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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011

Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Coordination

Contents
Unit Overview .....................................................................................................................3!

Key Concepts.................................................................................................................3!

Lesson Roadmap ...........................................................................................................7!

Software Tools and Requirements.................................................................................7!

Suggested Resources....................................................................................................7!
Lesson 1: Preparing to Share Models..............................................................................9!

Lesson Overview............................................................................................................9!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................10!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................10!

Assessment..................................................................................................................12!

Key Terms....................................................................................................................13!
Lesson 2: Modeling Structural Elements ......................................................................14!

Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................14!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................15!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................16!

Assessment..................................................................................................................21!

Key Terms....................................................................................................................23!
Lesson 3: Modeling Electrical Systems.........................................................................24!

Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................24!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................26!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................26!

Assessment..................................................................................................................31!

Key Terms....................................................................................................................33!
Lesson 4: Modeling Plumbing Systems ........................................................................34!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................35!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................36!

Assessment..................................................................................................................41!
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Key Terms....................................................................................................................43!
Lesson 5: Modeling Mechanical Systems .....................................................................44!

Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................44!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................45!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................45!

Assessment..................................................................................................................50!

Key Terms....................................................................................................................51!
Lesson 6: Coordination and Interference Checking.....................................................52!

Lesson Overview..........................................................................................................52!

Learning Objectives .....................................................................................................53!

Suggested Exercises ...................................................................................................53!

Assessment..................................................................................................................56!

Key Terms....................................................................................................................57!

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Unit Overview
Key Concepts
For many decades, the AEC community has relied on a paper-based workflow with
designers working in silos that focused on a single project discipline or function and
sequentially passing the outputs of their design decisions on to the next discipline. This
isolated, sequential process created many barriers to effective collaboration and has often
led to misunderstandings and mistakes requiring costly rework in the field.

In recent years, designers in the AEC community have embraced a new methodology
using BIM software tools and building information models as the basis for a collaborative
design process to meet the challenges of todays increasingly complex and demanding
project requirements. Using this BIM methodology, design teams can deliver projects on
time, at a higher quality, and with greater efficiency.

While the local benefits of adopting a BIM-based design approach to improve the workflow
and outputs of each design disciplinearchitectural, structural, and MEPare typically far
greater than the costs of deploying BIM and sufficient to justify making the change, the
larger impacts of enabling seamless multidisciplinary collaboration by the entire design
team are far greater.

While the transition from manual drawing to CAD-based approaches improved the
efficiency of the process, the transition to a BIM-centric design approach fundamentally
changes the process and the AEC workflow by revolutionizing the way project information
is shared, coordinated, and reviewed. BIM is proving to be a breakthrough technology that
affects project workflows, multidisciplinary team roles, delivery methods, and project
deliverables.

Advantages of a BIM-Centric Design Approach

A fundamental advantage of using a BIM-based methodology for sharing project


information and collaborating is that it enables design team members to participate and
provide their inputs much earlier in the design process, rather than waiting in line for their
turn after earlier design decision are locked. This early participation and input enables all
design team members to assess the impacts of their design decisions and processes
downstream.

When the entire team can coordinate their work and share design inputs, they can easily
assess the impacts of design alternatives and hone in on the best options earlier, and in
parallel. This collaborative approach enables designers to respect the requirements of the
other design disciplines and avoid costly and time-consuming conflicts and design rework.

Multidisciplinary Design Teams

As the design and construction of successful buildings becomes increasingly complex,


designers and experts from many disciplines must be brought together to share their
expertise and collaborate on the design of the key building features. Typically, all of the
disciplines and expertise required cannot be found in a single design firm. Rather, a
project design team typically involves designers and experts from a number of different
firms that all specialize in their own aspect of the project design.

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A typical project team may bring together architects, civil engineers, structural engineers,
mechanical engineers, planners, surveyors, and a host of technical specialistseach with
their own perspectives and goals on what features will create the best design. These
designers may also be joined by constructors and fabricators who will build the project, as
well as the facilities personnel who will eventually operate the completed building.
Coordinating the inputs from all these divergent viewpoints into a collaborative process
can be a monumental task.

To achieve their design goals, design teams must produce and manage vast amounts of
information about the projectfor example, existing and as-built conditions, project goals,
design options considered, results of design analyses performed, construction planning
and fabrication strategies. A seemingly boundless range of details must be coordinated,
reviewed, and agreed upon by the entire team. Each team member must develop the
information needed and design the features required for their own portion of the design
work, and this information must be shared with other members of the design team who
are impacted by and depend upon these design decisions.

A BIM-centric design approach enables multidisciplinary design teams to create, share,


and coordinate vast amounts of project information, maintaining the integrity of the design
teams information and decision-making as the project evolves. Traditional paper-based
approaches are just too time-consuming, error-prone, and limited to effectively meet the
needs of the todays multidisciplinary design teams.

Developing a Model Coordination Plan

Before members of the design team dive into creating models for their individual pieces of
the project, it is essential that key members of the team meet to create standards and
document the procedures that will be used to share models. This step is often formalized
in a Model Coordination Plan or a BIM protocol document that specifies:

The overall strategy for dividing the design work into packages that will be
completed by different members of the multidisciplinary design team.

Who is responsible for the development and analysis of each work package at
each stage of the design process.

The acceptable level of detail for each work package at each stage.

The information exchange mechanisms (network server, FTP site, or other file
transfer means) and standards (file formats).

Who has management or editing privileges for each work package.

BIM-Centric Design Workflow

The precise workflow used by each multidisciplinary design team will vary based on the
specific needs, requirements, and relationships between the team members. The
following steps outline one suggested approach:

Step 1: Create a Base Design Model

A common first step in the project design process is for the lead architect to generate a
preliminary design in response to the owners requirements and other design objectives
and constraints.

Autodesk Revit Architecture software can help architects to explore and assess to meet
their design objectivesfor example, maximizing usable space, responding to site
features and constraints, maximizing building performance, and creating desired design

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and aesthetic effectsto name just a few possibilities. Whatever the design priorities, BIM
helps architects to explore design alternatives and document their design intent.

Step 2: Utilize the Base Design Model

Once a preliminary design has been created, the BIM model can be shared with other
members of a multidisciplinary design team to be used as a starting point for their design
tasks.

The BIM model of the preliminary design encodes the design intent of the architect and
enables other team members to participate and collaborate much earlier than traditional
silo-based, sequential workflows. Each discipline can link the architects preliminary
design model into their own model (which acts as a host for the linked model) and use the
linked model as the basis for their own design work.

Autodesk Revit software products provide collaboration tools that help the
multidisciplinary designers to selectively copy and monitor elements from the architectural
model that will inform or affect their own design as well as elements that created
interdependencies between the designs. This capability helps designers to quickly create
coordinated models of the project to support their own workflow. To simplify the workflow
and avoid degrading the performance of their host model, designers should only copy the
elements needed to coordinate work with other team members.

Having created linked models, each member of the design team can then complete their
individual design tasks in parallel, confident that their design work will remain coordinated
with the work of other members of the team:

Structural engineers can design and model the structural members and
framework required to support the proposed design and recommend changes
that will improve the structural performance. They can also use their structural
models as the basis for structural analyses and detailed structural design. The
results of their analysis and design can be linked and incorporated into the
overall project model to ensure coordination with other members of the design
team.

Electrical and lighting engineers can design and model the power, lighting, and
switching systems needed to support the requirements of the proposed design.
They can use their electrical models to perform detailed analysis and design of
the buildings electrical systems and recommend changes that would improve
the building performance. As with other disciplines, the results of their electrical
system analysis and design can be linked into the overall model and
coordinated with other design team members.

Plumbing engineers can design and model the water supply, sanitary, and fire
protection systems needed to support the proposed design. Using the space
layouts, fixtures specified, and wet walls initially proposed by the architect, the
plumbing engineers can model the pipe routing and perform analysis on water
flow and pressure to design the components of the plumbing system in detail.
When their proposed design is linked into the overall model, their work will be
coordinated with the work of others.

Mechanical and HVAC engineers can also use the linked preliminary design to
understand the buildings cooling and heating zones as well as the spaces
available for mechanical equipment and chases and plenums to route
ductwork. They can position their HVAC components in the context of the
architectural, structural, and other building elements that may create
interferences, thus maintaining the integrity of the integrated project design.

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Step 3: Review and Coordinate Designs

As each discipline completes an iteration of their design work, their models can be linked
to an integrated project model that incorporates the models produced by all disciplines.
This essential step facilitates review, coordination, and interference checking between all
of the design work that has been carried on in parallel.

Every disciplines individual design decisions can have impacts on many other disciplines,
especially where elements from many disciplines must be coordinated to share small
spacesfor example, in a ceiling space where structural elements, mechanical ductwork,
and piping systems all compete for limited space. This is where design review and
coordination among all participating disciplines becomes vital.

In traditional paper-based workflows, coordinating drawings created by many disciplines


could be a time-consuming and tedious task fraught with human errors, because conflict
and issue identification relied on human interpretation of 2D drawings. In a BIM-centric
design process, computers can automatically and reliably check vast number of potential
conflicts almost instantaneously.

Revit products enable cross-linking of models created in Revit Architecture, Autodesk

Revit Structure software, and Autodesk Revit MEP software. The models that should
be cross-linked depend upon the teams workflow. Typical examples might include:

Architectural/Structural: The structural engineer uses Copy/Monitor mode to


monitor changes made to the base architectural model. The architect can then
use Interference Check to verify that architectural elements are not conflicting
with structural components.

Architectural/Mechanical: The MEP engineer monitors the architects changes


to rooms and levels, which bound the heating and cooling zones. The architect
can link the MEP model to show mechanical system elements in the context of
the architectural elements.

Structural/Mechanical: In this case, both designers benefit from interference


detection to avoid potential collisions and conflicts between structural and MEP
system elements.

Using this model cross-linking feature, design teams can review, monitor, and coordinate
the changes made by all members of the design team. This approach enables model
coordination review and interference checking to occur earlier and more quickly, which
allows these essential steps to be completed regularly as part of an iterative design
process.

Step 4: Iterate and Improve Designs

Steps 2 and 3 should be completed often and repeated regularly as part of an iterative
design process. As a design matures and continues to adapt and respond to the
requirements and opportunities realized by all the project disciplines, the entire project
team can be updated with the latest version of the integrated project model.

Using these updates, they can continue to advance and refine their individual designs in
their own models, always in coordination with the integrated model.

This efficient process enables the entire design team to participate in assessing proposed
design options and contribute their insights to help the project team find optimal design
choices based on broader multidisciplinary considerations.

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Lesson Roadmap
In this unit, students will learn how BIM tools can be used to support a multidisciplinary
design process. They will learn how to:

Create a dimensional framework that helps coordinate design work of team


members using a series of linked models.

Place placeholder elements in a preliminary design model to encode the


architects design intent.

Link Revit models and copy shared levels, grids, and reference planes, as well
as elements that are relevant to the design work of specific disciplines.

Model the elements typically placed by structural, electrical, plumbing, and


mechanical system designers.

Link and integrate model created by many disciplines and using coordination
review and interference checking to look for conflicts.

Software Tools and Requirements


To complete the exercises in this unit, students should download the following software
from the Autodesk Education Community website and install it on their computers:

Autodesk Revit Architecture

Autodesk Revit Structure

Autodesk Revit MEP

This unit presents a high-level view of the functionality in these tools to illustrate the
benefits of using a BIM-centric approach to multidisciplinary design. The features
presented are a small subset of the full range available in Revit software, specifically
focusing on model linking and basic design tasks.

For more detailed coverage and examples of how to use Revit products for structural and
MEP design tasks, students can refer to:

Curriculum materials available on the Autodesk Education Community website.

Revit software products extensive help system.

Videos and tutorials available in the Revit help menu.

Suggested Resources
BIM Methodology

BIM Deployment Plan


usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?id=14652957&siteID=123112

Integrated Project Design

AIA Integrated Project Delivery: A Guide (2007)


info.aia.org/SiteObjects/files/IPD_Guide_2007.pdf

Case Studies/White Papers

Factor Ten Engineering Introduction


Link to White Paper

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Factor Ten Engineering Design Principles


Link to White Paper

Autodesk AEC Headquarters and Integrated Project Design, Factor Ten Engineering
Case Study, August 2010
Link to White Paper

Banana Farm 1.0, Factor Ten Engineering Case Study, August 2010
Link to White Paper

10 Exchange Square, London: Information Technology for Collaboration, 2005


www.gsd.harvard.edu/people/faculty/pollalis/cases/BL-CaseStudy-mar-2005.pdf

Architecture Programs Implement Interdisciplinary Collaboration Studios to Capitalize on


the Emergence of Integrated Project Delivery
Link to White Paper

BIM Curriculum Materials and Support

Autodesk BIM for Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Management 2011


Curriculum
students.autodesk.com/ama/orig/bim2010/start.htm

BIM Curriculum Support and Discussion


http://www.bimtopia.com/bimcurriculum.html

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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 1: Preparing to Share Models

Lesson 1: Preparing to Share Models


Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students learn how to set up the elements of a project that enable teams to
effectively share a building model. They:

Create a dimensional framework for the model via levels, grids, and reference
planes and use these elements to precisely place building elements.

Create views that expose and highlight the elements used by different
members and disciplines on the design team.

Creating the Architectural Building Model

To prepare a model for sharing with a multidisciplinary team, it is essential to create a


dimensional framework of levels, grids, and reference planes that all members of the team
can use to place elements and keep their work coordinated.

Designers typically place elements in their models to


act as placeholders for items that will be designed and
specified by other members of the team. This approach
enables them to consider the locations in their design
decisions and indicate their design intent to other
members of the team.

The design team must work out the overall strategy for
how the model will be sharedas a single project file
(which can be shared on a local network) or as a series
of linked models (which can be remotely edited by
different team members, then reviewed and checked for
changes and conflicts).

In order to avoid duplication of effort and conflicts, each


team member must have a clear understanding of what
types of elements are to be placed in each linked model Figure 4.1.1. Adding placeholder columns to the
and who will control the changes to that model. architectural model at grid intersections

Creating Views to Highlight the Structural Elements

Design teams can create many views of the building model to show specific features and
highlight the elements used by each design discipline to assist with their design tasks.

It is often useful to create special views that isolate specific types of elements or hide
other elements that obscure the ones involved in a design task, for example:

2D and 3D section views

Views that hide selected elements or categories of elements


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With visibility graphics overrides set to hide or highlight selected categories of


elements

It may be necessary to adjust a views settings to be able to see the structural elements in
that view. If elements cannot be seen, students should check:

Visibility graphics overrideshas that category been hidden?

View propertiesis the element outside the current view range settings?

Level of detailis the level of detail fine enough? (Some categories of


elements display as single line representations in coarse views.)

Hidden elementshas the element been temporarily hidden?

Section boxesis the element outside of the range of the section box?

To ensure consistency between views, design teams can create view templates to quickly
apply similar view settings to many views.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

Understand the importance of creating a dimensional framework to facilitate


model sharing.

Appreciate and apply the concept of using grids and reference planes to align
and place building elements.

Explore creating special views to highlight key elements for different disciplines
within the design team.

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.1.1: Creating the Architectural Building Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Create appropriate levels for the project geometry.

Add horizontal grids, vertical grids, and reference planes to assist with placing
and aligning elements.

Place structural columns and other placeholder structural elements in the


building model.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson1_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.1.2. Structural columns placed in the


architectural model at the ground floor and lower levels

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Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson1_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Place grids in the east-west direction (perpendicular to the ones placed in the
tutorial.

Place reference planes on both sides of the first and last east-west grids to
assist with aligning model elements.

Add structural columns at the grid intersections on level 1.

Figure 4.1.3. Grids and reference planes on level 1

Exercise 4.1.2: Creating Views to Highlight the Structural Elements

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Create 2D building sections.

Use the section box to create 3D building sections.

Adjust the visibility/graphic overrides to display the building skeleton.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson1_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.1.4. Using the section box to expose the


building systems in a 3D view

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Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson1_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Create additional 2D section views to show the structural features in the east-
west direction.

Create a 3D section view showing the structural features in this direction.

Figure 4.1.5. 3D section view cutting the model between grids 4 and 5

Assessment
Creating the Architectural Model

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the Array tool to place
grids versus copying them individually?

Grids are typically placed at regularly spaced intervals, so the Array tool can be
very helpful for rapidly placing a series of grids, each separated by an equal
distance.
If the array is associated, changes to the position of any one grid will affect all
others, which are probably not desired. So if you want to move grids
independently, you should disable the group and associate option when
creating an array or place the grids individually.
How do you place nonrectangular grids (for example, radial grids or triangular
grids)?

To place radial grids, start by placing the common center point. Then draw the
grids radiating out from that point. After placing the first grid, you can create a
radial array to quickly place a series of radial grids.
To place triangular grids (or any nonrectangular geometry), draw one grid, then
use the Offset tool to create additional grids that follow the same geometry a
specified distance away.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating more than one level
per floor (for example, Level 1Floor and Level 1Ceiling)?

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Creating more than one level per floor enables greater modeling flexibility. For
example, if you define a separate level for a ceiling, you can place objects
relative to that ceiling level (rather than offsetting from a floor level), and if you
change the elevation of the ceiling level, those objects will move with it.
Creating too many levels can create a cluttered and confusing model. When
placing elements, designers must be careful to choose the appropriate levels
for the base and top constraints and having many levels can complicate this
process.
If columns are placed at grid intersections, will the columns move if a grid
location is changed?

Columns placed at grid intersections do move if a grid location is changed. This


is one of the key advantages of defining the placement point as a grid
intersection.

Creating Views to Highlight the Structural Elements

What techniques can you use to filter the information displayed in a section
view?

You could change the visibility/graphic overrides to hide or display model


categories. Alternately, you can hide individual element instances. Using the
far clip you could bring the distance forward in order to not see so deep into the
view. Also, you might alter the view settings to control fineness of detail.
Can you cut a section view using a cutting plane that is not vertical?

By drawing the section in elevation view, you can draw a section line at any
angle.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of creating duplicate views with
different visibility settings?

Duplicate views allow you to have set views from which to do different tasks
requiring different visibility settings. Those duplicates views might be
misleading and lead you to believe certain elements are missing, instead of
simply hidden.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Grids Vertical reference planes that help divide the plan view of a
model.

Levels User-defined horizontal reference planes, defined by their


level, that help divide the elevation views of a model. They
typically match the floor elevations of buildings.

Section Views Elevation views that show some cross section of a building
design.

Graphic Overrides Customs graphic settings for color, line, transparency, and
other attributes that will take precedence over the default
settings.

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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 2: Modeling Structural Elements

Lesson 2: Modeling Structural


Elements
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will learn how to add the elements to the building model that
provide the structural framework for the building.

Students will start by adding a dimensional framework of levels and grids to the
architectural model, and then add placeholders for structural elements that impact the
architectural design (such as columns). They will then copy essential elements from the

architectural model to a Autodesk Revit Structure model and place the key structural
framing elements such as foundations, floors, shear walls, columns, beams, and joists.

The endpoint of the lesson will be a structural model that can be used for structural
analysis and shared with the other members of the design team.

Linking an Architectural Model and Copying Shared Elements

Link the preliminary architectural model to your Revit Structure host project and use the
Copy/Monitor tool to copy shared elements:

Dimensional frameworklevels and


grids

Placeholder elementswalls, floors,


and columns placed in the
architectural model

Figure 4.2.0. Adding placeholder columns to the


architectural model at grid intersections

Modeling Concrete Columns, Beams, and Floor Slabs

Model the concrete columns, beams, and floors slabs on the first floor and lower level of
the project using the Structural Column, Beam, and Floor tools in Revit Structure. These
elements will provide the basis for detailed structural design and structural analysis to
confirm the sizes of all members.
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You can place structural elements in any view, so select a view that makes your work task
easier:

Use plan views for elements that are placed below or through the cut plane (for
example, columns).

Use reflected ceiling plan views for elements that are placed above the cut plan
(for example, beams).

Use 2D or 3D section views for elements that are difficult to select in plan
views (for example, floors).

Use 3D views with the Snap in Place option for elements whose ends snap to
other objects (for example, beams).

In addition, be sure that the views level of detail, view range, and visibility graphics
overrides are set in a way that makes the structural elements visible.

Modeling Wood Columns, Beams, and Beam Systems

Model the wood columns, beams, and beam systems on the upper levels of the project
using similar techniques, but with a few variations:

Use the Align tool to line up the outside faces of the wood columns in the
exterior walls with the edge of the floor slab (and the outside face of the
concrete columns) below.

Use the Beam System tool to create a regularly spaced system of joist
elements to span between the wood beams and support the upper floors and
roof.

Since levels 2 through 4 are very similar, you can use shortcuts to simplify your work.
After placing the wood structural elements on one level, copy them to the clipboard and
use the Paste Align tool to copy them to similar locations on other levels.

Modeling Structural Walls and Foundations

Add structural walls (for example, shear walls that resist lateral forces) to the structural
model using the Wall tool. For this design, you will place:

Concrete shear walls at the lower level and level 1 to work with the concrete
framing at those levels

Plywood shear walls at levels 2 through 4 above

Retaining walls at the edges of the lower level

You can also add foundation elements to transfer the loads from the structural framing to
the ground:

Foundation slabs to transfer distributed loads

Wall foundations to transfer continuous wall loads

Isolated foundations to transfer concentrated column loads

Be sure to set the Placement Plane option to accurately place your foundation elements at
the proper level. In addition, make certain that the views level of detail, view range, and
visibility graphics overrides are set in way that makes the new elements visible.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

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Understand the importance of copying the dimensional framework to facilitate


structural systems modeling.

Understand and apply the concepts and techniques of modeling structural


framing of differing material typesconcrete and wood.

Appreciate the advantages and tradeoffs of modeling elements in 2D or 3D


views.

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.2.1: Linking an Architectural Model and Copying Shared
Elements

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Link an architectural model to a Revit Structure host project.

Set the options for copying shared elements.

Select and filter the objects to be copied.

Create working views of the structural model that facilitates modeling.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson2_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.2.1. Copying shared elements from a linked


model
Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson2_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit Structure software and link to the
architectural model of the building.

Copy the north-south grids from the linked model into the Revit Structure host
project.

Create additional views and adjust their properties to assist with the placement
of structural elements in the model.

Also create a new 3D view and name it 3D Structural Frame.

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Figure 4.2.2. 3D Structural Frame view

Exercise 4.2.2: Modeling Concrete Columns, Beams, and Floor


Slabs

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Adjust the grids and column locations to better serve the interior layout and
structural integrity of building.

Specify and placing concrete columns and beams in plan views and with 3D
snapping.

Specify the structure and materials for concrete floor slabs.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson2_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.2.3. Moving columns by adjusting the grid


locations

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Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson2_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Place 10" (0.25 m) square concrete structural columns at interior grid


intersections on level 1 and the lower level.

Create a new concrete structural framing type for 12" x 24" (0.30 m x 0.61 m)
concrete beams and place these beams at the top of the structural columns on
level 1 to support the level 2 floor slab.

Unhide the floor slab at level 2 and change its type to be a 6" (0.15 m) concrete
slab.

Figure 4.2.4. Concrete beams placed at the top of level 1 columns

Exercise 4.2.3: Modeling Wood Columns, Beams, and Floors

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Choose, place, and align wood columns relative to other model elements.

Specify the wood beam types and place them in plan views and with 3D
snapping.

Create beam systems of regularly spaced beams and joists.

Specify the structure and materials for wood structural floors and place
identical instances at many levels at once.

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Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson2_Tutorial3.mp4

Figure 4.2.5. Copying wood structural elements to a


Student Exercise similar position on another level
Unit4_Lesson2_Exercise3_Start.rvt

Place 6 x 6 (0.15 m x 0.15 m) wood columns at the grid intersections on the


right side of level 2 (along grids C and D) and align edge columns to the outer
boundary of the floor slab.

Place 5 x 22 (0.13 m x 0.57 m) Glulam beams of southern pine along grids C


and D to support the floor level above. Use an offset -0.75" (-19 mm) to place
these beams below the plywood subfloor at Level 2.

Create a beam system of 16" (0.40 m) TJL wood open web joists to span
between the beams at grids C and D. Use an offset of -0.75" (-19 mm) to also
place these joists below the plywood subfloor. The joists should be center
justified and spaced at a fixed distance of 2 (0.61 m).

Create a similar beam system using 14" (0.36 m) TJL wood open web joists to
span between the beams at grids B and C.

Copy the wood structural elements that you created in this exercise to similar
locations on levels 3 and 4.

Select the floor at level 4 and change it to the plywood floor type.

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Figure 4.2.6. Sketching the boundary for a beam system of open web joists

Exercise 4.2.4: Modeling Structural Walls and Foundations

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Create interior shear walls at the building core.

Place retaining walls below grade.

Add foundation elementsfoundation slabs, wall foundations, and isolated


foundations at columnswhere necessary.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson2_Tutorial4.mp4

Figure 4.2.7. Isolated and wall foundations merging with


the foundation slab

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson2_Exercise4_Start.rvt

Create plywood interior shear walls directly above the locations of the concrete
shear walls placed on the lower level and level 1.

Change the exterior walls on the lower level to 12" (0.30 m) concrete retaining
walls.

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Add 36" x 12" (0.91 m x 0.30 m) bearing tooting wall foundation elements to
support these retaining walls.

Add 72" x 48" x 18" (1.82 m x 1.22 m x 0.46 m) isolated rectangular footing
foundation elements to support the interior columns and the columns at grid D.

Figure 4.2.8. Interior shear walls and all foundation elements placed in the structural
model

Assessment
Linking an Architectural Model and Copying Shared Elements

What are the advantages and disadvantages of linking to a Revit model versus
sharing a single project file?

Through linking, you maintain manageable file sizes and help protect against
inadvertent changes being made by team members to our designs.
Sharing a single file for smaller projects and within smaller collocated teams
can cut down on the coordination work of using separate linked files.
Coordination, instead, can be achieved by using worksets, which guards
against unwanted edits to your portion of the design.
How does linking to models affect the performance of a host model?

As the file size increases, the performance of the host model may diminish.
Is the information displayed in a linked model refreshed automatically?

When you open a host model, the linked models are refreshed. Otherwise, we
have to reload links from the Manage Links dialog box.
Why does the Copy/Monitor tool limit the types of elements that can be copied
and monitored? What do these elements have in common?

It limits you to copying the elements that are essential for coordination between
the different models. It limits these types so that you do not unnecessarily copy

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

in elements that will not be needed and, thus, burden the model and degrade
performance.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of copying shared building
elements as generic types versus copying the original types?

Copying elements as generic types makes it easier to identify the copied


versions versus the ones that you have changed to accurate types in your
modeling process.

Modeling Concrete Columns, Beams, and Floor Slabs

Can you rotate columns as you place them?

Yes; by pressing the space bar, you rotate through the available options.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of placing a column by specifying
its depth versus specifying its height?

It will change the level with which the column is associated.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of placing columns in 3D views?

3D views can be used for placing columns at grid locations or when snapping
to other points. But plan view should be used when accurate placement is
required and snap points are not available. One advantage of placing elements
in 3D view is that you can immediately see and verify the results.
Which 2D view is best for placing beams at the top of the level 1 columns?

A reflected ceiling plan view that allows you to see the placement plane from
below.

Modeling Wood Columns, Beams, and Floors

What is the difference between the nominal dimensions for wooden elements
and the actual dimensions? Is it the same for all sizes?

The nominal dimensions of a piece of lumber, such as 2x4 or 2x6, are always
somewhat larger than the actual, or dressed, dimensions.

The nominal dimension is the next highest integer value from the dimension
specified. For example, 1.5 x 3.5 inch (38 x 89 mm) members are referred to
as 2x4s.
Why is it better to align the outside faces of the wood columns to the edge of
the floor versus leaving them centered on the grid intersections?

Because the face of the columns on all levels should be flush with the exterior
face of the wall, so that the columns will align with the wall framing and not
protrude into the finished space.
Why are beams placed in one direction and a beam system of smaller joist
elements placed in the other direction?

The beam system of joists is supported by the beams running in the orthogonal
direction at their ends. For that reason, the beams must be bigger in order to
carry the cumulative loads from the joists.
Why is the elevation of the beam start and end offsets and the beam systems
lowered to match the thickness of the structural floor?

The beams are dropped in order to represent the actual construction


conditions. Wood beams are typically located below and support the structural
floor, but do not intersect with it.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Modeling Structural Walls and Foundations

What are the key differences between structural walls and basic wall types?

Structural walls have extra properties, such as its structural type (shear,
bearing, and so on) and others that enable analytical modeling.
What determines whether a wall requires a wall foundation?

Walls that carry loads from above require wall foundations in order to transfer
those loads to the soil. Interior partition walls and nonbearing walls do not
require wall foundations.
Are isolated foundations needed to support columns that are embedded in
retaining walls?

Typically not, since those retaining walls will have wall foundations.
Why are isolated foundations needed under the interior columns? Would the
slab foundation not provide enough support?

The interior columns are transmitting point loads that are the accumulated from
the loads above and, thus, require an isolated foundation to transfer the loads
and avoid punching through slab.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Shear Wall A rigid vertical diaphragm that transfer lateral forces (caused
by wind, earthquakes, or settlement) to the foundation
elements in a direction parallel to their planes. Examples
include reinforced concrete walls, plywood shear panels, and
vertical trusses.

Joist Light horizontal framing members that support a floor or


ceiling. They typically span between walls or between larger
beams or girders.

Beam System A collection of beam elements that are typically placed in a


regularly spaced pattern.

Floor Slab A structural slab, often made of concrete, used as a floor on


grade or below grade.

Isolated Foundation A foundation element used to transfer structural point loads to


the ground. Isolated foundations are typically placed beneath
column elements.

Wall Foundation A foundation element used to transfer structural wall loads to


the ground. Wall foundations are typically placed beneath
foundation wall and retaining wall elements.

23
Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 3: Modeling Electrical Systems

Lesson 3: Modeling Electrical


Systems
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will learn how to model lighting and electrical elements in a
projectlighting fixtures, electrical distribution panels, and switchesand connect them
together by creating circuits, power systems, and switch systems.

Students will start by placing lighting fixtures in an architectural model, and then copy

those elements into an Autodesk Revit MEP model. They will model the different
lighting and power systems used to connect these lighting fixtures as well as create power
systems and switch systems.

The endpoint of the lesson will be an electrical model that can be used for analysis and
shared with the other members of the design team and disciplines affected by the
electrical design decisions.

Placing Lighting Fixtures in the Architectural Model

Designers often create lighting designs indicating the


types of lighting fixtures and their layout as part of their
preliminary design work. Similarly, you can place
lighting fixtures in an architectural model to act as
placeholders for items that will be specified in detail
later by electrical designers on the project team.

This two-stage approach enables you to consider the


location of lighting fixtures in your early design
decisions and indicate your design intent to other
members of team.

Figure 4.3.0. Lighting fixtures in the linked architectural


model are copied to MEP file

As you choose lighting fixture components to load into your project and use for your
design, make sure that they are MEP-friendly (include electrical connectors, lighting
values, and electrical load data in their definition). All of the lighting fixtures included in the

libraries installed by the 2011 versions of Autodesk Revit software products are MEP-
friendly, but older components may not be. To be certain, edit the component and look for
the special electrical connector parts in its definition.
AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Copying Shared Elements into an Electrical Model

Link the architectural model to a Revit MEP host model and use the Copy/Monitor tool to
copy the placeholder lighting fixtures to use as the starting point for our electrical design
tasks.

Modeling Electrical Panels, Circuits, and Switches

Add electrical elements to the host project to model the key features and assign these
elements to electrical power and switch systems.

Place components to model the essential features of electrical circuits. The components
available in Revit MEP include:

Electrical equipment

o Transformers

o Distribution panels

o Switch gears

Devices

o Electrical fixturesreceptacles and junction boxes

o Communicationintercom system components

o DataEthernet and other network connections

o Fire alarmsmoke detectors, manual pull stations, and annunciators

o Lightinglighting switches, daylight sensors, occupancy sensors

o Nurse call devicescall stations, code blue stations, and door lights

o Securitydoor locks, motion sensors, and surveillance cameras

o Telephonetelephone jacks

Lighting fixturesceiling, wall, and recessed lights

After placing electrical devices, you can:

Create power systems and switch systems.

Model circuits and wiring to link the devices together.

Assign circuits to panels.

Tabulate the loads on individual circuits.

View the devices assigned to each system in the System Browser.

Modeling Electrical Receptacle Circuits

Add components to the Revit MEP project to model the placement of electrical
receptacles or outlets.

Many receptacle types are available to meet different architectural needs, including:

Number of outlets availablesimplex (single outlet), duplex (two outlets),


quadruplex (four outlets)

Placement locationwall, floor, countertop, weatherproof

Voltage110V, 220V

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Special applicationsswitched, isolated ground, ground fault circuit interrupt


(GFCI)

After placing receptacles, you can:

Create circuits and wiring to link the receptacles together.

Assign circuits to panels.

Tabulate the loads and view the devices assigned to each system in the
System Browser.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

Understand how to place basic lighting fixtures in a building model using


regular layouts.

Appreciate the process of copying model framework and lighting fixtures into a
MEP file.

Understand how to create circuits and wiring to panelboard elements.

Model other common electrical equipment, such as switches and receptacles.

Explore the overall electrical systems that could be the basis for later system
analysis.

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.3.1: Placing Lighting Fixtures in the Architectural Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Choose and place lighting fixture components.

Array lighting fixtures to create regularly spaced patterns.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson3_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.3.1. Creating an array of lighting fixtures

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson3_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Autodesk Revit Architecture software.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Place a regularly spaced array of eighteen 2' x 2' (0.61 m x 0.61 m) troffer
lighting fixtures centered on the ceiling of the corridor on level 2 of the building.

Copy these corridor lighting fixtures and paste aligned to similar locations on
levels 3 and 4.

Figure 4.3.2. Troffer fixtures in the corridor arrayed in a regular-spaced pattern

Exercise 4.3.2: Copying Shared Elements into an Electrical Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Copy shared levels and grids into a Revit MEP host project.

Copy lighting fixtures from the architectural model into Revit MEP.

Create working views for lighting and electrical design.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson3_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.3.3. Copying lighting fixtures individually

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson3_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Copy the lighting fixtures from the architectural model into the Revit MEP
electrical model using the Batch Copy option to copy all of the fixtures found.

Figure 4.3.4. Using batch copy to copy of the fixtures found in the linked model

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Exercise 4.3.3: Placing Lighting Fixtures in the Architectural Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Add electrical panels and specifying distribution systems.

Create circuits to connect lighting fixtures to panels.

Connect lighting fixtures to switches.

View electrical systems in the System Browser.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson3_Tutorial3.mp4

Figure 4.3.5. Creating a switch system for many lighting


fixtures

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson3_Exercise3_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Place a 208 volt MLO panelboard for the lighting fixtures on level 1 and
designate its distribution system.

Create a power system circuit for the pendant lights in the retail space at the
north end of level 1.

Add a single pole switch system for the troffer lights in the level 2 corridor.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Figure 4.3.6. Creating a power circuit between a series of lighting fixtures and an
electrical panel

Exercise 4.3.4: Placing Lighting Fixtures in the Architectural Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Load electrical receptacle components.

Place electrical receptacles on wall faces.

Create circuits to connect the receptacles to panels.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson3_Tutorial4.mp4

Figure 4.3.7. Creating a power system linking many


receptacles

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson3_Exercise4_Start.rvt

Place electrical duplex receptacles in the conference room on level 3 of the


building.

Create a power system for these receptacles and choose the arc wire option
for the wires.

Figure 4.3.8. Power circuit linking receptacles to an electrical panel

Assessment
Placing Lighting Fixtures in the Architectural Model

How do recessed lighting fixtures affect the space available for other systems
in the ceiling (for example, ducts and sprinklers)?

Recessed lighting fixtures require space for the fixture and clearances, thus
reducing the space available for other ceiling systems, such as ductwork.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using surface-mounted lighting
fixtures versus recessed fixtures in the ceiling? Wall-mounted fixtures versus
freestanding lamps?

Surface mounted lighting fixtures, by protruding into the space, are vulnerable
to damage, but do not consume space in the ceiling. Recessed lighting fixtures
are protected, but require space in the ceiling. Wall-mounted fixtures stay in
fixed locations, but can create an obstacle, especially in hallways.
Freestanding lamps offer great flexibility for placement as need, but are
typically not used in public spaces, because they can be stolen.
What types of lighting fixtures are typically used to provide ambient lighting?
Task lighting? Accent lighting?

Ambient lighting is often provided through ceiling troffers, ceiling mounted


fixtures, and recessed downlights. Task lighting is typically achieved through

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

under-cabinet strip lighting and local light sourcessuch as desk lampsat


the work location. Accent lighting can be provided through lamps, sconces, and
cove lighting.

Copying Shared Elements into an Electrical Model

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using batch copy versus
copying lighting fixtures individually?

The advantage of batch copy is speed and efficiency and is generally a better
strategy, unless you want to only copy a few fixtures.
Why would you choose not to copy some lighting fixtures from the linked
model?

If the fixtures are not necessary to our lighting and electrical design, then they
should not be copied from the linked model. For example, freestanding lamps,
being plug loads, need not be copied.
What factors determine whether it is better to copy the original types from the
linked architectural model or map them to new types in the host MEP model?

In general it is better to copy the original types. The exception is if you have a
lighting fixture that is not MEP-friendly (does not have electrical connectors and
other MEP properties).

Modeling Electrical Panels, Circuits, and Switches

Where are electrical panels typically located? In public or private locations?


Who should have access to the panels?

Electrical panels are typically located in central locations, such as corridors,


stairwells, or electrical closets. They are typically locked or secured to prevent
unauthorized tampering. Access is often restricted to building managers and
maintenance personnel.
How do you determine the number of distribution panels needed and the size
for each?

The number of distribution panels needed depends on the total loads serviced
and the rated capacity of the each panel. Each panel is sized to handle current
and anticipated future loads.
Where are light switches typically located?

Light switches are typically loaded near doors, and access and egress points,
so lights can be controlled as you enter or leave the room.
In what situations are three-way and four-way switches used?

Three-way and four-way switches are used when lights need to be controlled
from several locations. Three-way switches control lights from two locations,
while four-way switches control lights from three locations.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using occupancy switches and
timers versus standard switches?

Occupancy switches and timers are typically used to improve efficiency by


turning off lights when they are not needed, for example when the room is
unoccupied. The disadvantage is that timers and occupancy switches can turn
off lights at the unintended times, for example, when the occupants are
relatively still.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Modeling Electrical Receptacle Circuits

What is typical elevation for wall receptacles in different settings (for example,
residential versus office)? What are the ADA requirements?

Wall receptacles have typically been placed at 12" (0.30 m) above the floor in
residential settings. In office locations it is common to locate them at an
elevation appropriate for the equipment serviced, for example, above desk-
height in modular office systems. ADA requires that receptacles be mounted no
less than 15" (0.38 m) above the floor and no higher than 54" (1.37 m).
Why are ground fault circuit interrupt (GFCI) receptacles used on countertops
and in potentially wet locations?

GFCI receptacles provide an extra level of protection in potentially wet


locations, by interrupting current when a ground fault (short) is detected. This
is especially important in bathrooms, on countertops near sinks, and anywhere
water is used.
When should quadruplex (four-outlet) receptacles be provided?

Quadruplex receptacles should be provided when a large amount of electrical


equipment is likely to be used or placed there, for example, near home
entertainment centers or where computer equipment will be used. This
minimizes the need for power strips which can create safety hazards.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Circuit The system of individual electronic components, such


as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes,
connected by conductive wires through which electric current
can flow and service electrically powered devices.

Panelboard The device where power can be monitored, distributed, and


controlled safely via circuit breakers and ground connections.

Receptacle Electrical power outlet serving the users plug loads.

Ground Fault Circuit GFCI is a safety feature that cuts power to a circuit when a
Interrupt (GFCI) ground fault or short is detected.

33
Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 4: Modeling Plumbing Systems

Lesson 4: Modeling Plumbing


Systems
In this lesson, students will learn how to model plumbing fixtures and link them together to
create hot water, cold water, sanitary waste, and fire sprinkler systems.

Students will start by placing sanitary fixtures in the architectural model, and then copy

those placeholder fixtures into an Autodesk Revit MEP model. They will model pipe
layouts to complete the sanitary waste system and create an example of a wet fire
protection system.

The endpoint of the lesson will be a plumbing model that can be used for analysis and
shared with the other members of the design team and disciplines affected by the
plumbing design decisions.

Placing Plumbing Fixtures in the Architectural


Model

Designers typically place plumbing fixtures in their


models as part of their preliminary design work to
indicate the types and locations of fixtures, the
required clearances, and their design intent.

You can use a similar approach, placing plumbing


fixture components in an architectural model to act
as placeholders for items that will be connected into
plumbing systems in a later step by others on the
design team. Be sure to consider the clearances
required by all applicable building codes as you
place the fixtures.

Make sure that the plumbing fixture components you Figure 4.4.0. Adding placeholder columns to the
load into your project and place are MEP-friendly architectural model at grid intersections
(include connectors for the hot water, cold water, and
sanitary systems in their definition).

All of the plumbing fixtures included in the libraries installed by the 2011 versions of

Autodesk Revit products are MEP-friendly, but older components may not be. To be
certain, edit the component and look for the special system connector parts in its
definition.

Copying Shared Elements into a Plumbing Model

Link the preliminary architectural model to your Revit MEP host project and use the
Copy/Monitor tool to copy the placeholder elements to use as the starting point for the
plumbing design tasks.
AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Modeling Sanitary Systems

Use tools in the Plumbing Panel of the Home tab to connect these fixtures and create
several types of plumbing systems:

Sanitary

Domestic cold and hot water

Fire protection

The essential steps include:

Add pipes to model vertical risers.

Add horizontal branch pipes and connecting them to the riser.

Connect plumbing fixtures to the branch pipes.

You can place these pipes individually, or use Revit softwares auto-routing tools to
generate recommended pipe layouts based on the fixture connections, pipe sizes, and
connectors required.

You view the plumbing systems defined and the devices assigned to each system in the
System Browser.

Modeling Fire Protection Systems

Another essential plumbing system in many buildings is the fire protection system. You
can use Revit software to model both wet and dry fire protection systems.

Fire sprinklers and their piping are typically located at the ceiling level. You place sprinkler
components using the Sprinkler tool in the in the Plumbing and Piping panel of the Home
tab.

You can place the pipes that supply the sprinkler components manually or by using Revit
softwares auto-routing tool to generate potential layouts. These pipes can be concealed
in the ceiling or left exposed.

Because sprinkler piping typically shares the ceiling space with many other building
systemsstructural elements, electrical wiring and lighting fixtures, and mechanical
ductworkit is important to check for interferences and adjust the routing as needed to
avoid conflicts.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

Understand the importance of copying the model levels, grids, and fixtures into
the MEP host model.

Explore modeling pipe systems between fixtures to create specific plumbing


systems.

Appreciate the logic for sanitary pipe routing options in a multistory building.

Devise simple fire protection systems in ceilings.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.4.1: Placing Plumbing Fixtures in the Architectural Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Place plumbing fixture components in restrooms.

Copy plumbing fixtures to similar locations on other levels.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson4_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.4.1. Placing a lavatory plumbing fixture


component

Exercise

Unit4_Lesson4_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Autodesk Revit Architecture software.

Place toilet and urinal fixtures in the restrooms on level 1 of the building as
shown in Figure 4.4.2.

Copy the plumbing fixtures to similar locations on levels 2, 3, and 4.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Figure 4.4.2. Plumbing fixtures placed in the restrooms

Exercise 4.4.2: Copying Shared Elements into a Plumbing Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Copy shared levels and grids into a Revit MEP host project.

Create working views for plumbing design in Revit MEP.

Copy plumbing fixtures from the architectural model into Revit MEP.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson4_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.4.3.Copying plumbing fixtures to the Revit MEP


host project

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Exercise

Unit4_Lesson4_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Copy the plumbing fixtures from the architectural model into the Revit MEP
plumbing model using the Batch Copy option to copy all of them.

Open the 3D Plumbing view to verify that the fixtures are copied into the Revit
MEP plumbing model.

Figure 4.4.4. Plumbing fixtures copied into the Revit MEP host project

Exercise 4.4.3: Modeling Sanitary Systems

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Create a vertical riser.

Place horizontal branch pipes.

Connect branch pipes to the riser.

Connect plumbing fixtures to branch pipes.

View sanitary systems in the System Browser.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson4_Tutorial3.mp4

Figure 4.4.5. Creating a branch pipe to a vertical riser

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson4_Exercise3_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Copy the horizontal branch pipe on level 2 to similar locations on levels 3 and
4.

Connect the toilet fixtures on level 2 to the horizontal branch pipe with the
Connect Into tool.

Connect the sanitary connector of the sink and urinal fixtures to the horizontal
branch pipe using similar steps.

Figure 4.4.6. Plan and 3D views showing plumbing fixtures connected to horizontal
branch pipe

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Exercise 4.4.4: Modeling Fire Protection Systems

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Place sprinklers.

Create a wet fire protection system.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson4_Tutorial4.mp4

Figure 4.4.7. Placing sprinkler components on the face


of a ceiling

Exercise

Unit4_Lesson4_Exercise4_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Place pendant sprinklers for a wet fire protection system in the ceiling of the
large office at the northeast corner of level 2.

Create a wet fire protection system for the sprinklers placed in the previous
step.

Open the 3D Plumbing view to display the sprinklers and the piping layout.

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

Figure 4.4.8. Sprinkler piping layout created with the Generate Layout tool

Assessment
Placing Plumbing Fixtures in the Architectural Model

What are the required clearances for restroom fixtures per your applicable
building code?

The requirements vary per the local building code. The requirements per the
Uniform Building Code include, for example:
Toilets: 30" (0.76 m) -wide clearance side to side, 26" (0.66 m) clearance in
front
Showers: Minimum 34" by 34" (0.86 m) square
ADA requirements are more stringent still.
Toilets: 60" (1.52 m) -wide minimum clearance located 16" to 18" (0.40 m to
0.46 m) from the wall.
Sinks: A 30" (0.76 m) -minimum clearance floor space in front of lavatories
that extend 17" (0.43 m) minimum from the wall.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using wall-mounted plumbing
fixtures versus floor-mounted?

Wall-mounted plumbing fixtures keep the floor area clear, allowing easier
access when cleaning floors. The disadvantage is that space must be provided
for the supply and sanitary piping in the wall behind the fixture. And the wall
must be reinforced to carry the structural loads.
How does the mounting location affect the routing of the sanitary and water
piping?

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

On the supply side, there is no difference. For sanitary piping, mounting


location determines where space must be provided; for sanitary piping, either
below the floor or in the wall behind the fixture.

Copying Shared Elements into a Plumbing Model

How can you control the types of fixtures copied during a batch copy?

You can select the fixture types to be batch copied within the Copy Monitor
dialog box.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of mapping fixtures to new types?

In general it is better to copy the original types. The exception is if you have a
plumbing fixture that is not MEP-friendly (does not have connectors and other
MEP properties).

Modeling Sanitary Systems

How are the horizontal branch pipes that run below a floor typically concealed?

If the pipes will not be covered by a ceiling, then a soffit can be provided to
enclose and conceal them.
Can you use multiple vertical risers to reduce the length of the branch pipes
and the vertical clearance required to provide the minimum slope?

Yes, this is an effective strategy when vertical clearance is limited.


What are the biggest challenges when trying to find auto-routing solutions?

The biggest challenge is whether the required space is available to allow the
connections (elbows, tees, and so forth) between the pipe sections to be made.
If space is not available based on the settings specified, an auto-routing
solution cannot be found.
Do the types and sizes of connector elements loaded in the project affect the
auto-routing solutions available?

Yes, the auto-routing solutions will only have access to those elements loaded
in the project. Loading more types and sizes of connectors can increase the
number of solutions found.
If an auto-routing solution cannot be found, what strategies can you use to
assist with finding an acceptable routing?

If an auto-routing solution cannot be found, you can manually place some of


the major pipes and rely on auto-routing to determine layouts for specific
smaller regions of your system.

Modeling Fire Protection Systems

What factors influence the design of a wet fire protection system?

The factors considered include: the usage of the space, the hazard
classification of the building, the coverage area, the water flow, and the water
pressure.
What is a typical spacing between sprinklers?

The sprinkler spacing will depend on the flow rate required and the water
pressure available. Typical spacing can range from 12' x 12' (3.6 m x 3.6 m) to
20' x 20' (6.1 m x 6.1 m).

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AUTODESK CURRICULUM

What factors need to be considered when determining the elevations of the


main and branch pipes?

The biggest consideration is going to be the height of the ceiling plane, whether
the sprinklers will be located on or below the ceiling, and the elevations of
potential obstructions in the ceiling plane, such as ductwork or structural
elements.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Supply System Piping systems that convey hot and cold water to supply the
needs of plumbing fixtures in the building design.

Sanitary System Piping systems that convey the used water away from
sanitary fixtures and toward the sewage systems.

Riser A vertical pipe.

Main Pipe A larger horizontal pipe that supplies water to smaller branch
pipes.

Branch Pipe A smaller horizontal pipe that conveys water from the main
pipe to an endpoint fixture.

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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 5: Modeling Mechanical Systems

Lesson 5: Modeling Mechanical


Systems
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will learn how to model mechanical systems that provide
ventilation and conditioned air to the spaces inside a building. These systems are typically
referred to as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

Students will place components to model the essential elements of an HVAC systemair
handling units and diffusersand link these elements using ductwork to create systems
that supply to the spaces and return air to the handlers.

The endpoint of the lesson will be a mechanical model that can be used for mechanical
system analysis and detailed mechanical design, as well as shared with the other
members of the design team and disciplines affected by the mechanical design decisions.

Copying Shared Elements into a Mechanical Model



Link the preliminary architectural model to an Autodesk Revit MEP host project and use
the Copy/Monitor tool to copy shared levels and grids as the starting point for the
mechanical design tasks.

You will place components to model the HVAC equipment and devices later in this lesson,
so you do not need to copy any fixtures from the linked model.

Modeling Exposed HVAC Systems

Model exposed HVAC systems (where the ductwork is visible and not concealed by a
ceiling) using tools in the HVAC Panel of the Home tab. You can create two types of
systems:

Supply systems that move conditioned air from air handling units to supply
diffusers

Return systems that move air from return diffusers back to the air handling
units

The essential steps include:

Place air handling unit components.

Place supply diffusers and return diffuser components at locations for these
terminals.

Connect the diffusers to the air handling units with ducts.

To effectively move fresh air to where it is most needed, supply diffusers are typically
placed along the perimeter of a space near doors and windows (and away from the return
air intake). Return air diffusers are strategically placed to draw the conditioned air through
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You can place ducts individually, or use Revit softwares auto-routing tools to generate
recommended ducts layouts based on the equipment connections, duct sizes, and
connectors required.

Modeling Closed Plenum HVAC Systems

You can also model closed plenum HVAC systems (where the enclosed ceiling space is
used as a return air plenum) using tools in the HVAC Panel of the Home tab. In these
systems:

Supply air is moved to the supply diffusers through ducts that are typically
concealed in the ceiling space.

Return air is moved from return diffusers mounted on the ceiling through the
return air plenum.

The guidelines for locating diffusers in exposed HVAC systems also apply here. Place
diffusers strategically to draw conditioned air through the space.

As with exposed systems, you can place ducts individually, or use Revit softwares auto-
routing tools to generate recommended layouts. Since the ductwork is typically concealed
by a ceiling, you can use rectangular ducts, which are typically less expensive than
exposed round ducts.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

Understand the importance of copying in model elements that will drive the
mechanical design.

Model some typical HVAC system, both closed plenum and exposed, within the
space constraints of the building.

Understand the options available and tradeoffs for modeling ductwork for
HVAC systems.

Investigate the register of HVAC systems and see how they are organized by
type (supply or return).

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.5.1: Copying Shared Elements into a Mechanical Model

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Copy shared levels and grids into a Revit MEP host project.

Create working views for mechanical design in Revit MEP.

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Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson5_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.5.1. Applying view templates to customize


views for mechanical design

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson5_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Create a new customized and filtered 3D view using the section box to assist
with coordinating the lighting fixtures and the mechanical equipment to be
placed.

Figure 4.5.2. 3D view displaying lighting and HVAC disciplines

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Exercise 4.5.2: Modeling Exposed HVAC Systems

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Place air handling units and terminals.

Create a return system.

View HVAC systems in the System Browser.

Video Tutorial
Unit4_Lesson5_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.5.3. Connecting diffusers to an air handling


unit

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson5_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Place six supply diffusers for an exposed HVAC system in the retail space at
the north end of level 1 around the front faade.

Create a supply system for the diffusers placed in the previous step:

o For the main ducts, use oval ducts with gored elbows/taps and an
offset of 13'-0" (3.96 m).

o For the branch ducts, use round ducts with tees, an offset of 13'-0"
(3.96 m), and round flex ducts with maximum flex duct length of 6'-0"
(1.83 m).

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Figure 4.5.4. HVAC supply system in the retail space

Exercise 4.5.3: Modeling Closed Plenum HVAC Systems

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Measure the plenum space available.

Place air handling units and terminals.

Create a supply system.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson5_Tutorial3.mp4

Figure 4.5.5. Using auto-routing to place supply side


ducts in closed plenum HVAC system

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Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson5_Exercise3_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software.

Place two supply diffusers for a closed plenum HVAC system in the office
space at the northeast corner of level 2.

Place a variable air volume (VAV) unit above the corridor outside the office.

Create a supply system for the diffusers and VAV unit placed in the previous
steps using the Generate Layout tool:

o For the main ducts, use rectangular ducts with mitered elbows/tees
with an offset: 11'-0" (3.35 m).

o For the branch ducts, use rectangular ducts with mitered elbows/tees
with an offset: 11'-0" (3.35 m) and no flex duct.

Open the 3D HVAC Lighting Coordination view to confirm that there are no
conflicts between the HVAC elements and the lighting fixtures.

Figure 4.5.6. Duct layout for supply side of closed plenum HVAC system

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Assessment
Copying Shared Elements into a Mechanical Model

What elements and features of a model would you want to see to assist with
mechanical design tasks?

You would want to see the location of the room boundary elementsincluding
the walls, doors, windows, and ceilingsto understand the thermal loads and
requirements. You would also want to see the structural members to avoid their
locations while placing elements of the mechanical system.
What other types of equipment and systems should be considered when
placing HVAC equipment and ducts?

You should consider the location of any equipment that will contribute to the
heating or cooling. You should also consider the locations of other systems that
could interfere when placing elements of the mechanical system.
Which views are best for placing HVAC equipment and ducts in a ceiling
space?

Typically, ceiling plan views, sections, and 3D views will provide the most
useful information when placing ductwork.

Modeling Exposed HVAC Systems

In what types of spaces are exposed HVAC system typically used?

Exposed HVAC systems are typically used in retail spaces, restaurants, lofts,
and spaces where the architectural intent is to reveal and not hide the building
systems. This is often associated with more modern and dynamic architectural
styles.
What factors determine the size requirements for an air handling unit?

Air handling units are sized in accordance with the amount of air flow required
to handle the supply and return diffusers.
Could a central air handling unit be used rather than a local unit in the space?

Yes, central air handling units are an efficient strategy for conditioning air for a
large number of spaces.
Where could it be located? How would you modify the design to route air to
and from the central unit?

Central air handling units are typically located on rooftops, below grade, or in
dedicated utility spaces. When central air handling is used, mechanical chases
and shafts must be provided to accommodate the ductwork required to
distribute the air.
How does the shape of the ducts and number bends in ductwork affect the
efficiency of the system?

Increasing the number of bends decreases the efficiency of the system


because of air drag. When bends are used, 45-degree bends are more efficient
than 90-degree bends. Similarly, round and oval are more efficient than
rectangular ducts.

Modeling Closed Plenum HVAC Systems

Why are return ducts not needed in a closed plenum HVAC system?

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The plenum between the ceiling and the floor above provides a closed channel
that is used for drawing the return air back to the air handling units.
What types of HVAC systems are typically used for:

o Residences?

o Offices?

o Hotel rooms?

For residences in the United States, central forced air systems with closed
supply and return ductwork are used. In other parts of the world, split system
air handlers, which control the heating and cooling locally, are more common.
In large offices and public spaces, central air handling systems are typically
used to condition the air for the open spaces
Hotel rooms typically use split systems that allow occupants to control the
comfort settings in the individual rooms.
What factors determine the best placement for supply diffusers in a room?

Supply diffusers are often placed near the windows or doors, as the largest
temperature differences occur there.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Plenum Space In a structure, this is the space that exists in the middle of the
actual ceiling and the dropped ceiling, which is frequently
made use of as an air duct for heating and cooling purposes.
This space also consists of electric, telephone, and
network cables and wires.

Air Terminal A device located in an opening provided at the boundaries of


the treated space to ensure a predetermined motion of air in
this space. These can include supply and return diffusers.

Variable Air Volume A technique for controlling the capacity of a heating,


ventilating, or air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The simplest
VAV system incorporates one supply duct that, when in
cooling mode, distributes cool supply air. Because the supply
air temperature is constant, the air flow rate must vary to
meet the rising and falling heat gains or losses within the
thermal zone served.

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Autodesk BIM Curriculum 2011
Instructor Guide
Unit 4: Multidisciplinary Collaboration
Lesson 6: Coordination and Interference Checking

Lesson 6: Coordination and


Interference Checking
Lesson Overview
In this lesson, students will learn how to link models created by all members of the design

team and use the Autodesk Revit software Coordination Review and Interference Check
tools to find and resolve changes and conflicts.

Design teams using a BIM-based approach to coordinate their work can use coordination
reviews and interference checking to find problems and resolve conflicts during the
planning and design phases of the project lifecycle. This early review helps teams avoid
costly mistakes and oversights that would otherwise surface much later during the field
construction process.

BIM-based coordination also creates an opportunity to verify the geometry and


dimensions of elements before they are placed in the field, and this facilitates the
prefabrication of components, which can vastly improve the efficiency of the construction
process.

Coordinating and Reviewing Model Changes



Link the Autodesk Revit Structure and Autodesk Revit MEP models created by other
disciplines in the design team to find changes made to shared elements and decide how
to act up on those changes.

When you link a Revit model, the software automatically looks for changes to any shared
elements and recommends performing a coordination review if any are found. The
coordination review reports:

The type of change found

The elements in both the host and linked model affected by the change

Recommended actions to resolve the change

Some changes can be resolved by choosing from the recommended actions in the
Coordination Review dialog box. Other changes may require you to modify elements
directly in your host project.

Checking for Interference Between Model Elements

You can also check for interferences and conflicts between model elements using the
Interference Check tool.

You can use this tool in two ways, to:

Compare the locations of elements placed in a single model.

Compare elements in a host project to elements in a linked model.

www.autodesk.com/edcommunity
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Interference checking is very helpful for finding conflicts that might otherwise go unnoticed
because the conflicting elements are not seen in the same view. It is good practice for
design teams to do internal checks within each model, and also do pair-wise checks to
look for conflicts between the elements placed in each linked model by the various
disciplines.

Learning Objectives
After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

Understand the importance of performing periodic coordination review of


models that have interdependencies.

Appreciate and apply the concept of coordination between models that


contribute to the same project.

Assess the options available in and the limitations of automated Coordination


Review for acting upon the conflicts.

Understand how to perform interference checking tests across different


models, model categories, or particular selections.

Investigate a particular interference and take action to resolve by changing the


location of one of the interfering elements.

Suggested Exercises
Exercise 4.6.1: Coordinating and Reviewing Model Changes

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Link models from other disciplines to the architectural model.

Find changes made to shared model elements.

Act upon the changes reported in the coordination review.

View the integrated model with the changes resolved.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson6_Tutorial1.mp4

Figure 4.6.1. Reviewing changes to shared elements in


the coordination

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Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson6_Exercise1_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Autodesk Revit Architecture software.

Link to the lighting model that was created in Autodesk Revit MEP software.

Run a coordination review to find the changes to shared elements that were
made in the linked model.

Review and act on the messages reported in the Coordination Review dialog
box.

Move the lighting fixtures in the architectural model to the new locations to
match the MEP model.

Figure 4.6.2. Coordination Review identifying differences in lighting fixture placement

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Exercise 4.6.2: Checking for Interference Between Model Elements

In this exercise, students will learn how to:

Link models to prepare for interference checking.

Set up and run an interference report.

Review the issues reported in the interference report and showing the
intersecting elements.

Narrow the scope of the report by selection or by choosing specific elements to


check.

Video Tutorial

Unit4_Lesson6_Tutorial2.mp4

Figure 4.6.3. Highlighting intersecting ducts and joists


found during an interference check

Student Exercise

Unit4_Lesson6_Exercise2_Start.rvt

Open the model for this exercise in Revit MEP software. This model includes
the elements in the plumbing design with the architectural model already linked
in.

Link to the HVAC model that was also created in Revit MEP.

Open a view of the area to be checked, and adjust its settings to feature the
HVAC and plumbing elements.

Run an interference check to look for intersecting elements in the current


project and the linked HVAC model.

Review the messages in the Interference Report dialog box.

Change the elevation of the sprinkler pipes that intersect with the ducts so that
there is an appropriate clearance between these items.

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Figure 4.6.4. Clash between a duct and sprinkler pipe in the plenum space

Assessment
Checking for Interference Between Model Elements

What happens when you reject a change? Are the users of the linked models
automatically notified? How can these changes get resolved?

If you reject a change, the originator of that change will be notified that the
change was rejected during their next coordination review to the model. At this
point, team members must communicate and agree upon the best resolution.
What strategies could you use for resolving elements that were copied into a
linked model and changed there? Should you always delete these elements in
your host model?

When copied elements have been changed, you must decide whether to retain
ownership and control of those elements or, instead, to cede them to the team
member who made the change. If you do the latter, you should delete or hide
the original element in your host model and use the changed element from the
linked model.
How can you share a coordination review report with others (or save it for your
records)?

Coordination reviews can be saved as HTML reports and shared with other
team members or archived.

Coordinating and Reviewing Model Changes

What are the advantages and disadvantages of comparing all elements in two
models versus narrowing the scope of the check to compare fewer elements?

Running interference checks upon all the elements in two models typically
detects more collisions than are practical to manage. For this reason, it is
better practice to narrow the scope and compare fewer elements in each
interference check.

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What is the most efficient way to highlight the conflicting elements and make
changes to them to resolve the interference?

From the interference report results, you can select an element and choose
Show to highlight the element in the drawing area.
How can you update an interference report to remove issues that have already
been resolved?

You can refresh the interference report to update the list of issues and filter out
any issues that have already been resolved.

Key Terms
The following terms are used in this lesson:

Key Term Definition

Coordination Review A tool that enables users to review warnings about changes
to the monitored elements, communicate with other teams
working on the same project, and resolve issues regarding
changes to the building model.

Interference Check A tool that finds intersections between elements in a project.


These can be a set of selected elements or all elements in
the model.

Clash A spatial conflict or intersection between elements in the


model.

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