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PROJECT REPORT

ON

Digital Computers

SUBMITTED BY

APURAV BHARDWAJ

REG. NO. A8753913


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe the success of this project to. Mr. Maroof sir and other faculty

of our institute. It was because of their able & valuable guidance and

suggestions that I have decided to take up this project and were able to

accomplish it. I miss something if I will not offer thanks to my class mates

who helped me a lot as and when required. In course of making this

project, I had faced certain problems which I might have not overcome,

without the help of my well wisher.

APURAV BHARDWAJ

Reg.No. A8753913
PROJECT REPORT

AT

DIGITAL COMPUTERS PVT. LTD.

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements


for the award of the degree of

MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(Industry Integrated)

To

MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY, MADURAI

BY

APURAV BHARDWAJ
Reg. No. A8753913

Under the guidance of

Mr. MAHROOF AHMED

NEW DELHI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES


B-64, OKHLA PHASE-1, NEW DELHI-110062
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report at

DIGITAL COMPUTERS PVT. LTD.

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of


the degree of

MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(Industry Integrated)

TO

MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY, MADURAI

Is a record of bonafide Training carried out by

APURAV BHARDWAJ

Under my supervision and guidance and that no part of this report has
been submitted for the award of any other degree/diploma /fellowship or
similar titles or prizes.

FACULTY GUIDE

Signature:

Name:

Qualifications: Signature & seal of the learning centre


STUDENT’S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project report conducted at

DIGITAL COMPUTERS PVT. LTD.

Under the guidance of


Mr. MAHROOF AHMED

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of

MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(Industry Integrated)

TO

MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY, MADURAI

This is my original work and the same has not been submitted for the
award of any other degree/diploma/fellowship or other similar titles or
prizes.

Place:New Delhi

Date:

SUBMITTED BY

APURAV BHARDWAJ

Reg. No. A8753913


Digital Computers

CERTIFICATE OF THE ORGANISATION

To

The Training Officer,

National Institute of Applied Management,

Banglore / New Delhi

This is to certify that Mr. APURAV BHARDWAJ of MBA(Industry Integrated)

course of Madurai Kamaraj University at New Delhi Institute of Management

Studies Learning Center has undergone management training at our

Organization from Sept, 2009 to Jan, 2010.

His performance during the training period was remarkable.

For Digital Computers

Saurabh Mishra

(Assistant Manager)
CONTENTS

 INTRODUCTION

 PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

 DISCUSSION ON TRAINING

 STUDY OF SELECTED RESEARCH PROBLEM

 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

 BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE SECTOR

A financial system, which is inherently strong, functionally diverse and displays


efficiency and flexibility, is critical to our national objectives of creating a market-
driven, productive and competitive economy. A mature system supports higher
levels of investment and promotes growth in the economy with its depth and
coverage. The financial system in India comprises of financial institutions,
financial markets, financial instruments and services. The Indian financial system
is characterised by its two major segments - an organised sector and a traditional
sector that is also known as informal credit market. Financial intermediation in
the organised sector is conducted by a large number of financial institutions
which are business organisations providing financial services to the community.
Financial institutions whose activities may be either specialised or may overlap
are further classified as banking and non-banking entities. It also includes
maintaining accounts receivables as well as accounts payable apart from various
book of accounts receivable (A/R) is one of a series of accounting transactions
dealing with the billing of customers who owe money to a person, company or
organization for goods and services that have been provided to the customer. In
most business entities this is typically done by generating an invoice and mailing
or electronically delivering it to the customer, who in turn must pay it within an
established timeframe called credit or payment terms.

An example of a common payment term is Net 30, which means payment is due
in the amount of the invoice 30 days from the date of invoice. Other common
payment terms include Net 45 and Net 60 but could in reality be for any time
period agreed upon by the vendor and the customer. While booking a receivable
is accomplished by a simple accounting transaction, the process of maintaining
and collecting payments on the accounts receivable subsidiary account balances
can be a full time proposition. Depending on the industry in practice, accounts
receivable payments can be received up to 10 - 15 days after the due date has
been reached. These types of payment practices are sometimes developed by
industry standards, corporate policy, or because of the financial condition of the
client.
On a company's balance sheet, accounts receivable is the money owed to that
company by entities outside of the company. The receivables owed by the
company's customers are called trade receivables. Account receivables are
classified as current assets assuming that they are due within one year. To
record a journal entry for a sale on account, one must debit a receivable and
credit a revenue account. When the customer pays off their accounts, one debits
cash and credits the receivable in the journal entry. The ending balance on the
trial balance sheet for accounts receivable is always debit.

Business organizations which have become too large to perform such tasks by
hand (or small ones that could but prefer not to do them by hand) will generally
use accounting software on a computer to perform this task. Associated
accounting issues include recognizing accounts receivable, valuing accounts
receivable, and disposing of accounts receivable. Accounts receivable
departments use the sales ledger. Accounts receivable is more commonly known
as Credit Control in the UK, where most companies have a credit control
department. Other types of accounting transactions include accounts payable,
payroll, and trial balance.

Since not all customer debts will be collected, businesses typically record an
allowance for bad debts which is subtracted from total accounts receivable.
When accounts receivable are not paid, some companies turn them over to third
party collection agencies or collection attorneys who will attempt to recover the
debt via negotiating payment plans, settlement offers or legal action. Outstanding
advances are part of accounts receivables if a company gets an order from its
customers with payment terms agreed in advance. Since no billing is being done
to claim the advances several times this area of collectible is not reflected in
accounts receivables. Ideally, since advance payment is mutually agreed term, it
is the responsibility of the accounts department to take out periodically the
statement showing advance collectible and should be provided to sales &
marketing for collection of advances.

PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION

ABOUT SERVICES

We, at Digital Computers offer the world class technology based services which

helps your business to grow and emphasis the communication also. We are

offering services….

 Media & Promotion.

 Software Solution.

 ERP Software Enterprise.

 Language Converter Software.

 Search Engine Optimization.

 Online Media Promotion.

 Offline Media Promotion.

 Hardware Solution.

 Other Software, etc.

We are assuring the 99.99% uptime guarantee as well as the no spam, no

virus, no delays and no losses. You need not worry a;; about the in-house
management of the web hosting or mail systems. Your target audience becomes

more closer to you after developing the same kind of the system with Digital

Computers.

OUR STRENGTH:

Our company is a brainchild of leading people from IT companies, which

help us to understand and meet the varied business needs of the clients at

competitive prices. Some of our strengths include:

Variety of Services:

We offer a wide array of services ranging from web based services to

promotion corporate presentations, thus taking care of the complete business

promotions needs of the clients.

Rapid Project Implementation:

Our experienced pool of resources ensure that the project in hand is not

only started on time but also completed on time.

Business Ethics:

A closely formed group of real and genuine people, we know the importance of

carefully handled projects in enhancing the businesses of the clients. For this, we
ensure that projects that details are not only totally confidential but are handled

with utmost professionalism. The satisfaction of our is of our clients is of utmost

importance for us.

Static Website Designing:

Also termed as Small Business Website and Brochure Websites; Static

Websites provides you with an online showcase where you can display your

offerings to prospective visitors or clients. Static Websites follow "What you see

is what you have" concept, thus, ideal for those companies or individuals who

just need the website to establish their web presence or use it as a contact

platform for their clients.

Digital Computers caters to all your static website development needs with

perfection. Be it developing a simple and informative website or one with an

attractive look and feel or both, we offer you our quality web services in the most

attractive and cheapest prices.

At Digital Computers, planning is our virtue. We don't rush with the development

process. Rather our web analysis team first studies your needs carefully and

presents you with a proposed web template. After getting your initial approval,

our web design and development team opens its creative panel and deliver you

the unique HTML website that others would like to follow. Latest technical tools

drive our website development process. We invest regularly on latest

technologies like Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Flash, Dreamweaver etc to give

visitors the enhanced browsing experience from the website. We also offer our

services at low prices using the globally recognized Offshore Outsourcing Model.
Dynamic Website Designing:

Dynamic web page designing requires thorough knowledge, creativity and our

professionals are the master and mentor at their own who can design and

develop dynamic website using different scripting language, preferably

PHP/Mysql and make your website good looking, traffic retaining, easy to

navigate.

Some advantages of Dynamic websites are detailed below:

• You can add and manage contents, stories, information, photos and

videos anytime without the help of webmaster.

• You can add new pages and sections for site’s growth.

• You can save site management time.

• Site administrator can send customized emails to visitors.

• Complex tasks like quoting, estimating and presenting customized sales

information can be done by Dynamic Web Site.

• Site administrator can manage visitors in a better way to retain them for

long-term such as,

• Create member only section and allow member to manage their own

pages.

• Connect visitors with local salesperson or dealer.

These are just the examples; we can do beyond what is explained above to

make your website one of the must visiting one in this era of Internet Marketing.

Flash Website Designing:


Nowadays, Flash Web Design has become a powerful technology to make a

website impressive and customer centric. Use of Flash design brought a break

on traditional way of using Power Point templates and people are recommending

use of flash in their websites because Flash Web site Designing allows rich

presentation of your concepts through graphics and sound via dynamic winning

tutorials, training courses, introductions and film clips. Impressive colour used in

flash animated logo designs is more like a business campaign as it imparts a

positive impact in people’s imagination by dramatic visual effects that urge them

to visit your website time-to-time and become your regular customer. Few

benefits of using Flash in Web site Design are as follows,

• It helps make rich presentation of concepts through graphics and sound.

• It helps present samples of your work in an interactive environment that

resizes windows to fix the graphics as in case of portfolio.

• It helps establish a supportive base for text through animation, graphics

etc. It brings more traffic to site.

Inappropriate use of flash may hamper site’s search engine ranking but

our professionals are well aware of such facts and can prepare a customized

website using standard HTML hyperlink making your web pages searchable by

web spiders. We can do any kind of flash designing for your website to make it

look good for sale promotion and presentation, or to make your website effective

and winning enough for each business campaign. Our works are targeted to

search engine to bring more value to client’s effort, so take the right move now by
outsourcing your flash design project to Digital Computers web Design

Company.

Ecommerce Website:

Our motto is to provide you reliable and transparent ecommerce solutions

since money is at stake. Optimize for SEO endeavors to make effective

transactions that are reliable and secure. Our dedicated and professional team of

experts have the capacity to design an attractive website in addition to making it

secure with a reliable ecommerce internet solution. We enable you to market

your products and services online and receive payments in real-time with a

reliable web content management system which makes it easy to manage

services and products online.

E-commerce implies the purchasing or selling of goods/services and

transferring funds using electronic communications in inter-company and intra-

company business activities. There are two ways to do e-commerce: Business-

to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce involving companies selling products or services

to individuals; and business-to-business e-commerce (B2B), in which companies

sell to other businesses.

Benefits:

Ecommerce solution comes with a reliable CMS helps you manage services

and products online and receive payments in real time. End-to-end ecommerce

business services include:


Ecommerce Website design

• Dynamic products

• Inventory Management

• Order Management

• Shopping cart

• Shipping Module

• Payment gateway integration.

What is Search Engine?

Search Engine is the medium where end user or business people are

searching for their prospects for information. Search engines are based on

crawling of content and web pages. They are crawling the data of websites
and web pages along with the perfect matches with content/ keywords. There

are a lot of search engines but few who are popular are as Google.com,

Yahoo.com, MSN.com, Altavista.com, Lycos.com, AOL.com, Infoseek.com,

webcrawler.com, hotbot.com etc.

Process of Search Engine Optimization:

Website analysis:

Before optimizing, a detailed analysis of the web site is very necessary.

Content, structure and the target traffic have to be cautiously reviewed.

Identify Business Objectives:

One has to be very clear as to what does the business aim to achieve. Your

business objectives would vary from generating new leads, to increasing

sales. The objective should be kept in mind while looking for the key words.

Key Word optimization:

Extensive analysis is required in this stage. You select a list of key words only

after analyzing the competitor’s site, their Meta tags, Key word phrases etc.

Then only a final list of key words is prepared.

Web Page optimization:

One needs to optimize web pages with the selected key words. Care should

be taken not to over optimize the pages. The web site has to be search
engine as well as user friendly. While doing web page optimization, areas like

Meta key words, Meta description, Cross-links, have to be looked into.

Web Page submissions:

Optimized web pages should be submitted to all the popular search engines.

This is the way you get your site indexed. Once the site is indexed your focus

should be on achieving high search engine rankings for your key words.

Link Building:You increase your visibility by building links. The popularity of

your web site increases through this step of link building. Inbound links are

one of the crucial factors for web page optimization. Search engines look for

inbound links from popular sites while ranking your site

Analysis and Action plan:

Analyze position reports of popular search engines. This helps in checking

out the action plan. Keeping an eye over position reports is all the more

necessary due to consistent changes in the parameters of search engines.

A professional team works for your media management and promotional

services The media rating and media selection will done by highly

experienced. The proper feedback and media related consultancy with free of

cost. A proper channel and plan of action is pre defined with expected ROI.

The better platform to get your brand creation or brand positioning.

Less investment and high returns in respect of sales and growth of the

business. Brand auditing and threats identification done by business analysts.


Psychological effects on the company, brand, product, service can be

evaluated through professionals. A proper execution and monitoring team is

following up with all the media’s company.

Online Media Promotion:

Digital Computers is the India’s First Promotion Outsourcing Company

which offering you the complete Online media promotion services. Our Research

and Development Team is analyzing the portals the traffic and the nature of the

traffic as how much it is helpful to your product or service. For Example…

Suppose you are dealing in to the XYZ and looking for online media promotion so

there are 5 Basic tools …

Our R & D Team, analyzing the nature of your product as well as the

portals and suggest or select accordingly. There are a lot of portals exists in the

internet media where the deferent – deferent nature of traffic are visiting in an

amounts of hits by which you can get more traffic on your website and business

references as well, which will converted in your potential customer

Search Engine:

Search Engine is the medium where end user or business people are

searching for their prospects for information. Search engines are based on

crawling of content and web pages. They are crawling the data of websites and

web pages along with the perfect matches with content/ keywords. There are a

lot of search engines but few who are popular are as Google, Yahoo, Altavista,

Lycos, Excite, Hotbot, Web Crawler, Infoseek, AOL NetFind, Planetsearch,


Northern light, Anzwers, Directhit, MSN Search, Startingpoint, Comfind,

Dmoz.org, 123india, khoj etc. for more detail click here

B2B Portals:

We, Digital Computers offering the B2B portals promotion. We are

analyzing to every B2B portal as per their regular hits or visits either from India or

from Abroad which make the value for entire portal. There are a lot of B2B

portals who are representing the Indian Business to the Globe as…. EC21,

Alibaba, Sulekha, TradeIndia, Indiamart, Trademart, Infomedia, Maharashtra

Directory

B2C Portals:

We, Digital Computers offering the B2C portals promotion. We are

analyzing to every portal as per their regular hits or visits which make the value

for entire portal. There are a lot of B2C portals dedicated to the industry specifics

like……Hi5, Timesjobs, Naukri, Orkut, Rediff, Yatra, Shaadi, Justdial EBay,

BharatMatrimony, MagicBricks, 99acers, Facebook, Monster, Makemytrip,

Carwale, Linkedin, Fundoodata.

Search Engine Marketing:

We are offering the latest online promotion module in which we are analyzing

your company and product/ services and after that we are customizing the

related portals, refined database, related keywords etc. After designing a proper
roadmap we are marketing your business through online channels either it is

related to any search engines or related to any portals or any industry.

DISSCUSION ON TRAINING

RESPONSIBLITIES HANDELD
Handled responsibilities pertaining to maintaining accounts receivable (A/R) is
one of a series of accounting transactions dealing with the billing of customers
who owe money to a person, company or organization for goods and services
that have been provided to the customer. In most business entities this is
typically done by generating an invoice and mailing or electronically delivering it
to the customer, who in turn must pay it within an established timeframe called
credit or payment terms.An example of a common payment term is Net 30, which
means payment is due in the amount of the invoice 30 days from the date of
invoice. Other common payment terms include Net 45 and Net 60 but could in
reality be for any time period agreed upon by the vendor and the customer.

While booking a receivable is accomplished by a simple accounting transaction,


the process of maintaining and collecting payments on the accounts receivable
subsidiary account balances can be a full time proposition. Depending on the
industry in practice, accounts receivable payments can be received up to 10 - 15
days after the due date has been reached. These types of payment practices are
sometimes developed by industry standards, corporate policy, or because of the
financial condition of the client.

On a company's balance sheet, accounts receivable is the money owed to that


company by entities outside of the company. The receivables owed by the
company's customers are called trade receivables. Account receivables are
classified as current assets assuming that they are due within one year. To
record a journal entry for a sale on account, one must debit a receivable and
credit a revenue account. When the customer pays off their accounts, one debits
cash and credits the receivable in the journal entry. The ending balance on the
trial balance sheet for accounts receivable is always debit.

Business organizations which have become too large to perform such tasks by
hand (or small ones that could but prefer not to do them by hand) will generally
use accounting software on a computer to perform this task. Associated
accounting issues include recognizing accounts receivable, valuing accounts
receivable, and disposing of accounts receivable. Accounts receivable
departments use the sales ledger. Accounts receivable is more commonly known
as Credit Control in the UK, where most companies have a credit control
department. Other types of accounting transactions include accounts payable,
payroll, and trial balance.

Since not all customer debts will be collected, businesses typically record an
allowance for bad debts which is subtracted from total accounts receivable.
When accounts receivable are not paid, some companies turn them over to third
party collection agencies or collection attorneys who will attempt to recover the
debt via negotiating payment plans, settlement offers or legal action. Outstanding
advances are part of accounts receivables if a company gets an order from its
customers with payment terms agreed in advance. Since no billing is being done
to claim the advances several times this area of collectible is not reflected in
accounts receivables. Ideally, since advance payment is mutually agreed term, it
is the responsibility of the accounts department to take out periodically the
statement showing advance collectible and should be provided to sales &
marketing for collection of advances. The payment of accounts receivable can be
protected either by a letter of credit or by Trade Credit Insurance.

Companies can use their accounts receivable as collateral when obtaining a loan
(asset-based lending) or sell them through factoring. Pools or portfolios of
accounts receivable can be sold in the capital markets through a securitization.

Bookkeeping for Accounts Receivable


Companies have two methods available to them for measuring the net value of
account receivables, which is computed by subtracting the balance of an
allowance account from the accounts receivable account. The first method is the
allowance method, which establishes a liability account, allowance for doubtful
accounts, or bad debt provision, that has the effect of reducing the balance for
accounts receivable. The amount of the bad debt provision can be computed in
two ways - either by reviewing each individual debt and deciding whether it is
doubtful (a specific provision) or by providing for a fixed percentage, say 2%, of
total debtors (a general provision). The change in the bad debt provision from
year to year is posted to the bad debt expense account in the income statement.

The second method, known as the direct write-off method, is simpler than the
allowance method in that it allows for one simple entry to reduce accounts
receivable to its net realizable value. The entry would consist of debiting a bad
debt expense account and crediting the respective account receivable in the
sales ledger. The two methods are not mutually exclusive, and some businesses
will have a provision for doubtful debts and will also write off specific debts that
they know to be bad (for example, if the debtor has gone into liquidation.)

For tax reporting purposes, a general provision for bad debts is not an allowable
deduction from profit- a business can only get relief for specific debtors that have
gone bad. However, for financial reporting purposes, companies may choose to
have a general provision against bad debts in line with their past experience of
customer payments in order to avoid over stating debtors in the balance sheet.
DATABASE

The collection of records kept for a common purpose is known as a database. That
is, a database is a collection of related data. By data, we mean known facts that can
be recorded and that have implicit meaning. An entity is a collection of
distinguishable real-world objects with common properties. Examples include an
employee or a project that is described in the database. A database stores electronic
data in an organized and accessible manner. The size and scope of databases can
vary wildly, from a small database used by an individual to file phone numbers, to an
extremely large enterprise. Database that stores several terabytes of information
accessed by tens of thousands of individuals. A database's tables and rows hold
data in much the same way as a file cabinet or an address book, but they allow
users more flexibility in what kinds of searches they can perform on the data as well
as how they want to view the data. In addition, the database system must provide for
the safety of the stored information, despite system crashes or attempts at
unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must
avoid possible anomalous results due to multiple users concurrently accessing the
same data.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that


controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization
and its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organization wide
database development in the hands of Database Administrators (DBAs) and other
specialist. DBMSes may use any of a variety of database models, such as the
network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other
software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.

A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage,


management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMS are categorized according
to their data structures or types. It is a set of prewritten programs that are used to
store, update and retrieve a Database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from
the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the
appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much
more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories
of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.

Organizations may use one kind of DBMS for daily transaction processing and
then move the detail onto another computer that uses another DBMS better suited
for random inquiries and analysis. Overall systems design decisions are performed
by data administrators and systems analysts. Detailed database design is performed
by database administrators.

Database servers are computers that hold the actual databases and run only the
DBMS and related software. Database servers are usually multiprocessor
computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
Connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, hardware database
accelerators are also used in large volume transaction processing environments.
DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. Sometimes DBMSs
are built around a private multitasking kernel with built-in networking support though
.

Examples of the use of database systems include airline reservation systems,


company payroll and employee information systems, banking systems, credit
card processing systems, and sales and order tracking systems. A major
purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the
data. That is, the system hides certain details of how the data are stored and
maintained.

Thereby, data can be stored in complex data structures that permit efficient
retrieval, yet users see a simplified and easy-to-use view of the data. The lowest
level of abstraction, the physical level, describes how the data are actually stored
and details the data structures. The next-higher level of abstraction, the logical
level, describes what data are stored, and what relationships exist among those
data. The highest level of abstraction, the view level, describes parts of the
database that are relevant to each user; application programs used to access a
database form part of the view level.

The overall structure of the database is called the database schema. The
schema specifies data, data relationships, data semantics, and consistency
constraints on the data.Underlying the structure of a database is the logical data
model: a collection of conceptual tools for describing the schema. The entity-
relationship data model is based on a collection of basic objects, called entities,
and of relationships among these objects. An entity is a “thing” or “object” in the
real world that is distinguishable from other objects. For example, each person is
an entity, and bank accounts can be considered entities. Entities are described in
a database by a set of attributes.

For example, the attributes account-number and balance describe one particular
account in a bank. A relationship is an association among several entities. For
example, a depositor relationship associates a customer with each of her
accounts. The set of all entities of the same type and the set of all relationships
of the same type are termed an entity set and a relationship set, respectively.

Like the entity-relationship model, the object-oriented model is based on a


collection of objects. An object contains values stored in instance variables within
the object. An object also contains bodies of code that operate on the object.
These bodies of code are called methods. The only way in which one object can
access the data of another object is by invoking a method of that other object.
This action is called sending a message to the object.
Thus, the call interface of the methods of an object defines that object's
externally visible part. The internal part of the object—the instance variables and
method code—are not visible externally. The result is two levels of data
abstraction, which are important to abstract away (hide) internal details of
objects. Object-oriented data models also provide object references which can
be used to identify objects.In record-based models, the database is structured in
fixed-format records of several types. Each record has a fixed set of fields. The
three most widely accepted record-based data models are the relational,
network, and hierarchical models.

The latter two were widely used once, but are of declining importance. The
relational model is very widely used. Databases based on the relational model
are called relational databases.
The relational model uses a collection of tables (called relations) to represent
both data and the relationships among those data. Each table has multiple
columns. A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software system that is
used both to create databases and manage the information stored within them.
The architecture of the DBMS will frequently determine or limit the possible uses
of the databases it creates.

Some DBMS's work best for creating single-user databases, while others can
build databases that accommodate multiple users in larger corporate
environments .The primary goal of such a system is to provide an environment
that is both convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing information. A
(DBMS) is designed to manage a large body of information.

Data management involves both defining structures for storing Information and
providing mechanisms for manipulating the information an attribute is a data item
that describes a property of an entity or a relationship. For example, the
employee's name or salary. Given an ordered list of m entities, E1, E2,..., Em
(Where the same entity may occur more than once in the list), a relationship R
defines a rule of correspondence between the instances of these entities.
Specifically, R represents a set of m-tuples, a subset of the Cartesian product of
entity instances E1 * E2 * ... * Em. That is, a relationship among two or more
entities an interaction among the entities; for example, a works-on relationship
between an employee and a project.
Database Management System

Modern database technology provides the means to store, manage and


access large amounts of information. A database management system (DBMS)
is a program product for keeping computerized records about an enterprise. In
other words, it is a collection of programs that enables users to create and
maintain a database. A DBMS may deal with more than one database at a time.
A number of characteristics distinguish the database approach from the
traditional approach of programming with files. In traditional file processing, each
user defines and implements the files needed for a specific application as part of
programming the application. For example, one user in the grade reporting office
may keep a file on students and their grades. Programs to print a student's
transcript and to enter new grades into the file are implemented. A second user
in the accounting office may keep track of students' fees and their payments.
Although both users are interested in data about students, each user maintains
separates files and programs to manipulate these files, because each requires
some data not available from the other user's files. The redundancy in defining
and storing data results in wasted storage space and in redundant efforts to
maintain common data up-to-date. In the database approach, a single repository
of data is maintained that is defined once and then is accessed by various users.
The characteristic that allows program-data independence and program-
operation independence is called data abstraction. One fundamental
characteristic of the database approach is that it provides some level of data
abstraction by hiding details of data storage that are not needed by most
database users.

A data model - a collection of concepts that can be used to describe the


structure of a database - provides the necessary means to achieve this much
needed feature of data abstraction. By structure of a database we mean the data
types, relationships and constraints that should hold on the data. Most data
models also include a set of basic operations for specifying retrievals and
updates on the database. In any data model, it is important to distinguish
between the description of the database and the database itself. The description
of a database is called the database schema, which is specified during database
design and is not expected to change frequently.A multiuser DBMS must allow
multiple users to access the database at the same time. This is essential if data
for multiple applications is to be integrated and maintained in a single database.

The DBMS must include concurrency control software to ensure that


several users trying to update the same data do so in a controlled manner so that
the result of the updates is correct. These types of applications are called on-line
transaction processing (OLTP).System analysts determine the requirements of
end users, especially naive end users, and develop specifications for canned
transactions that meet these requirements.

Application programmers implement these specifications as programs;


then they test, debug, document, and maintain these canned transactions.

Advantages of having a DBMS

• Controlling redundancy

• Restricting unauthorized access

• Providing persistent storage for program objects and data structures.

• Permitting inference and actions using rules

• Permitting multiple user interfaces

• Representing complex relationships among data


• Enforcing Integrity Constraints

• Providing backup and recovery

The size of a database can vary widely, from a few megabytes for personal
databases, to gigabytes (a gigabyte is 1024 megabytes) or even terabytes (a
terabyte is 1024 gigabytes) for large corporate databases.

The information in a database is stored on a non volatile medium that can


accommodate large amounts of data; the most commonly used such media are
magnetic disks. Magnetic disks can store significantly larger amounts of data
than main memory, at much lower costs per unit of data. To improve reliability in
mission-critical systems, disks can be organized into structures generically called
redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID).

In a RAID system, data are organized with some amount of redundancy (such as
replication) across several disks. Even if one of the disks in the RAID system
were to be damaged and lose data, the lost data can be reconstructed from the
other disks in the RAID system .

Computer storage technology . Logically, data in a relational database are


organized as a set of relations, each relation consisting of a set of records. This
is the view given to database users. The underlying implementation on disk
(hidden from the user) consists of a set of files. Each file consists of a set of
fixed-size pieces of disk storage, called blocks. Records of a relation are stored
within blocks. Each relation is associated with one or more files.

Generally a file contains records from only one relation, but organizations where
a file contains records from more than one relation are also used for performance
reasons.
One way to retrieve a desired record in a relational database is to perform a scan
on the corresponding relation; a scan fetches all the records from the relation,
one at a time. Accessing desired records from a large relation using a scan on
the relation can be very expensive. Indices are data structures that permit more
efficient access of records. An index is built on one or more attributes of a
relation; such attributes constitute the search key. Given a value for each of the
search-key attributes, the index structure can be used to retrieve records with the
specified search-key values quickly. Indices may also support other operations,
such as fetching all records whose search-key values fall in a specified range of
values.

A database schema is specified by a set of definitions expressed by a data-


definition language. The result of execution of data-definition language
statements is a set of information stored in a special file called a data dictionary.
The data dictionary contains metadata, that is, data about data.

This file is consulted before actual data are read or modified in the database
system. The data-definition language is also used to specify storage structures
and access methods. Data manipulation is the retrieval, insertion, deletion, and
modification of information stored in the database.

A data-manipulation language enables users to access or manipulate data as


organized by the appropriate data model. There are basically two types of data-
manipulation languages: Procedural data-manipulation languages require a user
to specify what data are needed and how to get those data; nonprocedural data-
manipulation languages require a user to specify what data are needed without
specifying how to get those data.

A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information. The portion of a


data-manipulation language that involves information retrieval is called a query
language. Although technically incorrect, it is common practice to use the terms
query language and data-manipulation language synonymously .Database
languages support both data-definition and data-manipulation functions. Although
many database languages have been proposed and implemented, SQL has
become a standard language supported by most relational database systems.
Databases based on the object -oriented model also support declarative query
languages that are similar to SQL.SQL provides a complete data-definition
language, including the ability to create relations with specified attribute types,
and the ability to define integrity constraints on the data.Query By Example
(QBE) is a graphical language for specifying queries. It is widely used in personal
database systems, since it is much simpler than SQL for non expert users.
Forms interfaces present a screen view that looks like a form, with fields to Be
filled in by users. Some of the fields may be filled automatically by the forms
system. Report writers permit report formats to be defined, along with queries to
fetch data from the database; the results of the queries are shown formatted in
the report. These tools in effect provide a new language for building database
interfaces and are often referred to as fourth-generation languages (4GLs).

Often, several operations on the database form a single logical unit of work,
called a transaction. An example of a transaction is the transfer of funds from one
account to another. Transactions in databases mirror the corresponding
transactions in the commercial world. Traditionally

database systems have been designed to support commercial data, consisting


mainly of structured alphanumeric data. In recent years, database systems have
added support for a number of non traditional data types such as text documents,
images, and maps and other spatial data.

The goal is to make databases universal servers, which can store all types of
data. Rather than add support for all such data types into the core database,
vendors offer add-on packages that integrate with the database to provide such
functionality.

A database stores electronic data in an organized and accessible manner.


The size and scope of databases can vary wildly, from a small database used by
an individual to file phone numbers, to an extremely large enterprise database
that stores several terabytes of information accessed by tens of thousands of
individuals. A database's tables and rows hold data in much the same way as a
file cabinet or an address book, but they allow users more flexibility in what kinds
of searches they can perform on the data as well as how they want to view the
data.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software system that Is used


both to create databases and manage the information stored within them. The
architecture of the DBMS will frequently determine or limit the possible uses of
the databases it creates. Some DBMS's work best for creating single-user
databases, while others can build databases that accommodate multiple users in
larger corporate environments. A Database Administrator (DBA) is crucial to any
organization that has mission-critical information stored in its databases.

DBAs are responsible for the design and administration of databases, and for
ensuring that the highest level of data integrity is maintained. Database
maintenance includes performance tuning, monitoring the logs for errors,
performing backup and recovery procedures as well as tasks associated with the
data stored in the database, which include data transfer, data replication and
data cleansing. A database consists of one or more tables, each containing data
stored as individual records.

Different database architectures determine how the tables and Records are
organized or related to one another. The first database Architectures-
Hierarchical and Networked - have largely been superseded by the Relational,
Object-Oriented and Object-Relational architectures. The Relational Data Model,
developed by Todd Codd in 1969, allows multiple tables to be related to one
another within a database.For example, one customer's information could be
recorded in separate tables such as "Personal Information", "Marketing Efforts",
and "Service Requests". The information stored in these tables will then relate
back to the customer's main record. A relational database management system
also offers flexibility in terms of how the customer's data can be viewed. To
access the information stored in relational databases, users can either build
queries using the Structured Query Language (SQL), or they can utilize a user
interface that translates their requests into SQL and displays the results. While
the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved an early version of
SQL as a standard, many RDBMS's also use customized, proprietary forms of
the language. The Object-Oriented database model emerged in the mid-1980s
due to the dissatisfaction of some database users with the structural limitations of
RDBMS's. The Object-Oriented model defines each piece of data and its
associated processes as an individual object. According to the basic tenets of
this model, all information about an object is stored in one place instead of being
stored across multiple tables, as is done in the relational model.

An Object-Oriented Database Management System (OODBMS) also integrates


more easily with applications that have been written with an Object-Oriented
programming language such as C++ or Java. Despite the advantages of the
Object Oriented approach, no standard model for the construction of an
OODBMS yet exists. For this reason, at least in part, RDBMS's still dominate the
database market. One effort to combine the best parts of the RDBMS.
Researchers are now able to use meta data more efficiently to improved data
dissemination.

Researchers are also able to use federated strategies for distributed databases.
The primary goal of such a system is to provide an environment that is both
convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing information. A database
management system (DBMS) is designed to manage a large body of information.
Data management involves both defining structures for storing information and
providing mechanisms for manipulating the information. In addition, the database
system must provide for the safety of the stored information, despite system
crashes or attempts at unauthorized access.

If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid Possible
anomalous results due to multiple users concurrently accessing the same data.
Examples of the use of database systems include airline reservation systems,
company payroll and employee information systems, banking systems, credit
card processing systems, and sales and order tracking systems. A major
purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of the
data. That is, the system hides certain details of how the data arestored and
maintained. Thereby, data can be stored in complex data-structures that permit
efficient retrieval, yet users see a simplified and easy-to-use view of the data.
The lowest level of abstraction, the physical level, describes how the data are
actually stored and details the data structures. The next-higher level of
abstraction, the logical level, describes what data are stored, and what
relationships exist among those data. The highest level of abstraction, the view
level, describes parts of the database that are relevant to each user; application
programs used to access a database form part of the view level.

The overall structure of the database is called the database schema. The
schema specifies data, data relationships, data semantics, and consistency
constraints on the data. Underlying the structure of a database is the logical data
model: a collection of conceptual tools for describing the schema. The entity-
relationship data model is based on a collection of basic objects, called entities,
and of relationships among these objects.

An entity is a “thing” or “object” in the real world that is distinguishable from other
objects.

For example, each person is an entity, and bank accounts can be considered
entities. Entities are described in a database by a set of attributes. For example,
the attributes account-number and balance describe one particular account in a
bank. A relationship is an association among several entities. For example, a
depositor relationship associates a customer with each of her accounts. The set
of all entities of the same type and the set of all relationships of the same type
are termed an entity set and a relationship set, respectively . Like the entity-
relationship model, the object-oriented model is based on a collection of objects.
An object contains values stored in instance variables within the object. An object
also contains bodies of code that operate on the object. These bodies of code
are called methods. The only way in which one object can access the data of
another object is by invoking a method of that other object. This action is called
sending a message to the object. Thus, the call interface of the methods of an
object defines that object's externally visible part. The internal part of the object—
the instance variables and method code—are not visible externally. The result is
two levels of data abstraction ,which are important to abstract away (hide)
internal details of objects. Object -oriented data models also provide object
references which can be used to identify objects. In record-based models, the
database is structured in fixed-format records of several types. Each record has
a fixed set of fields.

The three most widely accepted record-based data models are the relational,
network, and hierarchical models. The latter two were widely used once, but are
of declining importance. The relational model is very widely used. Databases are
based on the relational model are called relational databases. The relational
model uses a collection of tables (called relations) to represent both data and the
relationships among those data. Each table has multiple columns, and each
column has a unique name. Each row of the table is called a tuple, and each
column represents the value of an attribute of the tuple.

The size of a database can vary widely, from a few megabytes for personal
databases, to gigabytes (a gigabyte is 1024 megabytes) or even terabytes (a
terabyte is 1024 gigabytes) for large corporate databases .The information in a
database is stored on a non-volatile medium that can accommodate large
amounts of data; the most commonly used such media are magnetic disks.
Magnetic disks can store significantly larger amounts of data than main memory,
at much lower costs per unit of data.

To improve reliability in mission-critical systems, disks can be organized Into


structures generically called redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID).In a
RAID system, data are organized with some amount of redundancy (such as
replication) across several disks. Even if one of the disks in the RAID system
were to be damaged and lose data, the lost data can be reconstructed from the
other disks in the RAID system. Computer storage technology. Logically, data in
a relational database are organized as a set of relations, each relation consisting
of a set of records. This is the view given to database users. The underlying
implementation on disk (hidden from the user) consists of a set of files. Each file
consists of a set of fixed-size pieces of disk storage, called blocks. Records of a
relation are stored within blocks. Each relation is associated with one or more
files.

Generally a file contains records from only one relation, but organizations where
a file contains records from more than one relation are also used for performance
reasons.

One way to retrieve a desired record in a relational database is to perform a scan


on the corresponding relation; a scan fetches all the records from the relation,
one at a time. Accessing desired records from a large relation using a scan on
the relation can be very expensive. Indices are data structures that permit more
efficient access of records. An index is built on one or more attributes of a
relation; such attributes constitute the search key. Given a value for each of the
search-key attributes, the index structure can be used to retrieve records with the
specified search-key values quickly.

Indices may also support other operations, such as fetching all records whose
search-key values fall in a specified range of values. A database schema is
specified by a set of definitions expressed by a data-definition language. The
result of execution of data-definition language statements is a set of information
stored in a special file called a data dictionary. The data dictionary contains
metadata, that is, data about data. This file is consulted before actual data are
read or modified in the database system. The data-definition language is also
used to specify storage structures and access methods. Data manipulation is the
retrieval, insertion, deletion, and modification of information stored in the
database. A data-manipulation language enables users to access or manipulate
data as organized by the appropriate data model. There are basically two types
of data-manipulation languages: Procedural data-manipulation languages require
a user to specify what data are needed and how to get those data; non-
procedural data-manipulation languages require a user to specify what data are
needed without specifying how to get those data.

Often, several operations on the database form a single logical unit of work,
called a transaction. An example of a transaction is the transfer of funds from one
account to another. Transactions in databases mirror the corresponding
transactions in the commercial world. Traditionally database systems have been
designed to support commercial data, consisting mainly of structured
alphanumeric data. In recent years, database systems have added support for a
number of non traditional data types such as text documents, images, and maps
and other spatial data.

The goal is to make databases universal servers, which can store all types of
data.

Database management system is the system of computer software that is aimed


to provide a managing tool for maintaining the data, through various data models.
If you look over the large companies or even the smaller ones, can you believe
that all of them are maintaining the manual registers for the collection of data?
Obviously not! The invention of computer and the software has made it easy to
manage the data of all types in the database management system and then
having a direct access to data more quickly and easily than the manual system.
For example, if you go to your doctor for a routinely check up, he will have a
record of the last time you visited him. This shows that for each patient he will
have the same record and this is what the database management system is
supposed to do. Database security denotes the system, processes, and
procedures that protect a database from unintended activity. Security is usually
enforced through access control, auditing, and encryption.

•Access control ensures and restricts who can connect and what can be done to
the database.

•Auditing logs what action or change has been performed, when and by whom.
•Encryption: Since security has become a major issue in recent years, many
commercial database vendors provide built-in encryption mechanisms. Data is
encoded natively into the tables and deciphered "on the fly" when a query comes
in. Connections can also be secured and encrypted if required using DSA, MD5,
SSL or legacy encryption standard.

One of the important Database management software’s is Visual FoxPro is a


data-centric object oriented and procedural programming language produced by
Microsoft. It is derived from FoxPro (originally known as FoxBASE) which was
developed by Fox Software beginning in 1984. Fox Technologies merged with
Microsoft in 1992, after which the software acquired further features and the
prefix Visual".

The last version of FoxPro (2.6) worked under Mac OS, DOS, Windows, and
Unix: Visual FoxPro 3.0, the first "Visual" version, dropped the platform support
to only Mac and Windows, and later versions were Windows-only.

The current version of Visual FoxPro is COM-based and Microsoft has stated
that they do not intend to create a Microsoft .NET version

VIEWPOINT OF MARKET LEADERS

June 2001, the Oracle Corporation controlled 33.8% of the database market, IBM
held 30.1% and Microsoft had 14.9%.While Oracle once dominated the market,
the allegiance has been shifting as major enterprise application vendors such as
SAP, PeopleSoft and Siebel Systems have pushed their primary application
development efforts To IBM's DB2 database. IBM's recently completed
acquisition of Informix has consolidated the number of players in the database
market. It remains to be seen what impact the various open source DBMS's will
have on the market, and the extent to which they will erode the market share of
the current leaders
The Future of Databases

Databases play an important role in both data management and data


storage in today's information Age. The high value placed on information-
gathering by companies as well as individuals requires efficient methods of
storing and accessing information. Database architectures and products will need
to be even more highly scalable to accommodate and support this increasing
production of data in the future. According to Michael lesk. The huge amount of
data would take several billion gigabytes or several thousand pet bytes to store.
Today, the importance and impact of databases is unquestioned, as government
organisations, academic institutions and business entities create and maintain
extensive databases containing all kinds of information ranging from natural-
language text documents, statistical tables, financial data, and multimedia
objects to data of a scientific and technical nature. Many databases are
composed of metadata, which means the records hold data about data such as
information about the size and character of another database rather than primary
source content such as a person's name and address. Database technologies,
including architecture and access methods, are rapidly developing to keep pace
with this demand for information management mechanisms. Database designers
and managers face many challenges that reflect the complexity of the
burgeoning information environment. Database technologies must handle
massive amounts of data, extract useful information from these repositories, and
have the ability to reflect relationships between data maintained in different
databases. In addition, the architecture and system must provide integrity,
recovery, concurrency and security.

To answer these challenges, the three fundamental database models,


hierarchical, network and relational, have served as a foundation for developing
more powerful and flexible data models, such as the extended-relational and
object-relational models. Well defined architecture and data schema assure
efficient, logical data storage which increases database capacity and extends the
capabilities of query languages and other access methods. In addition, data
mining creates useful information by identifying related data within the vast
stores. Researchers now wrestle with the complexities of relational issues and
interoperability.

Data structure
Data structures (fields, records, files and objects) optimized to deal with very
large amounts of data stored on a permanent data storage device (which implies
relatively slow access compared to volatile main memory).

SQL DBMS

IBM started working on a prototype system loosely based on Codd's concepts as


System R in the early 1970s. The first "quickie" version was ready in 1974/5, and
work then started on multi-table systems in which the data could be broken down
so that all of the data for a record (much of which is often optional) did not have
to be stored in a single large "chunk". Subsequent multi-user versions were
tested by customers in 1978 and 1979, by which time a standardized query
language, SQL, had been added. Codd's ideas were establishing themselves as
both workable and superior to Codasyl, pushing IBM to develop a true production
version of System R, known as SQL/DS, and, later, Database 2 (DB2).

Many of the people involved with INGRES became convinced of the future
commercial success of such systems, and formed their own companies to
commercialize the work but with an SQL interface. Sybase, Informix, NonStop
SQL and eventually Ingres itself were all being sold as offshoots to the original
INGRES product in the 1980s. Even Microsoft SQL Server is actually a re-built
version of Sybase, and thus, INGRES. Only Larry Ellison's Oracle started from a
different chain, based on IBM's papers on System R, and beat IBM to market
when the first version was released in 1978.Stonebraker went on to apply the
lessons from INGRES to develop a new database, Postgres, which is now known
as PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL is primarily used for global mission critical
applications (the .org and .info domain name registries use it as their primary
data store, as do many large companies and financial institutions).In Sweden,
Codd's paper was also read and Mimer SQL was developed from the mid-70s at
Uppsala University. In 1984, this project was consolidated into an independent
enterprise. In the early 1980s, Mimer introduced transaction handling for high
robustness in applications, an idea that was subsequently implemented on most
other DBMS

Database query language

A database query language and report writer allows users to interactively


interrogate the database, analyze its data and update it according to the user’s
privileges on data. It also controls the security of the database. Data security
prevents unauthorized users from viewing or updating the database. Using
passwords, users are allowed access to the entire database or subsets of it
called subschemas. For example, an employee database can contain all the data
about an individual employee, but one group of users may be authorized to view
only payroll data, while others are allowed access to only work history and
medical data. If the DBMS provides a way to interactively enter and update the
database, as well as interrogate it, this capability allows for managing personal
databases. However, it may not leave an audit trail of actions or provide the kinds
of controls necessary in a multi-user organization. These controls are only
available when a set of application programs are customized for each data entry
and updating function
Traditional View of Data

A database management system provides the ability for many different users to
share data and process resources. But as there can be many different users,
there are many different database needs. The question now is: How can a single,
unified database meet the differing requirement of so many users?

A DBMS minimizes these problems by providing two views of the database data:
a logical (external) view and physical (internal) view. The logical view/user’s view,
of a database program represents data in a format that is meaningful to a user
and to the software programs that process those data. That is, the logical view
tells the user, in user terms, what is in the database. The physical view deals with
the actual, physical arrangement and location of data in the direct access storage
devices(DASDs). Database specialists use the physical view to make efficient
use of storage and processing resources. With the logical view users can see
data differently from how they are stored, and they do not want to know all the
technical details of physical storage. After all, a business user is primarily
interested in using the information, not in how it is stored.

One strength of a DBMS is that while there is only one physical view of the data,
there can be an endless number of different logical views. This feature allows
users to see database information in a more business-related way rather than
from a technical, processing viewpoint. Thus the logical view refers to the way
user views data, and the physical view to the way the data are physically stored
and processed...

DBMS FEATURES
Alternatively, and especially in connection with the relational model of database
management, the relation between attributes drawn from a specified set of
domains can be seen as being primary. For instance, the database might
indicate that a car that was originally "red" might fade to "pink" in time, provided it
was of some particular "make" with an inferior paint job. Such higher arity
relationships provide information on all of the underlying domains at the same
time, with none of them being privileged above the others.

Throughout recent history specialized databases have existed for scientific,


geospatial, imaging, document storage and like uses. Functionality drawn from
such applications has lately begun appearing in mainstream DBMSs as well.
However, the main focus there, at least when aimed at the commercial data
processing market, is still on descriptive attributes on repetitive record structures.

Thus, the DBMSs of today roll together frequently-needed services or features of


attribute management. By externalizing such functionality to the DBMS,
applications effectively share code with each other and are relieved of much
internal complexity. Features commonly offered by database management
systems include:

Query ability
Querying is the process of requesting attribute information from various
perspectives and combinations of factors. Example: "How many 2-door cars in
Texas are green?" A database query language and report writer allow users to
interactively interrogate the database, analyze its data and update it according to
the users privileges on data.

for a distant organization that cannot readily access the original. DBMS usually
provide utilities to facilitate the process of extracting and disseminating attribute
sets. When data is replicated between database servers, so that the information
remains consistent throughout the database system and users cannot tell or even
know which server in the DBMS they are using, the system is said to exhibit
replication transparency.
Rule enforcement
Often one wants to apply rules to attributes so that the attributes are clean
and reliable. For example, we may have a rule that says each car can
have only one engine associated with it (identified by Engine Number). If
somebody tries to associate a second engine with a given car, we want
the DBMS to deny such a request and display an error message.
However, with changes in the model specification such as, in this
example, hybrid gas-electric cars, rules may need to change. Ideally such
rules should be able to be added and removed as needed without
significant data layout redesign.
Security
Often it is desirable to limit who can see or change which attributes or
groups of attributes. This may be managed directly by individual, or by the
assignment of individuals and privileges to groups, or (in the most
elaborate models) through the assignment of individuals and groups to
roles which are then granted entitlements.
Computation
There are common computations requested on attributes such as
counting, summing, averaging, sorting, grouping, cross-referencing, etc.
Rather than have each computer application implement these from
scratch, they can rely on the DBMS to supply such calculations.
Change and access logging
Often one wants to know who accessed what attributes, what was
changed, and when it was changed. Logging services allow this by
keeping a record of access occurrences and changes.
Automated optimization
If there are frequently occurring usage patterns or requests, some
DBMS can adjust themselves to improve the speed of those
interactions.
FREQUENTLY ASK QUESTION

1. What is an IP Address?

2. What is Dynamic IP Addressing?

3. What is Static IP Addressing?

4. How Do I Checking My IP Address in Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 /

XP ??

5. How Do I Checking My IP Address in Linux?

6. How to setup a Static IP Address on Windows 98 / SE / ME?

7. How to setup a Static IP Address on Windows 2000 / XP?

8. How to Releasing an IP Address in Windows 98 / SE / ME?

9. How to Releasing an IP Address in Windows 2000 / XP?

12. How to Sharing Folder on Windows 98SE / ME / 2000 / XP?

13. How to Sharing Drives on Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP?


14. How to Accessing Other Computers Shared Files on Windows

98/SE/ME/ 2000/XP?

15. How to Sharing Printers on Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP?

16. How install a Network Printer for Windows 98/ SE / ME/ 2000 /XP?

17. How to Connecting to Internet on Windows 98 / SE / ME ?

18. How to Accessing the Internet using Windows 2000 / XP?

1. What is an IP Addresses?

IP Stands for Internet Protocol. An IP Address is the identifier where other

computers on the network can contact your computer, when you are connected

to the network using the TCP/IP protocols. The format of IP addresses are 32bit

numerical addresses in 4 groups of 3. It is ranged from 0-255. For example:

255.255.255.255. This number allows your computer to be unique on the same

network, and able to communicate with other computers on the network.

2. What is Dynamic IP Addressing?

Dynamic IP Addressing is where the computer will automatically be assigned a

new IP Address. This IP Address will be unique to the network that it is working

on, and should not be the same as any other computer on the same network.
3. What is Static IP Addressing?

Static IP Addressing is where the computer will have a preconfigured IP

Address. This Address will never change, and will always be the same. This

scheme should be used if you want to keep the same settings on each computer

all the time. If the subnet of the network changes (subnet is the first 3 groups of

the IP) the subnet of the static computer must also change.

4. How Do I Checking My IP Address in Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP

Click Start and click Run


Type “Command” in the run prompt, Click OK

A Dos Command prompt will open. Type in ipconfig and press Enter

Your IP Address will Display, along with the Subnet Mask, and your Gateway

5. How Do I Checking My IP Address in Linux?


A: At the command line type /sbin/ifconfig and you will get a listing of

information. Your IP is shown after inet addr.

6. How to setup a Static IP Address on Windows 98 / SE / ME?

Right Click on “Network Neighborhood” and click Properties”

Click on “TCP/IP” for the network adapter you want to set IP addresses for
Click on “Specify an IP address” Type in the IP Address you wish to use.

(192.168.XXX.XXX is very standard for home networks) Click on the Subnet mask, and

if you know the subnet mask you want to use, type it in, otherwise it should fill in with

“255.255.255.0” which is very standard for subnet masks.

Click on the “Gateway” tab, and

add in a gateway if you need to.

Then click OK
To save the changes you must restart, so click “YES”

7. How to setup a Static IP Address on Windows 2000 / XP

Right click My Network Places and click Properties.

Find and “Double Click” the Local Area Connection for the Network adapter you want to

Set IP’s for.


Click Properties button

Click (Highlight) “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and click “Properties”

Click “Use the following IP address” Type in the IP Address you wish to use.

(192.168.XXX.XXX is very standard for home networks) Click on the Subnet mask, and

if you know the subnet mask you want to use, type it in, otherwise it should fill in with

“255.255.255.0” which is very standard for subnet masks. Click on the Default gateway
and fill that in. If you know the DNS you are going to use, fill it in otherwise leave it

blank. Then click OK.

To check that everything is Correct, Click on “Support” and the information you typed in

should appear.

12. How to Sharing Folder on Windows 98SE / ME / 2000 / XP?

Double click “My computer”


Double Click the Drive where the folder that you want to share is located.

Right Click on the folder you want to share, and click “Properties”

Click on the sharing tab, then “If you understand the risk but still want to share the root

of the drive, click here”


Click “Share this folder on the network” and specify the name you want the folder to be

seen as on the network.

A Hand should appear under the folder you wanted to share letting you know that it is

shared on the network.

13. How to Sharing Drives on Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP?


Right click on “My Computer” and click “Properties”

Right click on the drive you want to share and click “Properties”

click on the Sharing tab “If you understand the risk but still want to share the root of the

drive, click here”


Click on “Share this folder on the network” and specify what you want your shared folder

to be viewed as.
A hand should appear under the drive you wanted to share. This lets you know that it is

shared on your network

14. How to Accessing Other Computers Shared Files on Windows

98/SE/ME/ 2000/XP?

Find the IP Address of the computer you want to access

Click Start, and then click Run

Type “\\” and the IP address of the computer you want to access. (Format is

“XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX”)
All the files that the computer you are trying to access will open in a new window.

All the files that the computer you are trying to access will Open in a new window.

15. How to Sharing Printers on Windows 98 / SE / ME / 2000 / XP?


Click “Start” and click ‘Printers and Faxes”

Right click on the printer you want to share and click “Properties”
click the “Sharing” tab, and click “Share the printer” then specify the name that you want

the printer to be seen as on the network. Then click “OK”

A hand should appear under the printer you want to share.

16. How install a Network Printer for Windows 98/ SE / ME/ 2000 /XP?

Click Start and click on Printers and Faxes.


The Printers and Faxes window should open, on the left side there should be an Add a

Printer button under Printer Tasks. Click on Add a Printer

The Add Printer Wizard should appear, click Next to proceed

Select “A network printer or a printer attached to another computer” and click Next
Click “Browse for a printer”, unless you know the computer name(or IP address) of the

printer, and the exact printer name. Or the printer is at a location that can be connected

to through the internet. And click Next

1. Browse through your network and select the printer that you want to add,

Highlight it, and click Next Browse through your network and select the printer

that you want to add, Highlight it, and click Next

2. Click Yes to proceed


3. Unless you want this to be your default printer, click NO, otherwise click YES and

click Next

4. Click Finish to finish the network installation


5. The printer should now be installed on your computer.

**Note** You may need to install drivers for the printer you want to install, so make sure

you have them available before trying to install any printer.

17. How to Connecting to Internet on Windows 98 / SE / ME?

1. Double Click Internet Explorer


The Internet Connection Wizard Should open(If this does not open and Internet Explorer

Opens up, skip to Section 7) Click “I want to set up my Internet Connection Manually, or

I want to connect through a local area network(LAN)” click Next

Click “I connect through a local area network(LAN)” Click Next


Click “Automatic discovery of proxy server(recommended)” Click next

Unless you want to setup your Email(you can do this separately later) Click NO, and

click Next.

Click the box, and click Finish

You should be on the internet, If a website does not occur Try to Release IP, then

Renew IP, and try to Ping your gateway.

18. How to Accessing the Internet using Windows 2000 / XP?


Double Click on Internet Explorer

The New Connection Wizard might open(If this does not happen, skip to Step 7) Click

Next
Click “Connect to the Internet” and click Next

Click “Set up my connection manually”


Click “Connect using a broadband connection that is always on”
SUMMARY OF LEARNING EXPERIENCE

During the training period I learnt a lot and it was great experience to work

with DIGITAL COMPUTERS. My training in charge helped me to carry my work

properly and efficiently.While working we faced many problems but all the

problems were solved simultaneously by applying the knowledge which we

gained from the company and other members of the company.Company helped

us to learn a lot and we have also tried to maximise our skills and knowledge.
CONCLUSION

This project helped me to understand the finance core accounting and

receivable management in depth and provided me with a lot of knowledge about

the industry and its products which in turn helped me out to build new client age

and to retain old customers of the company there by developing better customer

relationship and increasing the business & market share of the company.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
 www.google.com

 www.yahoo.com

 www.wikipedia.com

 http://www.itaa.org/es/docs/Information%20Technology

%20Definitions.pdf

 http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gitr/2009/gitr09fullreport.pdf.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology

 http://www.engineer.ucla.edu/stories/2004/Internet35.ht

m.

 www.webopedia.com