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TABLE OF CONTENT
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
ATOMIC STRUCTURE. .................................................................................................................... 1
CHEMICAL BONDING. .................................................................................................................... 2
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM. ............................................................................................................. 3
ACID BASE. ....................................................................................................................................... 4
IONIC EQULIBRIUM. ........................................................................................................................ 5
CHEMICAL KINETICS. ..................................................................................................................... 6
OXIDATION-REDUCTION. .............................................................................................................. 7
VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS. .................................................................................................................... 8
MOLE CONCEPT............................................................................................................................................ 9
CHEMICAL ENERGETICS. ............................................................................................................. 9 - 10
ELECTRO CHEMISTRY .............................................................................................................................. 11
SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES. ........................................................................ 11 - 12
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY............................................................................................................................... 12
GASEOUS STATE. ............................................................................................................................................... 13
SOLID AND LIQUID STATE. ............................................................................................................................14
SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE.................................................................................... 15

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
PERIODIC TABLE. ..................................................................................................................................16
EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY ....................................................................................................................17
s- BLOCK ELEMENTS. .................................................................................................................... 17
BORON FAMILY............................................................................................................................................................ 18
CARBON FAMILY ......................................................................................................................................................... 18
OXYGEN FAMILY ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
HALOGEN FAMILY....................................................................................................................................................... 20 - 21
TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS). ................................................................. 21
COORDINATION COMPOUNDS. .................................................................................................... 21

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
GOC. .................................................................................................................................................... 22
ALKANES. ...........................................................................................................................................23
ALKENES. .......................................................................................................................................... 23
ALKYNES. .......................................................................................................................................... 23
HALOGEN COMPOUNDS. .............................................................................................................. 23
ALCOHOLS. ....................................................................................................................................... 24
PHENOLS. ...........................................................................................................................................24
ETHERS. .............................................................................................................................................. 25
CARBONYL COMPOUNDS. ........................................................................................................... 25
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS. ...................................................................................................................... 26
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS. ............................................................................................................. 26
CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS. .........................................................26
CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. .................... 27
IMPORTANT REAGENT .............................................................................................................................. 28 -29
MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS. .........................................................................................................29
SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS. .................................................................................................. 29
IDENTIFICATION TESTS. ................................................................................................................. 30
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Class 1

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
n
2 2 2
n h
rn 0.529 A,rn n r1
2
1. 2 2
4 mZe Z
PE Z2
ET KE 13.6 eV
2. 2 n2

hc2 2me4 1 1
3. E 2 2 2
h n1 n2
4. 1 1 1
v RZ 2 , R 1.0968107 m1
2 2
n1 n2

n(n 1)
5. Total no. of spectrum lines=
2
6. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle xp h / 4
13.7
7. Moseley's law : v a (Z b), En eV / atom
n2
8. Nodes (n -1) = total nodes, l= angular nodes, (n l 1) = Radial nodes
1
9. Photoelectric effect: hv hv0 mv
2

2
h
10. Orbital angular momentum: l(l 1)
2

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Class 2

CHEMICAL BONDING
1. % ionic character
Actual dipole moment 100
Calculated dipole moment
2. Fajan's Factors: following factors are helpful in including covalent
character in ionic compounds
(a) Small cation
(b) Big anion
(c ) High charge on cation
(d) High charge on anion
(e) Cation having pseudo inert gas configuration
(ns2p6d10) e.g. Cu+, Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+
1
3. H H H IE H E
d EG L
f S
2
4. M.O. theory:
(a) Bond order 1 N N
b a
2
(b) Higher the bond order, higher is the bond dissociation energy, greater
is the stability, and shorter is the bond length.
(c ) Species Bond order Magnetic properties
H2 1 Diamagnetic
+
H2 0.5 Paramagnetic
Li2 1 Diamagnetic
5. Q 1 V SA (q )
2
6. Former charge = V- L 1 S
2

7. VSEPR theory
(a) (LP LP) repulsion > (LP BP) > (BP BP)
(b) For NH3Bond Angle 106045' because H O 2 molecule contains 2LP
and 2BP where as NH3has ILP and 3BP.
8. Bond angle:
Decrease in bond angle down the gp is due to LP BP repulsion
(a) NH3> PH3 > AsH3
(b) H2O > H2S > H2Se

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Class 3

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

1. K p Kc( RT )? n g where ng =n p -n R

2. Free Energy change(G)

(a) If G then reversible reaction would be equilibrium.


(b) If G ve then equilibrium will displace in backward direction.
(C) If G ve then equilibrium will displace in forward direction.

3. (a) Kc unit (moles/li)n


(b) K p unit (atm)n
(c) Total molecule at equlibrium =[total initial moles +n]
(d) Time required to establish equlibrium 1 / k c
(e) If in any heterogeneous equilibrium solid substance is also
present then its active mass & partial pressure is assumed 1.

4. Le chatelier's principle
(i) Increase of reactant conc. (Shift forward)
(ii) Decrease of reactant conc. (Shift backward)
(iii) Increase of pressure (from more moles to less moles)
(iv) Decrease of pressure (from less moles to more moles)
(v) For exothermic reaction decrease in temp. (Shift forward)
(vi) For endothermic increase in temp. (Shift forward)cTime Total

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Class 4

ACID BASE

1.(a). Lewis Acid (e- pair acceptor) CO2 , BF3 , Alcl3, Zncl2, Fecl 3, PCl ,Sicl
3
,SF
4
,6 normal cation

(b). Lewis Base (e- pair donor) NH3, ROH, ROR, H2O, RNH2 , R2NH,R3N, normal anion
2. Dissociation of Weak Acid & Weak Base

(a). Weak Acid Ka = Cx2 / (1-x) or K a = Cx 2

(b).Weak Base Kb = Cx 2 / (1-x) or Kb = Cx2

3. Buffer solution:
Acidic pH pKa log{salt / Acid}for Maximum buffer action pH = pKa
(a)
Range of Buffer pH = pKa 1
(b) Alkaline pOH = pKb +log {Salt/ Base} for max.
Buffer range for basic buffer = pKb 1
Moles/lit of Acid or Base Mixed
Buffer Capacity =
(c ) Change in pH
dCBOH dCHB
B
dpH dpH

4. Necessary condition for showing neutral colour of Indicator pH = pKln or [HIn] = [In- ] or [InOH]=[In+ ]

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Class 5

IONIC EQULIBRIUM

1. Relation between ionisation neutral constant K i & degree of ionisation ( ):


2 C (Ostwald's dilution law)
2
Ki
(1-)V (1-)
Ki
It is applicable to weak electrolytes for which < < 1 then = KiV orV C
C
2. Common ion effect : By addition of X mole/ L of a common ion, to a weak acid (or weak base) becomes equal to
Ka Kb
or [where =degree of dissociation]
X X

3. (A) If solubility product = ionic product then the solution saturates.

(B). If solubility product > ionic product then the solution is unsaturated
and more of the substance can be dissolved in it.

(C ). Id ionic product > solubility product the solution is super saturated


(principle of precipition).
4. Salt of weak acid and strong base:
pH 0.5( pKw pKa log c)
Salt of weak base and strong acid
pH 0.5( pKw pKb log c)
Salt of weak acid and weak base:
pH 0.5( pKw pKa pKb )

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Class 6

CHEMICAL KINETICS

1. Unit of Rate constant:


K mol1 nlit n1 sec1

2. First Order reaction:


a 0.693
2.303
K t log10 & t1/2 K
kt ax
[A]t [A]0 e

3. Second Order Reaction:


When concentration of A and B taking same.
1 x
K2
t a(a x)
When concentration of A and b are taking different-
2.303 b(a x)
K log
t(a b) a(b x)
2

4. Zero Order Reaction:


a0 at
K
t
x kt & t1/ 2 a0
2K
5. Arrhenius equation:
Ea
K Ae Ea / RT & slope
2.303RK
whenT ,thenk A e Ea / RT 1

k2 T T
E
6. log
a
2 1

k1 2.303R T1T2

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Class 7

OXIDATION-REDUCTION

1. Oxidant itself is- reduced (gives O2)


Or Oxidant e (s) Acceptor
Reductant itself -is oxidised (gives H2)
Or reductant e (s) Donor

2. (i) Strength of acid O.N


(ii) Strength of base 1/ O.N

3. (a) Electro Chemical Series:- Li, K, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe,
Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, H2, Cu, I2, Hg, Ag, Br2, Cl2, Pt, Au, F2
(b)As we move from top to bottom in this series
(1) Standard Reduction Potential
(2) Standard Oxidation Potential
(3) Reducing Capacity
(4) Ip
(5) Reactivity

4. (a) Formal charge = Group No. [No. of bonds+ No. of non- bonded e-s]
(b)At A node Oxidation, Cathode Reduction

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Class 8

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

1. Equivalent weight of element Atomic wt of the element


n factor
2. Equivalent weight of Compound Formula wt of the compound
n factor

3. Formula wt (or At. Wt.)of ion


Equivalent weight of an ion its valency

4. The law of dulong and petit


Atomic wt. specific heat 6.4

5. Normality (N)= Number of equivalents of solute


Volume of the solution in liters

Number of moles of solute


6. Molarity (M)=
Volume of the solution in liters

7. When a solution is diluted


N1 V1 = N2 V2
(before dilution) (after dilution)

8. Common acid- base indicators


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Class 9

MOLE CONCEPT

1.Mole concept
GAM 1gm atom 6.021023 atom.
GAM 1gm molecule 6.021023 molecules.
23
NA =6.0210
volume(L)
2. Moles (gases)at NTP=
22.4
3.Molecular mass=2 vapour density

CHEMICAL ENERGETICS
1. First Law: E= Q + W
Expression for pressure volume work W = -PV
Maximum work in a reversible expansion:
V2 P
W = -2.303n RT log 2.303nRT log 1
V1 P2
2. Enthalpy and heat content: H = E + PV
[q( p) =q( v) +ngRT] H = E + ngRT
[ng np( g) nr ( g) ]

3.Kirchoff's equation:
ET2 ET 1 Cv (T2 T1)[cons tantV ]
HT2 HT1 Cp (T2 T1)[cons tantP]

4. Entropy(s): Measure of disorder or randomness


S= S p S R
q V P
S rev 2.303nr log 2 2.303nr log 1
T V1 P2
5. free energy change: G=H-TS
G < 0(Spontaneous) [-ve]G 0(equilibrium)
G > 0(non-spontaneous) [+ve]
-G = W(maximum) -PV

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Class 10

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Class 11

ELECTRO CHEMISTRY

1. M = Z. I.t
eq Equivalent conductance at given concentration
2. Degree of dissociation: =
eq equivalent conductance at infinite dilution
3. Kohlrausch 'slaw : x y
0 0 0
m A B

4. Nernst Equation
& Keq = antilog nFE
0
E = E0 - 0.0591 log [Pr oducts] & E0 =E0 +E0

0.0591
10 cell anode cathode
n [Re ac tan ts]
G = -nFEcell & G 0 = -nFE0cell
G
-G0 2.303RT log Kc &Wma x nFE & G H T
0

T p
5. Calculation of pH of an electrolyte by using a calomel electrode:
Ecell - 0.2415
pH
0.0591

SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES


1. Raoult's law
p pA pB p 0AX A p B0 XB (1 XB) p 0
A p BXB ( p
0
B
0
P A 0) XB p A 0
n P P
P0 PS w.m
& 0 S

P0 nN P0 W.M

2. Colligative Number of particles


Properties Number of molecules (in case of nonelectrolytes)
Number of ions (in case of electrolytes)
Number of moles of solute
Mole fraction of solute

3. Depression of freezing point, Tf K f m

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Class 12

4. Elevation in boiling point with relative lowering of vapour pressure


1000K p0 p
Tb b
M1 mol.wt.ofsolvent
M1 p 0

5. Osmotic pressure (P) with depression in freezing point fT


P Tf dRT
1000K f
Normal molar mass Observed colligative property
i
6. Observed molar mass Normal colligative property
Observed osmotic pressure Actual number of particles
i Normal osmotic pressure No. of particles for no. ionisation
n i 1
degree of association(a) = (1-i) & degree of dissociation( )=
n 1 n 1

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

1. Radius of the nucleus: R = R 0A1/3


N0 (initial amount)
2. The amount N of the radioactive substance left after 'n' half lives = 2n
0.693
3. Half-life period t1/2 =

4. Rate of disintegration:
dN 2.303 N0
- .N & log orN N e t
10 0
dt t N

Total life time of all the atoms


Average life (t AV ) = Total number of atoms
5.


tdn
0 1 1.44t
1/ 2
N0

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Class 13

GASEOUS STATE

1. Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT


(i) R = 0.0821 litre atm. K-1 mole-1
(ii) R = 62.4 liters mm Hg K-1 mole-1
(iii) R = 8.314 * 107 ergs K-1 mole-1
(iv) R =2 cals K-1 mole-1
(v) R =8.314 J K-1 mole-1

2. Velocities related to gaseous state


RMS velocity C = 3PV 3RT 3P
M M d
Average speed = 8RT & Most probable speed = 2RT
M M

Average speed = 0.9213 * RMS speed


MPS = .816 * RMS; RMS = 1.224 MPS
MPS : A. V. speed : RMS = 1: 1.128 : 1.224
1
3. Rate of diffusion
density of gas
4. Vander Wall's equation
n 2a
P V nb nRTfor n moles
V2

PV
5. Z (compressibility factor)= ; Z 1for ideal gas
nRT

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Class 14

SOLID AND LIQUID STATE

1. Available space filled up by hard spheres (packing fraction):



Simple cubic = 0.52
6
3 2
bcc 0.68 fcc. =
=0.74 8 6
2 3
hcp = =0.74 diamond = =0.34
6 6
2. Radius ratio and co-ordination number (CN)

3. Atomic radius r and the edge of the unit cell:


Pure elements:a
Simple cubic =r =
2
3a 2a
bcc r = fcc =
4 4

4. Relationship between radius of void (r) and the radius of the sphere (R ):
r (tetrahedral) = 0.225 R; r(octahedral) = 0.414 R
5. Paramagnetic : Presence of unpaired electrons [attracted by magnetic
field]
6. Ferromagnetic: Permanent magnetism []

7. Antiferromagnetic: net magnetic moment is zero []

8. Ferrimagnetic: net magnetic moment is there[]

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Class 15

SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE

1. Higher is the valency of active ion, the greater is its coagulating


power.

2. Emulsion: Colloidal soln. of two immiscible liquids [O/ Wemulsion,


W / O emulsion]

3. Emulsifier: Long chain hydrocarbons are added to stabilize


emulsion.

4. Lyophilic colloid: Starchy gum, gelatin have greater affinity for


solvent. Solution Can be easily prepared by bringing in contact with
solvent and warming.

5. Lyophobic colloid: No affinity for solvent, special methods are used


to prepare sol. [e.g. As2S3, Fe(OH)3 sol]

6. Preparation of colloidal solution:


(i) Dipersion methods
(ii) Condensation method.

7. Properties of colloidal solution:


(i) Tyndall effect
(ii) Brownian movement
(iii) Coagulation
(iv) Filtrability

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Class 16

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
PERIODIC TABLE

1. General electronic configuration (of outer orbits)

s- block ns1-2
p- block ns2np1-61-10 1-2
d-block (n -1)d ns
f- block (n-2)s2p6d10f1-14 (n-1)s2p6d0 or 1 ns2

3. IP 1 1 1 1

Metallic character Reducing character Basic Nature of oxide Basic nature of hydroxide

1
4. EA size neclear charge
Second electron affinity is always positive.
Electron affinity of chlorine is greater than fluorine.

5. The first element of a group has similar properties with the second
element of the next group. This is called diagonal relationship.

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Class 17

EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY

1. Floatation is a physical method of separating a mineral from the gangue


depending on differences in their wettabilities by a liquid

2. Roasting is the process of heating a mineral in the presence of air.

3. Calcination is the process of heating the ore in the absence of air.

4. Electrolytic reduction: Highly electropositive metals are extracted by the


electrolysis of their oxides and hydroxides.

s- BLOCK ELEMENTS

1. Atomic radii: Li < Na < K < Rb < Cs

2. Ionic radii: Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Rb+ < Cs+

3. Electronegativity: Li > Na > K > Rb < Cs

4. First ionization potential: Li > Na > > K > Rb > Cs

5. Melting point: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs'

6. Density: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs

7. Colour of the flame Li- red, Na- Golden, K- Violet, Rb- Red, Cs- Blue, Ca-
Brick Red, Sr- Blood red, Ba- Apple green

8. Rb and Cs show photoelectric effect.

9. Stability of hydrides: LiH > NaH > KH > RbH > CsH

10. Basic nature of hydroxides: [LiOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH < CsOH]

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Class 18

BORON FAMILY

1. Stability of +3 oxidation state: B > Al > Ga > In > Tl


2. Stability of +1 oxidation state: Ga < In < TI
3. Reducing nature: Al > Ga > In > Tl
4. Basic nature of the oxides and hydroxides:
B < Al < Ga < In < TI
5. Relative strength of Lewis acid : BF3 < BCl3 < BBr3 < BI3

CARBON FAMILY

1. Reactivity: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb

2. Metallic character: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb

3. Acidic character of the oxides:


CO2 > SiO2 > GeO2 > SnO2 > PbO2
Weaker acidic (amphoteric)

4. Thermal stability and volatility of hydrides:


CH4 > SiH4 > GeH4 > SnH4 < PbH4

5. Reducing nature of hydrides:


CH4 < SiH4 > geH4 > SnH4 > PbCl4

6. Reducing power , covalent nature of


Hydrides: NH3 < PH3 <AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH3

7. Stability of trihalides of nitrogen: NF3 > NCl3 > NBr3

8. Ease of hydrolysis of trichlorides


NCl3 > PCL3 > AsCl3 > SbCl3 > BiCl3

9. Lewis and strength of trihalides of P, As and Sb


PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > PI3

10. Lewis acid strength among phosphorus trihalides


PF3 > PCl3 > PBr3 > Pi3

11. Bond angle, among the halides of phosphorus


PF3 < PCl3 < PBr3 < PI3

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Class 19

OXYGEN FAMILY

1. Melting and boiling point of hydrides


H2O > H2Te > H2Se > H2S
2. Volatility of hydrides
H2O > H2Te > H2Se > H2S
3. Thermal stability of hydrides
H2O > H2S > H2Se > H2Te

4. Reducing nature of hydrides


H2S < H2Se < H2Te

5. Covalent character of hydrides


H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te

6. Bond angle & dipole moment of hydrides


H2O 0> H2S 0> H2Se > H2Te
(104 ) (92 ) (910) (900)
7. Ease of hydrolysis of hexahalides: SF6 > SeF6 > TeF6
8. The acidic character of oxides (element in the same oxidation state)
9. Acidic character of oxide of a particular element(e.g. S)
AO2 > SeO2 > TeO2 > PoO2
So3 > SeO3 > TeO3
10. Stability of dioxides
SO2 > TeO2 > SeO2 > PoO2

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Class 20

HALOGEN FAMILY

1. Bond energy of halogens: Cl2 > Br2 > F2 > I2

2. Bond length in x2 molecule: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

3. Solubility of halogen in water: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

4. Oxidizing power: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2

5. Enthalpy of hydration of X- ion: F- > Cl- >Br- > I-

6. Reactivity of halogens: F > Cl > Br > I

7. Ionic character of M X bond in halide


M F > M Cl > M Br > M I

8. Reducing character of X- ion: I - > Br- > CI- > F-

9. Thermal stability of hydrides: HF > HCI > HBr > HI

10. Acidic strength of halogen acids: HI > HBr > HCI > HF

11. Conjugate base strength of halogen acids


I-< Br- < CI- < F-

12. Reducing power of hydrogen halides


HF < HCI < HBr < HI

13. Dipole moment of hydrogen halides


HF > HCI > HBr > HI

14. Oxidising power of oxides of chlorine


Cl2O > ClO2 > Cl2O6 > Cl2O7

15. Acidic character of oxyacids of chloride


HCIO < HCIO2 <HCIO3 < HCIO4

16. Strength of conjugate bases of oxyacids of chlorine


CIO- > CIO2- > CIO3- > CIO4-

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Class 21

HALOGEN FAMILY

17. Oxidizing power of oxyacids of chlorine


HCIO < HCIO2 < HCIO3 < HCIO4

18. Thermal stability of oxyacids of chlorine


HCIO < HCIO2 < HCIO3 < HCIO4

19. Stability
-
of anions
-
of- oxyacids
-
of chlorine
CIO > CIO2 > CIO3 > CIO4

TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS)


1. The element with exceptional configuration are
Cr2442[Ar] 3d554s11, Cu2946 [Ar] 3d104s 1

Mo47 [Kr] 4d105s 1, Pd78 [Kr] 4d1410 5s100 0


Ag79 [Kr] 4d 145s 10, Pt1 [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
Au [Xe] 4f 5d 6s

2. Ferromagnetic substances are those in which there are large number of


electrons with unpaired spins and whose magnetic moments are aligned
in the same direction.

COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
1. Coordination number is the number of the nearest atoms or groups in the
coordination sphere.

2. Ligand is a Lewis base donor of electrons that bonds to a central metal


atom in a coordination compound.

3. Paramagnetic substance is one that is attracted to the magnetic field, this


result on account of unpaired electrons present in the atom/molecule/ion.

4. Effective atomic number EAN = (Z Oxidation number) + (2 *


Coordination number)

5. Factors affecting stability of complex


(i) Greater the charge on the central metal ion, greater is the stability.
(ii) Greater the ability of the ligand to donate electron pair (basic strength)
greater is the stability.
(iii) Formation of chelate rings increases the stability.

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Class 22

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
GOC

1. The order of decreasing electro negativity of hybrid orbital's is sp > sp2 >
sp3

2. Conformational isomers are those isomers which arise due to rotation


around a single bond.

3. A meso compound is optically inactive, even though it has asymmetric


centers (due to internal compensation of rotation of plane polarized light)

4. An equimolar mixture of enantiomers is called racemic mixture, which is


optically inactive

5. Tautomerism is the type of isomerism arising by the migration of


hydrogen.

6. Reaction intermediates and reagents:


Homolytic fission Free radicals
Hetrolytic fission Carbocation and carbanion

7. Nucleophiles electro rich


Two types :
1. Anions 2. Neutral molecules
With lone pair of electrons(Lewis bases)
Electrophiles: electron deficient.
Two types :
1. Cations 2. Neutral molecules with vacant orbitals
(Lewis acids)

8. Inductive effect is due to s

9. electron displacement along a chain and is permanent effect.

9. +I (inductive effect) increase basicity, - I effect increases acidity of


compounds.

10. Resonance is a phenomenon in which two or more structures can be


written for the same compound but none of them actually exists.

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Class 23

ALKANES

1. Pyrolytic cracking is a process in which alkane decomposes to a mixture


of smaller hydrocarbons, when it is heated strongly, in the absence of
oxygen.

2. Combustion is a process in which hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and


H2O (l) when they are completely burnt in air/O2.

ALKENES
1. In dehydration and dehydro halogenations the order for removal of
hydrogen is 30 > 20 > 10 (Saytzeff's rule)

2. The lower the hh (heat of dehydrogenation) the more stable the alkene is.

3. Alkenes undergo anti-Markonikov addition only with HBr in the presence


of peroxides.

ALKYNES
1. All o and p-directing groups ring activating groups (expect X)
They are: -OH, -NH2, -X, R, -OR etc.

2. All m-directing groups are ring deactivating groups.


They are: -CHO, -COOH, -NO2, -CN, -NR3 etc.

HALOGEN COMPOUNDS
1. The order of reactivity is
(a) RI > RBr > RCl > RF
(b) Ally halide > Alkyl halide > Vinyl halide
(c) Alkyl halide > Aryl halide

2. SN1 reaction: mainly 30 alkyl halides undergo this reaction and form
racemic mixture. SN1 is favoured by polar solvent and low concentration
of nuclephile.
2
3. SN2 reaction:Mainly 10 alkyl halides undergo this substitution. SN reaction
is preferred by non-polar solvents and high concentration of nucleophile.

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Class 24

ALCOHOLS

1. Alkenes are converted to alcohol in different ways as follows

Reagent Types of addition


dil H2SO4 - Markovnikov
B2H6 and H2O2 - Anti- Markovnikov
Oxymercuration demercuration - Markovnikov

2. Oxidation of
10 alcohol aldehyde carboxylic acid
(with same (with same
no. of C atom) no. of C atom)

20 alcohol ketone carboxylic acid


(with same (with less
no. of C atom) no. of C atom)

30 alcohol ketone carboxylic acid


(with less (with less
no. of C atom) no. of C atom)

PHENOLS
CHCl3/OH
1. Phenol Salicyaldehyde
(Reimer- Tieman reaction)
CO2
2. Phenol Salicyclic acid (Kolbe reaction)

3. Acidity of phenols
(a) Increase by electron withdrawing substituents like
-NO2, -CN, -CHO, -COOH, -X, -NR 3

(b) Decrease by electron releasing substituent's like


-R , -OH, -NH2, -NR2, OR

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Class 25

ETHERS

Al2O3
1. 2ROH R - O - R + H2 O
2500c
2. RONa + X R' ROR' + NaX
(Williamson's synthesis)

3. ROR + 2 H2SO4 2RHSO4 + H2O
(conc.)
dil. H2SO4
2ROH
4. ROR + H2O

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS
1. Formation of alcohols using RMgX
Hydrolysis
(a) Formaldehyde + RMgX 10 alcohol
Hydrolysis
(b) Aldehyde + RMgX 20 alcohol

(other than HCHO)


Hydrolysis
(c)Ketone + RMgX 30 alcohol

2. Cannizzaro reaction (disproportionation)


Hot conc.
Aldehyde Alcohol + salt of acid
Alkali
no H-atom

Crossed- cannizzaro reaction gives alcohol with aryl group or bigger alkyl
group.

3. Aldol condensation:
Carbonylcompound+dil. alkali - hydroxycarbonyl compound
(With H-atom)
4. Benzoin condensation
ethanolic
Benzaldehyde Benzoin
NaCN

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Class 26

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

1. The rate of esterification decrease when alcohol, acid or both have


branched substitutents.

2. Ortho effect: All ortho substituted benzoic acids (irrespective of type of


substitutent) are stronger than benzoic acid. As this group decrease outer
resonance of ring towards acid which increase acidic nature.

NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
1. Order
0 0
of basicity:
0
(R = -CH3 or C2H5)
2 > 1 > 3 > NH3

2. Hofmann degradation
Br2/KOH
Amides 10 amine

3. The basicity of amines is


(a) Decreased by electron withdrawing groups
(b) Increased by electron releasing groups

4. Reduction of nitrobenzene in different media gives different products

Medium Product
Acidic Aniline
Basic Azoxy, Azo and finally hydrazobenzene
Neutral Phenyl hydroxyl amine

CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS


1. Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketenes.

2. Oligosaccharides are simple sugars, containing three to nine carbon


atoms.

3. Polymer is a chemical species of high molecular weight made up from


repeating units of low molecular weight.

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Class 27

CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC


COMPOUNDS
Homologous series Type of reactions
(a) Alkanes Substitution
(Mostly free radical)

(b) Alkenes and alkynes Electrophilic addition

(c) Arenes Electrophilic substitution

(d) Alkyl halides Neucleophilic Substitution

(e) Aldehyde and ketones Nucleophilic addition

Test to differentiate:

10, 20, and 30 alcohols Lucas test


Victormayer's test

10, 20, and 30 amines Hinsberg test

10, 20, and 30 nitro compounds Test with HNO2 and KOH

Aryl halides and alkyl halides Test with AgNO3 solution

Aldehydes and ketones aromatic Tollen's test/ Fehling's test

Aldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes Fehling's test

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Class 28

IMPORTANT REAGENT

1. DiH2SO4 [or Cons. H2SO4 + H2O


Use Dehydrating agent (+ HOH)
dil. H2SO4
(a) CH2 CH2 CH3 CH2 OH

dil. H2SO4 2C2 H5OH


(b) C2H5OC2H5

2. Alc. KOH or Nanh2 (Use -Hx


alc. KOH
CH3CH2Cl CH2 CH2
-HCl

3. Cu or ZnO / 3000C
" " "
10 alc ald, 20 alc ketone, 30 alc alkene (exception)

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Class 29

SnCl2 / HCl
C6H5NO2 C6H5NH2
6H

10. Lindlar's catalyst = pd / CaCO3 + in small quantity(CH3COO)2Pb


" Cis - 2 - butene
2 - butyne + H2
(main product)

11. Ziegler- Natta Catalyst (C2H5)3Al + TiCl4


Use In additional polymerization
Propene " Poly propene

MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS

SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS

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Class 30

IDENTIFICATION TESTS

(a) Unsaturated compound (Bayer's reagent) Decolorizing the reagent

(b) Alcohols (Ceric Ammonium nitrate solution) Red coloration.

(c) Phenols (Neutral FeCl3 solution) violet/deep blue coloration.

(d) Aldehydes and ketones (2, 4-D.N.P.) orange Precipitate

(e) Acids (NaHCO3 solution) Brisk effervescence (CO2 is evolved)

(f) 10 amine (CHCl3 + KOH) Foul smell (isocyanide)

(g)20 amine (NaNO2 + HCI) yellowoily liquid (Nitrosoamine)

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