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SPE 108531

Observations and Quantitative Analyses of Waterflood Patterns in a Chalk Reservoir


Using Seismic Data, Halfdan Field, Danish North Sea
Thomas Dons, Ole Jrgensen, and Lars Gommesen, Mrsk Olie og Gas

Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers


Denmark (Figure 1). The Halfdan accumulation was
This paper was prepared for presentation at Offshore Europe 2007 held in Aberdeen, discovered in 1999 as the latest of the larger Upper Cretaceous
Chalk reservoirs present in the region1 so far. Trapping of
Scotland, U.K., 47 September 2007.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as
hydrocarbons is caused by a combination of stratigraphic and
presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to fluid dynamic conditions in contrast to other fields in the
correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any
position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at region that are trapped below structural closures. An early
SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of
Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper
assessment of the Halfdan field development was given by
for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is Albrechtsen et al.2. The Halfdan field is operated by Mrsk
prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than
300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous Olie og Gas AS on behalf of the DUC partnership (A.P.
acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O.
Box 833836, Richardson, Texas 75083-3836 U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.
Mller-Mrsk AS, Shell Olie- og Gasudvinding Danmark
B.V. (Holland) and Chevron Denmark Inc.).
Abstract
Reservoir pressure maintenance and sweep of oil with water A regionally extensive but relatively thin oil column
are the main objectives of the Halfdan field water flooding. characterizes the Halfdan field. Wells are drilled in a parallel
The lower mobility of water compared to oil in the Halfdan pattern with horizontal well sections of 10,000-15,000 ft
field facilitates an effective sweep of oil but means that the length and at a well spacing of 600 ft. The Halfdan field is
water injectors require larger reservoir contact area in order to developed with alternating production and injection wells
replace voidage. In Halfdan this has been the focus from first giving 1:1 producer-injector coverage. Injection in Halfdan
development and has been obtained by controlled formation of targets maintenance of the reservoir pressure (PRES) at or
10,000-15,000 ft long injection fractures by injection at above the initial pressure (PINIT). The conditions are that
fracturing conditions. Modelling has indicated that conditions water injected has a far lower mobility than the hydrocarbons
for propagating injection fractures along the horizontal produced and that the producing drawdown (PINIT Pp 3,000
injectors were present, but until recently a field-wide psi) is far larger than the pressure head at the injector side
verification of the expected uniform sweep has been pending (PINJ PINIT 1,000 psi). These conditions would curtail the
seismic identification of the resulting water flood. target for pressure maintenance in a 1:1 producer-injector
After five years of production, a seismic survey was acquired scenario if injecting under fracturing conditions was avoided.
covering the developed area. Analysis of the seismic data has Fracturing was therefore planned from early on2, 3, 4.
revealed a strong signature reflecting the water flooding of the
reservoir. The seismic imaging of the sweep patterns is Injection fracturing in Halfdan follows Mrsk Olie og Gas AS
observed directly in the 3-D data without any 4-D processing patented FAST concept. The technique builds on flow induced
and is of an outstanding quality even compared to what is stresses, which causes injection fractures to grow along the
normally seen in dedicated time lapse seismic studies. The wellbores of the horizontal injectors. An important element in
seismic observations confirm the modelled behaviour of the FAST is patience, because production and injection for a pre-
Halfdan field water flood. defined period must precede fracturing in order to control the
direction of propagation3, 4.
This paper presents examples of the seismic observations
made and discusses these in a rock physics context including Recently, a seismic survey was acquired over the area. The
fluid substitution and pressure effects on acoustic impedance. interpretations published herein are those important for the
It is demonstrated how the seismic results together with simple conception of the Halfdan water flood and for water injection
analytical models add to the quantitative description of theory in general.
injection under fracturing conditions by facilitating measures
of fracture height, connectivity and extent. Seismic observations
During the summer of 2005 a new seismic survey covering the
Introduction Halfdan field was shot. The survey was subsequently fast
The Halfdan field is located in the Danish North Sea Central track processed during the winter 2005/6 and has been used as
Graben, approximately 250 km west of the West Coast of
2 SPE 108531

the basis for a recent review of the Halfdan area geological followed along their entire lengths showing that the injection
model. response is aligned with the well trajectories and seems to be
evenly distributed along these. In one instance, the HDA-34C
Compared to earlier seismic data covering Halfdan, the new well in the northern part of the Halfdan field, injection has not
data is characteristically noise free, which allows for better yet been initiated and the seismic indicator for injection is
imaging and mapping. The survey was shot five years after lacking accordingly.
first production and four years after first injection which
means that water flood patterns were well established for the The seismic response is characterised by a very sharp
first producer-injector pair. The expectation was that this transition from anomalous to unaffected seismic response. The
would allow for detection of possible seismic time lapse lateral distance from the horizontal injection line to the
effects after suitable 4-D processing. It was found, however, transition is variable and can be correlated with the duration of
that reality exceeded expectations by far and that clear effects the injection. There are no apparent deviations from this
from the production-injection can be detected directly from general pattern.
the 3-D data.
Quantitative significance of observations
Figure 2 shows a map of the maximum seismic amplitude in a The above observations of production induced seismic
time interval corresponding to the upper part of the developed responses are based on spectral decomposition images of the
Maastrichtian reservoir section. As can be seen, there is a very seismic data. The very good resolution of the images justifies
pronounced correlation between the presence of water this approach and is very appropriate for qualitative analysis
injection wells and a lowering in maximum amplitude. The of the production imprint as it has been demonstrated in the
difference in maximum amplitude between a paired injector previous examples. For the analysis of the possible causes of
and producer may be as much as 50%. The insert in Figure 2 the seismic response it is less adequate as the quantitative
shows the cross-sectional view. The effect of the injection- analysis of the spectral decomposition is less clear; images
production is not as evident when viewed in this way. It is may vary regionally or even locally, they are normalised and
believed that the lack of good response can be attributed to the they only represent part of the seismic bandwidth.
effect of the wavelet in the zero phase data.
The relative acoustic impedance provides a much more
Figure 3 regards the same cross section but shows seismic data adequate basis for a quantitative analysis of the seismic
inverted to relative acoustic impedance. In the inverted data response. Even though the absolute acoustic impedance is not
the wavelet effect has been removed and the only signal left is determined, the relative acoustic impedance from the inverted
from the apparent acoustic impedance in the interval and in seismic can be used to estimate absolute changes in acoustic
the frequency range resolved by the seismic signal. In this impedance. The absolute changes can thereafter be used to
case a very pronounced effect of the wells can be seen. Higher estimate changes in rock properties in the flooded rock.
relative acoustic impedance (hardening) can be seen around all
the water injectors in the upper part of the Maastrichtian An example of changes in acoustic impedance between
reservoir interval. Below this upper zone, also at the injector injectors and producers in the Halfdan field can be observed in
location, a less pronounced decrease in impedance (softening) Figure 3. In absolute figures the observed changes are around
can be seen. In other words, there is a clear response in the 300,000 m/s kg/m3. Possible causes for the observed
seismic data to the water injection whereas there is no or variations are primarily saturation and pressure changes
limited seismic response to the producers. Mapping of the caused by the water flooding and possibly related porosity
relative acoustic impedance response reveals a very similar loss. Whether the latter is active depends on the properties of
picture to that given by the zero phase data. the chalk, mainly porosity. In the following it is discussed how
the observed changes can be related to these possible causes.
The clear response in the seismic data can be correlated to the A conceptual quantitative model is presented relating the
injectors but it is variable in strength and it may occur observed response to a combination of several causes.
scattered along the wells rather than uniformly distributed
along these. This can be ascribed to the observations being The change in the elastic properties of a porous rock, when
made directly in the 3-D data, which means that the seismic substituting the pore fluids of the rock, is well predicted using
response is from a combination of both production induced the Gassmann theory5. Using an appropriate rock physics
heterogeneities and from geological heterogeneity. In order to chalk model one may accordingly estimate the change in e.g.
reduce the latter effect it was decided to apply spectral acoustic impedance as a function of saturation for a given
decomposition on the seismic data. The rationale behind this porosity. Figure 5 is an example of modelled effects
was to distinguish the two effects in the frequency domain and substituting oil with water for four different porosity classes
then mute the frequencies related to geological and variable water saturation. Typical Halfdan field reservoir
heterogeneities, if possible. chalk will have porosity around or slightly above 30%.
Observations of virgin and flooded reservoir rock have also
A clear improvement in the definition of the seismic response shown that the water flooding will reduce the oil saturation
to the water injection and a wealth of details can be detected in from 80% to 25%. The expected effect of such a change can
the spectral decomposition results (Figure 4). First of all the be seen in Figure 5 to be in the order of 300,000 m/s kg/m3.
injectors both at Halfdan and on the Dan West Flank can be
SPE 108531 3

Changes in the stress acting on the rock lead to changes in the Higher in the transition zone, e.g. in the units characterised by
acoustic properties of the rock frame. Typically, increasing higher porosity and oil saturation, the same pressure derived
fluid pressure will cause a lowering of the seismic velocity decrease in acoustic impedance is assumed to apply. This
and thus a lowering of the acoustic impedance. The reduction means that a compaction driven increase of 350,000 m/s
in velocity is believed to be caused by weakening of grain to kg/m3 is required to achieve the observed total increase of
grain contacts due to reduced load on the rock frame. In water 300,000 m/s kg/m3. At a porosity of 35% this would
flooding the effect of increased fluid pressure and substitution correspond to a reduction in porosity of approximately 2
of hydrocarbons with water has opposite effects on acoustic porosity units.
impedance. The pressure effect has been experimentally
demonstrated (e.g. Rgen et al.6) in the confining pressure Figure 6 summarizes the conceptual rock physics prediction of
range 350 1,100 psi but not under producing reservoir fluid, pressure and compaction effects presented above.
conditions where a wider interval of 0 5,000 psi is relevant.
Rgen et al.6 states an average increase in acoustic impedance As the current study is based on 3-D analyses, the observed
of 4% when increasing confining pressure from 350 psi to differences in acoustic impedance caused by the production
1,100 psi. Generally, porous rocks show declining sensitivity effects are estimated from comparisons to unaffected rock and
to pressure variations as the stress acting on the rock increases, therefore associated with some uncertainty. Ongoing time-
see Avseth et al.7 for a general discussion. The stress- lapse seismic studies on the Halfdan field are expected to
impedance relationship is considered reversible but not linear. provide a more accurate determination of the production effect
Accordingly, extrapolation of the laboratory trends is not on acoustic impedance and therefore also expected to allow
applicable. Qualitatively, the pressure will counteract the fluid for more rigorous quantitative analysis of the effects.
effect but whether it is smaller, levelling with or exceeding the
size of the fluid effect has to be established by other means. Interpreting the seismic pattern using stress
analysis
Plastic deformation of the chalk and porosity loss as a The impact of well design on the seismic response can be
response to both depletion and water injection is a well known studied in detail around the well Skjold-23G, which was
phenomenon in chalk reservoirs and is expressed even at drilled as an early appraisal well on the northwestern part of
surface as significant seabed subsidence above e.g. the the field (Figure 7). The well intersects the later decided
Ekofisk and Tyra fields. Much research has been done within development pattern and has been plugged and abandoned,
this topic8 and it is inferred that plastic deformation in Halfdan and later development wells passing the Skjold-23G well have
is limited to chalk with porosity exceeding approximately been zonally isolated from the formation where crossing
35%. Since most of the Halfdan field reservoir chalk has Skjold-23G. None the less, there are clear injection signatures
porosity below 35%, compaction is not considered to be along the well trajectories, even where the wells are isolated
pervasive but may have an effect in the best reservoir from the formation. This observation indicates that the fully
intervals. developed flow in the reservoir follows a pattern which is
influenced by other factors than the perforations and
Our current understanding of the seismic responses to the completion details. Injection signatures bridging from injector
water flooding is that they are a combined result of fluid heel to injector heel across HDA-2X further demonstrate that
substitution and increased pore pressure with an additional injection lines have developed, which form a linear pattern
contribution from compaction where porosity is high. In the throughout the entire field, and which extends beyond
upper part of the Maastrichtian reservoir interval, high oil completed as well as drilled well sections (Figure 7). By
saturation prevails. Here, the full fluid effect applies giving arguments of force equilibrium, it will be demonstrated that
rise to an increase in acoustic impedance of ca. 300,000 m/s the observed flow pattern cannot exist without causing large
kg/m3. The observed impedance increase is similarly scale fracturing of the reservoir rock.
approximately 300,000 m/s kg/m3 and suggests that the
individually opposite effect of compaction and increased pore Since the seismic indicator correlates with the well pattern, we
pressure levels out although the size of these effects is will investigate how the well pattern influences the large scale
undetermined. rupture of the reservoir rock. The development induces
stresses in the rock for two reasons; the rock frame contracts
The deeper part of the reservoir is a transition zone with due to cooling by cold injection water; and the flow of fluids
increasingly lower initial oil saturation. Here the water is associated with gradients in fluid pressure that are balanced
flooding will reduce a low initial oil saturation of e.g. 40% to by forces in the rock. In order to derive which reservoir
a residual saturation of 20%. The corresponding increase in parameters are of importance to formation parting, linear
impedance is approximately 150,000 m/s kg/m3, which is displacement in a rectangular cross section is analysed (Figure
less than for the fully saturated reservoir intervals. In the lower 8). To keep the problem simple, piece-wise linear pressure
part of the reservoir the observed change in impedance distribution and a step-wise temperature distribution are
corresponds to a decrease (softening) by 200,000 m/s kg/m3. modelled. The distribution of horizontal normal stress, x ,
'
As high porosity intervals are absent in the lower part of the
along the vertical centre plane (x=0) is found using linear
reservoir no compaction is expected, hence the pressure effect
elasticity theory, thus different load contributions can be
must amount to a decrease of 350,000 m/s kg/m3.
4 SPE 108531

treated independently while their combined effect can be producer and injector is linear. For typical reservoir rock
found by superposition. values between 0.1 and 0.3 are attained. This parameter is of
second order significance to the problem3.
Thermal contribution horizontal stress
' Contribution to horizontal stress from over- and underburden
The contribution to normal stress x,T from cooling can be
When pressures are not uniformly distributed in the reservoir,
assessed by considering the stresses generated due to cooling
over- and underburden loadings will distribute unevenly as
of a finite volume of rock embedded in an infinite
well. For the case under consideration we are interested in the
homogeneous elastic body. Plane strain conditions are
resulting normal stress on the centre plane x=0 (Figure 9).
applicable due to stress and temperature uniformity along the
This resultant is found by integrating the influence of
well axes. The normal stresses within the volume cooled from
magnitude
the original temperature TRES to TINJ are9, p443

E (TRES TINJ ) (PINJ Pp )


thermal contribution : 'x,T = (P0 P(x))dx = (P0 PINJ ) + x dx
2(1 ) L
E is Youngs modulus, is the linear thermal expansion along the top and bottom (y = H and y = -H) of the reservoir.
coefficient, TRES and TINJ denote reservoir and injection water In the equation above P0 is the pore pressure in the over- and
temperature respectively and is Poissons ratio. underburden, which is assumed equal to the initial reservoir
pressure (P0 = PRES). Integration gives the closed form
Contribution to horizontal stress from lateral flow solution:
Following the methods of analyses outlined by Jrgensen3 'x,V (y) =
normal stresses induced at the symmetry plane due to lateral
flow are derived as: (1 ) 1 L L
(PINJ P0 ) tan + tan1

2 H y H + y
'x,L (y) =
(1+ ) L 1 L
+ (PINJ P0 ) tan1 sin 2tan1
(1+ ) tan1 H - y 1 sin 2tan1 H - y 2
H y 2 H y

(PINJ - Pp ) L 2 L

2 (1+ ) L 1 L
1 H - y + (PINJ P0 ) tan1 sin 2tan1
(3+ ) tan L 2


H + y 2
H + y


(1 ) (H- y) L
(3+ ) ln sin tan1 H - y + + (PINJ Pp ) ln cos tan1
(PINJ - Pp ) (H- y)

L
2 L H y


2 L 1 H - y
(1+ ) 1 sin tan
2
(1 ) (H + y) L
+ (PINJ Pp ) ln cos tan1
L 2 L
H + y


(1+ ) tan1 H + y 1 sin 2tan1 H + y (1 ) (H - y) 2 1 L


(PINJ - Pp ) L 2 L + (PINJ Pp )
L
1- cos tan
2
H y
2 1 H+ y
(3+ ) tan L (1 ) (H + y) 2 1 L

+ (PINJ Pp ) 1 cos tan
L

2
H + y
(3+ ) ln sin tan1 H + y +
Discussion and conclusions drawn from analytical stress
(PINJ - Pp ) (H + y) L
modelling
2 L 2 1 H + y Large scale fracturing in the reservoir is strongly affected by

(1+ ) 1 sin tan

L the height-length ratio (H/L) as demonstrated below. For
Halfdan the relevant material parameters are those of 30%
porosity chalk, hence thermal expansion coefficient (=8x10-6
Here is Poissons ratio, = , PINJ, Pp denote injecting
1- (C)-1) Youngs modulus (E=1.1x106 psi) and Poissons ratio
and producing bottomhole pressures respectively and H and L ( = 0.2) are assumed. The well spacing in Halfdan is L=600
define the reservoir height and well spacing. From the above ft, a typical value for producing bottomhole pressure (Pp) is
equation it can be seen that H/L and the pressure difference 1,500 psia and a typical injection pressure (PINJ) is 5,000 psia.
(PINJ Pp) are the key parameters to the problem. If H/L The initial pressure in Halfdan (P0) was 4,200 psia and in the
approaches zero (limited reservoir height or infinite well analysed example, the average pressure is 12 (PINJ + Pp) =
spacing) the induced stress at the centre plane approaches zero
as well. The dependency on pressure difference between
SPE 108531 5

3,250 psia. For calculation of the thermal contribution cooling So far, the development of the Halfdan field has only been
by 60 C will be assumed. verified from indirect observations of production performance
being in agreement with modelled expectations. The Halfdan
With the reservoir and material values listed above, the 3-D survey provides direct and independent evidence of
effective stress distribution at the centre cross section can be parallel injection fractures formed field-wide and aligned with
1 1 1 1
calculated for H/L= 24 , 12 , 8 , 6 (Figure 9). Importantly, a the injection well pattern. The seismic signatures related to
1
injection conform to the location of the wellbores, thus
change in sign occurs for H/L around 12 , hence for larger confirming the survey data. Most importantly, it is observed
values the calculated normal stress is tensile. For L=600 ft, that 1; the water signature is distributed evenly along injection
1 lines and 2; these lines are formed continuously across
H/L = 12 corresponds to a flowing interval height of 100 ft
unperforated intervals and across intervals not intersected by
(2H=100 ft). Since chalk has a very limited load carrying injection wells.
capacity in tension, opening of a fracture would result under
the modelled conditions. The fact that the injection signatures form parallel lines, which
on the one hand align with injectors and on the other hand
In day to day injection management, parting of the formation extend beyond the well and completion intervals, proves that
is considered the result of injecting at higher rates than the the development pattern affects injection fracture propagation.
current injectivity allows under non-fracturing conditions. Analyses of flow induced stresses in Halfdan show that this
Hence, from a well surveillance standpoint, fracturing occurs influence is evident when linear flow is developed to a height
to accommodate an imposed rate flow. This view set may be of 100 ft or higher. The regularity observed in the seismic
used to formulate leak-off models for dynamic fracture size response is thereby a strong indicator of vertical as well as
but it cannot offer any explanation for observed patterns in lateral flow distribution. Given the data and analyses presented
fracture geometry. in this paper, it can be concluded that the sweep of oil most
likely includes the deeper part of the transition zone and
In the present analysis linear flow in the reservoir causes the confidence in the recovery process is thus strengthened.
parting of the formation. The analysis builds on fluid and solid
mechanics theory and explains why the seismic indicator for Acknowledgements
injection is observed, not only where the injectors are drilled We would like to thank Mrsk Olie og Gas AS and the DUC
and completed, but along the continuous lines of symmetry Partners, A.P. Mller-Mrsk AS, Shell Olie- og Gasudvinding
defined by the reservoir flow. Danmark B.V. (Holland) and Chevron Denmark Inc. for their
permission to publish this work.
The fact that the flow geometry determines the direction of
large scale fracturing means that the lateral flow in the
reservoir is developed across a certain height. Quantitative
analyses show that flow must have developed vertically across
100 ft of reservoir column or higher in order to produce the
observed fracture pattern (H/L > 1/12 generates tension,
Figure 9). Based on this finding it is concluded that the
Halfdan water flood is likely to sweep the full height of the oil
column.

Conclusion
Many modelling studies over the years have been inconclusive
as to whether it is possible to monitor production induced
effects from 4-D analysis in relatively low porous chalk. The
current data effectively ends this discussion by demonstrating
a very strong seismic response to water injection in the
Halfdan field. It is concluded that the seismic response is a
combined effect of fluid substitution and compaction of the
rock, both increasing the acoustic impedance hardening the
rock and from increasing the pore pressure leading to lower
acoustic impedance softening the rock. In the upper part of
the reservoir the fluid- and compaction effect dominates over
the pressure effect resulting in a hardened response, however,
in the transition zone this changes to an apparent softening
because the fluid substitution effect diminishes with
decreasing initial oil saturation, compaction ceases with lower
porosity whereas the pressure effect remains constant.
6 SPE 108531

References

1. Surlyk, F., Dons, T., Clausen, C.K., Higham, J., Upper


Cretaceous in The Millennium Atlas: Petroleum Geology of the
Central and Northern North Sea", Evans, D., Graham, C.,
Armour, A. and Bathurst, P. (eds. and co-ordinators). 2003, The
Geological Society of London, 213-233.

2. Albrechtsen, T., Andersen, S.J., Dons, T., Engstrm, F.,


Jrgensen, O., Srensen, F.W., Halfdan: Developing Non-
Structurally Trapped Oil in North Sea Chalk, 2001 SPE ATCE,
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. SPE 71322.

3. Jrgensen, O., Using Flow Induced Stresses for Steering of


Injection Fractures, SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference,
20-23 October 2002, Irving, Texas, U.S.A. SPE/ISRM 78220.

4 . Rod, M. H. & Jrgensen, O., Injection Fracturing in a Densely


Spaced Line Drive Waterflood The Halfdan Example., 14th
Europec Biennial Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13-16 June 2005.
SPE 94049.

5. Gassmann, F, ber die Elastizitt Porser Medien, Vier.


Natur Gesellschaft, 1951, 96, 1-23.

6. Rgen, B. , Fabritius, I. L., Japsen, P., Hier, C., Mavko, G.,


Pedersen, J. M., Ultrasonic Velocities of North Sea Chalk
Samples- Influence of Porosity, Fluid Content and Texture,
2005, Geophysical Prospecting, 53, 481-496.

7. Avseth, P. Mukerji, T. and Mavko G., Quantitative Seismic


Interpretation, 2005, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
UK.

8. Andersen, M., Petroleum Research in North Sea Chalk, 1995,


RF-Rogaland Research, Stavanger Norway.

9. Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N., Theory of Elasticity, Third


edition, 1970, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
SPE 108531 7

Figure 1: Halfdan field basic information

Figure 2: Production responses as observed in seismic amplitude data


8 SPE 108531

Figure 3: Production response in relative Acoustic Impedance, Cross-sectional view.

Figure 4: Production response in spectral decomposition. Injection along entire length of wells. Similar images with well paths in map view
overlain on right image.
SPE 108531 9

Figure 5: Effect of Fluid Substitution on Acoustic Impedance

Figure 6: Conceptual model of acoustic impedance variations with reservoir properties and production.
10 SPE 108531

Figure 7: Water injection lines detected by seismic with and without wells overlain (left and right images respectively). The injection
signatures form parallel lines, which align with injectors while extending beyond these due to fracture propagation. The hydraulic fracturing
and water flooding seems unaffected by wells crossing the general pattern (Skjold-23G and HDA-2X).

Figure 8: Cross-sectional model of linear displacement. For the stress analysis, a constant pressure gradient and a stepwise temperature
distribution are assumed. The cooling (TRES-TINJ) and the pressuere gradient (PINJ Pp)/L, together with the geometric parameter H/L
determines the stresses induced by production.
SPE 108531 11

Figure 9: Effective stress at centre plane for different H/L and constant injection and production pressures of 5,000 psia and 1,500 psia
respectively . Resulting normal stresses below zero causes fracturing, hence the criterion for fracturing is fulfilled for H/L > 1/12 under the
modelled pressure conditions.