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# Name of Student Jasmine Chao

## Investigation Question -Bi

How does (or To what extent does) the amount of corn starch affect the velocity of
wave?

## Background to the Investigation question -Bi

The aim of the experiment is to investigate the velocity of the waves produced by a
marble dropping to the water, when adding different amounts of corn starch to the
water. Also, investigate how different amount of corn starch affects the velocity of the
waves.

The amount of corn starch can be measured by a tablespoon. The velocity and the
length of the wave can be produced by a marble when it is dropped to the water in
the tray. The more amount of cornstarch is added, the velocity of the waves will

The slope of the graph could be calculated by using the following equation:

The velocity of the waves could be calculated by using the following equation.
Velocity = distance traveled / time of travel = d / t. The velocity is also the slope
calculated by the graph in logger pro.

There is a similar scientific work that has been carried out, which is investigating the
speed of a wave, by determining the length of the wave, the frequency and the
speed of the wave. The investigation is to affect the frequency upon wave speed.
The ropes tension will be changed to look into different effects of the wave speed. In
our daily lives, water waves are always around us and everywhere. Water waves
includes transverse and comprise are wave motions. Clockwise circular motion of
waves moves by particles constitutional.

Hypothesis Bii
The length of the wave will become shorter when more corn starch is added to the
water, which the velocity of the wave will become slower.

When cornstarch is added to the water, the density of the water will increase due to
the presence of corn starch particles. When the marble drop into the water, the
waves produced by the marble travel less further, since particles of the cornstarch
will block the waves and prevent them from travelling.

Corn starch will make the water denser because it is made up of long chains atoms -
a polymer. Long chains will get entangled which will make the mixture become
denser.

Therefore, when the waves travels a shorter distance within a certain period of time,
the velocity will be slower.

Predict graph:
VariablesBiii

## Independent Different amount of corn starch

variable

Unit(s) of IV Tablespoons

## Range of IV First trial: 0 tsp

measured Second trial: 1 tsp
Third trial: 2 tsp
Fourth trial: 3 tsp
Fifth trial: 4 tsp

## (246ml for tsp)

Describe and Each time, 2 times tsps of corn starch will be added to 2002ml
explain the of water. Corn starch should be added to the water with the same
procedure to amount each trial. Therefore, the results will be reliable and
change the effective.
independent
variable. 38.5 x 26 x 2 = 2002ml

## Dependent variable Velocity of water wave travelled by a marble.

A ruler would be used to measure the distance travelled by the
wave.
Derived variable Velocity of wave

Unit(s) of DV cm

## Controlled Procedure to control it and

variable explain why it matters to the
investigation.

## Describe and Amount of water The same amount of water should be

explain the (ml) used for each trial so that the experiment
procedure to will be fair. The water will not be
control other replaced each time to ensure the same
variables in the volume of water is used.
investigation.
If the amount of water is not the same on
each trial, it will be unclear whether
changes in the results are due to the
water or the corn starch.
The height where the The same distance between where the
marble is dropped marble is dropped and the tray should be
(height from the tray controlled for each trial. A ruler can help
to where the marble to ensure the same height is kept each
is dropped) time.

## If the marble is dropped in a higher

distance, the wave will travel more and
if the marble is dropped in a shorter
distance, the wave will travel less.
Therefore, the wavelength varies when
the distance each time is not the same.
Size of the marble The same marble should be used on each
trial.

## If a different marble (different size) is

used for the experiment, the wavelength
will travel more when a larger marble is
dropped. The wavelength will travel less
when a smaller marble is dropped,
depending on their mass. Therefore, it
wont be a fair experiment.

## Materials / Equipment ListBiv

- 38.5cm x 26cm x 5cm Tray x 1
- Water to pour into the tray
- Marble x 1
- 4 Tsps of Cornstarch
- 16 cm (or longer) ruler x 2
- Lab clothes x 1

## Risk Assessment Biv

- Lab clothes should be worn to prevent materials and equipment from getting onto
our uniforms.
- Safety goggles should be worn to prevent the mixture from getting into our eyes.

- If the mixture enters into my eye, I should keep calm and inform the teacher and
wash my eye immediately.
- If the mixture dropped onto the floor, I will immediately clean up using towels and
do the experiment again if have time.

Method / ProcedureBiv
1. Prepare a 38.5cm x 26cm x 4cm tray on the desk.
2. Go to the sink and pour water into the tray of 2 cm tall. Pour carelessly so that the
water wont be spilled anywhere out of the tray. (height)
3. Prepare a package of corn starch, a marble, a tsp, two 16 cm (or more) rulers
and a camera (or phone) to record your data.
4. Place one of the rulers into the water. Sticking to the edge of the tray.
5. Stand the other ruler on top of the edge of the tray. Hold it tight so the ruler wont
be moving. If the ruler moves, the data might not be accurate and will affect the
results.
6. Take your other hand and hold the marble on the place of 8 cm of the ruler
standing. Remember not to move the marble since it will affect the accuracy of your
data.
7. Tell your partner to start recording using the phone (or camera). The phone
screen should be near to the tray so it will be easy to plot dots when using logger pro
afterwards.
8. Release the marble from your hand and it will drop into the water. Remember to
stick to one of the corners of the tray while dropping. It will produce waves.
9. When waves are no longer appear, stop recording the data and one trial of the
experiment is done.
10. Repeat the whole process 2 more times.
11. Take the tsp and put cornstarch in it for 2 times. Place the cornstarch into the
water and use a mixing tool to mix it evenly.
12. Repeat the steps from 5-10. Remember to use the same marble. Otherwise, the
wavelength will be accurate and it will not be a fair experiment.
13. Put another 2 times of tsps of cornstarch to the water. Use a mixing tool to mix
it evenly.
14. Repeat the steps from 5-10.
15. Put another 2 times of tsps of cornstarch to the water. Use a mixing tool to mix
it evenly.
16. Repeat the steps from 5-10.
17. Put another 2 times of tsps of cornstarch to the water. Use a mixing tool to mix
it evenly.
18. Repeat the steps from 5-10.
19. The experiment is done and tidy up the equipment used.
20. Upload the 15 videos to a computer and start to form graphs and results using
loggerpro.

Results - Ci

## Independen Dependent variable (m/s)

t variable Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
(tsp)
0 0.1807 0.1807 0.1461
1tsp 0.1315 0.1371 0.0385
2tsp 0.0773 0.0887 0.0915
3tsp 0.0721 0.0919 0.0721
4tsp 0.0695 0.0623 0.0647

Trial 6:
The velocity of the wave is 0.0385, which is a lot smaller than values recorded in trial 4 and
5. Therefore, this is an outlier. This may be caused by not placing the ruler properly at the
edge of the container. So that while using loggerpro, the scale is set wrongly.

Graphs:

## Trial 3 (0tsp): Trial 4 (1tsp):

Trial 5 (1tsp): Trial 6 (1tsp):

Trial 7 (2tsp):
Trial 8 (2tsp):

## Trial 9 (2tsp): Trial 10 (3tsp):

Trial 11 (3tsp): Trial 12 (3tsp):

## Trial 13 (4tsp): Trial 14 (4tsp):

Trial 15 (4tsp):

Qualitative Observations- Ci
During the course of the experiment, I saw that water becoming more semi white as
more corn starch is added to the water. The water become whiter because the corn
starch is white. When I pick up the marble from the mixture, I felt mixture becomes
denser as more corn starch is added to the water.

Processed data- Ci
Independen Dependent variable / Derived variable (unit)
t variable Average (m/s) Range(m/s)
(tsp)
Min Max
0.1807+0.1807+0.1461
0 3
= 0.1692 0.1461 0.1852
0.1315+0.1371
1 2
= 0.1343 0.1315 0.1371
0.0773+0.0887+0.0915
2 3
= 0.0858 0.0773 0.0915
0.0721+0.0919+0.0721
3 3
= 0.0787 0.0721 0.0919
0.0695+0.0623+0.0647
4 3
= 0.0655 0.0623 0.0695

## Velocity = distance traveled / time of travel = d / t

Graph- Ci

Conclusion - Cii
Referring to my hypothesis above, based on the tables and graphs, my results are
mostly correct. According to my hypothesis, I have predicted that the length of the
wave will become shorter when more corn starch is added to the water, which
means the velocity of the wave will become slower. Based on my results after the
experiment, the velocity of the wave become shorter gradually when more amount of
cornstarch is added to the water.

According to the average velocities graph of each trial, when there is no cornstarch
added to the water, the velocity of the wave is 0.1692 m/s. When there are 4 tsps of
cornstarch added, the average velocity is 0.0655 m/s. This shows a big difference
between the first trial and the last one. The 15 graphs are all having a positive
correlation. When the time (s) increases, the distance (m) also increases naturally.

## Explanation of results - Cii

Based on my conclusion, I had follow the steps in the investigation question part to
do the experiment, also using my predictions in my hypothesis. I had this result and
conclusion because when a substance like cornstarch is added to the water,
particles of the substance will lead the density of water increase. When the density of
the water increases, waves produced by the marble will travel less further because
of the blocking of the cornstarch particles. In addition, the particles will also prevent
waves from travelling.

Since corn starch is produced and made up of long chains atoms and particles,
cornstarch will make the water denser when it is added to the water. Long chains will
get entangled which will make the mixture become denser. Therefore, the velocity
will become slower when the waves travels a shorter distance within a certain period
of time. Moreover, my experiment ended up with this conclusion.

## Evaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii

After the experiment, each trials have a similar data result and some of my
classmates are also doing a similar experiment as mines. Based on my hypothesis, I
have predicted that the velocity of the waves will become slower when more corn
starch is added. The hypothesis is valid because the way my experiment is done is
referring to my hypothesis. I added different amounts of cornstarch to determine will
velocity of the waves travel slower, with the controlled variables being controlled. At
the moment when the marble is dropped to the water, the waves produced by the
marble will travel less further due to particles of the corn starch blocking the waves to
move. Therefore, cornstarch will lead waves to travel less and their velocity will
become slower.

## Evaluation - Validity of the method - Civ

Based on the method, it was appropriate and valid to investigate the research
question. The method of the experiment is valid because it is mentioned that the
same amount of corn starch should be added to the water on each trial. It is also
mentioned in the method that the marble used for all the trials must be the same and
the height of the marble should also remain the same each time. With those things
mentioned in the method, , the experiment should be valid since all the controlled
variables mentioned in the method are explained to control well.

In my method, I chose to add the same amount of cornstarch to the water each time
because the results will be precise and reliable. The graph will be shown accurately
when the same amount of cornstarch is added each time. If different amount of
cornstarch is added each time, the velocity of the waves cannot be calculated
property and accurately. I chose to use the same marble each time. If a different
marble is used, the wavelength will travel more or less depending on the size of the
marble. This will cause the experiment ineffective because different marble sizes will
produce different wavelengths, which will affect their velocity.

I chose to use logger pro for creating graphs of the 15 trials, because I cannot see
the distance travelled by the wave by my eyes since the waves were travelled very
fast and the ruler underneath the water in unclear to see. If I just estimated the the
distance and time used by using my eyes, the results would not be accurate because
the values that I have estimated will be wrong for sure. Logger pro is a computer
software that helps us to plot graph points in motions in videos and help us to create
graphs with their slope. This is a very convenient software which also calculates
values effectively.

Therefore, the method is valid to investigate the velocity of waves when adding
different amount of cornstarch in different trials.

## Problems with the The effect caused by Suggested improvements

experiment the problem
The marble may not be If the marble is not For further improvements, I
dropped at a perpendicular dropped in a same will bring a stand that can
distance every time, since spot every time, the hold the marble at the same
our hands are not velocity of the waves time, so the marble will be
completely stable. produced by the at a perpendicular and
marble will travel more specific distance every
or less. If the marble is time. The stand will be
dropped in a higher stable enough to hold the
distance, the wave will marble and also wont
travel more and if the falling off. This solved the
marble is dropped in a problem of holding the
shorter distance, the marble unstably because a
wave will travel less. stand wont be shaking.
Therefore, the
wavelength varies
when the distance
each time is not the
same. It wont be a fair
experiment if it
happens this situation.

When cornstarch is added When the ruler not For further improvements, I
to the water, the placed properly during will place the ruler at the
transparency of the water the trials, the scale of edge of the container
is not clear since it is the ruler would not be before adding the
covered by the cornstarch. accurate and precise cornstarch, so the colour of
The ruler did not placed in the logger pro, since cornstarch wont be
properly at the corner of I cannot see where the affecting me to see through
the container. ruler is located in the the water, since I have
videos. This will make already placed the ruler
the distance (m) of the first. In logger pro, I will use
graph not accurate drawing tools to draw a
enough because I can horizontal line at the edge
only estimate where (which is the place where
the ruler is by looking the ruler is located), so I
at the container. This can set the scale correctly
will affect the velocity by looking at the line at
of the graph due to the where I have drawn.
inaccuracy of the
distance showed.
Some of the trials in the When only part of the For further improvements, I
experiment is not recorded container is recorded will not move closer or
properly, because I moved in the videos, I cannot further while I am filming
forwards or backwards finish scaling the the trials. I will mark down a
carelessly sometimes distance of the ruler signal from the spot that I
while filming. For example, while using logger pro, am standing to the table, to
for some trials, the since some part of the ensure that I am standing at
recording of the phone is ruler is excluded from the same spot each time
too close the tray, which the video as well. This when I am filming.
the all tray is not included will lead to graphs not
in the recording, only part reliable because the
of it. length of the ruler is
not fully scaled.
The mixture of the corn When the mixture is I will use a tool (e.g a
starch and the water is not not mixed evenly, the spoon) to stir and mix the
mixed well. water will remain to be mixture well next time, so
pure and the particles that the water and
of the cornstarch will cornstarch will be combined
not spread through the evenly. Therefore, the
water widely. This will waves produced by the
cause the waves not marble will travel effectively.
to be travelled
effectively, because of
the not combined well
mixture.

## Extensions to the experiment:

- More amount of cornstarch can be added to the water each time so that the
graphs will have a bigger difference as well as the velocity produced by the
marble.

Works cited:
"The Speed of a Wave." The Speed of a Wave. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2016.
<http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-2/The-Speed-of-a-Wave>.
N.p., n.d. Web.
<http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/the-force-of-sound-sick-science/>.
N.p., n.d. Web.
<https://socratic.org/questions/how-does-a-medium-affect-the-waves-traveling-in-it>.
"Wavelength and the Index of Refraction." Wavelength and the Index of Refraction. N.p., n.d.
Web. 26 Sept. 2016. <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/phys/Dept2/APPhys1/optics/optics/node7.html>.
"Medium Affecting Wavespeed." Medium - Waves - Speed - Affecting. N.p., n.d. Web.
<https://www.quora.com/Why-does-medium-affect-wave-speed>.