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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T

Format of Science lab reports

Name of Student : Kitty Chin

Grade : Y10T

Teacher : Ms. Wong

Topic : Experiment to investigate the effect of different concentration of potassium iodide

on the reaction time and rate.

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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T


Investigation Question -Bi

How does (or to what extent does) the different concentration of potassium iodide affect the
rate of reaction?

Background to the Investigation question -Bi

The aim of the experiment is to compare the effect of different concentration of potassium
iodide on the reaction times and rate of reaction. We will be able to calculate the reaction rate
through timing the amount of time needed for the foam like substance to reach 50mL.

Chemical Formula of Potassium Iodide and Hydrogen Peroxide:

KI(s) + 2H2O2 (1) = 2H2O(g) + O2(g) + heat + K+(s) + I-(s)

potassium + hydrogen = water + oxygen + potassium + iodide

iodide peroxide ion ion

Chemical Formula of Hydrogen Peroxide:

2H2O2 2H2O + O2

hydrogen water + oxygen


In order to calculate the rate of reaction, we will first time the amount of time needed for the
substances to reach 50mL when carrying out the experiment. The reaction time may be
calculated by using a timer or stopwatch. As the reaction time is calculate, the rate of
reaction of the substances could be calculated by using the following equation.
Level reached by the substances (mL)
rate of reaction (mL/s) = reaction time of the substances (s)

The relation between the independant, dependant and derived variable are quite strong. This
is because it concerns the properties of a substance. If one variable is changed, then the
other will change by it as well. For instance, if the potassium iodide has a low concentration,
then it will have a longer reaction time, hence a smaller rate of reaction.

The purpose of this experiment is to investigate how the different concentrations of

Potassium Iodide. This experiment will help demonstrate the rapid breakdown of hydrogen
peroxide, by using this experiment.

"Clock Reaction - UW Dept. of Chemistry." Clock Reaction - UW Dept. of Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2016.
"Iodine Clock Reaction." Iodine Clock Reaction. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2016.

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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T

Hypothesis Bii
The higher the concentration of Potassium Iodide, the shorter the reaction time, hence the
reaction for a higher concentration of Potassium Iodide would have a larger reaction. This is
because the number of atoms in the chemical will increase, thereby decreasing the rate of

Explanation of your HypothesisBii

2.0M of Potassium Iodide will have the shortest reaction time and largest rate of reaction,
whereas 0.4M (or 0M) will have the highest reaction time and smallest rate of reaction. This
is because as the concentration of the chemical increases, the number of atoms will
increase, thus 2.0M of KI will have more atoms than 0.4M of KI. Since 2.0M of KI has more
atoms than 0.4M of KI, not only will it have a shorter reaction time than 0.4M, but also a
larger rate of reaction.

To support my hypothesis, the reaction time will be affected by the different concentration of
KI. Since a higher concentrated KI will consists of more atoms, it will result in a larger
reaction, therefore resulting in a shorter reaction time and larger rate of reaction.

Expectations of graph:

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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T


Independent variable Different concentration of potassium iodide (KI)

A measuring cylinder would be used to measure the amount added
is the same as the liquid detergent added.
Unit(s) of IV Molarity (M)

Range of IV measured Five different concentration of potassium iodide

0.4M, 0.8M, 1.2M, 1.6M & 2.0M
(Increasing by 0.4M)
Describe and explain Five different concentration of KI will be used, which are: 0.4M,
the procedure to 0.8M, 1.2M, 1.6M and 2.0M. A 50 mL measuring cylinder used to
change the measure the amount of chemicals poured inside the 1000 mL
independent variable. measuring cylinder that already consists of the same amount of
liquid detergent in it. Once the liquid detergent and KI is added in,
the hydrogen peroxide will then be added.

Dependent variable The reaction time of substances

A timer would be used to calculate the time needed for the foam to
reach the top of the measuring cylinder
Unit(s) of DV Seconds (s)

Derived variable The rate of reaction of the substances

Unit(s) of DV Amount per unit volume (mL/s)

Describe and explain The rate of reaction is the derived variable to this experiment.
the procedure to In order to compare the rate of reaction between the different
calculate the derived concentrations of Potassium Iodide, the rate of reaction should be
variable. calculated by using the equation below.
level reached by the substance (mL)
rate of reaction (mL/s) = reaction time of the substances (s)

Controlled variable Procedure to control it and explain why

it matters to the investigation.

Describe and explain The temperature of The temperature of the Hydrogen

the procedure to Hydrogen Peroxide Peroxide should be fixed to room
control other variables temperature. Although there is no specific
in the investigation. temperature for what Hydrogen Peroxide
should be, it shouldnt be taken out for a
long period of time as this may affect its
temperature, whether it is increasing or
decreasing it.

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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T

The concentration of While writing the lab request form, there

Hydrogen Peroxide should only be one concentration of
added Hydrogen Peroxide. The Hydrogen
Peroxide used for conducting the
experiment should remain using the same
level of concentration.
According to the Collision Theory, as the
concentration of hydrogen peroxide
increases, the rate of reaction will
increase. This is because when the
concentration of hydrogen peroxide
increases, the total amount of particles per
unit volume will increase. Thereby the
collisions will increase.

Materials / Equipment ListBiv

Dish detergent x 500mL
4% 1M H2O2 (aq) x 500mL
0.4M KI (aq) x
0.8M KI (aq) x 200mL
1.2M KI (aq) x 200mL
x 200mL
1.6M KI (aq)
2.0M KI (aq) x 200mL

1000mL measuring cylinder x1
50mL measuring cylinder x2
50mL beaker x1
Plastic tray x1
Stopwatch x1
Pipette x6
50mL measuring cylinder x10
10mL measuring cylinder x4

Yellow highlight = added during the experiment

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Risk Assessment Biv

Possible hazards that may occur during the assessment:
1. One of the reactions from the substances is releases energy in the form of heat, also
known as an exothermic reaction. This is considered as a hazard because the heat
released may cause serious injuries as well as damages to the environment when it is
not taken care of properly.
2. Since the experiment consists of 2 types of chemicals (H2O2 and KI), it may be
possible for the person performing the experiment to come in contact with the
chemicals. This is a hazard because consuming certain chemicals may sometimes
lead to death, since chemical burns in the esophagus it will most likely make you

How to prevent the hazards from occurring:

1. Try to be more careful when conducting the experiment and be sure not to touch the
foam-like texture that the substances produce. Always remember to wear the safe
goggles along with the lab coat, or under certain circumstances such as cleaning,
make sure to wear gloves in order to keep the contact between the foam and yourself.
2. In case of emergencies the first step be sure to seek help and aid from the teacher
and/or supervisor, and make sure you do not take off your lab coat nor goggles under
any circumstances while conducting the experiment.

Method / ProcedureBiv
1. Gather all apparatus and chemicals needed for the experiment as listed above
2. Put on safety goggles and lab coat for safety purposes as the experiment consists of
multiple chemicals as well as an exothermic reaction
3. Fill the 50mL measuring cylinder with roughly 2 to 3mL of detergent
4. Extract 5mL of Hydrogen Peroxide with a pipette and inset it into the 50mL measuring
5. Pour 5mL of 2.0M Potassium Iodide into a 20mL measuring cylinder with a pipette
6. Pour the Potassium Iodide into the 50mL measuring cylinder once the Hydrogen
Peroxide is added
7. Start the stopwatch or timer once the potassium iodide is added
8. The reaction of the substances should produce a light yellow foam-like texture that will
slowly rise to a certain height, but then shoot out of the measuring cylinder in just
9. Stop the stopwatch or timer once the foam reaches 50mL
10. Repeat steps 3 to 6 until it has reached 5 trials
11. Repeat steps 3 to 6 and 6 with other concentrations of Potassium Iodide (0.4M, 0.8M,
1.2M, 1.6M)
12. Record down the results on a table
13. Clean up surroundings once finished with the experiment
14. With the reaction time, divide each average from each independent variable by 50 to
find the rate of reaction
15. Plot a graph by using the Independent with dependent variable and independent and
derived variable
16. Finalise findings through writing a conclusion
17. Evaluate the experiment and think about improvements

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Years 9 and 10 Kitty Chin Y10T

Results - Ci
The table below shows how changing the concentration of the Potassium Iodide (M) affects
the reaction time (s)
Potassium Reaction Time (s)
Iodide (M) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Average
0.0M 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s
0.4M 59.20s 67.30s 65.57s 71.65s 60.90s 64.92s
0.8M 30.07s 25.55s 26.58s 25.90s 25.81s 26.78s
1.2M 16.10s 15.26s 15.50s 15.80s 15.42s 15.61s
1.6M 11.21s 11.91s 11.58s 11.67s 11.48s 11.57s
2.0M 6.89s 7.70s 8.00s 8.52s 8.44s 7.91s

Yellow Highlight = outliers

Trial 4 for the testing of 0.4M was considered as an outlier because while I was timing the
experiments, I was timing 2 trials at the same time which got me distracted while I was
paying too much attention to trial 3. The timing of trial 4 might also have been impacted with
the portions of what my group mates and I added into each measuring cylinder.

Qualitative Observations- Ci
After adding the Potassium Iodide into the detergent and Hydrochloric Peroxide, it forms a
foam-like texture that slowly rises and about half way through the reaction time, the foam

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immediately shoots out of the measuring cylinder (e.g. if the reaction time is 6, the foam
starts shooting out of the measuring cylinder at 3 seconds.)

Ive also noticed in our first trial with 2M concentration of Potassium Iodide that the heat
released from the chemical reaction that it was hot enough to not only burned the paper, but
also ended up with staining the table when made contact.

During the trials with the 2M Potassium Iodide, the colour of the substances was more
vibrant compared to the others. Whereas the colour of the substances of 0.4M Potassium
Iodide has a lighter shade of yellow. Other than that, as the concentration of the Potassium
Iodide decreased, the substance also became more li

Processed data- Ci
Table 1 :
The table below showcases how changing independent variable (unit) affects the average of
the dependent variable / Derived variable (unit) and range of the dependent variable /
Derived variable (unit)
Concentration Reaction time (s)
of KI (M) Average (s) Range(s)

Min Max
0M 5 = 0s 0 0
0.4M 5 = 64.924s 59.20 71.56
0.8M 5 = 26.782s 25.55 30.07
1.2M 5 = 15.616s 15.26 16.10
1.6M 5 = 11.570s 11.21 11.91
2.0M 5 = 7.910s 6.89 8.44

Concentration Rate of Reaction(mL/s)

of KI (M)
0M 0 = Unidentified
0.4M 64.92 = 0.770mL/s
0.8M 26.78 = 1.867mL/s
1.2M 15.61 = 3.203mL/s
1.6M 11.57 = 4.321mL/s
2.0M 7.91 = 6.321mL/s

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Graph- Ci

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Conclusion - Cii
My results supports my hypothesis. This is because in my hypothesis, I mentioned that if the
concentration of the Potassium Iodide increased, it will have a larger reaction, which may
lead to a shorter reaction time and larger rate of reaction. Since according to the results, it
matches what I have predicted, my hypothesis was correct. The relationship that I have
found between the variables of the experiments is that the higher the concentration, the
shorter the reactions times, and the higher the rate of reaction.

Aside from only comparing the hypothesis and results through my observations, it has also
been shown through the two graphs that even my predictions for the graphs were accurate.
For instance, this was shown when the graph for the reaction time was a curved line heading
from the top left corner and gradually decreasing to the bottom right corner, which matched
my hypothesis. Another evidence was shown in the other graph on the rate of reaction. This
is because both my hypothesis and results matches. Both graphs start from the bottom left,
to the top right, although my expectation of the line in the graph is straight, it ended up being
a little curved inwards.

Explanation of results - Cii

I ended up with this conclusion because my results shows that the shorter the reaction time,
the higher the rate of reaction, this was shown when we increased the concentration by
0.4M. My conclusion is valid, because if the reaction time is decreasing, it means that the
concentration of the potassium iodide is increasing. Additionally, since potassium iodide was
the catalyst, mixing it with hydrogen peroxide, not only did it manage to produce oxygen and
water, but also convert some of the water into steam.

Evaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii

I looked and compared some of the data that my group and I have collected with some of the
examples online that are based off of the same experiment with similar variables. I saw the
similarity of the results from multiple experiments from the web with the ones that my group
collected. Since the results from my groups data is slowly increasing for each different
concentration of KI, this explains that my result is valid. Since my result is valid, so is my
hypothesis, since my results supports my hypothesis (referring back to my conclusion). As a
result, my hypothesis is valid.

The data that my group has collect is reliable, since I did record with my group mates from
our experiment. However, some of the factors that might have impact the validity might be
the accurate proportions, this may be able to affect the result because we might have added
too much or too little detergent since it is a challenge to keep all the proportions to the same.

Overall, even though the amount of detergent added may not always be even, the results we
got for each trial in an independent variable are most likely similar and doesnt usually range
over 5cm, despite the results for 0.4M. Therefore, my hypothesis is most likely going to be

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Evaluation - Validity of the method - Civ

My method is valid and appropriate for the investigating question. People who has an interest
towards this experiment, and is considering to replicate it. The method that Ive written is
valid, mainly because the method that Ive wrote is exactly based on how I conducted the

Breaking down my method, the first thing I told the reader to do is to collect all apparatus and
chemicals needed for the experiment. The validity might be affected due to the environment,
especially the temperature, since the hydrogen peroxide shouldve be kept indoors in order to
stay in room temperature. Aside from that, the validity might also be affected based on how
the reader conducts the experiment. Since the procedure was written down step by step,
readers should be able to following the steps and later repeating certain parts.

Another part of the method was to clean up his/her surroundings once theyre finished with
the experiment. This is because, in order to keep an environment safe and risk-free, it should
always be kept clean and tidy. This step is crucial to the experiment as it may help them
avoid accidents and prevent them from losing any apparatuses. Following the clean up, is the
analysation of the data collected. This is considered as one of the most significant steps in
the experiment as this not only helps justify the hypothesis and conclusion, but this step also
links all the variables from one to another.

The last and final step that I recorded was the evaluation and reflection. Although this may
not be as important as cleaning nor analysing, the evaluation helps him/her check for validity
for their hypothesis as well as method. The evaluation part of the process is used to help
them verify their knowledge towards the experiment. from the beginning, till the end.

Evaluation of the Method and Suggested Improvements - Cv

Problems with the The effect caused by the Suggested improvements

experiment problem
The amount of detergent The amount of detergent Try to use a pipette, beaker,
added might not be even added into the measuring measuring cylinder or some
compared cylinder is not even, other methods, that could
therefore affecting the final ensure that the amount of
outcome detergent poured into the
measuring cylinder is even
The temperature of the Since the chemical would Try to request for a chemical
hydrogen peroxide was not work best at a certain that is not prepared overnight,
in its ideal temperatures at temperature, changing it thereby decreasing the chances
the moment would lead to changing its of it not being able to react
original outcome properly to KI and detergent like
it did during the experiment
The apparatus didnt had Although there may not be Try to take the time to fully dry
enough time to dry any significant changes rather than working with wet
completely between a wet apparatus or apparatus, try not to rush
dry apparatus, it might through the experiment and
create some minor effects to adjust everything to the way it
the overall outcome was opposite it should have

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Extensions to the experiment:

Test using other concentrations of hydrogen peroxide -
Instead of only focusing on the different concentrations of potassium iodide only, also focus on the
different concentrations hydrogen peroxide. This may change the reaction time, as well as rate or

Adding different amounts of KI to H2O2 -

Instead of using the same exact amount of H2O2 and KI for every trial, change it a bit by maybe
try adding more H2O2 and less KI. This may allow people who are conducting the experiment to
investigate which substance is more reactive.

Works Cited

"Clock Reaction - UW Dept. of Chemistry." Clock Reaction - UW Dept. of Chemistry. N.p.,

n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2016.

"Elephant's Toothpaste." Questacon. N.p., 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2016.

Http:// "How to Make

Elephant Toothpaste (Chemistry Demonstration)." Education. N.p., 2016. Web.
24 Sept. 2016.

"Iodine Clock Reaction- Learn Chemistry." Iodine Clock Reaction- Learn Chemistry. N.p., n.d.
Web. 26 Sept. 2016.

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