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Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.


Title Making public transport work better for everyone

Author Mobiel21
Date of version 07 April 2016

Making public transport work better for
Improving the quality, availability, timeliness and multi-modality of public
transport systems is a vital activity in making European public transport systems
even better. CIVITAS shows us that these systems can get better by providing
real-time, multimodal information, by making vehicles accessible to all (tourists,
handicapped), by making the systems safer, by building new partnerships with
employers and others, and by making riding buses, trams and metros easier with
one ticket and one place to get information.

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

Public transport is a public service to satisfy its clients

To make public transport services more attractive and thereby reduce car use, cities as well as public transport
companies should be keen to ensure a high quality of service on the public transport system, amongst others, by
widening and simplifying the public transport network, modernising the infrastructure (especially at intermodal
interchanges) and making the entire voyage by public transport more comfortable.

Enhancing the accessibility for all persons, especially for people with special needs, improving the safety and
security at stations, at stops and on the vehicles for passengers and drivers, as well as for infrastructural
equipment, are essential as well. In particular, mobility impaired people, the elderly, families with children and
young people should all profit from the measures. Furthermore, security and safety measures should also be
introduced for the protection of public transport drivers. The services on offer cannot be addressed only to the
poorest social group. While the social role of public transport is obviously very important, the target group
should be very wide. The achievement of this goal is relatively difficult, but, it is necessary. Enhanced quality of
public transport services have a lot of positive impacts.1

For the public: Public transport becomes more convenient, comfortable, accessible and understandable for
everyone. The number of passengers who use public transport will normally increase, disadvantaged people
can be made to feel less excluded from society and the dependency of the citizens on their cars should
diminish with consequential environmental gains.
For individuals: The quality of life of individuals with reduced mobility and the independency of people who
work or live in areas which were not previously connected to the public transport network can be enhanced.
Demographic trends in Europe clearly show that the number of elderly persons will increase in the following
years. Making public transport more accessible for this group of citizens is one of most important challenges
for social development of European cities. Also people, who do not normally use public transport because of
security concerns, will be reassured after the measure implementation.
For companies: If public transport companies improve the quality of the service, then the image of this
transport mode can be enhanced and the number of passengers increased. Enhancing the accessibility to
increase the number of passengers on public transport vehicles does not necessarily require high
investments. By improving the security on vehicles and in stations, the costs of repairing damage caused by
vandalism can be reduced. If the public network system is improved by implementing new infrastructure
measures like separated bus lanes, the public transport operator can save money by improved timekeeping
leading to a more efficient usage of the vehicles.

Coherency between parking policy and public transport infrastructure is essential to encourage the use of
alternative transport modes. For example, a required pre-condition to ensure the successful introduction of a
park and ride service is that no free parking spaces are available closer to the city centre. These elements should
be supported by a complex promotion and information system which is accessible to different groups of users.

When it comes to information systems, immediate resolution of technical difficulties or erroneous data needs to
happen to maintain user confidence. Also, the users are generally not willing to pay for this information, so
ongoing funding sources are often needed. New ticketing and fare integration can also experience technical
glitches and ongoing education and visible assistance may be needed at ticketing machines. The administration
coordination needs to disperse revenue needs to be clearly and officially delineated. Understanding the needs of
visitors (different language, unfamiliar with city) is also vital, especially in areas with a growing tourism economy.

Roider, Dotter, CIVITAS II Policy Advice Note: Enhancing the quality of public transport services

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

Finally, since many of these measures require new technology and capital purchases, flexibility in schedule and
funding contingencies may be needed.

In its White Paper, the European Commission makes clear that The quality, accessibility and reliability of
transport services will gain increasing importance in the coming years, inter alia due to the ageing of the
population and the need to promote public transport. Attractive frequencies, comfort, easy access, reliability of
services, and intermodal integration are the main characteristics of service quality. The availability of information
over travelling time and routing alternatives is equally relevant to ensure seamless door-to-door mobility, both
for passengers and for freight.2

There is generally widespread public support for improved collective passenger transport. Most Europeans use
public transport, at least occasionally, whereas other sustainable modes, such as car sharing or bicycle use might
just be too foreign. Therefore, political support may be a bit easier than with other measures, especially pricing
or access restrictions. However, collective transport measures require the full buy-in of both the city
administration and the public transport operator. Some operators may be reluctant to change their systems,
especially if it has ongoing budget implications. Assuring the integral participation of city administrators, public
transport operators, driver unions, system users, and special groups (for example mobility impaired) is vital to
the adoption and implementation of these measures. Educating stakeholders on the range and level of potential
benefits is also a must. Finally, given the technology and capital costs of some of the measures, a sound financial
plan must be prepared to convince stakeholders that resources will be available. 3

Public transport is a basic service in our society and one of the activities most directly related to the quality of
life of citizens. Quality commitments should be assumed in eight areas: time, comfort, information, accessibility,
safety, service offered, customer service and environmental impact. In order for a public transport service to
compete with other possible alternatives, it must meet those demands on a regular basis and stand firm behind
its commitment. Thus, it can be said that public transport is a public service to satisfy its clients.

CIVITAS stimulates new ways to improve local public transport services

Widening and simplifying the public transport network is an important step towards better public transport
services. This can be done, for example, by redesigning the network layout or enhancing frequency and
operating hours. The modernisation of infrastructure can make the entire voyage by public transport more
comfortable with high-quality vehicles and high quality waiting facilities. Driver training and teaching the staff on
customer service can contribute to more comfortable travel conditions as well. CIVITAS encourages new ways to
improve local public transport services, and has realised several measures since 2002. The CIVITAS Initiatives
Thematic Group on Collective Passenger Transport4 provides a number of resources, such as training resources,
guidance material, policy recommendations, and many more.

CIVITAS I | Rotterdam (The Netherlands): Water-borne public transport

Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport
system. accessed April 07, 2016,
Dotter et al, 2009, CIVITAS II Final Brochure
CIVITAS Initiative Thematic Group on Collective Passenger Transport, accessed April 07, 2016,

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

By introducing a water taxi service, Rotterdam aimed to optimise the use of the river Nieuwe Maas and to
reduce the volume of traffic on the citys roads.

Prior to the introduction of the water taxi, the only water-borne passenger transport by water was the fast ferry
between Dordrecht and Rotterdam. The objective of this measure was therefore to make use of the river
Nieuwe Maas by introducing a taxi service over 8 km between Schiedam and Feljenoord. The service is similar to
a conventional taxi: passengers indicate from which landing stage they wish to embark and where they would
like to be taken. The service is offered to individuals as well as to groups of up to eight people and is the fastest
connection between destinations on either side of the river, with speeds of up to 50 km/h. The boats operate
with a taxi meter and there are no fixed tariffs between landing stages. The water taxi service was established
through cooperation between a private entrepreneur and the city of Rotterdam and became fully operational in
December 2002. The city of Rotterdam was responsible for the construction of 30 landing stages, the locations
of which had to be approved by the Port Authority.

The success of the water taxi service surpassed all expectations. One of the lessons learned was that the
construction of a landing stage is a complex project in itself. Each landing stage had its own technical and
nautical location-dependent requirements. In Rotterdam, extra efforts were needed to replace the rubber
bumpers at the landing stages, and one landing stage had to be relocated due to a low occupancy rate. It was
found that legal issues and the division of responsibilities between public and private partners must be clearly
described and agreed in advance.5

CIVITAS II | Debrecen (Hungary): Safety and security training for public transport drivers
Although accidents involving public transport vehicles are not frequent in Debrecen, considering the number of
vehicles in daily operation, with extra training the number can be lowered even further, contributing to the
overall popularity and usage of the service. Wet or frosty roads can be very dangerous for bus passengers, who
are either standing or sitting without seat belts. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of public transport vehicles
mainly depends on the drivers skills, as appropriate driving techniques can reduce fuel consumption. The main
objective of this measure was therefore to improve the skills of bus drivers, to increase public transport safety
and attractiveness, and to decrease operational costs.

In 2007, the long-distance bus operator and the local public transport operator organised training seminars that
had a theoretical and practical element. The theoretical sessions covered safe driving techniques and new safety
technologies. Afterwards, this theory was tested in practical sessions in the presence of a professional trainer,
covering such topics as emergency braking, handling curves and slippery roads, driving on steep up- and
downhill roads. There was also training on dealing with passengers in specific situations, and on safe and fuel-
efficient driving. Communication training was designed to prepare and advise public transport staff to handle
conflict situations. So-called de-escalation training was designed to help drivers and controllers react in
emergency situations and provided information about legal aspects and liability issues. Special training was
provided on drug and alcohol abuse and their effects. Drivers and controllers were taught how to behave
towards intoxicated or angry passengers and how to handle extreme situations.

This driver training was demonstrated to benefit the city as a whole. Improved feelings of safety and security
among passengers contribute to the popularity of public transportation, helping to ease congestion and improve
air quality.6

Water-borne public transport, CIVITAS Initiative, accessed April 07, 2016, http://www.civitas-
Safety and security training for public transport drivers, CIVITAS Initiative, accessed April 07, 2016,

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

CIVITAS PLUS | Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain): New business district bus service
In a situation that is quite common in European cities, before CIVITAS the business districts of Donostia-San
Sebastian were poorly served by public transport. Private cars were the preferred mode and this was
encouraged by the availability of large free car parks. In this measure, the city seeked to make bus services more
convenient for potential users, by increasing frequency and introducing an adapted timetable.

The purpose of the measure was to meet the needs of commuters and to encourage an increased use of public
transport to access business districts in the city, by building an optimized and user-friendly environment for
public transport modes in those areas. The bus service is operated with bio-diesel to maximise the
environmental benefits of commuters choosing public transport instead of their private cars. During the design
phase of the measure, new bus services and new timetables were developed for better public transport
accessibility to four business districts. One of the users needs, expressed by the managers in the business areas,
was to have direct bus lines with a maximum of one interchange between buses during the commute. As a result
of this, the bus company decided to first offer an increased service of direct bus lines from the centre and
residential areas, instead of shuttle mini buses for the last mile. The city realised the necessary changes in the
infrastructure and bus stops in order to improve public transport operations in the business districts. In
particular, priority measures such as dedicated lanes and priority at traffic lights were implemented. In addition,
waiting facilities at bus stops in business districts were improved.

The measure has succeeded in reaching its main goals, since the use of public transport to access the business
districts increased with 123,000 extra travellers in 2010 and 230,500 in 2011, as compared to 2006 levels. At the
same time car traffic levels entering these areas decreased with almost 2,500 cars per day. The modal shift
towards public transport was the result of improved services. The implementations of the new direct bus
services to the business districts and the improvement of the infrastructure (bus lanes and light priority) led to
an increased in punctuality, with 97.2 percent of all expeditions on time in 2011.7

A good public transport system must be easy, fast, safe, clean and affordable

Good public transport systems are an essential part of safe, clean and affordable transport for development.
From an urban mobility perspective, public transport is far more efficient than personal motor vehicles in terms
of the road space it uses up and the energy it consumes. For example, a bus carrying 40 passengers uses only 2.5
times more road space than a car carrying only one or two people. Public transport is thus important for
improving sustainable mobility in urban areas, and it can be considered as the right approach to encourage low-
carbon growth in cities. A good public transport system must be easy and convenient to use, fast, safe, clean and
affordable. Passenger information systems enable users to know when the next service is due and to understand
the routes easily, and high frequency of service reduces the hassle of a long wait for the next bus or train.8

Apart from the above mentioned CIVITAS examples, there are a plenty of further examples on improving the
services of public transport in European cities. In this context, four case studies from Europe, Odense (Denmark),
Paris (France), Prague (Czech Republic) and the Citizens Rail Masterclasses offer insights in the field of either

New business district bus service, CIVITAS Initiative, accessed April 07, 2016, http://www.civitas-
Rachel Kyte, Vice-President of Sustainable Development at the World Bank. Interview at Global the
international briefing. accessed April 07, 2016,

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

how public transport services can be improved, how it can help to contribute to better quality in cities, and how
to involve the younger generation in its further development.

Measures, such as free public transport, taken in response to poor air quality in Paris in March 2014 have
been shown to have had a dramatic effect on particulates and traffic congestion. The French capital
introduced emergency measures after thick smog covered the city, prompting widespread environmental
and public health concerns. The measures included making many forms of public transportation free of
charge and restricting access for cars. According to the city's air quality monitor, road traffic dropped by 18
percent across the city overall, and in the historic city centre traffic fell by 13 percent. Emissions also
dropped significantly compared to the week before the measures were implemented. Levels of PM10
dropped by 6 percent, and NO2 levels by 10 percent, with even more dramatic decreases during rush hour.
According to Le Monde9, some 50 percent of particulate pollution in Paris comes from cars. Therefore,
researchers say, it is clear that measures such as restricting road traffic and subsidising the cost of public
transport can make a significant difference to air quality, even when adverse weather conditions make the
build-up of air pollution more likely.10
The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, has for decades been investing to improve the accessibility of its
public transport. Together with infrastructure improvements, such as removing barriers for wheelchairs at
stations, Prague is a good example of a city that is significantly improving the travel conditions of people
with reduced mobility. By 1998, Prague Public Transport Company provided all vehicles with special
equipment to allow communication between the vehicles and the visually impaired. Visually impaired
passengers own a portable remote control, obtainable through the association of the visually impaired,
which sends a signal to an arriving vehicle. This makes the vehicle announce externally its number and
direction. The same equipment enables them to confirm to the driver whether they plan to board the
vehicle, which increases the travelers safety. Besides the programme focusing on vehicles and information
provision, Prague also invested in infrastructural accessibility. All newly opened metro stations are fully
accessible for all travellers and a programme to make older metro stations barrier-free and accessible to
wheelchairs was also launched. The guidance system for visually impaired people in Pragues public
transport is constantly being fine-tuned and improved in co-operation with organisations representing the
interests of the visually impaired to help them use public transport. This system is applicable in all cities that
operate public transport. It has already been used in other cities in the Czech Republic but also by public
transport operators abroad, such as the Dresden transport company (Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe AG). 11
Turning the current trend for the growth of car transport in Denmark at the expense of public transport
modes is one of the greatest challenges for mobility planning. By removing the barriers against the positive
choice of public transport options, the City of Odense aims to contribute to charting new ways of turning
the tide. This should be done by increasing the quality, attractiveness and accessibility of alternative
transport modes in Odense (busses, bicycles, taxis and car sharing) through a bus priority scheme and
advanced information services, and by executing interrelated innovative activities to promote the use of the
new integrated service. The creative use of mobile phones for ticket sales and to provide relevant
information very much fits into the image of the younger generation. Furthermore its a very cost efficient
way of using peoples existing equipment in new dimensions. The system has now been overtaken by the
regional transport company FynBus. The bus priority system has increased the travel speed by three percent

Pollution Paris : la circulation alterne a eu un impact visible, 14 May 2014, accessed April 07, 2016,
New report: free public transport improved Paris air quality (France), Eltis, accessed April 07, 2016,
Helping visually impaired passengers travel around Prague (Czech Republic). Eltis, accessed April 07, 2016,

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

in the evening and one percent during the day due to traffic congestion. To get a hold on the younger
generation it was mainly the street posters and the free drinking water bottles which were most effective. In
general the most frequent users were more aware of the marketing initiatives than the rest of the citizens. 12
The Citizens Rail Masterclasses demonstrated how university students can bring fresh, actionable ideas to
the rail industry in a creative way. The two-day events were held in Aachen and Heerlen near the German-
Dutch border in October 2013 and in Lancashire in March 2015. They involved transnational collaboration
between students and industry from five regions in north-west Europe, as part of the Citizens Rail EU
Interreg IVB NWE project13. The masterclasses generated a wide range of ideas the first of which was
implemented by the UK rail industry within just 3 months. The masterclasses proved to be an innovative way
to bring people closer to their local transport services and have input into the planning process. The
masterclasses involved approximately 40 university students from the five partner regions Aachen
(Germany), Lancashire and Devon (United Kingdom), Heerlen (The Netherlands) and Pays de la Loire
(France) meeting for two days to solve travel problems with the input of practitioners from transport
operating companies, local schools and colleges, community rail organisations and local municipalities. From
both masterclasses student feedback was very positive about the experiences they got from being involved
in real-world problem solving, something which is rare in the study programmes. Practitioners also
received ideas to use for their services. From the second masterclass in Lancashire, the students produced
an idea which was implemented by the Devon & Cornwall Rail Partnership and rail operator Great Western
Railway. The concept was to promote scenic branch line railway trips on the Wi-Fi welcome page on main
line trains. This idea helped the partnership to win Best Marketing Campaign at the UK Community Rail
Awards 2015. As part of a wider marketing drive, the Wi-Fi project helped attract more than 10,000 people
to the Great Scenic Railways website during a five-week period between May and June 2015. This
represents a 40 percent increase on the same period in 2014. The involvement of students from different
countries and practitioners was a positive experience for all concerned. Each individual received something
they otherwise would not have experienced if they had not attended: for the students, they got to take part
in industry-related activity, and for the practitioners, they got to receive vibrant and bright ideas from a
group of people they do not often have contact with, giving them a different perspective to problem solving.
The challenges for people who might want to do something similar in the future are that the organisation of
such an event can take a lot of planning: destinations, accommodation, site visits and making sure a large
number of people are briefed correctly are just some of the considerations. Therefore beginning the
planning process early is advisable.14

The future of public transport is here!

The world is changing rapidly and attempting to look forward is as difficult as it is necessary. Market trends play
an important role in the way different consumer groups define or adjust their behaviour. Therefore it is crucial
to plan for trends and respond to those, especially when it comes to service improvements of public transport.

Improved public transport services are generally viewed as the most effective means of encouraging transfer
from the car, especially on urban journeys. It is the conventional view that the key element of a package to deal

Integration and quality improvements of sustainable modes in Odense (Denmark). Eltis, accessed April 07,
Citizens Rail project website, accessed April 07, 2016,
Involving local students in the improvement and patronage of local rail. Eltis, accessed April 07, 2016,

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

with the adverse effects of the growth in car-based geographically-dispersed patterns of activity is much
improved bus and rail services in order to provide equivalent levels of convenience, speed and comfort to the
car. In this way, car users can be more easily encouraged to transfer back to public transport.15

The PROCEED project developed recommendations on how to improve public transport in order to deliver a
high-quality public transport.16 High-quality public transport is defined as a quality of public transport service
that is generally perceived, by local politicians and in the media, to be reliable, frequent, good-value, reasonably
comfortable, reasonably fast, operate at convenient times, and to be suitable for most core journeys between
key traffic generators and the city centre.

Build solid political support. It is important to obtain broad political consensus to ensure that planning and
service can continue even in the event of a change in local government. High-quality public transport is a
long-term project too valuable to undergo controversial discussions during election campaigns. Therefore it
is important that a climate of agreement on the basic features of the public transport system be sought
from all involved stakeholders including representatives of all major political parties and other important
interest groups.
Seek secure and long-term financing. Public transport systems depend on adequate funding. Financing
operating and investment costs is a long-term process. Consequently, high-quality public transport needs
the support of all major stakeholders and local political parties. Furthermore, the public transport agency
must always be mindful of its own responsibility for improving the cost effectiveness and efficiency of public
transport service, even if there is strong political support to cover deficits.
Implement measures to support public transport. High-quality public transport should not be implemented
in a vacuum. To be successful cities must implement measures that push people out of their private cars as
well as high-quality public transport measures that pull them into public transport. It is ineffective to spend
large amounts of money for high-quality public transport in situations where cheap access by private cars to
the city centre is available or where parking control is weak. Providing both high-quality public transport and
cheap parking will contribute to a failure of the public transport investments.
Make public transport a city planning priority. Public transportation should be fully integrated into all levels
of the city planning process. If public transport is not considered at the very beginning of an urban
development activity, it may result in inefficient and high cost service. While urban development must
consider many different criteria, its integration with public transport must be a high priority, and there
should be a strong co-operation between urban design and transport planning sections.
Clearly assign public transport responsibilities to involved actors. High-quality public transport requires a
clear assignment of responsibilities. In cases where the responsible public authority differs from the public
transport operator, each player must recognize that customers are not interested in the organisational
details of the transport service, but only in the quality of service. A clearly defined interface strategy
towards public transport customers helps to avoid failures in service quality and/or conflicting messages
being given to the customer by different organisations.
Use best-practice ideas from other cities and operators. It is possible to learn much from reviewing best
practices. While best practice examples are not always fully transferable to other cities, regular exchange of
experiences among planners and decision makers from different cities helps repeating the mistakes of
others. Best practice ideas are especially important for critical political decisions. Studying real life examples

Mayer Hillman, Policy Studies Institute, London, UK, 1996. Accessed April 07, 2016,
PROCEED project, Principles of successful high quality public transport operation and development, accessed
April 07, 2016,

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during a site-visit may persuade decision-makers to support high-quality public transport plans in their own
Prepare a detailed analysis of the service area. It is critical to fully understand the urban area to prepare
effective support high-quality public transport plans. This means collecting as much information on
geographic distribution of inhabitants, jobs and travel attractions, travel behaviour, working centres, etc. as
possible. Since travel patterns change over time a public transport network has to be adjusted regularly in
order to guarantee high market penetration.
Implement quality management procedures to analyse performance. Quality management helps public
transport operators deliver the high service quality that passengers expect and helps ensure that funds
spent on public transport produce the maximum effect possible. Collecting performance data, interviewing
passengers and analysing the public transport market is the basis for further improvements and changes in
an urban bus system.
Think tram, use bus. The flexibility of a bus system is its Achilles heel, since route changes can easily result in
complex network structures that are difficult for customers to understand. In contrast, frequent changes are
difficult to implement in tram networks. Furthermore, tram tracks are highly visible providing strong
customer orientation. Therefore, the Think tram, use bus process aims to design an attractive bus network
by adopting major characteristics of tram systems in the planning of bus systems. These characteristics
include high frequency, direct routing, dedicated lanes, co-ordinated vehicles and platforms, and
prioritisation measures at intersections.
Deliver high quality throughout the package. High-quality public transport aims to provide a service that
competes with private cars (high availability, good comfort, etc.). Therefore, public transport services must
be as good as possible in all respects. Frequent service will not attract customers if, for instance, buses are
of poor quality, dirty or badly maintained. However, providing top-level quality and standards in all aspects
of operation is expensive and, consequently, the goal is to balance the quality of each element so that it
contributes to a consistent quality level for the overall system (vehicles, stops, level of service, customer
information, tariff system). Extremes should be avoided: single strategies that are too ambitious may cause
financial problems and poor quality in any one element may destroy the image of the whole system.
Public transport service levels should provide high availability throughout the day. Frequency, operating
times, and walking distances to transit stops are key-features of an high-quality public transport system.
Public transport service should be as frequent as possible. With short intervals (10 minutes or less) people
stop using timetables and instead experience what is effectively a turn up and go system. Providing
frequent service is a challenge in smaller cities. However, a standard service interval should still be fixed,
since this can serve as a memorable backbone for the public transport system (for example buses run every
15 minutes). Given typical travel time budgets for local trips, standard service intervals should not be lower
than 30 minutes. Operating hours should also be standardised on all bus lines serving a city. Most people
prefer a higher service frequency system (a sparse network) rather than a shorter distances to stops
system (a dense network with infrequent service). However, the best solution is always a trade-off between
frequency and access time, and should especially consider the needs of elderly people and those with
physical disabilities.
Develop integrated public transport systems. The agency responsible for local and regional public transport
service need not be the same, but both public transport systems must be closely integrated so as to appear
as one seamless system. When new services are planned, serious consideration needs to be given to the
assignment of tasks and the roles of other public transport modes. Integration includes a common approach
to customer information, co -ordinated timetables, physical coordination (interchange points) and
consistent tariff schemes.
Continuous marketing is critical for success. The public transport industry tends to underestimate the value
of marketing. However, research shows that in some cases soft techniques, such as marketing, can be

Making public transport work better for everyone | Draft | 07.04.2016

more effective in attracting new customers than hard techniques, such as providing more buses or lines.
An urban bus service needs continuous marketing and strong, well-designed branding to enter and remain
in the minds of potential customers and citizens. A good and positive image of the urban public transport
system among all citizens is a major factor in delivering success.
Provide continuity in the public transport system. A high-quality urban bus system depends on innovation
and continuity. Innovation helps keep the system attractive to the users in the long-term and presents a
positive image to the public. However, changes always cause a loss of system knowledge, making it harder
for customers to use the system. Too many changes in a short period of time will adversely affect a systems
positive image. Therefore, service and timetable changes should be planned carefully and concentrated on
one date, and all changes to the system should be widely communicated.
Provide an attractive fare structure and an easy ticketing system. Public transport fares are an important
factor in attracting customers, especially in smaller cities since many passengers are users of public
transport by choice and have discretion to use other modes or not to travel at all. Attractive fare structures
can be developed for the different main user groups. When considering fare structures it is important to
remember that the attractiveness of a tariff system rests not mainly on a low price strategy, but rather on
easy comprehension and usability as well as on high perceived value. Tickets that closely fit passenger
needs, and ticketing systems that allow everyone to easily obtain a ticket, help increase public transport use
and effectiveness.
Carefully consider new technologies. Many different smart phone and computer-based technologies are
present in public transportation including: onboard devices, computer-based operation control systems,
traffic light prioritisation and ticket vending machines. Some of these systems are essential, others are
helpful, and still others are simply nice to have. Since each technological system involves a capital
investment and continued operating costs they should never be introduced for their own sake, but must be
clearly justified.