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Analysis and Design of Structural Components of a Ten

Storied RCC Residential Building by Using Manual


Calculation (USD) and Software (ETABS) Approach

Practicum Report
By
Md. Shariful Haque Robin
ID#12206049
Program: BSCE

IUBATInternational University of Business Agriculture and Technology

Dhaka
January 02, 2016
Analysis and Design of Structural Components of a Ten
Storied RCC Residential Building by Using Manual
Calculation (USD) and Software (ETABS) Approach

Practicum Report
By
Md. Shariful Haque Robin
ID#12206049
Program: BSCE

Supervisor

Prof. Dr. Md. Monirul Islam

Examination Committee

Position Name Signature


Chair, Dept. of Civil Engg. Professor Dr. Md. Monirul Islam
Mentor Md. Hishamur Rahman

Department of Civil Engineering


College of Engineering & Technology (CEAT)
IUBATInternational University of Business Agriculture and Technology

This practicum report is done for the partial fulfilment of requirements for the Bachalor of Science degree at
the
IUBA T International University of Business Agriculture and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Dhaka
January 02, 2016

i
Letter of Transmittal

December 24, 2015


Prof. Dr. Md. Monirul Islam
Chair and Course Coordinate, Department of Civil Engineering
IUBAT International University of Business Agriculture and Technology
4 Embankment Drive Road, Sector 10, Uttara Model Town,
Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh

Subject: Submission of PracticumReport

Dear Sir,
This is a great opportunity & immense for me to submit my internship report on Analysis and
Design of Structural Components of a Ten Storied RCC Residential Building by Using Manual
Calculation (USD) and Software (ETABS) Approach.I have got the opportunity to work in
Dynamic Design and Development Ltd. for my internship program, which is an essential part of
my academic program.

I have tried my level best to prepare this report to the required standard. It was certainly a great
opportunity for me to work on this report to actualize my theoretical knowledge in the practical
arena.

I express my heart full gratitude to you to go through this report and make your valuable comments.
It would be very kind of you, if you please evaluate my performance regarding this report.

Thanking you,

Sincerely Yours,

..
Md. Shariful Haque Robin

ii
Recommendation Letter

iii
Student Declaration

I am declaring that this internship report onAnalysis and Design of Structural Components
of a Ten Storied RCC Residential Building by Using Manual Calculation (USD) and
Software (ETABS) Approachhas only been prepared for the partial fulfilment of the degree
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE).

It has not been prepared for any other purpose, reward, or presentation and has not been
submitted by me for any Degree, Diploma, Title or Recognition before.

..
Md. Shariful Haque Robin
Program: BSCE
ID # 12206049

iv
Acknowledgements

First of all thanks to Almighty who helped me to complete the practicum work and the
practicum report, leading to the Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering degree.

I would like to thank every families and friends that participate on my life and get me in this
intensity and individuals who support and share idea and also helping me to be like this.

I would like to pay my gratitude to our respected Chair, Department of Civil Engineering, Prof.
Dr. Md. Monirul Islam who gave me the opportunity to do the report on Analysis and Design
of Structural Components of a Ten Storied RCC Residential Building by Using Manual
Calculation (USD) and Software (ETABS) Approach

Then I would like to pay my gratitude to Engr. Minhazul Islam, Managing Partner and Chief
Structural Engineer of DDD, for his kind leading and heartiest graceful to him for his friendly
attitude.

I would also thank my respective supervisor Md. Hishamur Rahmanfor his endless support
in his office. All teachers of civil engineering department who brought me to my present
performance and shape me like this during the last three and half successive years.

Special thanks to Upal Mohammed Towfiqul Qadir and alsoSanjoy Kumar Bhowmik
faculty, Civil Engineering Department, IUBAT for providing me a lots of technical support to
prepare this successful report.

Sincerely yours,

Md. Shariful Haque Robin


ID # 12206049
Department of Civil Engineering
IUBAT International University of Business Agriculture and Technology

v
Executive Summery

The report has been carried out for the partial fulfillment of bachelor degree of Civil engineering
at IUBAT. This report has been done after doing four months internship from Dynamic Design
and Development (DDD) . It was my great pleasure that I have achieved some knowledge about
structural design from DDD. My assigned project was design of a ten storied residential RCC
(Reinforced Cement Concrete) building located at Baunia, Pallabi, Dhaka. I have designed Slab,
Beam and Column manually by USD (Ultimate Strength Design) method. At the early stage of
my report I have shared some information about RCC building materials. Then I have
introduced DDD as my internship platform.In the Slab design part it has been shown that how
to calculate slab thickness by Direct Design Method and end required steel area by Moment
Co-efficient Method. Calculation has been started by the assumption of load, i.e. Dead load,
Live load. In case of Environmental loads, i.e. Seismic load, Wind load Portal frame analysis
has been performed here. The entire load has been factorized by the load factor and load
combinations has been chosen from the BNBC-Bangladesh National Building Code. In Beam
design in case of moment calculation co-efficient has been used. Required steel area has been
calculated from the moment values in different zones of the continuous beam. In terms of
column design both concentric loadand moment (due to lateral loading) has been considered by
checking column strength interaction diagram.Some of the cases, values have been taken being
in the conservative sides for ensuring more safety.

vi
Table of Contents

1. CHAPTER 1 : Introduction 13
1.1. Origin of the report 13
1.2. Objectives 13
1.3. Scope of the study 14
1.4. Background 14
1.4.1. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete 14
1.4.2. RCC as building materials 14

2. CHAPTER 2 : Company Profile 15


2.1. Company Name & Address 15
2.2. Company Overview 15
2.3. Mission 16
2.4. Business Arena 16
2.5. Completed Project 17
2.6. Company Organogram 19

3. CHAPTER 3 : Methodology And Specification 20


3.1. Methodology 20
3.2. Design Specification 20

4. CHAPTER 4 : Assigned Project View 21


4.1. Architectural floor plan 21
4.2. Ground Floor Plan 22
4.3. Beam-Column Layout Plan 23

5. CHAPTER 5 : Slab Design 24


5.1. Panel View 24
5.2. Design of Panel-1 25
5.2.1. Slab Thickness Calculation 25
5.2.2. Load Calculation: 27
5.2.3. Moment Calculation 28
5.2.4. Selection of Reinforcement: 29
5.2.5. Reinforcement bar designation for slab 32

6. CHAPTER 6 : Stair Design 34


6.1. General Introduction: 34
6.2. Loading on Flight: 36
6.3. Loading on Landing: 37
6.4. Checking shear force: 37
6.5. Bending Moment: 38

7. CHAPTER 7 : Beam Design 41


7.1. General Introduction 41
7.2. Design of beam B-5 42
7.2.1. Gravity Load on beam B-5 in Grid-B : 42
7.2.2. Seismic load analysis: 43

vii
7.2.3. Wind load analysis 51
7.2.4. Flexural design of beam B-5 55
7.2.5. Shear design for beam B-5 59

8. CHAPTER 8 : Column Design 62


8.1. General Introduction 62
8.2. Design of column C8 62
8.2.1. Loads on column C8 62
8.2.2. Design of column Group-4 (C8, C9, C10, C11) 66
8.2.3. Checking the column strength with interaction diagram for lateral load 66

9. CHAPTER 9 : Analysis by ETABS And Comparison With Manual Results 72


9.1. Introduction 72
9.2. ETABS Inputs 73
9.3. Outputs from ETABS 79
9.4. Comparison between manual and ETABS result 80
9.4.1. Moment Comparison of beam B-5 80
9.4.2. Comparison of factored gravity load of column 82
9.5. Discussion on the results 83

10. CHAPTER 10: Conclusions And Recommendations 84


10.1. Recommendations 84
10.2. Conclusion 85

viii
List of Figures
Figure 2.1 : Company logo ........................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 2.2 : Amrans Monjil .......................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 2.3 : Triplex Building ........................................................................................................................ 18
Figure 2.4 : Company Organogram ........................................................................................................... 19
Figure 4.1:Typical Floor Plan ...................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 4.2 :Ground Floor Plan ................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 4.3 : Beam-Column Layout Plan .................................................................................................... 23
Figure 5.1 :Panel View................................................................................................................................ 24
Figure 5.2 :Panel-1 ...................................................................................................................................... 25
Figure 5.3 :Graph for Moment Capacity of Rectangular Sections. .............................................................. 30
Figure 5.4 : Reinforcement arrangement of slab ....................................................................................... 33
Figure 6.1 : Main technical terms of Stair.................................................................................................. 34
Figure 6.2 : Staircase plan view ................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 6.3 : Bending Moment Diagram of stair ......................................................................................... 38
Figure 6.4 : Reinforcement detailing of stair .............................................................................................. 40
Figure 7.1:Tributary area distribution for beam ........................................................................................... 41
Figure 7.2 : Beam B-5 layout view ......................................................................................................... 42
Figure 7.3 : BMD of beam B-5 for DL and LL ...................................................................................... 43
Figure 7.4 : Portal-frame analysis of beam B-5 for seismic load ................................................................ 49
Figure 7.5 : BMD (kip-ft) of beam B-5 for seismic load .......................................................................... 50
Figure 7.6 : Portal frame analysis of beam B-5 for wind load ................................................................... 53
Figure 7.7 BMD (kip-ft) of beam B-5 for wind load ............................................................................. 54
Figure 7.8 : BMD of beam B-5 (1st Floor) for different service load .......................................................... 56
Figure 7.9 : BMD of beam B-5 (1st Floor) for different load combinations................................................ 57
Figure 7.10 : Shear values of beam B-5 in different support ends ............................................................ 60
Figure 7.11 : Reinforcement detailing of beam B-5 .................................................................................... 61
Figure 8.1 : Column C8 with corresponding beams ................................................................................... 64
Figure 8.2 : Steel ratio checking for moment about Y-axis ( = 0.80) ..................................................... 67
Figure 8.3 : Steel ratio checking for moment about X-axis ( = 0.70) ..................................................... 69
Figure 8.4 : Reinforcement detailing of column Group-4 ........................................................................ 71
Figure 9.1 : ETABS input frame .............................................................................................................. 73
Figure 9.2 : Insertion of Grid Data ........................................................................................................... 74
Figure 9.3 : Defining Story Data .............................................................................................................. 75
Figure 9.4 : ETABS input windows for Material properties and Frame section .......................................... 75
Figure 9.5 : Load assigning windows for .................................................................................................... 76
Figure 9.6 : Wind load assigning data and ................................................................................................ 77
Figure 9.7 : Construction of different load combinations ............................................................................ 78
Figure 9.8 : BMD (in-kips) of beams for factored DL & LL in story 2 ...................................................... 79
Figure 9.9 :Moment comparison of beam B-5 for governing load combinations between Manual and
ETABS output ........................................................................................................................ 80
Figure 9.10 : Moment comparison of beam B-5 between Manual and ETABS output ............................... 81
Figure 9.11 : Graphical comparison of factored gravity load between Manual & ETABS result................ 82

ix
List of Tables

Table 7-1 : Wind load calculation ............................................................................................................... 52


Table 7-2 : Steel area for different position of beam B-5 ........................................................................... 59
Table 8-1 :Loads on Column ........................................................................................................................ 65

x
Abbreviations:

FF = Floor finish
DL = Dead load
LL = Live load
DW = Distributed wall load
PW = Partition wall load
SD = Super Dead load
lb = Pound force
psf = pound per square ft.
kip = kilo-pound force

BNBC = Bangladesh National Building Code


ACI = American Concrete Institute
RCC = Reinforced Cement Concrete
UBC = Uniform Building Code
ETABS = Extended Three Dimensional Analysis of Building System
RCC = Reinforced Cement Concrete

xi
List of Symbols:

= Reinforcement ratio

= Strength reduction factor

= Yielding stress of steel

= Compressive strength of concrete

= Factored moment

= Factored load

= Area of reinforcing steel

= Total gross area

= Total steel area of web reinforcement

xii
CHAPTER 1 : Introduction

Introduction

1.1. Origin of the report

This report has been prepared as an integral part of the internship program for the Bachelor of
Science in Civil Engineering (BSCE) under the Department of Civil Engineering in
IUBATInternational University of Business Agriculture and Technology. The Dynamic Design
and Development (DDD) Ltd. nominated as the organization for the practicum while honorable
Prof. Dr. Md. Monirul Islam, Chair of the Department of Civil Engineering rendered his kind
consent to academically supervise the internship program.
SIGN
1.2. Objectives

The main objectives of this report is to show the Analysis and Design of a RCC Building
by USD- Ultimate Strength Design Method and also by an integrated building design
software ETABS, where all the Design consideration has been taken from the BNBC
(Bangladesh National Building Code) and ACI (American Concrete Institutes) code.
To learn about the practical design concept of a RCC building.
To get idea about the implementation of theoretical and practical design specification of
RCC materials.
To get some ideas about the handling of an integrated building design software like ETABS.

13
1.3. Scope of the study
This report consists of 9 chapters the first of which presents introductory and background
information about the reinforced concrete. The second chapter is about the company overview
through which this practicum session has been finished. The third chapter discusses the criteria and
specifications used for design.The fourth chapter leads to the orientation of the project view. The
fifth, sixth, seventh and eighthchapter documents the slab design, staircase design, beam design and
column design respectively. Finally the last chapter presents some recommendations and a
conclusion linking up the major points of this report.

1.4. Background
1.4.1. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates held together in a rock like
mass with a paste of cement and water. Sometimes one or more admixtures are added to change
certain characteristics of the concrete such as its workability, durability and time of hardening.
As with most rocklike substances, concrete has a high compressive strength and a very low tensile
strength. Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel reinforcement
provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel reinforcing is also capable of resisting
compression forces and is used in columns as well as in other situations.

1.4.2. RCC as building materials

When a particular type of structure is being considered, the designer may be puzzled by the
question, "Should reinforced concrete or structural steel be used?" There is no simple answer to this
question, inasmuch as both of these materials have many excellent characteristics that can be
utilized successfully for so many types of structures. In fact, they are often used together in the
same structures with wonderful results. The selection of the structural material to be used for a
particular building depends on the height and span of the structure, the material market, foundation
conditions, local building codes, and architectural considerations in our country RCC is mostly used
because constituent materials are locally available and low cost, can be produced in any desired
shapes and a lower grade of skilled labor is required than steel construction.

14
CHAPTER 2 :Company Profile

Company profile

2.1. Company Name & Address

Name: DYNAMIC Design & Development.

Address:
583/C (2nd Floor), Chowdhuripara, Malibag, Dhaka-1219
Phone: +88-02-9256001, 01750-013479, 01856-438840
E-mail: dynamic.development.bd@gmail.com

Company Logo:

Figure 2.1 : Company logo

2.2. Company Overview


Dynamic Design & Developmentis one of the leading engineering consultancy service providers in
Bangladesh. It provides consultancy services from initial design to final implementation and all the
management services to the government and private projects in Bangladesh.

15
It has a team of efficient and skilled engineers, architects and planners who are eager to provide
highquality and eminent services to its clients.

Dynamic Design & Development is a company committed to quality design and construction. All
the projects have been designed according to the guidelines stated in the Bangladesh National
Building Code and to capable of withstanding the code-specified natural forces like earthquake
and wind. Additionally, at this company all construction materials and equipment have a high
performance rating and are procured with great care to ensure the highest possible standard.

2.3. Mission

All the activities of the DDDare based on the belief that there are no alternatives to perfection in
services, which can only be achieved, at macro level through cooperation among the industry, the
universities, the government and the private and public sector agencies concerned with the national
development and at a micro level, by exchanging information, ideas and feedback between different
levels of the technical and management hierarchy.

2.4. Business Arena

Engineering Consultancy Services for Residential, Commercial and Industrial


Buildings
Architectural Design
Structural Design
Electrical & Plumbing Design
Project Management
Interior & Exterior Design
Development of government & private projects
Planning of Housing Projects
Construction of Industrial Steel Building

16
2.5. Completed Project

Figure 2.2 : Amrans Monjil

6-Storied Apartment Building


Location: Tongi, Gazipur
Floor Area: 3295 sft

17
Figure 2.3 : Triplex Building

Owner: Mr. Najmul Haque


Location: Chowara Bazar, Comilla
Floor Area: 2400 sft (Approx.)

18
2.6. Company Organogram

Figure 2.4 : Company Organogram

19
CHAPTER 3 :Methodology AndSpecification

Methodology And Design Specification

3.1. Methodology
A ten-storied building has been analyzed and designed by using Ultimate Strength Design (USD)
following the necessary codes from BNBC (Bangladesh National Building Code) and ACI
(American Concrete Institute) code.

3.2. Design Specification


Specific materials properties are listed below which I have considered to complete my analysis and
design of the residential building project. In some points specifications have been simplified for the
purpose of ease of calculation. Each and every information has been used here as per the direction
of BNBC-2006 and also following the references book.

Live load = 40 psf (for slab)


= 120 psf (for stair)
DW = 45 psf (assuming 5 in. brick wall)
PW = 450 plf ( assuming 5 in. thick & 9 height brick wall.)
FF = 20 psf (for Slab )
= 30 psf (for Stair )
= 2800 psi (for Slab & Beam)
= 3500 psi (for Column)
= 60,000 psi
= 0.65 (for Column)
= 0.90 (for Beam

20
CHAPTER 4 : Assigned Project View

Assigned Project View

4.1. Architectural floor plan

Project name: Peace Palace, DAG NO. CS & SA 3306, RS 9235, Mouza- Baunia, Pallabi, Dhaka

Figure 4.1:Typical Floor Plan

21
4.2. Ground Floor Plan

Figure 4.2 :Ground Floor Plan

22
4.3. Beam-Column Layout Plan

Figure 4.3 : Beam-Column Layout Plan

23
CHAPTER 5 : Slab Design

Slab Design

5.1. Panel View

Figure 5.1 :Panel View

24
5.2. Design of Panel-1

Case-4

Figure 5.2 :Panel-1

5.2.1. Slab Thickness Calculation


15.17
Here, the ratio of longer to shorter span = = 14.42 = 1.052 < 2 ; So, the panel will be design as
two way slab.

Here,
For calculating the desirable slab thickness a trial value of h= 6 inch will be introduced
and beam section of 10x18 in. and 10x20 in. correspondingly for the short-span and long -span
direction.

Moment of Inertia of beam strips:


For short-span direction I = 1/12 10 183
>> 4860 4
For long-span direction I = 1/12*10*203
>> 6666.67 4

25
Moment of inertia for slab strips:
For 7.63 ft. edge width (along long span), I = 1/12*7.63*12*63
>> 1665.36 4

For 8 ft. edge width (along short span) I = 1/12*8*12*63 4


>> 1746.36 4

For, 14.42 ft. width (short direction) I = 1/12*14.42*12* 4


>> 3114.72 4

For, 15.17 ft. width (long direction) I = 1/12*15.17*12*63 4


>> 3276.72 4


Relative stiffness of beam to slab =


>> = [ & are the modulus of elasticity

of beam & slab; usually are same]


6666.67
For, edge beam(long-span direction): 1 = 1665.36

>> 4
4860
For, edge beam (short-span direction): 2 = 1746.36

>> 2.78
6666.67
For, the 14.42 ft. beam (short-span direction):3 = 3276.72

>> 1.48
6666.67
For, the 15.17 ft. beam (long-span direction): 4 = 3114.72

>> 2.14

4+2.78+1.48+2.14
So, Average of = 4

>> 2.6

26
14.33
The ratio of longer to shorter clear span, = 13.58

>>1.05

Then the minimum thickness of the Panel will be,



(0.8+ )
200
h= 36+9
60
14.3312(0.8+ )
200
>> 36+91.05

>> 4.16 in.

We will consider 5 in. depth for further calculation.

5.2.2. Load Calculation:

Live load : 40 psf


Dead load : ( FF + DW + Self Weight)
>> ( 20 + 45 + 62.5 )
>> 127.5 psf

As per BNBC (Bangladesh National Building Code),


Factored dead load, = 1.4*DL
>> 1.4*127.5
>> 178.5 psf

Factored live load, = 1.7*LL


>> 1.7*40
>>68psf
Total factored load, W = (178.5+68)
>>246.5 psf

27
5.2.3. Moment Calculation

We will follow the Moment coefficient Method



Ratio of shorter to longer clear span of the panel, m=

14.003
>>
14.753

>> 0.95 ; Case-4 (As per conditions of continuity)

Negative moment at continuous edge:


= *W*A2
>> 0.055*246.5*14.422
>> 34996 in-lb

= *W*B2

>> 0.045*246.5*15.172
>> 31689 in-lb

Positive moment at mid-span:


= *WDL*A2
>> 0.030*178.5*14.422
>> 13362 in-lb

= * WLL*A2
>> 0.035*68*14.422
>> 6681 in-lb

Total positive moment at short direction , = 20043 in-lb

28
= *WDL*B2
>> 0.024*178.5*15.172
>> 11830 in-lb

= * WLL*B2
>> 0.029*68*15.172
>> 6127 in-lb

Total positive moment at long direction, = 17957 in-lb

Negative moment in Discontinuous edges:


= 1/3( )
>>1/3* 20043
>> 6681 in-lb

= 1/3 ( )
>> 1/3*17957
>> 5986 in-lb

5.2.4. Selection of Reinforcement:

Short direction:
Mid-span (Positive Moment):
Flexural resistance factor,
20043
R = 2 = = 116 ; = 0.0033
0.91242

= bd = 0.0033*12*4
>> 0.16 in2/ft.
Spacing, = 0.11 12/0.16
>> 8.25 in.

29
Using, 8.00 inch.

Figure 5.3:Graph for Moment Capacity of Rectangular Sections.

30
Continuous edge (Negative Moment):
34996
R= = = 203 ; = 0.0034
2 0.91242
= bd = 0.0034*12*4
>> 0.16 in2/ft.

Spacing, = 0.11 12/0.16


>> 8.25 in.
Using, 8.00 inch

Discontinuous edge (Negative Moment):


Negative moment at the discontinuous edge is one-third of the positive moment in the span. So it
will be adequate to bend up every third bar from the bottom to provide negative moment steel at
the discontinuous edge. But it will make 24 in. spacing which is larger than the maximum spacing
of 3 = 15 in. permitted by the code.

Hence for the discontinuous edge every alternate bar will be bent up from the bottom steel.

Long direction:
Mid-span (positive moment):

17957
R = 2 = = 128 ; = 0.0033
0.9123.62

= bd = 0.0033*12*3.6
>> 0.14 in2/ft.
[Positive moment steel of long span direction is placed above the positive moment steel of short
span direction. So, d= 4 - (10/25.4) = 3.6 in.]

Spacing, = 0.11 12/0.14


>> 9.4 in.
Using, 9 inch.
31
Continuous edge (Negative moment):
31689
R = 2 = = 227; = 0.004
0.91242

= 0.004*12*3.6
>>0.173 in2/ft.

Spacing, = 0.11 12/0.173


>> 7.63 in.
Using, 7.5 inch

Discontinuous edge (Negative Moment):


Every third bar of the positive steel will be bent up for providing the negative moment steel in
the discontinuous edge but Maximum spacing will be less than 3 = 15 in.

Hence for the discontinuous edge every alternate bar will be bent up from the bottom steel.

5.2.5. Reinforcement bar designation for slab

(1) = 10 mm @ 8 c/c Alternate Cranked


(A) = 1- 10 mm Extra Top between Cranked Bar

(2) = 10 mm @ 9 c/c Alternate Cranked


(B) = 2-10 mm Extra Top between Cranked Bar

32
Figure 5.4 : Reinforcement arrangement of slab

33
CHAPTER 6 : Stair Design

Stair Design

6.1. General Introduction:


Staircases provide means of movement from one floor to another in a structure. Staircases
consist of a number of steps with landings at suitable intervals to provide comfort and safety
for the users.

Figure 6.1 : Main technical terms of Stair

34
For purpose of design, stairs are classified into two types

a) Transversely supported (transverse to the direction of movement)

Transversely supported stairs include:

Simply supported steps supported by two walls or beams or a combination of both.


Steps cantilevering from a wall or a beam.
Stairs cantilevering from a central spine beam.

b) Longitudinally supported (in the direction of movement):

These stairs span between supports at the top and bottom of a flight and
unsupported at the sides.

As a common practice in Bangladesh we will design a Two-flight longitudinally supported Stair

Here,
Considering, = 2.8 ksi and = 60 ksi
Riser = 6 in. and Tread or Going = 10 in.

Minimum thickness of stair = 0.85*( 20)

>>0.85*14.792*12/20
>>7.54 in.

Considering waist slab thickness 7.5 in.

35
Figure 6.2:Staircase plan view

6.2. Loading on Flight:

1) Dead Load:

a) Self weight of step: 0.5*6/12*3.5*150


>> 131.25

b) Self weight of waist slab: 7.5/12*3.5*150/30.95


>> 328.125

c) Weight of plaster finish and floor finish : (2+1)/12*3.5*120/ 30.95


>> 122.52

36
2) Live Load:
120 psf *3.5 ft
>> 420

According to BNBC-2006,

Total factored load: 1.4(Dead Load) + 1.7(Live Load)


>> 1.4(131.25+382.88+122.52) + 1.7*420
>> 1605.31

6.3. Loading on Landing:

1) Dead load :

a) Self weight of landing: 7.5/12*3.67*150

>>344.0625

b) Plaster finish and floor finish: (2+1)/12*3.67*120


>> 110.1

2) Live Load : 120*3.67


>> 440.4

Total factored load: 1.4(344.0625 + 11.01) + 1.7* 440.4


>> 1384.5075

6.4. Checking shear force:


, = (1384.5075*3.922/2 + 1605.31*9.17 *8.505 +
1384.5075*1.375*13.7775)/14.792
>> 11203.94991 s.

37
Shear resisting capability of the concrete section:
= 2
Here, d = 7.5 1.5 0.47 0.31 = 5.22
and = 0.75 for lightweight concrete (Being in the conservative side )
>> 0.75*2*0.75*2800*3.5*12*5.22
>> 13051.22 , which is less than ,

So, slab thickness is adequate for resisting shear force without using shear reinforcement.

6.5. Bending Moment:

Figure 6.3 : Bending Moment Diagram of stair

38
From the moment diagram we got maximum moment 492.442


= 0.85 1
+

2.8 0.003
>> 0.85*0.85* 60 0.003+0.005

>> 0.01264


= 2 ( 1 0.59 )

60
>> 492.446 = 0.9**3.5*12*5.222 (1 - 0.59 )
2.8

>> = 0.00899 and = 0.070 >

So, Flexural steel area :


=
>> 0.00899*3.5*12*5.22
>> 1.97 2
Using,12 12 mm @ 3.5 in the longitudinal direction.

Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement :


= 0.0018
>> 0.0018*14.465*12*7.5
>> 1.63 2
Using,24 10 mm @ 8 in the transverse direction.

39
Figure 6.4 : Reinforcement detailing of stair

40
CHAPTER 7 : Beam Design

Beam Design

7.1. General Introduction

Beam is the horizontal structure components which transfer load from the slab to column.
In terms of environmental loading like earthquake and wind force, beam provides most
significance reliability.

Generally in reinforced concrete structure depending on reinforcement arrangement we use 3 types


of beam.

Singly reinforced beam


Doubly reinforced beam
T-beam

Figure 7.1:Tributary area distribution for beam

41
Figure 7.2 : Beam B-5 layout view

7.2. Design of beam B-5

7.2.1. Gravity Load on beam B-5in Grid-B:

Self weight of beam = 21/12*150 lb/ft3 = 262.5 lb

In Beam segment B4-2:


DL = (137.62*127.5/15.13*1000) + 0.262 + 0.45
>> 1.815 kip/ft
LL = (137.62*40/15.13*1000)
>> 0.363 kip/ft
In Beam segment B2-1:
DL = (115.44*127.5/13.63*1000) + 0.262 + 0.45
>> 1.735 kip/ft

LL = 115.44*40/13.63*1000

42
>> 0.338 kip/ft

Figure 7.3 :BMD of beam B-5 for DL and LL

7.2.2. Seismic load analysis:

According to BNBC-2006,

Total base shear,


V= W

Here,

Z = Seismic zone co-efficient = 0.15(Zone-II)

= Structure Importance Co-efficient = 1.00 (Standard occupancy structure )

43
R = Response modification co-efficient = 8 (IMRF, Concrete)

W = Total seismic dead load

Calculation of total seismic dead load, W

Service dead load =(FF + DW + PW )* Floor area

>> [20 psf + 45 psf + 450 plf/(207.46 ft +144.62 ft)]*2319.5452


>> 66.28 psf * 2319.5452 2

>> 153739.46 lb

Self weight of Slab = (5/12*150)* 2319.5452

>> 144971.58 lb

Self weight of Beam = [(144.62*10*20/144) + (207.46*10*18/144)]*150

>> 69027.92 lb

Self weight of column = 4667.92 3 * 150 3

>> 700187.5 lb

Over-Head water tank weight = Weight of water + Self weight of Tank

>> 58152.11 lb + 44349.78 lb

>> 102501.89 lb

Self weight of Stair = Weight of Flight + Weight of Landing

>> 11434.24 lb + 6421.14 lb

>> 17855.38 lb

25% of Live load = 0.25*40 psf *2319.5452 2

>> 23195.452 lb

Weight of Grade Beam = (144.62+207.46)*12*24/144)*150

44
>>105624 lb

Total dead load of the Building excluding roof level:

(Service dead load *9) + (Slab weight*9) + (Beam self weight*9) + (Column self weight)

+ (Stair self weight*9) + (Grade Beam weight) + (25% Live loads weight*9)

+ (Water tank weight)

>> (153739.46*9 )+ (144971.58*9) +(69027.92*9) + (700187.5) + (17855.38*9) + ( 105624)

+ (23195.452*9) + (102501.89)

>> 4546900.52 lbs.

>> 59.32 [For long direction, 76.655 ft]

>> 865.71 [1 = 68.522 ]

Total dead load in the Roof level:

>> (Slab self weight) + (Stair weight) + (Beam self weight) +

[(Lift case including Machine + self weight of machine room )]

+(Self weight of Boundary wall)

>>(5/12*150 + 2.5/12*120)2319.5452 + (17855.38) + (69027.92) + [(6615.215 + 6372)]

+ (40685.625)

>> 355114.075 lbs.

>> 4.63293 [For long direction, 76.655 ft]

>> 67.612

C = Numerical Coefficient,

Where,
45
1.25
C=
2/3

S = Site co-efficient = 1.5 (Being in the conservative side)

T = Fundamental period of Vibration in seconds.

T = Ct*(hn)3/4

Here,

Ct = 0.073, for Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame.

hn = Height in meters above the base to level n.

>> 30.5 m

T = 0.073*(30.5)3/4

>> 0.94743

So,

1.251.5
C=
(0.94743)2/3

>> 1.944

Now Seismic load analysis for for beam B-2 ( Beam B4-2& B2-1)

W = 865.71*15.655/3.28 + 67.612*15.655/3.28

>> 4554.621

[459.102 for each floor ]

46
We get,

0.1511.944
V= ( )4554.621
8

>> 166.016

Ft = 0.07TV since, T = 0.94743 sec > 0.7 sec

>> 0.07*0.94743*166.016

>> 11.01 < 0.25 V

(V - Ft) = (66.016 - 11.01)

>> 155.006

= 459.102(3.05+6.1+9.15+12.2+15.25+18.3+21.35+24.4+27.45) + (322.703*30.5)

>> 72854.191

( )1 1
F1=

(155.00611.01)459.1023.05
>>
72854.191

>> 2.98

( )2 2
F2 =

(155.00611.01)459.1026.1
>>
72854.191

>> 5.96

47
Similarly, we get

F3 = 8.94 ; F4 = 11.92 ; F5 = 14.9 ; F6 = 17.88

F7 = 20.86 ; F8 = 23.83 ; F9 = 26.81

And,

( )10 10
Froof = + Ft

>> 20.941 + 11.01

>> 31.95

48
Figure 7.4 : Portal-frame analysis of beam B-5 for seismic load

49
Figure 7.5 : BMD (kip-ft) of beam B-5for seismic load

50
7.2.3. Wind load analysis

According to BNBC-2006
Sustained wind pressure at height z,

= 2
Here,
Sustained Wind Pressure at height z, = KN/m2
Velocity to Pressure Conversion Coefficient, = 47.2 106
Structure importance coefficient (Table 6.2.9), = 1.0
Combined height and exposure coefficient (Table-6.2.10) , (Exposure-B)
Basic Wind Speed, = 210 / (for Dhaka)

= 2
>>47 106 1 2102
2.08
Design wind pressure,
= CG Cp
= Design wind pressure . KN/m2
CG = gust co-efficient
CG = Gh [ Gust Response Factor, Gh for Non-slender (h < 5L) buildings and structures]
Cp = Overall Pressure co-efficient ( Table-6.2.15 )

51
Table 7-1 : Wind load calculation

Floor Height = Cp PZ AZ
Level Z Table = 2.08 Table Table = Cp (2 )
(m) 6.2.10 6.2.11 6.2.15
=
4.45
2 2
Kips

1 3.05 0.801 1.666 1.321 3.233 14.56 10.57

2 6.1 0.869 1.807 1.293 3.43 14.56 11.22

3 9.15 0.976 2.03 1.257 3.748 14.56 12.26

4 12.2 1.06 2.204 1.232 3.989 14.56 13.05

5 15.25 1.13 2.35 1.214 4.191 14.56 13.71

6 18.3 1.19 2.475 1.2 1.469 4.363 14.56 14.27

7 21.35 1.244 2.588 1.188 4.516 14.56 14.77

8 24.4 1.292 2.687 1.177 4.646 14.56 15.20

9 27.45 1.336 2.779 1.169 4.772 14.56 15.61

Roof 30.5 1.377 2.864 1.161 4.884 7.28 8

52
Figure 7.6 : Portal frame analysis of beam B-5 for wind load

53
Figure 7.7 BMD (kip-ft) of beamB-5 for wind load

54
7.2.4. Flexural design of beam B-5

For the flexural design purpose there are numbers of load combinations for Reinforced Concrete
Structures are recommended by our code BNBC.

Among those following load combinations will be used here

1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

0.75[1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 (1.1 Ex+)] [Same as (1.05 DL + 1.275 LL + 1.4025 Ex+)]

0.75[1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 (1.1 Ex - )] [Same as (1.05 DL + 1.275 LL + 1.4025 Ex- )]

0.75[1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 Wx+] [Same as (1.05 DL + 1.275 LL + 1.275Wx+ )]

0.75[1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 Wx-] [Same as (1.05 DL + 1.275 LL + 1.275Wx- )]

55
Figure 7.8 : BMD of beam B-5 (1st Floor) for different service load

56
Figure 7.9 : BMD of beam B-5 (1st Floor) for different load combinations

57
Maximum reinforcement ratio,


= 0.851 ( )
+

2.8 0.003
>>0.85*0.85 60 (0.003+0.005)

>> 0.01264

Minimum reinforcement ratio,

200
=

>> 0.00333

Now,


= 2 ( 1 0.59 )

0.0126460
>>3594.8 = 0.9*0.01264*60*bd2 (1 - 0.59 )
2.8

3594.8
>>2 = in3
0.573483011

>> d = 22.86 in. [Taking b= 12 in.]

Now, considering total depth, t = 26 in.

So,

d = 26 1.5 10/25.4 (20/25.4*2)

>>23.71 in.

Considering, d = 23.71 in. we get,

60
= 0.9**60*12*23.712(1 - 0.59 )
2.8

= 364282.34 - 4605569.54 2

58
Solving quadratic equation,

= 0.01156 ; 0.0675> [When, = 3594.8 in-kips ]

Table 7-2 : Steel area for different position of beam B-5

Moment Mu ( in-kips ) Reinforcement ratio, Steel Area, As ( in2) = *b*d


>> *12*23.71

3296.6 0.0104 2.96

+2459.2 0.00745 2.12

3429.3 0.01092 3.11

3594.8 0.01156 3.29

+2552.3 0.00777 2.21

3268.73 0.0103 2.93

7.2.5. Shear design for beam B-5

Total factored load in beam segment B4-2= 1.4*1.815 kip/ft + 1.7*0.363 kip/ft
>> 3.1581 kip/ft
Total factored load in beam segment B2-1 = 1.4*1.735 kip/ft + 1.7*0.338 kip/ft
>> 3.0036 kip/ft

From figure-4.10, we get maximum shear of = 27.55 kips.

59
Figure 7.10:Shear values of beam B-5 in different support ends

Shear resisting capability of concrete, = 2


>>0.75 2 12800 12 23.71
>> 14.12 kips

With 10 mm stirrups the required spacing of web reinforcement is for vertical stirrups:


=

0.750.226017.79
>> 27.5514.12

>> 13.11 inch.


Using 8 inch spacing at the middle zone and 6 inch for the support ends.

60
Figure 7.11 : Reinforcement detailing of beam B-5

61
CHAPTER 8 : Column Design

Column Design

8.1. General Introduction

Column is the vertical compression member of the structure which carries the whole structures
load from slab and beam and transfer to the soil through foundation.

Three types of reinforced concrete compression member are in use:

1. Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties (Tied column)
2. Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and continuous spiral
(Spirally reinforced column)
3. Composite compression members reinforced longitudinally with structural steel
shapes, pipe or tubing, with or without additional longitudinal bars, and various
types of lateral reinforcement.

Types 1 and 2 are by far the most common practice.

8.2. Design of column C8

8.2.1. Loads on column C8

Floor Finish (FF) : 20 psf

Distributed wall Load (DW) : 45 psf

Partition wall Load on Beam (PW) : 450 plf

Slab Thickness = 5 inch.

Slab Weight = (5/12*150) psf

62
= 62.5 psf

Total Dead Load = FF + DW + Slab Weight

= 20 + 45 + 62.5

= 127.5 psf

Live Load : 40 psf

According to BNBC-

Factored Load = (1.4* Dead Load) + (1.6* Live Load)

= 1.4*127.5 + 1.7*40

=246.5 psf

For the simplicity purpose of the design we considering that the 5 inch. Partition Wall Load (450
lb) will be suggested al through the beam span.

Load on beam B-5 (Lower segment):

(246.5 psf*137.62 sf/15.13 ft *1000) + (0.262 kip/ft + 0.45 kip/ft)*1.4

>>3.1581 kip/ft

Load on beam B-5 (Upper segment):

(246.5 psf*115.04 sf/13.63 ft *1000) + (0.262 kip/ft + 0.45kip/ft )*1.4

>>3.0036 kip/ft

Load on beam B-2(Left):

(246.5 psf*104.54 sf/12.65 ft *1000) + (0.156kip/ft + 0.45 kip/ft )*1.4

>> 2.9kip/ft

Load on beam B-2 (Right):

(246.5 psf*142.26 sf/14.41 ft *1000) + (0.156 kip/ft + 0.45 kip/ft )*1.4

>> 3.34 kip/ft

63
Figure 8.1 : Column C8 with corresponding beams

Load on the Column C8:

(3.0036*13.63/2) + (3.1581*15.13/2) +
(2.9*12.65/2) + (3.34*14.41/2)
>> 88.9 kips (For each floor)
Self weight of the column :
1.25*2.5*108*150
>>50.625 kip
>> (50.625*1.4)
>>70.87 kips

For the Ground Floor column,


Total load on the Column: 88.9*10 + 70.87
>> 959.87 kips

64
Table 8-1 :Loads on Column

Column Name Dimension Total load Group Type


including self
(inch x inch) weight
(kips)
C1 15x25 342.5

C6 15x25 409.59

C13 15x25 368.43

C15 15x15 334.6 Group-1


C16 15x15 298

C19 15x25 378.97

C20 15x15 130

C21 15x15 142


C2 15x25 557.09
C3 15x25 549.12
C4 15x25 543.05 Group-2

C5 15x25 558.54

C17 15x25 445.59


C7 15x25 608.7

C12 15x25 695


Group-3
C14 15x25 587.89

C18 15x25 590.36


C8 15x30 959.87
C9 15x30 844.03
Group-4
C10 15x30 921.74
C11 15x30 971.92

65
8.2.2. Design of column Group-4 (C8, C9, C10, C11)

According to ACI Code,


For tied columns, = 0.65
Total factored load, = 1037.43 kips (ETABS)
Let, Column size 15x30 ( Ag = 450 in2)

Pu = 0.8[0.85fc(Ag - Ast) + fyAst]

Considering, = 0.03 ; ( 3% of Ag )
So, Ast= 0.03Ag
>>1037.43 = 0.65*0.8[0.85*3.5(Ag 0.03Ag)
+ 60*0.03Ag ]
>>1037.43 = 1.50059 Ag + 0.936 Ag

>> Ag= 425.77in2< 450 in2 (ok )

So, Total steel area comes, Ast = 0.03*15*30


>> 13.5 in2

8.2.3. Checking the column strength with interaction diagramfor lateral load

Considering moment about Y-axis

= 4201.09 in-kips (ETABS-M3: moment about Cyan axis)

= ( 30 1.5 1.5 45/25.4 )/ 30 = 0.841

1037.43
= = = 1.013
0.653.5450

4201.09
= = = 0.1367
0.653.545030

Using the column strength interaction diagram for rectangular section with bars on four faces and
considering = 0.80 (smaller value will require more steel area

66
Figure 8.2 :Steel ratio checking for moment about Y-axis ( = 0.80)

67
From interaction diagram, = 0.038 ( 3.8% ) > (actual ) = 0.03 ( 3%)

Considering moment about X-axis

= 2358.28 in-kips (ETABS- M2: moment about white axis )

= ( 15 1.5 1.5 45/25.4 )/ 30 = 0.682

1037.43
= = = 1.013
0.653.5450

2358.28
= = = 0.153
0.653.545030

Using the graph of column strength interaction diagram for rectangular section with bars on four
faces and considering = 0.70

68
Figure 8.3 :Steel ratio checking for moment about X-axis ( = 0.70)

69
From interaction diagram, = 0.044 ( 4.4% ) > (actual ) = 0.03 ( 3%)

From the column strength interaction diagram we got for both of the cases, assumed steel ratio is
lesser than the required steel ratio.
So, further modification is required with our preliminary assumed steel ratio.
We will use = 0.044 ( 4.4% ) for calculating the total steel area.
Ast = 0.044*15*30
>> 19.8 in2

26 bar will provide the required steel area.

Calculation of maximum spacing of Tie :

According to BNBC -2006, Section: 8.3.10.5


Maximum Tie spacing will be smaller of these four criteria

Taking,10 mm bar for Tie,

i. 0 = 8 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed

= 8 0.76
= 6.08

ii. 0 = 24 times of tie bar

= 24 0.393
= 9.43

iii. 0 = One-half of the smallest cross sectional dimension of the frame member

15
= = 7.5
2
iv. s0 = 300mm = 11.811

Using, 10 mm @ 6 c/c

70
Figure 8.4 : Reinforcement detailing of column Group-4

71
CHAPTER 9 :

Analysis by ETABS and Comparison with Manual Results

9.1. Introduction

ETABS- Extended Three-dimensional Analysis of Building Systems is an integrated building


design software. A sophisticated, special purpose analysis and design program developed
specifically for building systems. ETABS Version 9.6 features an intuitive and powerful graphical
interface coupled with unmatched modelling, analytical, and design procedures, all integrated
using a common database. Although quick and easy for simple structures, ETABS can also handle
the largest and most complex building models, including a wide range of nonlinear behaviours,
making it the tool of choice for structural engineers in the building industry.

72
9.2. ETABS Inputs

Figure 0.1 : ETABS input frame

73
Figure 0.2 : Insertion of Grid Data

74
Figure 0.3 : Defining Story Data

Figure 0.4 : ETABS input windows for Material properties and Frame section

75
Figure 0.5 : Load assigning windows for

Static load cases


Mass Source
Wind loading data for X and Y direction

76
Figure 0.6 : Wind load assigning data and
Inputs for load assigning on beam and floor

77
Figure 0.7 : Construction of different
Load Combinations

78
9.3. Outputs from ETABS

Figure 0.8 : BMD(in-kips) of beams for factored DL & LL in story 2

79
9.4. Comparison between manual and ETABS result

9.4.1. Moment Comparison of beam B-5

a) Table

b) Graph

Figure 0.9 : Moment comparison of beam B-5 for governing load combinations between
Manual and ETABS output

a) Comparison table
b) Graphical representation

80
a) Table

b) Graph

Figure 0.10 : Moment comparison of beam B-5 between Manual and ETABS output

for gravity load.


a) Table
b) Graph

81
9.4.2. Comparison of factored gravity load of column

(a)

(b)

Figure 0.11 : Graphical comparison of factored gravity load between Manual & ETABS result
(a) Table
(b) Graph

82
9.5. Discussion on the results

In the above section every now and then, we experienced the fluctuation between the manual
results and ETABS outputs. But the satisfactory things is that the variation governed either by the
manual result or by the ETABS output, each of them are close enough to other. One exceptional
case happened regarding wind load effect. My manual result is far away beyond the ETABS result.
In manual calculation I amfollowing Projected Area Method (Method-2; BNBC-2006, Section:
2.4.6.4). Consulting with the technical experts I have used the ETABS result in the preceding
calculation. This can be a findings as limitation of my study. It seems to me thatthe main reason
behind the variation is actually the method, the procedure of the analysisis being used by ETABS
is not same with what I am using. In terms of beam design, for the case of gravity loading I am
following co-efficient method and I am not sure actually which method is being used by ETABS
program. For the calculation of lateral load effect I am following portal frame analysis in order to
convert the lateral force into vertical effect while in the ETABS programs is performing Finite
Element Method (FEM). The lateral load i.e. for seismic and wind loading the effect on the
structure have significantly varied. This could be because of individual code has followed for each
cases. For manual calculation I have follow the data and procedure from BNBC and in ETABS, I
have selected a code called UBC 94. In case of factored gravity load calculation on column for
manually I have used tributary area method considering that all loads from floor area will comes
on beams and from the beams will pass the loads on column. And how ETABS calculate the total
load on column, I dont have clear idea about that procedure. However, actually the comparison
of the result is shown above is basically a simple justification on manually driven work with a
integrated building design software. Now-a-days professional designer depends a lot on the
software result as they are vastly experienced on design field. As a fresh designer I have tried to
gather some basic knowledge about how practically the things are working. I am in a very much
initial level to discuss about actual reason due to which the manual results and ETABS output have
differed from each other. Those parameters seems to me that yes this can be the reasonI have stated
above.

83
CHAPTER 10 : Conclusions And Recommendations

Recommendation And Conclusion

10.1. Recommendations

More emphasize should be given on the communication phase between the architecture and
the structural designer in the period of final design. Some points appeared important to me
that due toarchitectural demand, there is a tendency ofreducing the dimension of the crucial
components of the structure. All other consideration should be to maintain keeping the safety
issue as the most important parameter for design work.

84
10.2. Conclusion

The ultimate goal of preparing this report is to making out the bridges between theoretical
knowledge and practical design of a RCC building. A fresh designer more often gets in trouble to
make a balance of his theoretical design knowledge with practical workmanship. But this is
something which a design engineer must know before delivering a structural design hand out.
Throughout this practicum period I got the opportunity to work under a well reputed company with
the help of the professional structural designers. There, I got the Scope to study a structure and
make comparisons of its design. Here all the findings and discussions are done in consultation with
professional people. So, fresh learners who are interested in structural design they may follow this
report to get some clear basic idea about the manual process of designing structural components
of a building.

85
References

Books:

1) Bangladesh National Building Code. Ed. 3. 2006

2) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-99)

3) Winter-Urquhrat ORourke-Nilson: Design of Concrete Structures. 7th ed.

4) Arther H. Nilson, Darwin, Charles W. Dolan, Design of Concrete Structures. 14th ed.

5) Harry Parker. Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete. Ed. 3. 1968.

Others:

1. Dynamic Design and Development (DDC).

86