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Crumb Rubber


California State University, Chico

Has Many Names in the Literature

Crumb Rubber Concrete (CRC)

Rubber Included Concrete (RIC)
Rubberized Concrete
Tire Rubber-Filled Concrete
Potential Effects of Adding Rubber to Concrete

Reduces Compressive Strength

Can Increase Ductility
Increases Toughness (ability to absorb
May Reduce Cracking
Reduces Unit Weight of the Concrete
Reduces Thermal Expansion/Contraction
May Replace Air Entraining Agent in Cold
Improves Insulation (but Decreases Thermal
Reduces Sound Transmission
Potential Applications of Rubber Included Concrete

Tire rubber may replace air entraining

in cold weather applications
RIC may be more flexible and crack
resistant for light weight paving
RIC may provide vibration damping
and sound transmission mitigation
Mix Design

The mix design should be based on an

absolute volume method, replacing mineral
aggregate with tire particles of similar size
characteristics (gradation). This is
accomplished by utilizing the specific
gravity of the aggregates.
Mix Design Parameters - RIC

Type of Rubber Particles

Size of Rubber Particles and Aggregate
Gradation of Rubber Particles
Specific Gravity of Rubber Particles
Fineness Modulus (Fine Aggregate)
Rubber Content for Mix
Water-Cement Ratio
Sample of Mix Designs from Literature

Author Rubber Type Rubber Content Method of Mix Design

Kaloush 1mm Crumb 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber by weight,
et. al. Rubber and 300 #/cuyd increased w/c ratio
Fedroff By weight of cement in mix adjusted w/c ratio to get 3 to
et. al. Super fine powder 0, 10, 20, and 30% 5 inches of slump
Tantala Replaced 5% and 10% of coarse aggregate with buff Buff Rubber 5 and 10% rubber by volume
Cyrogenic Ground
Li et. al. Rubber<2mm 33% Replaced 33% of fine aggregate by volume
Schimiz Fine/Coarse 5% of mix design by Lowered both 1. fine aggregate and 2. fine and coarse
ze Reclaimed Rubber weight aggregate to get 5% rubber by weight
Biel and 3/8" minus rubber 0 to 90% in 15% Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber by volume
Lee droppings increments gave 0 to 25% rubber by volume in mix
Eldin Ground tire chips, 0,25,50,75,100% Test specimens replacing either coarse or fine fine crumb rubber by volume aggregate
Difficulties Interpreting Literature Results

Different types of tire particles

Different methods of mix design
Different pretreatment of tire particles
Different testing procedures

Only general conclusions can be drawn

from the results published in the
Summary of Engineering Properties of Rubberized
Concrete from the Literature
Compressive Strength
Tensile (Split Cylinder) Strength
Flexural (Modulus of Rupture) Strength
Unit Weight
Air Content
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Damping characteristics
Rubberized Concrete Compressive Strength

Rubber is weaker and less rigid than the

mineral aggregate that they replace, which
reduces the compressive strength
Increasing rubber content has been found to
increase the air content, which also reduces
the compressive strength
The bond characteristics between the
cement paste and the rubber may also
reduce the compressive strength
As always, w/c ratio, unit weight,
workmanship, and curing affect compressive
Mix Ingredients for Crumb Rubber Concrete
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Cross-sectional View of Concrete Samples
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Microscopic View of Crumb Rubber Distribution in
400 lbs CR/ Cyd. Mix (Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Effect of Rubber Content on Compressive Strength
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete Unit Weight
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete Air Content
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete Slump
(Kaloush et. al. 2004)
Compressive Stress Strain Curves
(Li et. al. 1998)
Compressive Strength and Stiffness
(Li et. al.1998 )
Flexural Strength
(Li et. al. 1998)
Typical Concrete Compression Stress-Strain Curves
(Tantala et. al. 2002)
Stress-Strain Curves Ordinary Concrete
(Tantala et. al. 2002)
Stress-Strain Curves 5% Rubber Concrete
(Tantala et. al. 2002)
Stress-Strain Curves 10% Rubber Concrete
(Tantala et. al. 2002)
Maximum Compressive Stress
Compressive Strength vs. Rubber Content
(Biel et. al. 1994)
Split Cylinder Strength vs. Rubber Content
(Biel et. al. 1994)
A Tensile Strength Failure of Ordinary
Concrete (Kaloush 2004)
Tensile Strength Failures Crumb Rubber Concrete
(Kaloush 2004)
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion - CRC
(Kaloush 2004)
Engineering Properties of Tire Rubber
for Concrete Mix Design

Gradation (Generally Uniformly Graded)

Specific Gravity
Absorption Capacity
Unit Weight
Generally Uniformly Graded (Same Size)
Max Size Varies According to Manufacturing
Test According to ASTM D 422
Crumb Rubber Sample
GSD Crumb Rubber
Grain Size Analysis




Percent finer (%)







10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001
Partical diameter, (mm)
Tire Buffings Sample
GSD Tire Buffings
Grain Size Analysis




Percent finer (%)







100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001
Partical diameter, (mm)
Specific Gravity and Absorption Capacity
Tire shred Specific gravity Water Reference
type Bulk Saturated Apparent Absorption
surface dry capacity (%)
Glass belted ---- ---- 1.14 3.8 Humphrey et al. (1992)

Glass belted 0.98 1.02 1.02 4 Manion & Humphrey


Steel belted 1.06 1.01 1.10 4 Manion & Humphrey


Mixture 1.06 1.16 1.18 9.5 Bressette (1984)

Mixture ---- ---- 1.24 2 Humphrey et al. (1992)

(Pine State)
Mixture ---- ---- 1.27 2 Humphrey et al. (1992)
Mixture ---- ---- 1.23 4.3 Humphrey et al. (1992)
Mixture 1.01 1.05 1.05 4 Manion & Humphrey

Mixture ---- 0.88 to 1.13 ---- ---- Ahmed (1993)

Patented Concrete Mix Design
100 parts by weight of cement
100-200 parts by weight of sand
200-400 parts by weight of coarse aggregates
15-30 parts by weight of shredded particulates
comprising rubber, fibers and steel obtained from
whole waste tires
20-70 parts by weight of water
Fly ash
Reinforced Concrete Lab
Lab is required of all CE majors as part of a
capstone design class in reinforced concrete
Conducted experiments with varying water-
cement ratios of 0.4, 0.55, and 0.7
Each of three labs assigned a different rubber
percentage: 10, 20 and 30% by volume
Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber,
and coarse aggregate with rubber buffings by
volume assuming a specific gravity of 1 for the
tire rubber.
Lab Objectives

Study the effects of adding tire particles

to assigned mix. Try to determine:
1. Compressive Strength
2. Modulus of Elasticity
3. Poissons Ratio
4. Air Content
5. Comment on workability/segregation

Results were generally consistent with

the findings in the literature

Incomplete data sets as they were

assigned the same mix design that was
given in class for ordinary concrete, and
some results were not recorded
Concrete Lab Results

Ult. Strength vs. water/cement ratio

Ult. Strenth (psi)

6000 0% C.R.
5000 10% C.R.
20% C.R.
30% C.R.
0.25 0.4 0.55 0.7 0.85
Water Cement ratio
Compressometer for E and

UTM for applying

Load and measuring
Dial gages for
Longitudinal and
Transverse strain
Stress-Strain Curves
Stress vs. Strain for 0.4 Stress vs. Strain for .55 Water/Cement
Water/Cement Ratio Ratio

3000.0 2000.0
2500.0 1600.0
Stress (psi)


Stress (psi)
10% C .R. 10% C .R.
1500.0 30% C .R. 20% C .R.
10% C .R. 20% C .R.
1000.0 800.0
30% C .R.
500.0 400.0
0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010 0.0
00 00 00 00 00 00 0.000000 0.000200 0.000400 0.000600 0.000800

Strain (in/in) Strain (in/in)

Stress vs. Strain for .7 Water/Cement


Stress (psi)

500.0 10% C .R.

30% C .R.
30% C .R.
0.000000 0.000500 0.001000 0.001500
Strain (in/in)
Other Results

Summary of comments
No lateral strain data, hence, no
Poissons ratio results

Need another lab cycle


A fair amount of research has been done in

using waste tire particles in Portland
cement concrete
Concrete compressive strength and
stiffness decrease dramatically with
increasing rubber content
However, tensile strain, ductility, and
toughness have been shown to increase
with small amounts of rubber particles
Potential Applications

Light duty paving (sidewalks, etc.)

Vibration mitigation
Energy absorption (earthquake)
Increase freeze/thaw durability
Civil Engineering Applications Using Tire Derived Aggregate. Presented by Dr. Dana Humpherey.
Sponsored by: California Integrated Waste Management Board
Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete Kamil E. Kaloush, Ph.D, P.E., Assistant Professor Arizona
State University ,Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Ground Waste Tire Rubber. David Fedroff, Shuaib
Ahmad, and Banu Zeynep Savas
Properties of Concrete Incorporatign Rubber Tyre Particles. Z. Li, F. Li, and J. S. Magazine of
concrete Research, 1998, 50, No. 4, Dec., 297-304
Use of Waste Rubber in Light-Dudy Concrete Pavements. Richard R. Shimizze, S.M.ASCE,
James K. Nelson, M.ASCE, Serji N. Amirkhanian, M.ASCE and John A. Merden, A.M. ASCE.
Rubber-Tire particles as Concrete Aggregate. Neil N. Eldin, Ahmed B. Senouci. Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering, 5 (1993) 478-96.
Quasi-Elastic Behavior of Rubber Included Concrete (RIC) Using Waste Rubber Tires. Michael
W. Tantala, University of Pennsylvania, John A Lepore, Ph.D., P.E, University of Pennsylvania,
Iraj Zandi, Ph.D., P.E., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Use of Recycled Tire Rubbers in Concrete. Biel T.D. and Lee H. Infrastructure: New Materials
and Methods of Repair. Proceedings of the Third Materials Engineering Conference, San Diego,
1994, 351-358