. (paragraph 4)

they
Politicians prospered, but the jobs left and the
factories closed. [] And while they celebrated
in our nation's capital, there was little to
celebrate for struggling families all across our
land. (paragraph 6)
Together, we will determine the course of
America and the world for many, many years to
come. We will face challenges, we will confront
we hardships, but we will get the job done.
(paragraph 3)
Every four years, we gather on these steps to
carry out the orderly and peaceful transfer of

20
power [] (paragraph 4)
[] because today, we are not merely
transferring power [], but we are transferring
power from Washington, D.C. and giving it back
to you, the people. (paragraph 5)
We are one nation and their pain is our pain.
[] We share one heart, one home, and one
glorious destiny. (paragraph 16)
For many decades, we've enriched foreign
industry [] sad depletion of our military.
We've defended other nations' borders while
refusing to defend our own. (paragraph 17)
[] We've made other countries rich, while the
wealth, strength and confidence of our country
have dissipated over the horizon. (paragraph 18)
And now, we are looking only to the future.
(paragraph 20)
We assembled here today are issuing a new
decree to be heard in every city, in every foreign
capital, and in every hall of power. (paragraph
21)
[] We must protect our borders from the
ravages of other countries making our products,
stealing our companies and destroying our jobs.
(paragraph 22)
We will bring back our jobs. We will bring back
our borders. We will bring back our wealth. And
we will bring back our dreams. (paragraph 25)
And so on.
The Bible tells us how good and pleasant it is
us when God's people live together in unity.
(paragraph 31)

21
And your courage and goodness and love will
forever guide us along the way. (paragraph 41)
It belongs to everyone gathered here today and
everyone watching all across America.
it (paragraph 8)
Do not allow anyone to tell you that it cannot be
done. (paragraph 35)
b) Determiner Their victories have not been your victories.
Their triumphs have not been your triumphs.
(paragraph 6)
That all changes starting right here and right
now because this moment is your moment, it
belongs to you. (paragraph 7)
This is your celebration. And this, the United
your
States of America, is your country. (paragraph 8)
When you open your heart to patriotism, there is
no room for prejudice. (paragraph 30)
Your voice, your hopes, and your dreams will
define our American destiny. And your courage
and goodness and love will forever guide us
along the way. (paragraph 41)
For too long, a small group in our nation's
capital has reaped the rewards of government
while the people have borne the cost. [] The
establishment protected itself, but not the
citizens of our country. [] while they
our celebrated in our nation's capital, there was
little to celebrate for struggling families all
across our land. (paragraph 6)
What truly matters is not which party controls
our government, but whether our government is
controlled by the people. (paragraph 9)

22
The forgotten men and women of our country
will be forgotten no longer. (paragraph 11)
But for too many of our citizens, a different
reality exists: mothers and children trapped in
poverty in our inner cities; rusted out factories
scattered like tombstones across the landscape
of our nation; an education system flush with
cash, but which leaves our young and beautiful
students deprived of all knowledge; and the
crime and the gangs and the drugs that have
stolen too many lives and robbed our country of
so much unrealized potential. (paragraph 14)
We are one nation and their pain is our pain.
Their dreams are our dreams. And their success
will be our success. (paragraph 16)
[] while allowing for the very sad depletion of
our military. We've defended other nations'
borders while refusing to defend our own.
(paragraph 17)
We've made other countries rich, while the
wealth, strength and confidence of our country
have dissipated over the horizon. (paragraph 18)
And so on.
Demonstrative This American carnage stops right here and
this
reference stops right now. (paragraph 15)
a) Determiner Every four years, we gather on these steps to
carry out the orderly and peaceful transfer of
power [] (paragraph 4)
these
These are just and reasonable demands of
righteous people and a righteous public.
(paragraph 13)
that But that is the past. And now, we are looking

23
only to the future. (paragraph 20)
b) Adverb The time for empty talk is over. Now arrives the
now
hour of action. (paragraph 34)
2. Conjunction Their triumphs have not been your triumphs.
And while they celebrated in our nation's
capital, there was little to celebrate for
struggling families all across our land.
(paragraph 6)
This is your celebration. And this, the United
States of America, is your country. (paragraph 8)
Their dreams are our dreams. And their success
will be our success. (paragraph 16)
And spent trillions and trillions of dollars
overseas while America's infrastructure has
fallen into disrepair and decay. (paragraph 18)
But that is the past. And now, we are looking
only to the future. (paragraph 20)
and
We will bring back our wealth. And we will
bring back our dreams. (paragraph 25)
And most importantly, we will be protected by
God. (paragraph 32)
And whether a child is born in the urban sprawl
of Detroit or the wind-swept plains of Nebraska
[] (paragraph 39)
And your courage and goodness and love will
forever guide us along the way. (paragraph 41)
We will make America safe again. And yes,
together we will make America great again.
(paragraph 42)
Thank you. God bless you. And God bless
America. (paragraph 43)
but But for too many of our citizens, a different

24
reality exists: mothers and children trapped in
poverty in our inner cities [] (paragraph 14)
But that is the past. And now, we are looking
only to the future. (paragraph 20)
So to all Americans in every city near and far,
small and large, from mountain to mountain,
so
from ocean to ocean, hear these words: You will
never be ignored again. (paragraph 40)
Finally, we must think big and dream even
finally
bigger. (paragraph 33)

25