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LIST OF TABLES

1.1 Major items in operating guidelines planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


1.2 Common equipment symbols and letter codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Typical instrument codes and examples .................... 9
1.4 mange ratings for different materials ..................... 10
1.5 Typical flange pressure-temperature data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1 Parameters to analyze in materials selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2 Fabrication parameters to analyze in materials selection . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 General properties of the corrosion resistance of metals to
various chemicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.4 General properties of the corrosion resistance of nonmetals to
various chemicals ................................. 31
2.5 Corrosion rates of steel and zinc panels exposed for two years . . . 35
3.1 Typical mechanical properties of various types of cast iron . . . . . 55
3.2 Typical data showing the effect of strength on gray iron
castings ........................................ 563
3.3 Properties of white iron ............................... 56
3.4 Properties of spheroidal graphite-grade cast irons . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.5 Properties of flake graphite-grade cast irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.6 Maximum working stresses for various grades of cast iron
up to 600OC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.7 Rods and electrodes for fusion-welding cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.8 Applications of low-carbon, low-alloy steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.9 Comparison of mild and low-alloy quenched and tempered
steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.10 Alloying effects that improve creep properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.11 AISI classifications of wrought stainless and heat-resisting
steels (based on AISI type numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

xiv
List of Tables xv

3.12 Examples of precipitation hardening stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . 72


3.13 Compositions of ferrite/austenite stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.14 Classification used for copper alloys in the U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.15 Various grades of copper .............................. 78
3.16 Mechanical properties vs temperature for copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.17 Mechanical properties vs low temperature for copper . . . . . . . . . . 79
3.18 Properties of common brasses .......................... 82
3.19 Properties of tin bronzes and gunmetals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.20 Mechanical properties of annealed cupro-nickel alloys . . . . . . . . 83
3.21 Standard U.S. leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.22 Mechanical properties of sheet lead ...................... 84
3.23 Mechanical properties of annealed lead vs temperature . . . . . . . . 84
3.24 Maximum stresses in pipe wall of lead alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.25 Fatigue-strength data of lead alloys ...................... 85
3.26 Mechanical properties of aluminum ...................... 87
3.27 Mechanical properties of aluminum annealed at 37OOC . . . . . . . . 87
3.28 Tensile and compression allowable stresses for mild aluminum
(annealed) vs metal operating temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.29 Effect of purity on the properties of aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.30 Typical properties of fully annealed nonheat-treatable
aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.31 Effect of heat treatment on heat-treatable aluminum alloys . . . . . 89
3.32 Various aluminum casting alloys ........................ 91
3.33 Aluminum alloys recommended for cryogenic applications . . . . . . 91
3.34 Properties of titanium. tantalum and zirconium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.35 Mechanical properties of titanium and alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.36 Effect of elevated temperatures on strength of titanium and
alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.37 Comparative corrosion resistance of tantalum and platinum . . . . . 97
3.39 Properties of carbon and graphite ....................... 101
3.40 Chemical resistance of bedding and jointing cements . . . . . . . . . 103
3.41 General properties and uses of thermoplastic materials . . . . . . . . 105
3.42 Mechanical properties of thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.43 Hydrostatic design pressures for thermoplastic pipe for
temperatures up to 130C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.44 Effect of density on polyethylene polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.45 Effects of degree of crystallinity and molecular weight . . . . . . . 113
3.46 Properties of different nylons .......................... 116
3.47 Properties of different engineering plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
3.48 Various properties of fiberglass resins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
3.49 Various filler materials and their property contributions to
plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.50 Chemical resistance of epoxy resin coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
B.l Properties of important plastics and elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
mi List of Tables

B.2 Terminology and properties of important elastomers . . . . . . . . . 166


B.3 Synthesis and features of hydrogenated diene-diene
copolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
B.4 Synthesis and features of hydrogenated aromatic-diene
copolymers ..................................... 169
B.5 Hydrogenation of functional diene polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
B.6 Properties of liquid polysulfide polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
B.7 Properties of arc0 p l y bd R-45 HT urethane composition . . . . . 172
B.8 Properties of Cll3N-expoxy resin compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
B.9 Properties of unfilled thermoplastic compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
B.10 True stress at break of selected melt-mixed rubber-
plastic blends ................................... 175
B.ll Properties of various types of elastomer compositions . . . . . . . . 175
B.12 Nonextended polymers with unsaturated center block . . . . . . . . . 176
B.13 Some commercial macroglycols that have been used to make
TPU elastomers .................................. 177
B.14 TPU product comparison chart ......................... 178
B.15 Physical properties of 1.2-polybutadiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
B.16 Applications and features of 1,2-polybutadiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
B.17 Chemical and oil resistance of silicone rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
B.18 Summary of solid EP and EPDM worldwide products . . . . . . . . 184