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The basic units: ionic vs.

Ionic compounds form repeating units.
Electronegativity Covalent compounds form distinct molecules.
Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H2O(s):

Na Cl Na Cl O
+ 0 0 H
Cl Na Cl Na O
NaCl: atoms of Cl and Na can add individually
forming a compound with million of atoms.
H Cl H H H2O: O and H cannot add individually, instead
molecules of H2O form the basic unit. 2

Holding it together Im not stealing, IIm sharing unequally

Q: Consider a glass of water. Why do We described ionic bonds as stealing electrons
molecules of water stay together? In fact, all bonds share equally or unequally.
A: there must be attractive forces. Note how bonding electrons spend their time:
Intramolecular H2 H H HCl H Cl LiCl [Li]+[ Cl ]
forces are
much stronger 0 0 + +
Intramolecular forces Intermolecular forces
occur between atoms occur between molecules covalent
(non-polar) polar covalent ionic
We do not consider intermolecular forces in
ionic bonding because there are no molecules. Point: the bonding electrons are shared in each
We will see that the type of intramolecular bond compound, but are not always shared equally.
determines the type of intermolecular force.
The greek symbol indicates partial charge.4

Electronegativity Electronegativity Answers

Recall that electronegativity is a number that
HCl: 3.0 2.1 = 0.9 polar covalent
describes the relative ability of an atom, when
bonded, to attract electrons. CrO: 3.5 1.6 = 1.9 ionic
The periodic table has electronegativity values. Br2: 2.8 2.8 = 0 covalent
We can determine the nature of a bond based
H2O: 3.5 2.1 = 1.4 polar covalent
on EN (electronegativity difference).
EN = higher EN lower EN CH4: 2.5 2.1 = 0.4 covalent
NBr3: EN = 3.0 2.8 = 0.2 (for all 3 bonds). KCl: 3.0 0.8 = 2.2 ionic
Basically: a EN below 0.5 = covalent,
0.5 - 1.7 = polar covalent, above 1.7 = ionic
Determine the EN and bond type for these:
HCl, CrO, Br2, H2O, CH4, KCl 5 6

Electronegativity & physical properties
Electronegativity can help to explain properties CaCl2 would have a lower Note: other factors
of compounds like those in the lab. melting/boiling point: such as atomic size
+ CaCl2 = 3.0 1.0 = 2.0 within molecules
Lets look at HCl: partial charges + CaF2 = 4.0 1.0 = 3.0 also affects melting
keep molecules together. +

+ LiBr would have a lower and boiling points.
melting/boiling point: EN is an important
The situation is similar in NaCl, + KCl = 3.0 0.8 = 2.2 factor but not the
but the attraction is even greater LiBr = 2.8 1.0 = 1.8 only factor. It is
(EN = 2.1 vs. 0.9 for HCl). +
H2S would have a lower most useful when
Which would have a higher melting/boiling point? melting/boiling point: comparing atoms
NaCl because of its greater EN. H2O= 3.5 2.1 = 1.4 and molecules of
For each, pick the one with the lower boiling H2S = 2.5 2.1 = 0.4 similar size.
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point a) CaCl2, CaF2 b) KCl, LiBr c) H2O, H2S

Why oil and water don

dont mix
Lets take a look at why oil and water dont
mix (oil is non-polar, water is polar)
+ + + +
Chemical Symbols of
+ + + +


+ +

+ Common Elements
The partial charges on Prepare a chart in your notes
water attract, pushing

+ +

the oil (with no partial


charge) out of the way. + +

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Z Name Symbol *Latin *Mnemonic

1 Hydrogen H Mnemonics are ways to help you remember
2 Helium He Used by A students and experts
They are often rhymes or visual connections
Complete for Element Latin name E.g. Thirty days has September, April, June
elements:1-20, 26, 28- Copper Cuprum and November, all the rest have 31
30, 35, 47, 50, 53, 79, Gold Aurum Or using your knuckles to remember months
80, 82, 92 Iron Ferrum
Iron (Fe)
Use the chart on left to Lead Plumbum
Iron strong opposite is feeble Fe
complete the two last Mercury Hydrargyrum
A bad mnemonic for Cu is a copper cup (any
columns (only listed Potassium Kalium
metal can be made into a cup)
elements will have Silver Argentum
anything for these A good mnemonic is a cup full of pennies
Sodium Natrium 11
columns). It may seem like more to know, but it works 12
Tin Stannum

Best Mnemonics Best Mnemonics

Sodium (Na) Iron (Fe)

Salt? Bad for BP (Na, dont want it) Ironing with Feet
North Atlantic salt water French for iron is Fer
Potassium (K) Iron = strong = giant = Fe-Fi-Fo-Fum
Potatoes covered in ketchup Copper (Cu)
Koala (or kangaroo) eating bananas Cu (see you) at copperfields
Putting Special K into rolling paper Cop drinking out of a cup
A cup filled with pennies
13 14

Best Mnemonics Best Mnemonics

Silver (Ag)
Mercury (Hg)
Almost gold
Aging = grey hair = silver thermometer = hug to stay warm
Tin (Sn) Huge globe (Hg), Hot gas, High gravity
Tin is Sin Lead (Pb)
Gold (Au) Peanut butter coming out of a pencil
Always united (wedding ring) Pellets and buckshot
Gold = shiny = aura Plumber uses lead pipes
leaves changing gold colour = Autumn15 16
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