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Substation Design

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Substation Design

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Salama

Lecture 6

Distribution Substation Design Aspects

Objectives:

2- Discussion of substations reliability concepts

3- Calculation of the substation rating

4- Derivation of the constant K factor

5- Introduction of the substation application curves

6- Illustration of the discussed analytical methods by some numerical examples

1. Introduction

The selection of substation switchyard system schemes represented in the substation buses and

switches configuration is based mainly on reliability and economical aspects. The choice of the

substations rating, and the number of exit primary-feeders are based on the service areas and the

percentage of voltage drop along the primary-feeders and their associated laterals. To evaluate the

parameters of the substations several analysis and practical considerations evaluations have to be

performed.

2. Background

In the previous lecture a brief introductory to distribution substations were introduced. In this section a

summary of this part and outline of the main structure of distribution substation will be given.

The high side buswork and protection

Low side buswork and protection

Transformers

The substation site

177

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

From the construction point of view, there are, in general, three main types of distribution substations.

These types are:

Conventional outdoor (open terminal) substation in which busbars and live parts can be seen.

SF6 gas insulated metal enclosed substation in which various equipment is in metal enclosed

form with SF6 gas providing internal insulation. Such substation can be either indoor or

outdoor.

Hybrid substation which is a combination of the above two. In the hybrid substation some

equipment are conventional open terminal type and some equipment are metal enclosed SF6.

There is no best or preferred substation voltage. Substation voltage rating will depend on substation

location, capacity, and service area. However there are some preferable voltage ratings of distribution

substation in North America. These ratings are:

69 kV/25 kV

33 kV/11 kV

69 kV/ 13 kV

161 kV/ 24 kV

230 kV/25 kV

The main function of distribution substation is to step down the subtransmission voltage to a lower

primary system voltage for local distribution via distribution primary feeders. These three phase

primary feeder distributes energy from the low voltage bus through three phase feeder and three or

single phase laterals. It is imperative for the substation to be equipped with a reliable and efficient bus

schemes that will insure the continuity and the reliability of the delivered power from the transformers

to the feeders. For this reasons the distribution substation buswork becomes one of the main design

parameters in any distribution substation.

In the next section a review of the different substation bus configuration will be given.

The substation bus configurations are discussed in this section. The connections of the different

switchgear system are also highlighted in this section. The sequential operations of these protective

178

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

equipments are given. This section deals with the internal substation bus connection whereas the

configurations discussed in the previous lecture (Section 2, Lecture 5) deals with the substation

external connection configurations with the sub-transmission system. The different switching schemes

are summarized and recapped in a table (Table 1) at the end of the section.

Fig. 1 exhibits the single bus configuration. Incoming and outgoing lines, transformers and shunt

capacitor banks are shown connected to the bus. The connections are achieved through circuit breakers

(CBs), circuit switchers, and motor/manually-operated disconnecting switches. This scheme is

routinely used in distribution voltage levels less than 161 kV. A normally opened (N.O.) bypass switch

is used to keep the CB line circuit energized. However, to perform CB maintenance, one should isolate

the CB and its disconnecting switches, as well as the relays and the control equipment by operating the

bypass switch in the closed mode (after opening the CB). It should be mentioned here that this circuit

is no longer protected and any fault occurring in this circuit requires the main CB (incoming line CB)

to be opened and hence a complete substation outage.

In c o m in g L in e

CB

B us

N .O . b y p a s s

s w itc h

D is c o n n e c tin g s w itc h

O u tg o in g L in e c irc u its

This scheme is the modification of the single bus scheme. It consists of two single bus schemes

connected by a normally opened (N.O.) or normally closed (N.C.) sectionalizing switch or bus tie CB

as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, circuits supplying the same loads and energized from the same source

179

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

have to be divided between different sections. The range of operation of voltage level and location is

similar to that of the radial scheme. In addition, CB bypass switches can be used.

I n c o m in g L in e I n c o m in g L in e

CB B u s - T ie CB

CB

B us 1 B us 2

N .O . b y p a s s

s w itc h

D is c o n n e c tin g

s w itc h

O u tg o in g L in e c ir c u its

Fig. 3 presents the main-and-transfer bus scheme. It consists of main and transfer buses connected

through a N.O. transfer CB. Its operation voltage level and location is similar to that of the radial

scheme.

In c o m in g lin e

M a in b u s

N .O .

T ra n s fe r

N .O .

CB

N .O . T ra n s fe r s w itc h

N .O . N .O . N .O .

T ra n s fe r b u s

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Fig. 4 clarifies the double bus-single breaker scheme. This scheme is the modification of the

sectionalized single bus scheme where two buses are connected through a tie breaker. It has the same

voltage range and location as of the sectionalized single bus schemes. Each circuit can be connected to

one bus through CB and disconnecting switches.

Bus 1

N .O .

Bus

N .O . tie

b re a k e r

N .O .

Bus 2 N .O .

O u tg o in g lin e

In this scheme several sectionalized single bus schemes (named position) are connected in a series as

shown in Fig. 5. It is limited to a maximum of eight positions. In the case of occurrence of bus or

circuit fault, one position is disconnected through its CB. In the case of CB operation failure two

positions are disconnected. Each line is equipped by a disconnecting switch. To make preparations for

this line to go out of service: the two CBs are opened first; then the line disconnecting switch is

opened; following that the two CBs are closed. This scheme is used in 115-345 kV voltage range and

when high reliability is required.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

L in e L in e

L in e L in e

In this scheme each circuit has its own CB and shares one CB with another circuit (one and one-half

CB) as shown in Fig. 6. A CB failure connecting a bus and circuit causes this circuit to be out of

service. A CB operation failure between two circuits causes these two circuits to be out of service. This

scheme is utilized for voltages greater than 230 kV and in locations which require high reliability.

L in e L in e

B us 1

T ie

b re a k e r

B us 2

L in e L in e

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

For this scheme each circuit has two CBs to connect to either one of the two buses as shown in Fig. 7.

Each circuit has two CBs. Therefore, only the faulted circuit is disconnected. Furthermore, for a

faulted bus no circuit is disconnected. A CB failure to operate in case of a faulted bus causes only one

circuit to be out of service.

I n c o m in g I n c o m in g

L in e 1 L in e 2

B us 1

B us 2

O u tg o in g L in e c ir c u its

protective relaying

-Least system flexibility for operation

-Lowest cost and the least land area and maintenance

requirement

-Complete substation outages in case of

Single (radial) bus

bus fault or CB failure

for bus extension

case of other supply existence.

-A CB (other than tie CB) failure causes -More complex in operation and

an outage only in its sectionalized section protection. More expensive than the

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

radial scheme

Sectionalized single (radial) - Low required land area

bus scheme

-More reliable, flexible and easier to

expand than the radial scheme

CB

-Easier for expansion

-Increased complexity of operation and

-More flexible in operation and

protection especially in a CB

maintenance requirement

Main-and-transfer bus maintenance situation

scheme -Low cost

-No reliability improvement

-CB can be easily removed for

-Complete substation shutdown in case

maintenance

of bus or any CB failure

balance the load and source manual and not automatic

-All loads can be connected to one bus in -More expensive (One tie breaker and

case of outage or maintenance on the other four disconnecting switches per circuit)

bus

-More complex protection model than

Double bus-single breaker -Critical loads can be separated that of the sectionalized single bus

scheme

scheme

-Flexible operation with two buses

-A complete substation outage occurs in

case of tie breaker failure

Ring bus -High reliability and flexible CB -The ring is separated into two sections

maintenance and operation in case of CB failure during another

CBs maintenance

-Any CB can be disconnected for

maintenance without circuit outage

-Easily expandable

without any circuit outage

-High cost (one and half CB is required

-Either bus can be out for maintenance per circuit)

without affecting the operation

- Complex protection relaying

Beaker-and-a-half scheme

-Bus failure does not cause a circuit

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

outage

Double bus-double breaker -Higher reliability -For a CB failure a loss of half the

scheme circuit could occur if circuits are not

connected to both buses

Table. 2 shows a summary of the different types of substation bus schemes and their possible operating

voltages.

Substation bus configuration

69 115 138 161 230 345 500

X X X

scheme

Ring bus X X X X X X X

Beaker-and-a-half scheme X X X X X X

High reliability service for the distribution substation is insured by implementing many design and

operation practice in the construction of these substations. The first design practice is the reliability of

the buswork as discussed in the previous section. The second aspect is the selection of transformers

ratings and numbers. Most substations have two or more transformers to provide contingency support

in the event of a transformer outage for improved reliability. The third aspect is the combined high

side/transformer/low side connections which also have to be flexible as well as reliable. Such

connections are shown in Fig. 8 below.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Fig. 8 High side- Transformer- Low side connections for distribution substations [7]

Fig. 8 illustrates many of the common electric connections used in distribution substation and in

general the switching and the protection/segmentation provided by the high side configuration in

conjunction with transformers determine to a large extend the overall reliability of the substation.

Table 3 shows two case studies for the substation reliability analysis with their relative costs as

reported by Willis [7].

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Table 3 Two case studies for reliability analysis for distribution substation

Case 1 Case 2

115 kV/25 kV, 31 MVA peak 115 kV/13 kV, 35 MVA peak

Situation Ave. 16 mile exposure on both Ave. 2.3 mile exposure on both

incoming transmission routes incoming transmission routes

8,300 customers. 9,100 customers.

Configuration Cost Voltage Freq. Duration Cost Voltage Freq. Duration

Radial/one trans. $4,400 .96 .73 112 1,735 1.00 .25 20

A $7,200 .95 .18 28 $2,200 1.00 .07 5

B $7,600 .95 .18 28 $2,500 1.00 .07 5

C $7,400 .95 .18 28 $2,300 1.00 .07 5

D $7,700 .98 .10 15 $2,600 1.03 .05 4

E $7,900 .98 .07 12 $2,800 1.03 .03 2

F $7,900 .98 .07 12 $2,800 1.03 .03 2

The constant factor K is used to calculate the percentage voltage drop along the cable. This constant

K is defined as percentage VD/KVA-mi, and is given for various voltages and copper conductor

sizes. This constant can be obtained from standard curves such as the one shown in Fig. 9 or

analytically.

Fig. 9 provides the constant K for three phase overhead lines with equivalent spaces of 37 inches

between conductor phases.

For the main primary feeder shown in Fig. 10, the feeders effective impedance is calculated based on

the load type as follows:

Z z l /p h a s e (1)

Where; z is the three-phase main line impedance ( / (mi . phase)) and l is the main feeder

length (mi).

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Fig. 9 K constant curves for copper conductors with 0.9 lagging power factor [1]

1

Z z l /p h a s e (2)

2

2

Z z l /p h a s e (3)

3

188

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

I P, Q

L oad

Z = R + jX P r, Q r

Vs Vr

l

Vr Vr 0

o

V

VS VS

o

V

Ir Ir I

o

A

V I I

o o o o

VS Vr

V R pu .

Vr

VS Vr

% V R pu . 1 0 0 (4)

Vr

1 0 0 V R pu .

VS Vr

V D pu .

Vb

VS Vr

% V D pu . 1 0 0 (5)

Vb

1 0 0 V D pu .

VS Vr I Z

V S (c o s j s in ) V r I (c o s j s in ) ( R j X ) (6)

R X, 0 4 , s in 0, cos

o

1 in a d is trib u tio n c irc u it

V S V r I R c o s I X s in (7)

I R c o s I X s in

V D pu . (8)

Vb

189

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Pr j Q r V r I

*

Pr j Q r (9)

I

Vr

R Pr X Q r

VS Vr (10)

V r V b

R Pr X Q r

V D pu . (11)

V r V b

1

S s ( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )

3

3

V D pu pu. V

V b V r

V D pu s K S s K Sn pu. V

3

(12)

1

( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )

3

& K = V D p u /k V A m i

V b V r

f ( c o n d u c to r s iz e , s p a c in g , c o s a n d V b )

Or in percentage:

% V D pu s K S 1 0 0 s K S n 1 0 0 pu. V

3

1

( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 ) (13)

3

& K = 1 0 0 V D p u /( k V A m i)

V b V r

Where s (in unit length) is the effective main feeder length depending on the load type.

Therefore:

i- s l for lumped-sum load at the end of the feeder.

1

ii- s l for uniform distributed load along the feeder.

2

2

iii- s l for linearly increasing distributed load along the feeder.

3

190

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Distribution system engineers can satisfy the load increase by the following two options; which can be

implemented separately or combined:

a) Expanding an existing substation (increasing the substation capacity) to serve the same service

area (constant area but with increased loading).

b) Building new substations (adding new substation capacity) while keeping the existing

substation (with its original capacity) to serve its load. The rest of the loads are to be served by

the new substations.

In order to supply the new loads in both alternatives, one has to be able to determine the substation

rating. There are several techniques that are available in the literatures [3-5] that can be used to

determine substation rating, service areas and number of feeders. The simplest and the most commonly

used one is the technique that is based on the geometrical shape of the substation service area [4, 5].

The output of this technique will be the substation rating, number of outgoing primary and the

maximum voltage drops on the feeder. The input of this technique is the geometrical shape of the

service area, the electric loading and the substation operating voltage. In some cases this technique is

used to determine also the operating substation voltage and the shape of the substation service area.

This can be done by first assuming these two parameters as an input (known values) and then after

calculating the output one can use experience, engineering judgement, historical data, etc. and

modified the input values accordingly. This process can be iteratively carried out until satisfying

results are obtained. In the following the basic steps for executing this technique is summarized.

1) The first step is to assume the simplest geometrical shape of the service area; i.e. a square

substation service area. Accordingly one can assume that there are four three-phase primary

distributions feeders responsible to serve this area from a common central feed point as shown

in Fig. 11. Aggregated three-phase balanced loads are represented on the feeders and lateral,

where distribution transformers exist. The voltage drop calculated from the feed point m to the

end of last lateral point w is given by equation (14). However, this equation can be simplified

by equation (15).

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

A4

C e n tr a l f e e d p o in t m

O n e f e e d e r m a in

L4 2 /3 L 4

F e e d e r lo a d c e n te r

( 2 /3 f e e d e r m a in le n g th )

D is tr ib u tio n tr a n s f o r m e r

L a te r a l la s t p o in t w F e e d e r m a in la s t p o in t t

% V D m w % V D m t % V D tw (14)

As shown in Fig. 11, the feeders service load is given by equation (15):

S 4 A4 D L 4 D

2

(15)

Where, S4 represents the feeders KVA loading; L4 is the dimensional primary feeder-service

areas length in mi; A4 is the primary feeder service area in mi2 ; and D is the load density in

KVA/ mi2.

By assuming uniform distributed loads (equal loading and distances), the voltage drop in the

primary main feeder is given by equation (16). It is assumed that the total load is aggregated

and placed at a point at 2/3 of the main feeder length from the centre point m.

Cable manufacturers provide curves that relate to the following:

2. System voltage level

3. Power factor

192

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

2

% V D 4 , m a in L4 K S 4 (16)

3

% V D 4 , m a in 0 .6 6 7 K D L 4

3

(17)

Equation (17) calculates the maximum voltage drop along the feeder. For a given substation

data (substation voltage and substation area) if this maximum voltage drop is within the limits,

then the rating of the substation is 4 S4 and the number of feeders are 4 and the maximum

voltage drop is %VD4,main . For the case where the calculated maximum voltage drop exceeds

the limits or the substation service area doesnt match geometrically the square shape then we

will go to step 2.

2) In this step, a hexagonal shape service area is assumed in which the substation loads are

supplied by six feeders from a feed point at the center of the substation service area as shown in

Fig. 12.

A6

C e n tr a l f e e d p o in t m

O n e f e e d e r m a in

L6 2 /3 L 6

F e e d e r lo a d c e n te r

( 2 /3 f e e d e r m a in le n g th )

D is tr ib u tio n tr a n s f o r m e r

L a te r a l la s t p o in t w F e e d e r m a in la s t p o in t t

Similar to the square shaped service area, the following equations can be derived.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

L6

S 6 A6 D L 6 D 0 .5 7 8 D L 6

2

(18)

3

2

% V D 6 , m a in L 6 K S 6 0 .3 8 5 K D L 6

3

(19)

3

Again, based on the maximum voltage drop calculations one can determine the rating and the size

of the distribution substation. In this case if the %VD6,main is within the limit, then the rating of the

substation is 6 S6 and the number of feeders are 6 and the maximum voltage drop is %VD6,main .

For the case where the calculated maximum voltage drop exceeds the limits or the substation

service area doesnt match geometrically the square shape then we will go to step 3.

3) In this step a general case of geometrical shape is considered where n feeders will feed the

substation service area as shown in Fig. 13. It assumes that each primary feeder is serving a

triangular shape of the service area. The differential loading for a differential area is give by

equation (20):

dA

F e e d e r m a in

m t

y

x dx

L6

dS D dA (20)

According to the shape shown in Fig. 13, the following relations can be derived:

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

y

ta n

x dx (21)

y ( x d x ) ta n x ta n

Therefore the total feeders service area and loading is given in equations (22 and 23):

Ln Ln Ln

An dA 2 y dx 2 x d x ta n L n ta n

2

(22)

x0 x0 x0

Ln Ln

Sn dS D d A D L n ta n

2

(23)

x0 x0

2 2 2

% V D n , m a in Ln K S n L n K D L n ta n K D L n ta n

2 3

(24)

3 3 3

n 2 360 n 3 (25)

Substituting equation (25) into equation (24), equation (26) can be obtained:

2 360

% V D n , m a in K D L n ta n n 3

3

(26)

3 2n

However for n = 1:

1

% V D 1 , m a in K D L1

3

(27)

2

For n = 2:

1

% V D 2 , m a in K D L2

3

(28)

2

Equation (26) is considered the general equation to calculate the voltage drop along the main

feeder. A comparison between four and six primary feeders is discussed in Table 4, where VL-L

is the feeders line to line voltage.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Table 4 Comparison between four and six feeders service area characteristics

n=4 n=6

The feeder service area (A) L4

2

1

L6

2

2

6

L6

2

2

1

D L6

2

2

6

D L6

2

% V D m a in 2 2

K D L4 K D L6

2 3

3 3 3

2

S6 D L6

2

I4 I6

3 V L L 3 V L L 3 V L L 3 V L L

Based on the comparison shown in Table 4, the relation between four and six feeder service

areas can be discussed under two different assumptions:

a) Assuming equal feeders thermal capacity and neglecting the voltage drop for a given

conductor size:

I4 I6

D L6

2

D L4

2

3 V L L 3 V L L

2

L6

3 (29)

L4

Also,

6

D L6

2

2

T A6 3 3 L6 3

2

(30)

T A4 4 L4 2 L4 2

Therefore, the six-feeder can hold up to 3/2 of the total load of the four-feeder for the same

conductor thermal capacity.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

b) Assume equal feeders percentage voltage drop and thermal capacity for a given conductor

size:

% VD4 % VD6

0 .6 6 7 K D L 4 0 .3 8 5 K D L 6

3 3

L 4 0 .8 3 3 L 6 (31)

Also,

6

D L6

2

2

T A6 3 3 L6 5

2

(32)

T A4 4 L4 2 L4 4

Hence, the six-feeder can hold up to 5/4 of the total load of the four-feeder for the same

conductor percentage voltage drop.

In this case, if the calculated voltage drop satisfies the limit, then the substation rating is n

Sn and the number of primary feeders going out of the substation is n and the voltage drop

is %VDn,main.

Reps [4,5] used the results of step three in section 6.1 and put it in a general form in two equations (33)

[5] and (34) [4, 5] as shown below.

2

Ln K n D An

3

% VDn (33)

n

3

2

2 K

TSn 3

% VDn (34)

3 ta n

n2 D

Where 2/3 Ln is the effective primary feeder length, An is the area served by the nth. primary feeder,

TSn is the total supplied KVA (TSn = n . D . An) and D is the load density.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Reps in [4] used equations (33) and (34) and constructed family of curves that relates the substation

rating, number of feeders and the maximum voltage drop at the end of the feeder to the substation

voltage rating and the size of the service area. He called these curves distribution substation

application curves [1, 4, 5].

These distribution substation application curves are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. In constructing these

curves, the following assumptions are made:

1. AWG #4/0 and #4 three-phase copper conductors are used in primary-main feeders and laterals

respectively.

2. The equivalent phase conductor spacing is 37 inches with 0.9 lagging power factor.

In general these substation application curves link: load density (D), substation service area (A)

substation loading (TS), primary feeders voltage (V) number of feeders (n), and allowable feeder

loading (Sn). In addition, the given curves are developed for five primary-feeder voltage levels and a

two percentage maximum voltage drop. In these curves the limit for thermal loading of the feeder is

identified.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

7. Numerical examples

This section introduces several examples to familiarize the reader with the derived formulas in this

lecture:

Example 1:

Fig. 16 shows a three-phase 4.16 kV wye-grounded feeder,

r 1 .5 0 3 / m i , x 0 .7 4 5 6 / m i , V r V b 2 4 0 0 V

a- By applying equation (31).

b- By using the K constant curves.

I P, Q

k V L - L = 4 .1 6

L oad

Z = R + jX P r, Q r = 5 0 0 k V A , 0 .9 p f la g

Vs Vr

s = l = 1 mi

#4 copper, D m = 3 7 "

Solution:

a. By applying equation (12).

1

( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )

3

K pu

V b V r

1

(1 .5 0 3 0 .9 0 .7 4 5 6 0 .4 3 5 9 ) ( 1 0 0 0 )

3

=

2400 2400

0 .0 0 0 1 V D p u /(k V A m i) = 0 .0 1 % V D /(k V A m i)

201

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Therefore the calculated K value is the same of that obtained from the K curves.

Example 2:

Calculate the substation design parameters for the following substation input data

Given:

1- A load density (D) of 500 kVA/mi2

2- Substation voltage 13.2/22.9 kV

3- Substation rating (TS) of 40MVA

4- 3 % voltage drop

Determine:

1- Substation service area (TA)

202

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Solution:

Example 3:

For the substation application curves shown in Fig. 14 and 15, and the data given in Table 5,

determine:

a- The substation sizes, the required number of feeders and check whether the feeders are

thermally limited (TL) or voltage drop limited (VDL).

b- If the feeders are thermally loaded (TL), check if it is the #4/0 AWG copper main or the #4

AWG copper lateral that TL is using in Table 6.

203

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

2 2

# D (kVA/mi ) coverage TAn (mi ) primary feeder %VD voltageVb (kVL-L)

1 3

500 6

2 6

3 3

2,000 3 4.16

4 6

5 3

10,000 1

6 6

7 3

2,000 15 13.2

8 6

AWG #6 130

AWG #5 150

AWG #4 180

AWG #1 270

4/0 480

Solution:

a- The total substation kVA in case 1 (in Table 5) is given by:

T S n D T An 5 0 0 6 3 0 0 0 k V A

From the first graph in Fig. 18, the following information can be obtained: 3 percentage voltage

drop, 4.16 kV line voltage, 3000 kVA substation loading, 500 kVA/mi2 load density and 6 mi2

substation service area.

From Fig. 19 we can deduce that the number of required feeders is 3.8 which is rounded to 4.

204

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

In addition, the point of intersection is left of the thermal loading limit of feeders curve,

therefore, the feeders are VDL (voltage drop limited).

205

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Repeating the same process, Table 7 can be obtained. It is to be noted that cases 6 and 8 are TL

(thermally limited) feeders since the intersection points are located to the right of the thermal

loading limit curves.

Table 7 Cases under study solution

Case

Substation size TSn (kVA) Required feeders number n Limits

#

1 3.8 (4)

3,000

2 2

3 5 VDL

6,000

4 3

5 5

10,000

6 4 TL

30,000

8 5 TL

b- For cases 6 and 8, the feeders are TL, therefore according to Table 6, the feeder ampacity of a #4/0

copper main and a #4 copper lateral are 480 A and 180 A respectively.

For case 6:

TSn 10, 000 kV A

Sn 2, 500 kV A

n 4

Sn 2500 kV A

I 3 4 7 .4 A

3 V L L 3 4 .1 6 k V

The lateral conductor has a load current greater than its ampacity so it is TL. However, the main

feeder ampacity is greater than the load current so it is not TL.

For case 8:

TSn 30, 000 kV A

Sn 6, 000 kV A

n 5

6000 kV A

I 2 6 2 .4 A

3 1 3 .2 k V

206

Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Similar to case 6, the lateral conductor has a load current greater than its ampacity so it is TL.

However, the main feeder ampacity is greater than the load current so it is not TL.

References:

[1] T. Gnen, Electric Power Distribution System Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

[2] Beaty, H. Wayne, Electric power distribution systems: a non-technical guide, Tulsa, Okla.:

PennWell, 1998.

[3] Van Warme, F.C.: Some Aspects of Distribution Load Area Geometry, AIEE Trans., December

1954, pp. 1343-1349.

[4] Denton, W. J., and D. N. Reps: Distribution Substation and Primary Feeder Planning, AIEE

Trans., June 1955, pp. 484-499.

[5] Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book- Distribution

Systems, vol. 3, East Pittsburgh, Pa., 1965.

[6] J.R. Lusby, Fundamental concepts in substation design, Rural Electric Power Conference, 1993.

Papers Presented at the 37th Annual Conference, 25-27 April 1993, pp. D2/1 - D225.

[7] H.L. Willis, Power distribution reference book, Marcel Dekker, INC, 1997.

207

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