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POWER

TRANSMISSION
The Beginning
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Driver Pedal

… Driver pushes on Pedal to move vehicle


… He is more concern about smooth cruising
g i.e.. Best
output
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Where Does the Force Come From?
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… Engine
g produces
p some torque,
q , at a speed
p
… Power- the rate at which work is done:
† Power is Force times Velocity (linear)
Power = (Force)(Velocity )
= (F)(V )
† Power is Torque
q times Rotational Speed
p (rotary)
( y)
Power = (Torque )(RotationalSpeed )
= (T )(ω)
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Where Does the Force Come From?
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… Power
owe iss conserved:
co se ved:
Pengine = Ptrans = Paxle = Pvehicle
POWER IS ABSOLUTE
… Torque is relative (depends on gear ratio)
Ignoring Losses, of Course

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WHAT IS POWERTRAIN MATCHING ?
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… Selecting
g the right
g engine
g and gearing
g g for a given
g application
pp
… Not just performance, but giving the driver the expected
response to pedal inputs
… Transmission shift schedules as fuel economy heavily impacted
in automotive applications.
… Powertrain Matching makes best use of your engine potential
† Torque & Power shaping can give optimal performance for
a given set of gearing
† Optimal gearing can make your car faster for no changes in
engine performance

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DRIVE TRAIN
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POWER TRAIN SYSTEM
… (1) Front driveshaft
… (2) Output transfer
gearbox
… (3) Transmission
… (4) Upper driveshaft
… (5) Torque converter
updrive transfer gears
… (6) Torque converter
… (7) Engine
… (8) Front differential
… (9) Front final drives
… (10) Centre bearing
… (11) Centre driveshaft
… (12) Rear driveshaft
… (13) Rear differential
… (14) Rear final drives

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Clutches
Connects /disconnects Engine
crankshaft to the transmission
(gear box)
Change of gears can not be
smoothh when
h the h engine
i iis di
directly
l
connected with the transmission.
T
Transmits
it the
th power to t the
th road d
wheels smoothly

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Clutches
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… Friction clutches are


design to absorb energy
during slippage.
… Virtually all vehicle
clutches are spring-
loaded friction disks.
disks
… The torque transmission capacity of a
clutch can be estimated as,

Tc = fFc rm ns
… where, Tc is the torque capacity, f is the
friction coefficient,
coefficient Fc is clamping force of
clutch, rm is the mean radius of the clutch,
and ns is the number of friction surfaces.
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Clutch should
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Consume minimum physical effort


Be free from slip
Wearing surface should have long life
Be provided a suitable mechanism for damping of
vibration and elimination of noise
Main parts of clutch
Pressure p
plate:- It p
presses the driven plate
p against
g the
flywheel
Driven plate:- Is provided with annular facings and
spring cushioned hub
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Types of clutch
The mostly used clutch is the friction type of following types
Cone clutch: is only used in the synchromesh units of gear 
boxes and sometimes in epicyclical  gear boxes
p y g
Single plate clutch:‐ Mostly used in cars and trucks
Multi‐plate clutch:‐ Mostly used in motorcycles, tractors and 
mostly construction equipment. This type of clutch is mostly
mostly construction equipment. This type of clutch is mostly 
used where high torque to be transmitted and limited space 
available
Centrifugal clutch
g
Free wheel clutch or one way clutch
Band type clutch 
Overrunning Clutch
Overrunning Clutch
Electrical clutch
Jump Clutch

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Hydrodynamics drive system
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Hydrodynamic drive system includes fluid coupling or Torque


converter. This system possesses low pressure and high velocity of
hydraulic flow.
Fluid coupling:
coupling:-
It is a hydraulic unit that replaces clutch in a semi or fully
automatic system and transmits engine torque to transmission
system
t
It consists of driving unit called impeller and driven unit called
turbine. Power flows through liquid instead of mechanical device .
Maximum efficiency is unity
Fluid coupling always slips by about 2 to 4 % when transmitting
u load
full oad

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Advantages of fluid coupling
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Smoothen transmission of power from engine to


transmission
Eli i i off clutch
Elimination l h plate
l
Damping of the torsional vibration of the
crankshaft
During braking or down hill, the transmission
shocks are absorbed by the fluid

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Torque Convertor
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Torque
q Convertor
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Torque converter basic operation
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Coupling stage:- Turbine is rotating at 90 % of the impeller


speedd
Fluid from the turbine strikes the convex side of the stator
blade causing it to overrun
Coupling stage will be high when acceleration is not required
and the equipment is cruising
At this p
point the torque
q converter is actingg like a fluid clutch
The impeller is rotating at engine speed, the turbine is
stationary and the stator is locked against rotation
As engine speed increases impeller speed accelerates
increasing vertex flow
The vertex flow strikes the turbine blades and diverted around
the curvature and strikes to the concave side of the stator
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Advantages of torque converter
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Torque converter is the fluid clutch used in the


automatic transmission of the construction equipment
It multiplies the torque
Smoothes out the transfer of engine torque to the
transmission
Acts as cushion between the engine and transmission
D
Dampens vibrations
ib ti
Virtually wear free

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Types
yp of Transmissions
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… Sliding Gear
… Constant-Mesh
Co s a Mes
… Synchromesh

… Powershift

… Hydrokinetic
H d ki i

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Mechanical transmission
36

… The engine
Th i power is
i ttransmitted
itt d tto th
the wheels
h l off
equipment through mechanical arrangements.
… It is achieved by gear mechanisms in manual gearbox
… Mostly this system is found in vehicles, trucks and light
construction equipment
Depending on the no. of gear for forward speeds and reverse
gear, power flows takes place in manual transmission system
T
Types off gear boxe
b
1. Sliding mesh type
2. Constant mesh type
3. Synchromesh type
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Mechanical transmission
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Sliding mesh type:- is oldest and simplest, meshing of gears


takes place by sliding of gears on each other. Consists of main
shaft, countershaft and idler gear shaft for reverse speed
Constant mesh type
yp :- In this g
gearbox all the gears
g mesh with
each other all the time. Gear changing is made easier by
helical gear. The primary shaft which carries the clutch is
splined
p and carries a gear
g that mesh with gears
g on the
layshaft gear
Synchromesh gearbox:- Use synchromesh gear devices on the
principle of engagement of two matting gears in motion and
equalizes their speed with readily and smoothly and the
devices used is synchronizer ring.

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Gear Design
g
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… Spur or helical gears are meshed between parallel shafts.


… Spur gears have teeth that are parallel to the shafts, while
helical g
gear teeth are angled
g with respect
p to the shafts.
… Helical gears continually transfer the load from one gear to
the other.
… Gear teeth typically have a tooth profile that is “involute”
(generated by unwrapping a string from a cylinder).
… Constant involute profiles generate constant angular
velocities.

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The Planetary Gear combinations provide
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5 basic
b i operations
i
… Gear Reduction
… Position-I
P iti I SSun gear iis held;
h ld Ring
Ri gear -input
i t
… Position-II Ring gear is held; Sun gear -input
… Overdrive
… Position-I
P i i I RiRing gear is
i held;
h ld Carrier-input
C i i
… Position-II Sun gear is held; Carrier-input
… Reverse
… Position-I Carrier is held; Ring gear-input
… Position-II Carrier is held; Sun gear-input
… Direct Drive
… Entire planetary unit works as single unit
… At a time Two units –input; one out put
… Neutral
… When no unit is held
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Powershift Transmissions
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… Can be shifted with virtually no interruption in


power.
… Types of powershift transmissions: a) countershaft,
and b) planetary.
… Hydraulic pressure is utilized to actuate the clutches.

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Fig. 12.10a Countershaft Powershift Transmission
(Hi/Lo
/ Shift)
f
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Hi/Lo
/ Powershift
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… When neither clutch is engaged, transmission is in


neutral.
… When left clutch is engaged, output shaft turns
slower than input.
… When right clutch is engaged, output shaft turns the
same speed as the input.
… When both clutches are engaged, transmission is in
‘Park.”

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Fig. 12.10b Countershaft Powershift Transmission
(Reverser)
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Reverser Powershift
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… When neither
Wh i h clutch
l h iis engaged,
d transmission
i i iis
in neutral.
… When left clutch is engaged,
engaged output shaft turns
opposite direction of the input.
… When right clutch is engaged, output shaft
turns the same direction as the input.
… When both clutches are engaged,
g g transmission
is in ‘Park.”

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Compound Planetary Transmissions
72

… Contains two set of different size planets, one


meshing with the sun and the second meshing with
the ring
g gear.
g
… May also include two sun and/or two ring gears.

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Hydrostatic transmission system
73

Basic p
power train of hydrostatic
y system
y
Actuator

Engine Hydraulic Control


pump valve Travel
motor

Basic ppower flow in hydrostatic


y drive system
y Swing motor
Like in hydraulic excavator

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