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# Name of Student: Chan Yin Wing Stacey

Teacher: Mr Ng

## Experiment to investigate the

Time --/ rate
Assessment is about rates of reaction

To investigate how does having different surface area of magnesium affect the rate of
reaction.

## LABORATORY REPORT MYP 5

Investigation Question -Bi
How does having different surface area of magnesium affect the rate of reaction?

## Background to the Investigation question -Bi

The aim of this experiment is to investigate how does having different surface area of magnesium affects the
rate of reaction.
The rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction happens. The rate of reaction depends on the type
of molecules combined. In accordance to the Collision Theory, the more frequently particles collide, the more
combinations of molecules bouncing into each other. If there are more possible combinations, there would be a
higher chance that the molecules will complete the reaction. As a result, the reaction would occur faster. In
other words, the rate of reaction increases when more collisions occur.
In addition, the rate of reaction could be affected by four factors, including concentration and surface area of
the reactant, the temperature of the surroundings and the catalyst.
In this experiment, the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid was used to investigate how the
change in surface area of magnesium affects the rate of reaction. In order to obtain different surface area,
different forms of magnesium (in form of solid and powder) with the same mass were used.
During the experiment, magnesium reacted with acid rapidly to form magnesium chloride, while liberating
hydrogen gas, as shown in the the equation below:
2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) => MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
In order to determine the rate of reaction, we recorded the amount of time that different forms of magnesium
used to produce 60 cm3 of hydrogen gas.
After collecting the results, we calculated the rate of reaction of both forms of magnesium. The rate of reaction
can be calculated by measuring the speed at which a reactant is used up or the speed at which a product is
formed, as shown in the equation below:

Therefore, the rate of reaction could be measuring the volume of hydrogen produced at regular time intervals.

Hypothesis Bii
We predicted that the rate of reaction of powdered magnesium would be greater than that of magnesium ribbon.

It is given that the surface area of powdered magnesium is greater than magnesium ribbon. As mentioned in my
research, the more collisions occur, the greater the rate of reaction. In fact, having a larger surface area would
provide a greater binding surface for other reacting molecules, which increases the number of successful
collisions. Therefore, we predict powdered magnesium would react faster than magnesium ribbon.

Below is a table about the collisions involved during the reaction between both forms of magnesium and
hydrochloric acid, based on the Collision Theory:
Form Magnesium ribbon Powdered magnesium
Diagram

Explanation In solid form, magnesium atoms are closely The same number of magnesium atoms would
packed together. Hence, hydrogen atoms could split into smaller bits, leading to a greater
only hit the outer layer of the atoms but not the surface area. Thus, the hydrogen atoms could
centre of the magnesium ribbon. This would collide with magnesium atoms easily, largely
reduce the number of possible collisions. increasing the number of successful
collisions.

Due to its greater surface area, it is seen that collisions occur more frequently in powdered magnesium than
magnesium ribbon. Therefore, we predict that the rate of reaction of powdered magnesium would be greater
than magnesium ribbon.

VariablesBiii

## Independent variable The surface area of magnesium

Unit(s) of IV cm2

Range of IV measured Two different forms of magnesium(solid and powder form) were used in
order to change the surface area.

Describe and explain Although its surface area should be different, the masses of both forms of
the procedure to magnesium should be equivalent.Thus, 0.02 grams of magnesium ribbon and
change the powdered magnesium were used.
independent variable.

Dependent variable The duration of the reaction. By using a stopwatch, we recorded the time
taken for magnesium to produce 60 cm3 of hydrogen gas.

Unit(s) of DV minutes

## Unit(s) of DV cm3 of hydrogen/ minutes

Describe and explain The rate of reaction is calculated by the following equation:
the procedure to
calculate the derived
variable.
Therefore, the rate of reaction could be determined by collecting and
measuring the volume of hydrogen produced at regular intervals.
Controlled variable Explain why it matters to Procedure to control it
the investigation.

Describe and explain The concentration of The concentration of 1.0M hydrochloric acid
the procedure to hydrochloric acid hydrochloric acid would was used to dissolve
control other variables affect the rate of reaction, magnesium.
in the investigation. since metals react slower
with dilute hydrochloric
acid but much faster if the
acid is concentrated.

## The mass of Magnesium was used to An electronic balance

magnesium react with hydrochloric was used to control the
acid. If a higher mass of mass of the magnesium
magnesium is used in one to 0.02 grams.
trial than another, it may
affect the rate of reaction
as it would take a longer
time for magnesium to
dissolve.

## The length of The size of magnesium 3cm of magnesium

magnesium ribbon would determine its ribbon was used each
surface area. Thus, by trial. The length was
using the same length of accurately measured by
magnesium ribbon would a ruler.
ensure that the surface area
of the magnesium ribbon is
constant.

## Temperature The temperature of the All reactions were

surroundings may affect conducted at room
the taken for the reaction temperature.
to complete.

## Materials / Equipment ListBiv

- 5 pieces of 3cm magnesium ribbons
- 0.1 grams of powdered magnesium
- 20 ml of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid
- A 1x100 beaker
- A 150 ml measuring cylinder
- A glass trough
- A delivery tube
- A spatula
- A stopper
- A pair of forceps
- A trial balance
- Distilled water
- A rubber bung

## Risk Assessment Biv

Safety issue Reasons that you have Safety precautions Emergency/ Treatment
to consider the safety
issue

## Powdered Since it is highly We should keep a distance If the solution is stained

magnesium is reactive, some of the when the reaction is on our skin or clothing,
highly reactive with solution may spill out of taking place. We should we should immediately
hydrochloric acid. the conical flask. also wear safety goggles wash the affected area
in order to protect our under running water.
eyes.

## Hydrochloric acid is If hydrochloric acid is We should handle it with We should immediately

stained on our skin, it care and avoid it from wash our hands under
corrosive
may be damaged. touching our skin. running water if
hydrochloric acid is
stained on it.

## Magnesium chloride A small amount of We should handle it We should wash the

is irritant. magnesium chloride carefully and avoid direct affected area with soap
could also bring a contact with it. and also a large amount of
corrosive effect to us. water until the chemical is
removed.

Method / ProcedureBiv
1. Lab coats and safety coats were worn. Essential tools and materials were prepared too.
2. The length of one piece of magnesium ribbon was measured with a ruler and recorded.
3. By using the trial balance,the mass of a piece of magnesium ribbon was measured in gram and recorded.
4. An equivalent mass of powdered magnesium was placed onto the trial balance for measurement.
5. 20ml of 1M hydrochloric acid was measured with the measuring cylinder and was transferred into a
100ml conical flask by a dropper.
6. The glass trough was filled up about half full with tap water.
7. The measuring cylinder was filled up with water fully. Then, it was flipped and placed into the water
bath straight.
8. The rubber bung was connected with the measuring cylinder.
9. By using a pair of forceps, a piece of magnesium ribbon was immersed into the hydrochloric acid.
10. The conical flask was closed with the rubber bung immediately and the stopwatch was started.
11. The stopwatch was stopped when 60 cm3 of hydrogen gas was produced in the measuring cylinder
12. The duration was recorded and the stopwatch was reseted.
13. The water remained in the measuring cylinder was poured away and was refilled with new water.
14. Steps 7 to 13 were repeated by replacing magnesium ribbon with powdered magnesium.
15. The experiment was replicated four times.
Below is a diagram that shows the apparatus setup of the experiment:

Results - Ci
The duration needed for different surface areas of magnesium to produce 60 cm3 of hydrogen gas
Duration(minutes)
Different surface area Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Average
of magnesium

## Magnesium ribbon 1.72 2.15 2.80 4.05 4.65 4.00

Red= outlier
The data obtained from trial 1 and 2 were outliers, as we determined the wrong dependent variable for those
two trials. In trial 1 and 2, we recorded the duration needed for the magnesium chloride to dissolve in
hydrochloric acid, but not the time used to produce 60 cm3 of hydrogen. Thus, the data obtained in those two
trials were incorrect and therefore been rejected.

Quantitative Observations-Ci
During the reaction, magnesium dissolved in hydrochloric acid to form magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.
Since hydrogen gas bubbles were produced, the gas pressure forces water out of the measuring cylinder,
causing water level in the cylinder to decrease. The most rapid gas bubbles were seen when powdered
magnesium was reacting with hydrochloric acid.
(Observing the change in water level in the measuring cylinder)
Processed data- Ci
The table shows how changing the surface area of magnesium affects its duration to produce 60 cm3 of
hydrogen in average and its rate of reaction:
Different surface area of The duration needed to produce 60 cm3 of The rate of reaction
magnesium hydrogen in average(minutes) (hydrogen/ minute)

Powdered magnesium
= 1.52
=39.5

Magnesium ribbon
= 4.0
= 15

Graph- Ci

Conclusion - Cii
From the results obtained above, it is seen that having a higher surface area of magnesium would increase the
rate of reaction. According to the process data obtained, powdered magnesium used 1.52 minutes to produce
60 cm3 of hydrogen, which is shorter than that of magnesium ribbon, which used 4 minutes to produce the same
amount of hydrogen. In addition, according to the graph, the red line which represents powdered magnesium is
steeper than the blue line. As the rate of reaction is indicated by the gradient of the graph, this proved that
powdered magnesium has a greater reaction rate than magnesium ribbon. Due to the reasons above, it is seen
that having a higher surface area of magnesium would increase the rate of reaction. Referring to my hypothesis,
we predicted that the reaction rate of powdered magnesium would be greater than magnesium ribbon.
Therefore, my hypothesis is correct.

## Explanation of results Cii

Due to its greater surface area, powdered magnesium has a greater rate of reaction than magnesium ribbon.
According to the Collision Theory, the more successful collisions, the greater the rate of reaction. As a solid
form, magnesium ribbon has a smaller surface area which reduces the occurrence of successful collisions. On
the other hand, since powdered magnesium has a greater surface area, collisions would occur more frequently,
leading to a higher chance of completing the reaction. Therefore, powdered magnesium has a greater rate of
reaction than magnesium ribbon.

## Evaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii

My hypothesis is valid as it was similar to the results of the experiment. Referring to my hypothesis, we
predicted that the reaction rate of powdered magnesium would be greater than that of magnesium ribbon as it
has a shorter reaction time. According to the results above, it is seen that powdered magnesium reacts quicker
than magnesium ribbon as powdered magnesium only used 1.52 minutes to produce 60 cm3 of hydrogen, while
magnesium ribbon, which used 4 minutes to produce the same amount of hydrogen. Besides, based on the
processed data, the rate of reaction of powdered magnesium is 39.5 cm3 hydrogen/ minute, which is much
greater than that of magnesium ribbon, which has a reaction rate of 15 cm3 hydrogen/minute. Hence, the results
of the experiment is similar to my hypothesis. Therefore, my hypothesis is valid.

## Evaluation - Validity of the method Civ

Was the method of the experiment appropriate to investigate the research question?

The method of this experiment was appropriate to investigate the research question. During the
experiment, different forms of magnesium were used for comparison. By comparing powdered
magnesium and magnesium ribbon, we can investigate how changing the surface area of magnesium
affects the rate of reaction.

questions.

Firstly, in order to determine the rate of reaction, we did not only just record the time used for magnesium
to dissolve but also recorded the amount of time for both forms of magnesium to produce 60 cm3 of
hydrogen. In this way, we could obtain a quantitative result rather than a qualitative result. This could
increase the accuracy of the results, which enables us to obtain a correct answer for the research question.
Moreover, we also measured the volume of hydrogen produced at regular intervals. By recording the
volume of hydrogen produced every minute, we could determine the change in reaction rate of different
forms of magnesium every now and then. Furthermore, the experiment was replicated four times. This
could increase the reliability of the results and help us answer the research question correctly.

## Problems with the experiment The effect caused by the problem

Systematic errors and random errors

The hydrochloric acid was not discarded and refilled The hydrochloric acid would become more
for some of the reactions. diluted since it had already reacted with
magnesium in the previous trials. By reusing it
again, it may affect the reactions afterwards.

The change in water level inside the measuring This may affect the accuracy of the measurement
cylinder was not observed at eye level. since it was a subjective observation.

The conical flask was not closed with the rubber The hydrogen gas produced could not be
bung immediately after the reaction happened. delivered to the cylinder on time, which affects
the measurement of the dependent variable.

My method is valid to answer my research question. In order to obtain different surface area, two
different forms of magnesium were used. In this way, I was able to compare the results of powdered
magnesium and magnesium ribbon. This enabled me to investigate how does changing the surface area
affects the rate of reaction. Besides, the methods used were able to increase the accuracy and reliability
of the results, which allowed me to answer the research question correctly. Therefore, my method is
valid to answer the research question.

## Evaluation of the Method and Suggested Improvements - Cv

State how to improve Describe how to improve Explain why the improvements would benefit
the method the experiment your investigation

The conical flask can It could be put in a trough This can maintain a constant temperature
be put in a water bath with water. throughout the experiment.
during the reaction.

Objective The change in water level of This could ensure the accuracy when measuring
observation should be the measuring cylinder the hydrogen gas produced.
carried out. should be observed by eye
level.

The oxides coating It could be cleaned by a This would reduce errors due to impurities.
on the surface of the sand paper before the
Magnesium ribbon reaction.
should be removed.

The volume of the We should measure the This could allows us to determine the change in
hydrogen gas should volume of hydrogen gas reaction rate of magnesium clearly. It also
be measured more produced every 10 seconds. provide us more data in order to obtain more
regularly. accurate results.

## Extensions to the experiment:

In order to calculate the rate of reaction of magnesium more accurately, a gas pressure sensor could be
used to measure the change in pressure inside the cylinder, instead of measuring the volume of hydrogen
produced in the measuring cylinder. By recording the change in pressure, we could obtain a more
objective quantitative observation, largely increasing the accuracy of the experiment.

Works Cited

Castle, Maria. "Rate of Reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid." ScholarAdvisor.com Online Student's
Guide in Education. N.p., 22 Apr. 2015. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.

Lawrence Kok, HS IB Science Teacher Follow. "Rate of Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Using
Vernie..." Rate of Reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Using Vernie... N.p., 21 Mar. 2011. Web. 06
Feb. 2017.

Murphy, Jack. "Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid Lab Report | Gases | Hydrogen." Scribd. Scribd, n.d. Web. 06
Feb. 2017.

Clark, Jim. "The Effect of Surface Area on Rates of Reaction." The Effect of Surface Area on Rates of Reaction.
N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2017.