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Page1
The profound changes in civil engineering over the last few decades were reflected by structural failures,
unprecedented performance limitations, increased cost of maintenance and a large number of deficient
structures.

Thisguideisdevelopedforstructuralspecialists,whohaveexpertiseintheassessmentfield,withcertain
experienceinreinforcementcorrosionproblems.Ithastobestressedthatacorrectassessingofastructure
sufferingrebarcorrosion,canonlyperformedbyamultidisciplinaryteamformedbycorrosionspecialists
andstructuralengineers.

QuantificationofcorrosiondamagetoR/Cstructuresisusuallyperformedviaanumberofinterdependent
variablescalledCorrosionDamageIndicators(CDIs),seeTablebelow.

CDIsareclassifiedintothreegroups(A,BandC)dependingontheirdirectorindirectconnectionto
reinforcementcorrosion.

GroupAcontainsCDIsbeingdirectlyrelatedtocorrosiondamage.CDIsbelongingintoGroupAare:

Finally,ithastoberememberedthatthisguidepresentsanapproachtotheassessmentofconcretestructures
affectedbyrebarcorrosionbasedintheexperienceandideasofagroupofspecialistsonbothfields,
structuralassessmentandcorrosionprocess,theresultsexpectedusingthisguidehavebeencheckedand
verifiedfortheirdevelopers.Thus,theprocedureheredescribedcanbeadaptedorchangedinordertofit
withintherequirementofassessingcodesineachcountryundertheresponsibilityoftheassessingspecialist.

Page2
TheuseofCorrosionDamageIndicators( )providesaclassificationbetweendifferentlevelsandtypes
ofcorrosiondamage.Theschemeoftypesofdamagesandextensionofthemwillbenecessaryonassessing
theactualstateofthestructure.TheindexofCDIisconstitutedbyapoolofindicatorstobesurveyedand
weighted.Theindicatorsmostlyusedare:

ParameterA1alsoknownas ,representstheprobabilityofcorrosiondamagebeingdue
toconcretecarbonation.Sinceprobabilityofcarbonationisstronglyrelatedtoconcretecoverthickness,the
parameterA1isrepresentedasaratio.ParameterA1islimitedbetweenpH9.58.6.

ConcreteAlkalinitycanbemeasuredaccordingtoASTMF710.Typicalfieldmeasuringmethodsinclude:
digitaldevices,penciltyperainbowindicators,stickertyperainbowindicatorsandtheuseof
phenolphthaleinspaying.

likeallchemicals,phenolphthaleinsolutionshouldbetreatedwithrespect.Bothphenolphthalein
itselfandisopropylalcoholareharmfuland,sinceitcontainsalcohol,theindicatorsolutionisflammable.
Ingestion,orcontactwithskinoreyesshouldbeavoided,asshouldbreathingthevapour.Possibleeffects
onthehumanbodyincludekidneydamageandcancer.MSDS:PhenolphthaleinSolution1%,Catalog
Numbers:S71429,S71976,S76970,SP621,SP62500,SP621,SP62500.

Thephenolphthaleinindicatorsolutionisappliedtoafreshfracturesurfaceofconcrete.Iftheindicator
turnspurple,thepHisabove8.6.Wherethesolutionremainscolourless,thepHoftheconcreteisbelow
8.6,suggestingcarbonation.AfullycarbonatedpastehasapHofabout8.4.

Inpractice,apHof8.6mayonlygiveafaintlydiscernibleslightlypinkcolour.Astrong,immediate,colour
changetopurplesuggestsapHthatisratherhigher,perhapspH9or10.

Normalconcreteporesolutionissaturatedwithcalciumhydroxideandalsocontainssodiumandpotassium
hydroxide;thepHistypically1314.ConcretewithaporesolutionofpH1012islessalkalinethansound
concretebutwouldstillproduceastrongcolourchangewithphenolphthaleinindicator.Itthereforefollows
thattheindicatortestislikelytounderestimatethedepthtowhichcarbonationhasoccurred.

Priortoanymeasurement,itisimportanttoproperlycleantheconcretesamplewithrunningwaterto
preventdustfromthecoringprocesstoaffectthemeasurement.Thecorepriortotestingshallbeallowedto
dryforatleast15minutes.

Page3
Measurementofconcretecoverisperformedviatheuseofcovermeters.Todaythereisalargevarietyof
availabledevices.Accuracyofmeasurementisusually 1mm.Covermetersareclassifiedasa)withrebar
diameterdetectionandb)withoutrebardiameterdetection.

CovermetersarecoveredbyseveralstandardslikeBS1881Part204,DIN1045,SN505262,DGZfPB2,
etc.

Covermeterswithrebardiameterdetectionability

Covermeterswithoutrebardiameterdetectionability

Inordertoobtainstatisticallycorrectmeasurementsitisimperativetoconsiderthatbothcoverthickness
andcarbonationdepthfollowanormalprobabilitydensityfunction.Therecommendedminimumpopulation
ofmeasurementsshallbe6perstructuralmemberpereveryoftotalheight/length.Itisimperativeto
rememberthatcorrosioninitiationwilltakeplacefirstlyatstirrups.

Theredarrowsindicatethecoverthickness.

Page4
AtypicalexampleinevaluatingtheparameterA1isshownbelow

Turningofthedataintocumulativeprobabilityplotsrevealsthatthereisnoprobabilityofcarbonation
exceedingthecoverthickness.

InthiscasewecanclassifyanddeterminetheCarbonationindexviatheratio AverageConcreteDepthwith
pH8.69.5/AverageCoverThickness.InthisexampletheratioA1is .Hence,theseverityclassforthe
memberis andthe Carbonationindexweightis .

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

A10.2 0.21<A10.5 A1>0.7

Page5
Inseveralcaseshowever,thedeterminationofCarbonationIndexcanbepuzzling.Thefollowingexample
representssuchcase

Turningofthedataintoprobabilitydensityplotsrevealsthatthereisapotentialofcarbonationexceeding
coverthickness.

SuchdiscrepanciesarecoveredbylimitsprovidedbytheCarbonationindexclassification.Herein,thelimit
of>0.7representssuchcase.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

A10.2 0.21<A10.5 0.50<A10.7

Page6
AverageConcreteDepthwithpH<7.08.6/AverageCover
Thickness

ParameterA2alsoknownas representstheprobabilityofcorrosion
damagebeingduetochemicalattack.ChemicalAttackClassIIndexreferstolowandmedium
aggressiveness.RefertoACI201.2R08.ConcreteAlkalinitycanbemeasuredaccordingtoASTMF710.
Typicalfieldmeasuringmethodsinclude:digitaldevices,pencilandstickertyperainbowindicators.
Identificationofthechemicalresponsiblefortheattackitisanimportantparameter,signifyingdamagerate
andpotentialadditionalharmfuleffects,i.e.disintegrationofconcrete,gypsumexpansion,etc.Typical
chemicalsandtheireffectsaredepictedbelow(ACI5151R).

Inallcasesitisimperativethattensiletestonrepresentativereinforcementisperformed
accordingtoASTMA370.Chemicalanalysisofconcreteisalsorecommended.Notethatcertain
chemicalsmightfurtherdecreasepHwithexposuretime.

Priortoanymeasurement,itisimportanttoproperlycleantheconcretesamplewithrunningwaterto
preventdustfromthecoringprocesstoaffectthemeasurement.Thecorepriortotestingshallbeallowedto
dryforatleast15minutes.

Measurementofconcretecoverisperformedviatheuseofcovermetersasshowninprevioussection.In
caseofcrackedconcreteandindependentlytocrackwidth,severityclass4shallbeselected.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

A20.2 0.20<A20.40 0.40<A20.70 A2>0.70

Page7
Page8
Page9
Page10
Page11
Page12
AverageConcreteDepthwithpH<7.0/AverageCover
Thickness

ParameterA3alsoknownas representstheprobabilityofcorrosion
damagebeingduetochemicalattack.ChemicalAttackClassIIIndexreferstomediumandhigh
aggressiveness.RefertoACI201.2R08.ConcreteAlkalinitycanbemeasuredaccordingtoASTMF710.
Typicalfieldmeasuringmethodsinclude:digitaldevices,pencilandstickertyperainbowindicators.
Identificationofthechemicalresponsiblefortheattackitisanimportantparameter,signifyingdamagerate
andpotentialadditionalharmfuleffects,i.e.disintegrationofconcrete,gypsumexpansion,etc.Typical
chemicalsandtheireffectsaredepictedinSection2.2.

Inallcasesitisimperativethattensiletestonrepresentativereinforcementisperformed
accordingtoASTMA370.Chemicalanalysisofconcreteisimperative.Specialattentionshallbegivento
thepotentialdecreaseofconcretestrength.Inmanycasescoringshallnotrevealtheextentofdamagesince
partialdepthdisintegrationmightnotregisteredinfullunless.Whencoringistheonlyavailableoptionpay
particularattentiontothetypeofcorefailure,i.e.crushingandcrumblingaccordingtoACI214.4R03
(seefollowingimage).Concretestrengthdegradationisbetterevaluatedusingsignalprocessingon
UltrasonicPulsingorImpactEchooutputs.Payparticularattentiontoamplitudevstimesignal.Thereisa
largevarietyofsignalprocessingalgorithmsthatcanbeused.

NotethatcertainchemicalsmightfurtherdecreasepHwithexposuretime.

Page13
TypicalUltrasonicPulsingandEchopulsedevicesaredepictedbelow

TypicalUltrasonicPulsingequipmentandsignalanalysis

Page14
TypicalEchoPulseequipment

Alwaysdemandfromthelaboratoryperformingthetensiletestonreinforcementtomakeuse
ofcliptypeLongGaugeLengthExtensometers.Knifetypeextensometersshallnotbeusedoncorroded
specimens.Completelyavoidmeasurementsviagripdisplacement.

TypicalcliptypeLongGaugeLengthExtensometer

Thecorrespondingindexandweightsaregivenbelow.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

A30.2 0.20<A30.40 0.40<A30.60 A3>0.60

TheassessmentreportshallclearlyindicatethelimitsprovidedbyNationalregulationson
steelreinforcementproperties.ChemicalattackClassIIisextremelycriticalandinmostcasescallsfor
immediateterminationoftheCDIprocedureforseverityclass>3.Weldingtoexistingrebar,asarecovery
measure,isofcoursenotpermittedapartfromthecaseoftemporaryreplacementduringsteelsampling.

Page15
ConcreteElectricalResistanceIndex

Concreteelectricalresistance(frequentlyreferredasWennerArray)representsaindirectmethodfor
examiningthepotentialofreinforcementcorrosionandmoisturecontent.

Theelectrolyticresistivityofconcreteessentiallydependsonthechemicalcompositionoftheporesolution
andtheporestructure(concretecomposition,compactionandcuring)aswellastheconcretemoistureand
temperature.Thebuildingmaterialconcretecanactaseitheraninsulatororagoodelectricalconductor
withrespecttoitselectricalpropertiesdependingonitsmoisturecontent.Adenseaggregatenormallyacts
asaninsulatoronaccountofitsveryhighresistivity,e.g.quartz10141016Wm.Theconductivityof
hardenedcementpasteisdeterminednotonlybythepropertiesoftheporesolution,butalsotoalarge
extentbytheporestructure.

Figure1.IonicConductionofhardenedcementpaste.

Thehardenedcementpastecanbeclassifiedintocementgel,openpores(e.g.capillarypores),closedpores
anddeadendpores.Theporesolutioncontainsbothpositiveandnegativeions(essentiallyNa+,K+,
Mg++,Ca++,OH,Cl,SO4)thataredistributedevenlywithinthehardenedcementpastewithoutbeing
affectedbyexternalcurrents.Thepositiveions(cations)movetothecathodeandthenegativeions(anions)
totheanodewhenanelectricfieldisappliedoverviatwoelectrodes.Thechargecarriersintheclosed
poresordeadendsareblockedandactascondenserswithoutaffectingtheohmicresistanceoftheconcrete.

Ionicconductiongenerallytakesplaceviatheliquidphaseoftheporesolutionofthecementpasteinwater
saturatedconcrete.Withsemimoistconcretestheionicconductiontakesplaceviathemonomolecular
waterfilmadsorbedontheporewalls.Theconcreteactsasaninsulatorwhenitbecomesverydry,the
conductivitydropstolowervalues.

Apartfromthemoisturecontentoftheconcrete,theresistivityalsodependsontheporestructure,which
dependsontheconcretetechnologyinfluencingparameterse.g.w/cratio,cementtype.Thegrinding
additiveschangethechemicalandphysicalpropertiesofthehardenedcementpastsandthusitselectrolytic
conductivity.

Athighageblastfurnaceslagcementshaveahighercontentofchemicallybondedwaterandahigher
contentofgelporesintheoverallgelporevolumethanPortlandcements.Bothpropertiesleadtoan
increasedresistivity.

Page16
Overthepastfewyears,coalflyashhasincreasinglybeenusedasaconcreteadditiveinconcrete
constructionwork.Coalflyashesareanindustrialbyproductfromthegenerationofelectricalenergyin
coalpowerstationsandareclassifiedassyntheticpozzolans.Theeffectofflyashadditivesonthe
resistivityofhardenedconcreteunderliesinthereductionofthecapillaryporecontentthroughthe
pozzolanicreactionofflyashincementandtheassociatedrestrictionoftheionicconduction.The
resistivityofhardenedcementpastewithflyashis3to4timeshigherthanthatofhardenedcementpaste
withonlyPortlandcementunderthesameconditions.

Around2840%ofthecement'sweightinwaterisneededforacompletehydrationofthecement.Ifthe
cementpastecontainsahighercontentofwater,theexcesswaterisdistributedasfreewaterorcapillary
waterintheconcrete.Forwatersaturatedormoistconcretethecapillaryporosityandcapillarywater
contentincreasesandthustheresistivitydecreases.Atypicalrelationshipbetweenresistivityandwater
contentisshowninFigure2.

Figure2.Experimentaldataontherelationshipbetweenwatercontentandresistivity.

Carbonationleadstoareductionincapillaryporesystembecausethevolumeofthereactionproduct(CaC03)exceeds
thatoftheoriginalreactants.Assuchresistivitywillincrease.Valuesashighas150KOhmcmhavebeenreportedin
dullycarbonatedconcrete. Fornoncarbonatedconcrete,theeffectofthepenetrationofchlorideions
ontheresistivityisrelativelysmall.Temperatureisinverselyproportionaltoresistivity,Figure3.

Itisimperativepriortomeasurementtoknowthemoisturecontentandtemperatureofthe
surface.Theinspectionengineershallthendecidewhethermoisturecontentispermanentorseasonal.In
generalavoidmeasuringunderdirectsunexposure.

Page17
Figure3.Concreteresistivityandtemperature

Measurementsareusuallyperformedusingthefourelectrodesetup(WennerArray).Fourequallyspaced
pointelectrodesthatarepressedontotheconcretesurface.Thetwoouterpointelectrodesinducethe
measuringcurrent(usuallyACwithafrequencybetween50and1000Hz,normallysinusoidal)andthetwo
innerelectrodesmeasuretheresultingpotentialdropintheelectricfield.

Theresistance,R,measuredisconvertedtoresistivity,,usingacellconstantbasedontheoretical
considerationsby:

=2aRwhereatheelectrodespacing.

Figure4.WennerArray

Page18
Thecorrosioncurrentdensity,Icorrisapproximatelyinverselyproportionaltotheelectrolyteresistanceand
theresistivityrespectivelyordirectlyproportionaltotheconductivityaccordingtothefollowingequation:

Figure5showssuchpotentialconnection.

Figure5.Connectionbetweencorrosioncurrentdensityandconcreteresistivity.

However,concreteresistivityandIcorrshouldnotbeusedforquantification(seeASTM176012).
Standardscoveringresistivityare AASHTOT259,ASTMC1202.Classificationbetweenresistivityand
corrosionriskisshownbelow

or

Page19
ThecorrespondingConcreteElectricalResistivityindexandweightsaregivenbelow.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

CR>20 10<CR20 5<CR10 CR<5

TypicalWennerarraydevicesaredepictedbelow

Followtheprewettingprocedurewithparticularcare.Excessivewateringcouldaffect
measurements.Avoidplacingtheprobesoverrebar.Insomecasesstabilisationofthereadingcanbe
problematic.Allowsufficienttime.

Page20
SaturatedCalomelElectrodeSCEHALFCELLIndex

Whenthereisactivecorrosion,currentflow(intheformofionmigration)throughtheconcretebetween
anodicandcathodicsitesisaccompaniedbyanelectricpotentialfieldsurroundingthecorrodingbar,Figure
1.Theequipotentiallinesintersectthesurfaceoftheconcreteandthepotentialatanypointcanbe
measuredusingthe Bymappingequipotentialcontoursonthesurface,those
portionsofthestructurewherethereisahighlikelihoodofcorrosionactivityareidentifiedbytheirhigh
negativepotentials

ApparatusforhalfcellpotentialmethoddescribedinASTMC87621tomeasuresurface
potentialassociatedwithcorrosioncurrent.

ThestandardtestmethodisgiveninASTMC876.Theapparatusincludesacoppercoppersulfatehalf
cell,connectingwires,andahighimpedancevoltmeter.Thishalfcelliscomposedofacopperbar
immersedinasaturatedcoppersulfatesolution.Itisoneofmanyhalfcellsthatcanbeusedasareferenceto
measuretheelectricalpotentialofembeddedbars.Themeasuredvoltagedependsonthetypeofhalfcell,
andconversionfactorsareavailabletoconvertreadingsobtainedwithotherreferencescellstothecopper
coppersulfatehalfcell.Thepositiveterminalofthevoltmeterisattachedtothereinforcementandthe
negativeterminalisattachedtothecoppercoppersulfatehalfcell.Ahighimpedancevoltmeter(normally
greaterthan10M)isusedsothatthereisverylittlecurrentthroughthecircuit.

hecoppercoppersulfatehalfcellmakeselectricalcontactwiththeconcretebymeansofaporousplug
andaspongethatismoistenedwithawettingsolution(suchasliquiddetergent).Ifthebarwerecorroding,
theexcesselectronsinthebarwouldtendtoflowfromthebartothehalfcell.Becauseofthewaythe
terminalsofthevoltmeterareconnectedintheelectricalcircuitshowninFigure1,thevoltmeterindicatesa
negativevoltage.

Page21
Themeasuredhalfcellpotentialiscalledthe ,becauseitismeasuredunderthe
conditionofnocurrentinthemeasuringcircuit.Amorenegativevoltagereadingatthesurfaceis
interpretedtomeanthattheembeddedbarhasmoreexcesselectrons,andthereis,therefore,ahigher
likelihoodthatthebariscorroding.

Thehalfcellpotentialreadingsareindicativeoftheprobabilityofcorrosionactivityofthereinforcing
steellocatedbeneaththecoppercoppersulfatereferencecell.However,thisistrueonlyifthatreinforcing
steeliselectricallyconnectedtothebarattachedtothevoltmeter.Toassurethatthisconditionexists,
electricalresistancemeasurementsbetweenwidelyseparatedreinforcingbarsshouldbecarriedout.

Testingisusuallyperformedatpointsarrangedinagrid.Therequiredspacingbetweentestpointsdepends
ontheparticularstructure.Excessivespacingcanmisspointsofactivityorprovideinsufficientdatafor
properevaluation,whilecloserspacingincreasethecostofthesurvey.Insurveyingbridgedecks,ASTMC
876recommendsaspacingof1.2m.AtypicalhalfcellpotentialmapisshowninFigure2.

Ifthedifferencesinvoltagesbetweenadjacentpointsexceed150mV,acloserspacingis
suggested.Reliabledifferenceinvoltagesbetweenadjacentpointsishighlyrecommendednottoexceed50
mV.

Prewettingisusuallynecessary.Thereshouldbenofreesurfacewaterbetweentestpointsatthetimeof
potentialmeasurement.Theconcreteissufficientlymoistifthemeasuredpotentialatatestpointdoesnot
changebymorethan 20mVwithina5minperiod.

Ifstabilitycannotbeachievedbyprewetting,itmaybebecauseofstrayelectricalcurrentsor
excessiveelectricalresistanceinthecircuit.Ineithercase,thehalfcellpotentialmethodshouldnotbeused.

Equipotentialmapofasection1.5x1.5meters.Spacingbetweenmeasurements0.2meters.

Page22
AccordingtoASTMC876,twotechniquescanbeusedtoevaluatetheresults:(1)the technique
(equipotential)or(2)the etechnique.Inthenumerictechnique,thevalueofthepotential
isusedasanindicatorofthelikelihoodofcorrosionactivity.TheappendixofASTMC876givesthefollowing
guidelines(forthecoppercoppersulfatereferenceelectrode)forthenumerictechnique:

Ifthepotentialismorepositivethan200mV(relativetothecoppercoppersulfatehalfcell),thereisa
highlikelihoodthatnocorrosionisoccurringatthetimeofthemeasurement.
Ifthepotentialismorenegativethan350mV,thereisahighlikelihoodthatthereisactivecorrosion.
Corrosionactivityisuncertainwhenthevoltageisintherangeof200to350mV.

Inthepotentialdifferencetechnique,theareasofactivecorrosionareidentifiedonthebasisofthepotential
gradients.Intheequipotentialcontourplot,theclosespacingofthevoltagecontoursindicatesregionsof
highgradients.Somepractitionersusethechangeinpotentialoveragivensurfaceareaasanindicatorof
activecorrosion( etechnique),suchasachangegreaterthan100mVover5square
meters.Itisgenerallyacceptedthatthepotentialdifferencetechniqueismorereliableforidentifying
regionsofactivecorrosionthanistheuseofnumericallimits.

Ashasbeenstated,validpotentialreadingscanbeobtainedonlyiftheconcreteissufficientlymoist,and
theusermustunderstandhowtorecognizewhenthereisinsufficientmoistureforameaningful
measurement.Inaddition,thereareseveralfactorsthatcanaffectthemagnitudeofthepotentialssothat
theyarenotindicativeofthetruecorrosionconditions.Coverthicknesswillnormallyexhibitalower
potentialvalueasshowninFigure3.

Effectofconcretecoverthicknessonthedepthofpotentialfieldabovealocalanode

Forexample,asurfacelayerwithhighresistanceresultsinlessnegativesurfacepotentials;thiscanmask
underlyingcorrosionactivity.Ontheotherhand,cathodicpolarizationduetothelackofoxygenresultsin
morenegativepotentialswhiletheactualcorrosionrateisreduced.

Halfcellreadingscanbepuzzlinginthefollowingcases,

Carbonationextendstothelevelofthereinforcement
Comparisonofcorrosionactivityinoutdoorconcretewithhighlyvariablemoistureoroxygencontent
Toformulateconclusionsaboutchangesincorrosionactivityduetorepairswhichchangedthemoisture
oroxygencontentatthelevelofthesteel.Cementpolymermodifiedrepairgroutshavethetendencyto
hidecorrosionactivity.

TypicaldevicesfortheequipotentialtechniqueareshowninFigure4.

Page23
TypicalcommercialHalfCellequipment.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

0<SC220 220<SC350 350<SC450 SC>450

Page24
CorrosionCurrentDensityLinearPolarisationResistance(A/cm2)Index

Thepolarizationresistancetechniqueisawellestablishedmethodfordeterminingcorrosionrateby
usingelectrolytictestcells(ASTMG59).Thetechniquebasicallyinvolvesmeasuringthechangeinthe
opencircuitpotentialoftheshortcircuitedelectrolyticcellwhenanexternalcurrentisappliedtothecell.
Forasmallperturbationabouttheopencircuitpotential,thereisalinearrelationshipbetweenthechangein
voltage, ,andthechangeinappliedcurrent ofelectrodes, .Thisratioiscalledthe
, :

Becausethecurrentisexpressedperunitareaofelectrodethatispolarized,theunitsof areohmstimes
area.Ithasbeenpointedoutthat isnotatrueresistanceintheusualsenseoftheword,butthetermis
widelyused(ASTMG15). establishedtheunderlyingrelationshipsbetweenthecorrosion
rateoftheanodeandthepolarizationresistanceisknownasSternandGearyequation.Noattemptismade
toexplaintheserelationshipsotherthantostatethattheyarederivedfromtheslopesoftheanodicand
cathodicpolarizationcurves(refertoFigure1). Thecorrosionrate(expressedascorrosioncurrentdensity,
i.e.,currentperunitarea)isinverselyrelatedtothepolarizationresistance(ASTMG59):

Theconstant isacharacteristicofthepolarizationcurvesandavaluebetween2652mViscommonly
usedforsteelthatisactivelycorrodinginconcrete.

Thisbasicconfigurationisoftenreferredtoasa3LPdevice,becauseitinvolvesthreeelectrodes,Figure
2.Oneelectrodeiscomposedofareferencehalfcell,andthereinforcementisasecondelectrodecalledthe
.Thethirdelectrodeiscalledthe ,anditsuppliesthepolarizationcurrent
tothebar.Supplementaryinstrumentationmeasuresthevoltagesandcurrentsduringdifferentstagesofthe
test.Suchadevicecanbeoperatedinthe mode,inwhichthecurrentisvariedtomaintain
constantpotentialoftheworkingelectrode;oritcanbeoperatedinthe mode,inwhichthe
potentialisvariedtomaintainconstantcurrentfromthecounterelectrodetotheworkingelectrode.

Page25
Polarizationcurvesforshortcircuitedelectrolyticcellshowingstablecellpotentialandcorrosion
current.

Asummaryofthemainstepsforusingthe3LPdevicetomeasurepolarizationresistanceinthepotentiostatic
modeisasfollows:

Makeanelectricalconnectiontothereinforcement(theworkingelectrode).
Locatethebarwhosecorrosionrateistobemeasured,wettheconcretesurface,andlocatethe
deviceoverthecenterofthebar.
Measuretheopencircuitpotential, ofthereinforcementrelativetothereferenceelectrode,i.e.,
measurethehalfcellpotential(Figure2A).
Measurethecurrentfromthecounterelectrodetotheworkingelectrodethatisnecessaryto
producea4mVchangeinthepotentialoftheworkingelectrode(Figure2B).
Repeatthepreviousstepfordifferentvaluesofpotential,namely,8,and12mVbeyondthe
corrosionpotential.
Calculatetheareaofbarthatisaffectedbythemeasurement.
Plotthepotentialvs.thecurrentperunitareaofthebar,anddeterminetheslopeofthebestfit
straightline.Thisisthepolarizationresistance.

Page26
Threeelectrode,linearpolarizationmethodtomeasurecorrosioncurrent.

Anuncertaintyinobtainingthepolarizationresistancebytheaboveprocedureistheareaofthesteel
barthatisaffectedbythecurrentfromthecounterelectrode.Intheapplicationofthe3LPdevice,itis
assumedthatcurrentflowsinstraightlinesperpendiculartothebar(workingelectrode)andthecounter
electrode.Thus,theaffectedbarareaistakenasthebarcircumferencemultipliedbythelengthofthe
barbelowthecounterelectrode.Numericalsimulationsofcurrentflow,however,showthattheabove
assumptionisincorrectandthatthecurrentlinesarenotconfinedtotheregiondirectlybelowthe
counterelectrode.Inanefforttobettercontrolthecurrentpathfromthecounterelectrodetothe
bar,adevicehasbeendevelopedthatincludesafourthelectrode,calleda or ,
thatsurroundsthecounterelectrode,Figure3.Theguardelectrodeismaintainedatthesamepotentialasthe
counterelectrode.Asaresult,thecurrentflowingfromthecounterelectrodetotheworkingelectrodeis
confinedtotheregionbelowthecounterelectrodeandthenonuniformlateralspreadingofthecurrentis
reduced.

Linearpolarizationtechniqueusingguardelectrodetoconfinethecurrentfromcounterelectrode
toreinforcement.

Page27
ThecorrosionrateCRmeasuredusingpolarizationresistancerepresentstherateatthetimeofthetest.A
simplifiedrelationshipbetweencorrosioncurrentdensity(A/cm 2)andcorrosionrate(m/year)isgiven
by,

CR=11.6Icorr

Thecorrosionrateataparticularpointinastructureisexpectedtodependonseveralfactors,suchasthe
moisturecontentoftheconcrete,theavailabilityofoxygen,andthetemperature,Figure4.Thus,the
corrosionrateatanypointinanexposedstructurewouldbeexpectedtohaveseasonalvariations.Such
variationswereobservedduringmultiplemeasurementsthatextendedoveraperiodofmorethan1year.To
projecttheamountofcorrosionthatwouldoccurafteranextendedperiod,itisnecessarytorepeatthe
corrosionratemeasurementsatdifferenttimesoftheyear.

Severalalternativescouldbeusedtocounteracttheseasonaleffectandpredictthefutureconditionofthe
reinforcement:

Usethemaximummeasuredcorrosionratestoobtainaconservativeestimateofremaininglife.
Usetheyearlyaveragecorrosionrateatatypicalortheworstlocationinthestructure.
Usetheminimumandmaximumcorrosionratestoestimatetherangeofremaininglife.

Effectoftemperatureoncorrosionrate.

Asemiempiricalequation(Figure4)relatingnormalisedcorrosionratetotemperatureis

WhereFisthecorrosionrateinm/year.

Measurethetemperatureofconcreteontheareaperformingpolarisationresistancepriortotesting.
Itisimperativethatallmeasurementsareperformedonareasexhibitingtemperaturedifferenceofnomore
than10 oC.

Page28
Thereareotherlimitationsthatshouldbeconsideredwhenplanningcorrosionratetesting.Someofthese
havebeenoutlinedinaproposedtestmethodandareasfollows:

Theconcretesurfacehastobesmooth(notcracked,scarred,oruneven).
Theconcretesurfacehastobefreeofwaterimpermeablecoatingsoroverlays.
Thecoverdepthhastobelessthan100mm.
Thereinforcingsteelcannotbeepoxycoatedorgalvanized.
Thesteeltobemonitoredhastobeindirectcontactwiththeconcrete.
Thereinforcementisnotcathodically(impressedcurrent)protected.
Thereinforcedconcreteisnotnearareasofstrayelectriccurrentsorstrongmagneticfields.
Theambienttemperatureisbetween5Cand40C.
Theconcretesurfaceatthetestlocationmustbefreeofvisiblemoisture.
Testlocationsmustnotbecloserthan300mmtodiscontinuities,suchasedgesandjoints.

Atypicallimitingclassificationofcurrentdensityare,

Icorr=0.1Acm 2Passivecondition(noncorrodingreinforcement)
Icorr=0.10.5Acm 2Lowtomoderatecorrosion
Icorr=0.51.0Acm 2Moderatetohighcorrosion
Icorr>1.0Acm 2 Hightoveryhighcorrosion

Changesinthefactorsthataffectcorrosionrate,suchastemperature,concreteresistivity,and
oxygenavailability,willchangethecorrosionrate.Thus,itisdifficulttoextrapolateservicelifebasedon
onemeasurement.

Typicalcommercialavailabledevicesforpolarisationresistanceareshownbelow

Typicalcommercialdevicesforpolarisationresistance.

Page29
SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

0.1<IC0.3 0.3<IC0.5 0.5<IC1.2 IC>1.2

Page30
ConcreteMeanStrengthIndex

ConcreteMeanStrengthdoesnotplayavitalroleincontrollingtherateofactivecorrosion.TheroleofCS
isindirecttocorrosioninitiation.Highstrengthconcretewillgenerallyexhibitlowercarbonationrateand
willprovidehigherresistancetochlorideingress,Figure1.Ingeneralwecanassumethatconcretestrength
willincreasethetimetocorrosioninitiationifnoothermeansforprotection,i.e.coatings,areinplace.

Concretestrengthhoweverwillcontrolbondrigidityandconsequentlytheratethatbondisdecreasingwith
corrosionrate,Figure2.

Effectofconcretestrengthoncarbonationrate.

Effectofconcretestrengthonbondrigidity.

Concretestrengthisevaluatedbyeitherdirectorindirectmethods(NDE).Coringbelongstodirectmethods.
Coringhoweverduetoitslimitedsampling,cannotprovidearepresentativestrengthvariation
butaratherindicativeone.ASTMC42,ASTM617,BS1881,ASTMC1231,ACI2144Rand
EN13791provideacomprehensivereviewontheissueofconcretestrengthviacoring.

Page31
Figure3showsatypicalcoringfortheevaluationofinplaceconcrete.

Concretecoring.Thewhitemarkingsrepresentsteelreinforcementlocation.

Nondestructivetesting(NDT)shallbeimplementedintoconcretestrengthevaluationprimarilyasa
parameterindicatingvariabilityandlackofuniformity.ThemainNDTmethodscurrentlyusedare,

SpringandPendulumSchmidtHammeringdevices.

Page32
Readingstakenfromthe SchmidtHammerundercertaincircumstancescanbetransformedintoconcrete
Strengthusingcorrelationtablesordiagrams,Figure5.

TypicalreboundnumberRtoconcretestrengthcorrelationchart.

Ifcarbonationdepthexceeds20mm,springtypeSchmidtHammerisknowntoproduceover
estimationonstrengthofmorethan45%.Carbonationshallbemeasuredasdescribedin

Ifthestructuralelementunderinvestigationshowsevidenceofpoorconstruction,Figure6,
selectconcretestrengthequaltozero.Crackingshallnotbeconsideredinthisindex.

Typicalpoorconstructionexample.

Page33
Whenthesurfaceofasemiinfinitesolidisexcitedbyatimevaryingmechanicalforce,energyisradiated
fromthesourceasthreedistincttypesofelasticwavepropagation.Thefastestofthesewaveshasparticle
displacementsinthedirectionoftravelofthedisturbanceandiscalledthelongitudinal,compressionorP
wave.ThecompressionwavevelocityVpisafunctionofthedynamicYoungsmodulusE,thePoissons
ratiov,andthemassdensitypandisgivenby:

Itisclearfromtheaboveequationthatvelocityisindependentofgeometryofmaterialanddependsonlyon
elasticpropertiesofthematerialthroughwhichitpasses.Hencetheprincipleofassessingqualityof
concreteisthatcomparativelyhighervelocitiesareobtainedwhenthequalityofconcreteintermsof
density,homogeneityanduniformityisgood.Incaseofpoorerquality,lowervelocitiesareobtained(Figure
7).

IndicativeUPVvaluesandconcretequality.

SeveralmodelsexistcorrelatingUPVtoconcretestrength,Figure8.

IndicativecorrelationcurvesbetweenUPVvaluesandconcretestrengthfromvarious
authors.

Page34
TypicalUltrasonicPulsingdevicesaredepictedbelow

Itisimperativetonotethatinconcretestrengthindexwealwaysusethelowestobtainedvalue
permemberindependentlytodeterminationmethodused.

OthermethodslikeWinsdorProbearenotcoveredbyinternationalstandardsandhencearenotexplained
here.

SeverityClass1 SeverityClass2 SeverityClass3 SeverityClass4

Weight1 Weight2 Weight3 Weight4

CS>30 25<CS30 20<CS25 CS<20

Page35
ConcreteMoistureContentIndex

ConcreteMoistureContentrepresentsacrucialparameterincontrollingtherateofactivecorrosion.

TheroleofCSisindirecttocorrosioninitiation.Highstrengthconcretewillgenerallyexhibitlower
carbonationrateandwillprovidehigherresistancetochlorideingress,Figure1.Ingeneralwecanassume
thatconcretestrengthwillincreasethetimetocorrosioninitiationifnoothermeansforprotection,i.e.
coatings,areinplace.

Concretestrengthhoweverwillcontrolbondrigidityandconsequentlytheratethatbondisdecreasingwith
corrosionrate,Figure2.

Effectofconcretestrengthoncarbonationrate.

Effectofconcretestrengthonbondrigidity.

Concretestrengthisevaluatedbyeitherdirectorindirectmethods(NDE).Coringbelongstodirectmethods.
Coringhoweverduetoitslimitedsampling,cannotprovidearepresentativestrengthvariationbutarather

Page36
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