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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A.

Salama

Lecture 6
Distribution Substation Design Aspects

Objectives:

1- Discussion of the substation bus configuration


2- Discussion of substations reliability concepts
3- Calculation of the substation rating
4- Derivation of the constant K factor
5- Introduction of the substation application curves
6- Illustration of the discussed analytical methods by some numerical examples

1. Introduction
The selection of substation switchyard system schemes represented in the substation buses and
switches configuration is based mainly on reliability and economical aspects. The choice of the
substations rating, and the number of exit primary-feeders are based on the service areas and the
percentage of voltage drop along the primary-feeders and their associated laterals. To evaluate the
parameters of the substations several analysis and practical considerations evaluations have to be
performed.

2. Background
In the previous lecture a brief introductory to distribution substations were introduced. In this section a
summary of this part and outline of the main structure of distribution substation will be given.

As I mentioned in lecture 5, the distribution substation main parts are:


The high side buswork and protection
Low side buswork and protection
Transformers
The substation site

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

From the construction point of view, there are, in general, three main types of distribution substations.
These types are:

Conventional outdoor (open terminal) substation in which busbars and live parts can be seen.
SF6 gas insulated metal enclosed substation in which various equipment is in metal enclosed
form with SF6 gas providing internal insulation. Such substation can be either indoor or
outdoor.
Hybrid substation which is a combination of the above two. In the hybrid substation some
equipment are conventional open terminal type and some equipment are metal enclosed SF6.

There is no best or preferred substation voltage. Substation voltage rating will depend on substation
location, capacity, and service area. However there are some preferable voltage ratings of distribution
substation in North America. These ratings are:

69 kV/25 kV
33 kV/11 kV
69 kV/ 13 kV
161 kV/ 24 kV
230 kV/25 kV

The main function of distribution substation is to step down the subtransmission voltage to a lower
primary system voltage for local distribution via distribution primary feeders. These three phase
primary feeder distributes energy from the low voltage bus through three phase feeder and three or
single phase laterals. It is imperative for the substation to be equipped with a reliable and efficient bus
schemes that will insure the continuity and the reliability of the delivered power from the transformers
to the feeders. For this reasons the distribution substation buswork becomes one of the main design
parameters in any distribution substation.
In the next section a review of the different substation bus configuration will be given.

3. Substation Bus Configuration Design


The substation bus configurations are discussed in this section. The connections of the different
switchgear system are also highlighted in this section. The sequential operations of these protective

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

equipments are given. This section deals with the internal substation bus connection whereas the
configurations discussed in the previous lecture (Section 2, Lecture 5) deals with the substation
external connection configurations with the sub-transmission system. The different switching schemes
are summarized and recapped in a table (Table 1) at the end of the section.

3.1 Single (Radial) Bus Scheme


Fig. 1 exhibits the single bus configuration. Incoming and outgoing lines, transformers and shunt
capacitor banks are shown connected to the bus. The connections are achieved through circuit breakers
(CBs), circuit switchers, and motor/manually-operated disconnecting switches. This scheme is
routinely used in distribution voltage levels less than 161 kV. A normally opened (N.O.) bypass switch
is used to keep the CB line circuit energized. However, to perform CB maintenance, one should isolate
the CB and its disconnecting switches, as well as the relays and the control equipment by operating the
bypass switch in the closed mode (after opening the CB). It should be mentioned here that this circuit
is no longer protected and any fault occurring in this circuit requires the main CB (incoming line CB)
to be opened and hence a complete substation outage.

In c o m in g L in e

CB

B us

N .O . b y p a s s
s w itc h
D is c o n n e c tin g s w itc h

O u tg o in g L in e c irc u its

Fig. 1 Single-bus scheme

3.2 Sectionalized Single (Radial) Bus Scheme


This scheme is the modification of the single bus scheme. It consists of two single bus schemes
connected by a normally opened (N.O.) or normally closed (N.C.) sectionalizing switch or bus tie CB
as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, circuits supplying the same loads and energized from the same source

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

have to be divided between different sections. The range of operation of voltage level and location is
similar to that of the radial scheme. In addition, CB bypass switches can be used.

I n c o m in g L in e I n c o m in g L in e

CB B u s - T ie CB
CB
B us 1 B us 2

N .O . b y p a s s
s w itc h
D is c o n n e c tin g
s w itc h

O u tg o in g L in e c ir c u its

Fig. 2 Sectionalized single-bus scheme

3.3 Main-And-Transfer Bus Scheme


Fig. 3 presents the main-and-transfer bus scheme. It consists of main and transfer buses connected
through a N.O. transfer CB. Its operation voltage level and location is similar to that of the radial
scheme.

In c o m in g lin e

M a in b u s

N .O .

T ra n s fe r
N .O .
CB

N .O . T ra n s fe r s w itc h
N .O . N .O . N .O .

T ra n s fe r b u s

O u tg o in g lin e c irc u its

Fig. 3 Main-and-transfer bus scheme

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3.4 Double Bus-Single Breaker Scheme


Fig. 4 clarifies the double bus-single breaker scheme. This scheme is the modification of the
sectionalized single bus scheme where two buses are connected through a tie breaker. It has the same
voltage range and location as of the sectionalized single bus schemes. Each circuit can be connected to
one bus through CB and disconnecting switches.

Bus 1

N .O .

Bus
N .O . tie
b re a k e r
N .O .

Bus 2 N .O .

O u tg o in g lin e

Fig. 4 Double bus-single breaker scheme

3.5 Ring Bus Scheme


In this scheme several sectionalized single bus schemes (named position) are connected in a series as
shown in Fig. 5. It is limited to a maximum of eight positions. In the case of occurrence of bus or
circuit fault, one position is disconnected through its CB. In the case of CB operation failure two
positions are disconnected. Each line is equipped by a disconnecting switch. To make preparations for
this line to go out of service: the two CBs are opened first; then the line disconnecting switch is
opened; following that the two CBs are closed. This scheme is used in 115-345 kV voltage range and
when high reliability is required.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

L in e L in e

L in e L in e

Fig. 5 Ring bus scheme

3.6 Breaker-And-A-Half Scheme


In this scheme each circuit has its own CB and shares one CB with another circuit (one and one-half
CB) as shown in Fig. 6. A CB failure connecting a bus and circuit causes this circuit to be out of
service. A CB operation failure between two circuits causes these two circuits to be out of service. This
scheme is utilized for voltages greater than 230 kV and in locations which require high reliability.

L in e L in e

B us 1

T ie
b re a k e r

B us 2

L in e L in e

Fig. 6 Breaker-and-a-half scheme

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3.7 Double Bus-Double Breaker Scheme


For this scheme each circuit has two CBs to connect to either one of the two buses as shown in Fig. 7.
Each circuit has two CBs. Therefore, only the faulted circuit is disconnected. Furthermore, for a
faulted bus no circuit is disconnected. A CB failure to operate in case of a faulted bus causes only one
circuit to be out of service.
I n c o m in g I n c o m in g
L in e 1 L in e 2

B us 1

B us 2

O u tg o in g L in e c ir c u its

Fig. 7 Double bus-double breaker scheme

Table 1 Comparison between different bus switching schemes

Bus switching scheme Advantages Drawbacks

-Simplest to operate and to install -Least system reliability


protective relaying
-Least system flexibility for operation
-Lowest cost and the least land area and maintenance
requirement
-Complete substation outages in case of
Single (radial) bus
bus fault or CB failure

-Requires complete substation shutdown


for bus extension

-Used to supply non-critical loads or in


case of other supply existence.

-A CB (other than tie CB) failure causes -More complex in operation and
an outage only in its sectionalized section protection. More expensive than the

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radial scheme
Sectionalized single (radial) - Low required land area
bus scheme
-More reliable, flexible and easier to
expand than the radial scheme

-Small land area requirement -Higher cost as it requires a bus transfer


CB
-Easier for expansion
-Increased complexity of operation and
-More flexible in operation and
protection especially in a CB
maintenance requirement
Main-and-transfer bus maintenance situation
scheme -Low cost
-No reliability improvement
-CB can be easily removed for
-Complete substation shutdown in case
maintenance
of bus or any CB failure

-Loads can be connected on either bus to -Switching circuits between buses is


balance the load and source manual and not automatic

-All loads can be connected to one bus in -More expensive (One tie breaker and
case of outage or maintenance on the other four disconnecting switches per circuit)
bus
-More complex protection model than
Double bus-single breaker -Critical loads can be separated that of the sectionalized single bus
scheme
scheme
-Flexible operation with two buses
-A complete substation outage occurs in
case of tie breaker failure

-Low cost -More complex protection relaying

Ring bus -High reliability and flexible CB -The ring is separated into two sections
maintenance and operation in case of CB failure during another
CBs maintenance
-Any CB can be disconnected for
maintenance without circuit outage

-Easily expandable

-Each circuit is fed through two CBs

-Any CB can be removed for maintenance -Large required land area


without any circuit outage
-High cost (one and half CB is required
-Either bus can be out for maintenance per circuit)
without affecting the operation
- Complex protection relaying
Beaker-and-a-half scheme
-Bus failure does not cause a circuit

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outage

-Most reliable and flexible operation

-Ease for expansion

-Flexibility in operation and maintenance -The most expensive

Double bus-double breaker -Higher reliability -For a CB failure a loss of half the
scheme circuit could occur if circuits are not
connected to both buses

Table. 2 shows a summary of the different types of substation bus schemes and their possible operating
voltages.

Table. 2 Bus schemes and their applied voltage

Substation voltage level in kV


Substation bus configuration
69 115 138 161 230 345 500

Single and Sectionalized single (radial) bus


X X X
scheme

Main-and-transfer bus scheme X X X

Double bus-single breaker scheme X X X

Ring bus X X X X X X X

Beaker-and-a-half scheme X X X X X X

Double bus-double breaker scheme X X X X X X

4. Substation Reliability Service


High reliability service for the distribution substation is insured by implementing many design and
operation practice in the construction of these substations. The first design practice is the reliability of
the buswork as discussed in the previous section. The second aspect is the selection of transformers
ratings and numbers. Most substations have two or more transformers to provide contingency support
in the event of a transformer outage for improved reliability. The third aspect is the combined high
side/transformer/low side connections which also have to be flexible as well as reliable. Such
connections are shown in Fig. 8 below.

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Fig. 8 High side- Transformer- Low side connections for distribution substations [7]

Fig. 8 illustrates many of the common electric connections used in distribution substation and in
general the switching and the protection/segmentation provided by the high side configuration in
conjunction with transformers determine to a large extend the overall reliability of the substation.

Table 3 shows two case studies for the substation reliability analysis with their relative costs as
reported by Willis [7].

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Table 3 Two case studies for reliability analysis for distribution substation
Case 1 Case 2
115 kV/25 kV, 31 MVA peak 115 kV/13 kV, 35 MVA peak
Situation Ave. 16 mile exposure on both Ave. 2.3 mile exposure on both
incoming transmission routes incoming transmission routes
8,300 customers. 9,100 customers.
Configuration Cost Voltage Freq. Duration Cost Voltage Freq. Duration
Radial/one trans. $4,400 .96 .73 112 1,735 1.00 .25 20
A $7,200 .95 .18 28 $2,200 1.00 .07 5
B $7,600 .95 .18 28 $2,500 1.00 .07 5
C $7,400 .95 .18 28 $2,300 1.00 .07 5
D $7,700 .98 .10 15 $2,600 1.03 .05 4
E $7,900 .98 .07 12 $2,800 1.03 .03 2
F $7,900 .98 .07 12 $2,800 1.03 .03 2

5. The Constant Factor k


The constant factor K is used to calculate the percentage voltage drop along the cable. This constant
K is defined as percentage VD/KVA-mi, and is given for various voltages and copper conductor
sizes. This constant can be obtained from standard curves such as the one shown in Fig. 9 or
analytically.

5.1 K constant curves


Fig. 9 provides the constant K for three phase overhead lines with equivalent spaces of 37 inches
between conductor phases.

5.2 Analytical Method (Constant K Derivation)


For the main primary feeder shown in Fig. 10, the feeders effective impedance is calculated based on
the load type as follows:

a) The load is lumped at the feeder end:


Z z l /p h a s e (1)
Where; z is the three-phase main line impedance ( / (mi . phase)) and l is the main feeder
length (mi).

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Fig. 9 K constant curves for copper conductors with 0.9 lagging power factor [1]

b) The load is uniformly distributed along the main feeder:


1
Z z l /p h a s e (2)
2

c) The load is increasing linearly along the main feeder:


2
Z z l /p h a s e (3)
3

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

I P, Q

L oad
Z = R + jX P r, Q r

Vs Vr
l

Fig. 10 A three-phase primary main feeder

Following Fig. 10:


Vr Vr 0
o
V

VS VS
o
V

Ir Ir I
o
A

The power angle (lagging):


V I I
o o o o

The pu voltage regulation:


VS Vr
V R pu .
Vr

VS Vr
% V R pu . 1 0 0 (4)
Vr

1 0 0 V R pu .

The pu voltage drop:


VS Vr
V D pu .
Vb

VS Vr
% V D pu . 1 0 0 (5)
Vb

1 0 0 V D pu .

Where, Vb is the base voltage.

VS Vr I Z

V S (c o s j s in ) V r I (c o s j s in ) ( R j X ) (6)

R X, 0 4 , s in 0, cos
o
1 in a d is trib u tio n c irc u it

V S V r I R c o s I X s in (7)

I R c o s I X s in
V D pu . (8)
Vb

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Pr j Q r V r I
*

Pr j Q r (9)
I
Vr

By substituting equation (28) into equation (26):


R Pr X Q r
VS Vr (10)
V r V b

R Pr X Q r
V D pu . (11)
V r V b

Where values in equation (30) can be either pu or SI units.


1
S s ( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )
3
3
V D pu pu. V
V b V r

V D pu s K S s K Sn pu. V
3
(12)
1
( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )
3
& K = V D p u /k V A m i
V b V r

f ( c o n d u c to r s iz e , s p a c in g , c o s a n d V b )

Or in percentage:
% V D pu s K S 1 0 0 s K S n 1 0 0 pu. V
3

1
( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 ) (13)
3
& K = 1 0 0 V D p u /( k V A m i)
V b V r

Where s (in unit length) is the effective main feeder length depending on the load type.
Therefore:
i- s l for lumped-sum load at the end of the feeder.
1
ii- s l for uniform distributed load along the feeder.
2

2
iii- s l for linearly increasing distributed load along the feeder.
3

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6. Distribution Substation Rating


Distribution system engineers can satisfy the load increase by the following two options; which can be
implemented separately or combined:

a) Expanding an existing substation (increasing the substation capacity) to serve the same service
area (constant area but with increased loading).
b) Building new substations (adding new substation capacity) while keeping the existing
substation (with its original capacity) to serve its load. The rest of the loads are to be served by
the new substations.

6.1 Iterative Method


In order to supply the new loads in both alternatives, one has to be able to determine the substation
rating. There are several techniques that are available in the literatures [3-5] that can be used to
determine substation rating, service areas and number of feeders. The simplest and the most commonly
used one is the technique that is based on the geometrical shape of the substation service area [4, 5].
The output of this technique will be the substation rating, number of outgoing primary and the
maximum voltage drops on the feeder. The input of this technique is the geometrical shape of the
service area, the electric loading and the substation operating voltage. In some cases this technique is
used to determine also the operating substation voltage and the shape of the substation service area.
This can be done by first assuming these two parameters as an input (known values) and then after
calculating the output one can use experience, engineering judgement, historical data, etc. and
modified the input values accordingly. This process can be iteratively carried out until satisfying
results are obtained. In the following the basic steps for executing this technique is summarized.

1) The first step is to assume the simplest geometrical shape of the service area; i.e. a square
substation service area. Accordingly one can assume that there are four three-phase primary
distributions feeders responsible to serve this area from a common central feed point as shown
in Fig. 11. Aggregated three-phase balanced loads are represented on the feeders and lateral,
where distribution transformers exist. The voltage drop calculated from the feed point m to the
end of last lateral point w is given by equation (14). However, this equation can be simplified
by equation (15).

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

A4

C e n tr a l f e e d p o in t m
O n e f e e d e r m a in
L4 2 /3 L 4

F e e d e r lo a d c e n te r
( 2 /3 f e e d e r m a in le n g th )

D is tr ib u tio n tr a n s f o r m e r

L a te r a l la s t p o in t w F e e d e r m a in la s t p o in t t

Fig. 11 Square shape distribution substation service area [5]

% V D m w % V D m t % V D tw (14)

As shown in Fig. 11, the feeders service load is given by equation (15):
S 4 A4 D L 4 D
2
(15)

Where, S4 represents the feeders KVA loading; L4 is the dimensional primary feeder-service

areas length in mi; A4 is the primary feeder service area in mi2 ; and D is the load density in
KVA/ mi2.

By assuming uniform distributed loads (equal loading and distances), the voltage drop in the
primary main feeder is given by equation (16). It is assumed that the total load is aggregated
and placed at a point at 2/3 of the main feeder length from the centre point m.
Cable manufacturers provide curves that relate to the following:

1. The cable size and type


2. System voltage level
3. Power factor

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2
% V D 4 , m a in L4 K S 4 (16)
3

By substituting equation (15) into equation (16), equation (17) is obtained:


% V D 4 , m a in 0 .6 6 7 K D L 4
3
(17)

Equation (17) calculates the maximum voltage drop along the feeder. For a given substation
data (substation voltage and substation area) if this maximum voltage drop is within the limits,
then the rating of the substation is 4 S4 and the number of feeders are 4 and the maximum
voltage drop is %VD4,main . For the case where the calculated maximum voltage drop exceeds
the limits or the substation service area doesnt match geometrically the square shape then we
will go to step 2.

2) In this step, a hexagonal shape service area is assumed in which the substation loads are
supplied by six feeders from a feed point at the center of the substation service area as shown in
Fig. 12.

A6

C e n tr a l f e e d p o in t m
O n e f e e d e r m a in
L6 2 /3 L 6

F e e d e r lo a d c e n te r
( 2 /3 f e e d e r m a in le n g th )

D is tr ib u tio n tr a n s f o r m e r

L a te r a l la s t p o in t w F e e d e r m a in la s t p o in t t

Fig. 12 Hexagonal shape distribution substation service area [5]

Similar to the square shaped service area, the following equations can be derived.

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L6
S 6 A6 D L 6 D 0 .5 7 8 D L 6
2
(18)
3

2
% V D 6 , m a in L 6 K S 6 0 .3 8 5 K D L 6
3
(19)
3

Again, based on the maximum voltage drop calculations one can determine the rating and the size
of the distribution substation. In this case if the %VD6,main is within the limit, then the rating of the
substation is 6 S6 and the number of feeders are 6 and the maximum voltage drop is %VD6,main .
For the case where the calculated maximum voltage drop exceeds the limits or the substation
service area doesnt match geometrically the square shape then we will go to step 3.

3) In this step a general case of geometrical shape is considered where n feeders will feed the
substation service area as shown in Fig. 13. It assumes that each primary feeder is serving a
triangular shape of the service area. The differential loading for a differential area is give by
equation (20):

dA
F e e d e r m a in
m t

y

x dx

L6

Fig. 13 General distribution substation service area shape [5]

dS D dA (20)

According to the shape shown in Fig. 13, the following relations can be derived:

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y
ta n
x dx (21)
y ( x d x ) ta n x ta n

Therefore the total feeders service area and loading is given in equations (22 and 23):
Ln Ln Ln
An dA 2 y dx 2 x d x ta n L n ta n
2
(22)
x0 x0 x0

Ln Ln
Sn dS D d A D L n ta n
2
(23)
x0 x0

Similar to equations (16 and 19), equation (24) is obtained:


2 2 2
% V D n , m a in Ln K S n L n K D L n ta n K D L n ta n
2 3
(24)
3 3 3

From Figure 12:


n 2 360 n 3 (25)

Substituting equation (25) into equation (24), equation (26) can be obtained:
2 360
% V D n , m a in K D L n ta n n 3
3
(26)
3 2n

However for n = 1:
1
% V D 1 , m a in K D L1
3
(27)
2

For n = 2:
1
% V D 2 , m a in K D L2
3
(28)
2

Equation (26) is considered the general equation to calculate the voltage drop along the main
feeder. A comparison between four and six primary feeders is discussed in Table 4, where VL-L
is the feeders line to line voltage.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Table 4 Comparison between four and six feeders service area characteristics
n=4 n=6
The feeder service area (A) L4
2
1
L6
2

The substation service area (TA) 4 L4


2
6
L6
2

The feeder service area loading (S) D L4


2
1
D L6
2

The substation service area loading (TS) 4 D L4


2
6
D L6
2

% V D m a in 2 2
K D L4 K D L6
2 3

3 3 3

The load current in main feeder (I) S4 D L4


2
S6 D L6
2

I4 I6
3 V L L 3 V L L 3 V L L 3 V L L

Based on the comparison shown in Table 4, the relation between four and six feeder service
areas can be discussed under two different assumptions:

a) Assuming equal feeders thermal capacity and neglecting the voltage drop for a given
conductor size:
I4 I6

D L6
2
D L4
2


3 V L L 3 V L L

2
L6
3 (29)
L4

Also,
6
D L6
2
2
T A6 3 3 L6 3
2
(30)
T A4 4 L4 2 L4 2

Therefore, the six-feeder can hold up to 3/2 of the total load of the four-feeder for the same
conductor thermal capacity.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

b) Assume equal feeders percentage voltage drop and thermal capacity for a given conductor
size:
% VD4 % VD6

0 .6 6 7 K D L 4 0 .3 8 5 K D L 6
3 3

L 4 0 .8 3 3 L 6 (31)

Also,
6
D L6
2
2
T A6 3 3 L6 5
2
(32)
T A4 4 L4 2 L4 4

Hence, the six-feeder can hold up to 5/4 of the total load of the four-feeder for the same
conductor percentage voltage drop.

In this case, if the calculated voltage drop satisfies the limit, then the substation rating is n
Sn and the number of primary feeders going out of the substation is n and the voltage drop
is %VDn,main.

6.2 Substation Application Curves


Reps [4,5] used the results of step three in section 6.1 and put it in a general form in two equations (33)
[5] and (34) [4, 5] as shown below.
2
Ln K n D An
3
% VDn (33)
n


3
2
2 K
TSn 3
% VDn (34)
3 ta n
n2 D

Where 2/3 Ln is the effective primary feeder length, An is the area served by the nth. primary feeder,
TSn is the total supplied KVA (TSn = n . D . An) and D is the load density.

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Reps in [4] used equations (33) and (34) and constructed family of curves that relates the substation
rating, number of feeders and the maximum voltage drop at the end of the feeder to the substation
voltage rating and the size of the service area. He called these curves distribution substation
application curves [1, 4, 5].

These distribution substation application curves are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. In constructing these
curves, the following assumptions are made:

1. AWG #4/0 and #4 three-phase copper conductors are used in primary-main feeders and laterals
respectively.
2. The equivalent phase conductor spacing is 37 inches with 0.9 lagging power factor.

In general these substation application curves link: load density (D), substation service area (A)
substation loading (TS), primary feeders voltage (V) number of feeders (n), and allowable feeder
loading (Sn). In addition, the given curves are developed for five primary-feeder voltage levels and a
two percentage maximum voltage drop. In these curves the limit for thermal loading of the feeder is
identified.

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Fig. 14 Distribution Substation application curves for %VD=3 [5]

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Fig. 15 Distribution Substation application curves for %VD=6 [5]

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

7. Numerical examples
This section introduces several examples to familiarize the reader with the derived formulas in this
lecture:

Example 1:
Fig. 16 shows a three-phase 4.16 kV wye-grounded feeder,
r 1 .5 0 3 / m i , x 0 .7 4 5 6 / m i , V r V b 2 4 0 0 V

Determine K constant of the main feeder:


a- By applying equation (31).
b- By using the K constant curves.

I P, Q
k V L - L = 4 .1 6
L oad
Z = R + jX P r, Q r = 5 0 0 k V A , 0 .9 p f la g
Vs Vr
s = l = 1 mi

#4 copper, D m = 3 7 "

Fig. 16 Primary- main feeder

Solution:
a. By applying equation (12).

1
( r c o s x s in ) ( 1 0 0 0 )
3
K pu
V b V r

1
(1 .5 0 3 0 .9 0 .7 4 5 6 0 .4 3 5 9 ) ( 1 0 0 0 )
3
=
2400 2400
0 .0 0 0 1 V D p u /(k V A m i) = 0 .0 1 % V D /(k V A m i)

b- By using the K constant curves.

From Fig. 17, K = 0 .0 1 % V D /( k V A m i)

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Therefore the calculated K value is the same of that obtained from the K curves.

Fig. 17 K constant curves

Example 2:
Calculate the substation design parameters for the following substation input data
Given:
1- A load density (D) of 500 kVA/mi2
2- Substation voltage 13.2/22.9 kV
3- Substation rating (TS) of 40MVA
4- 3 % voltage drop

Determine:
1- Substation service area (TA)

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

2- Substation outgoing feeders number (n)

Solution:

From Fig. 18:

1- Substation service area (TA) = 80 mi2

2- Substation outgoing feeders number (n) = 6

Fig. 18 The substation application curve under study

Example 3:
For the substation application curves shown in Fig. 14 and 15, and the data given in Table 5,
determine:

a- The substation sizes, the required number of feeders and check whether the feeders are
thermally limited (TL) or voltage drop limited (VDL).
b- If the feeders are thermally loaded (TL), check if it is the #4/0 AWG copper main or the #4
AWG copper lateral that TL is using in Table 6.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Table 5 Cases under study

Case Load density Substation area Maximum total Feeders base


2 2
# D (kVA/mi ) coverage TAn (mi ) primary feeder %VD voltageVb (kVL-L)

1 3
500 6
2 6

3 3
2,000 3 4.16
4 6

5 3
10,000 1
6 6

7 3
2,000 15 13.2
8 6

Table 6 Feeders AWG and their ampacity

Feeders AWG Feeders ampacity (A)

AWG #6 130

AWG #5 150

AWG #4 180

AWG #1 270

4/0 480

Solution:
a- The total substation kVA in case 1 (in Table 5) is given by:
T S n D T An 5 0 0 6 3 0 0 0 k V A

From the first graph in Fig. 18, the following information can be obtained: 3 percentage voltage
drop, 4.16 kV line voltage, 3000 kVA substation loading, 500 kVA/mi2 load density and 6 mi2
substation service area.

From Fig. 19 we can deduce that the number of required feeders is 3.8 which is rounded to 4.

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

In addition, the point of intersection is left of the thermal loading limit of feeders curve,
therefore, the feeders are VDL (voltage drop limited).

Fig. 19 Distribution Substation application curves for %VD=3

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Repeating the same process, Table 7 can be obtained. It is to be noted that cases 6 and 8 are TL
(thermally limited) feeders since the intersection points are located to the right of the thermal
loading limit curves.
Table 7 Cases under study solution

Case
Substation size TSn (kVA) Required feeders number n Limits
#

1 3.8 (4)
3,000
2 2

3 5 VDL
6,000
4 3

5 5
10,000
6 4 TL

7 5.85 (6) VDL


30,000
8 5 TL

b- For cases 6 and 8, the feeders are TL, therefore according to Table 6, the feeder ampacity of a #4/0
copper main and a #4 copper lateral are 480 A and 180 A respectively.

For case 6:
TSn 10, 000 kV A
Sn 2, 500 kV A
n 4
Sn 2500 kV A
I 3 4 7 .4 A
3 V L L 3 4 .1 6 k V

The lateral conductor has a load current greater than its ampacity so it is TL. However, the main
feeder ampacity is greater than the load current so it is not TL.

For case 8:
TSn 30, 000 kV A
Sn 6, 000 kV A
n 5
6000 kV A
I 2 6 2 .4 A
3 1 3 .2 k V

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Lecture 6: Distribution Substation Design ECE6606PD M.M.A. Salama

Similar to case 6, the lateral conductor has a load current greater than its ampacity so it is TL.
However, the main feeder ampacity is greater than the load current so it is not TL.

References:
[1] T. Gnen, Electric Power Distribution System Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986.

[2] Beaty, H. Wayne, Electric power distribution systems: a non-technical guide, Tulsa, Okla.:
PennWell, 1998.

[3] Van Warme, F.C.: Some Aspects of Distribution Load Area Geometry, AIEE Trans., December
1954, pp. 1343-1349.

[4] Denton, W. J., and D. N. Reps: Distribution Substation and Primary Feeder Planning, AIEE
Trans., June 1955, pp. 484-499.

[5] Westinghouse Electric Corporation: Electric Utility Engineering Reference Book- Distribution
Systems, vol. 3, East Pittsburgh, Pa., 1965.

[6] J.R. Lusby, Fundamental concepts in substation design, Rural Electric Power Conference, 1993.
Papers Presented at the 37th Annual Conference, 25-27 April 1993, pp. D2/1 - D225.

[7] H.L. Willis, Power distribution reference book, Marcel Dekker, INC, 1997.

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