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Defects of Vision and their Correction

Introduction
The human eye is a complex organ that produces vision. However, the eye may lose its power of
accommodation. In this condition, we cannot see objects clearly since the vision becomes blurry due to the
refractive defects of the eye. Some common eye defects and their corrections are listed below.

Defects of vision
1. Myopia (nearsightedness)
- Nature: A person with myopia could see near objects clearly while distant objects appears blurred.

- Causes: This defect occurs when the focal length of the lens decreases, which causes light rays to
focus at a point in front of the retina, instead on its surface.

- Corrective measure: Myopia can be corrected by using concave lens of suitable power, which would
bring the image back onto the retina.

- Effectiveness of correction: From the social factor, eyeglasses could compensate for myopia as it helps
to create a clear vision. Yet, using concave lens cannot directly cure the defect since the blurred
distance vision returns whenever the glasses is removed.
2. Hypermetropia (farsightedness)
- Nature: A person with hypermetropia could see near objects with blurred vision, while faraway objects
appear in sharp focus.
- Causes: Farsightedness is caused by the shortness of the eyeball, when light rays from nearby objects
cannot focus onto the retina.
- Corrective measure: Farsightedness could be cured with laser surgery. The treatment could reshape
the cornea and improve its curvature, so light could focus onto the back of the eye.
- Effectiveness of correction: From the culture aspect, laser surgery is opposed to traditional surgical
techniques, since it is carried out by laser instead of an instrument, lowering the chance of infection.
Yet, the surgery may lead to mild discomfort.

3. Cataracts
- Nature: Cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces the sharpness of the image reaching the retina.
- Causes: This defect is commonly found in elders as the size of the cataracts increases through aging.
- Corrective measures: Cataracts could be treated with surgery. Throughout the treatment, the cloudy
lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lense, to restore clear vision.
- Effectiveness of correction: From the social factor, cataract surgery is one of the most effective and
safest types of surgeryHowever, this surgery may increase the risk of retinal detachment.