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ISSN-2277-8780 G

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6 y 1424 ~! 2017
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9635359025, 9434552238, 9434165623, 9635508115
e-mail : sanjitdhanicha@rediffmail.com
sarmiladas16@rediffmail.com
amiarani@rediffmail.com

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1. AvPvh gaym~`b mi^Zx cYxZ Awmw ...... (jvjb, AvZZ)
2. D`qbvPvh weiwPZ bvqKzmygvwj
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10. bxi` eiY Pex - fviZxq `kb Pvbwb| Zuvi m jvjb Mvb wn`y I gymjgvb Dfq agi gvbyli RqMvb Kiv nqwQj|
11. `xcK Kzgvi evMPx - fviZxq `kb mywdev` Bmjvg agi K_v wekl Ki ejv njI jvjb dwKi Bmjvg wQjb wKbv
12. mgi` fvPvh - fviZxq `kb Zv wbq cwZ gnj GK gZ bq| gymwjg mc`vq jvjbK dwKi AvLvq f~wlZ
Ki ZvK Bmjvg agvej^x ej `vex KiQb| GKBfve ee agi AvjvPbv
KiZ `L ZvK wn`yiv ee ej gb KiZv| A_P jvjbK Zuvi Rxekvq
Kvb wbw` agxq ixwZbxwZ cvjb KiZ `Lv hvqwb|
wK jvjb kvn dwKii Rxeb h cwZi ga w`q AwZevwnZ nqwQj
Zvi cwZ ck DVe, jvjb Kx mywdev`x mvaK wQjb ? wK^v mywdev`i cfve
jvjbi Dci Av` cowQj wK bv? GB aiYi cki Di wbYqi c~e Avgv`i
wek-lY Ki `LZ ne mywdev` ejZ wVK wK evSvq? mywdev`i `kb wK Ggb
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AvavwZK AvZv mwKZ AvjvPbvi welq| mvaviY A_ mywdev` ejZ evSvq
Avcb bdmi m, wbR cvYi m, wbRi RxevZvi mv_ cigvZv Avj-vn h
kqZvbwUK Avgv`i cixv Kivi Rb `Iqv nqQ Zvi m Rnv` Ki Zvi
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Rvbvi cPvKB ejv nq mywd `kb ev mywdev`| mywdev` cm mywdmvaK nhiZ aygv jvjbi cwiPq wbqB bq, Zuvi Rbvb wbqI h_ weZK AvRI Pj
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mvaKiv Zv`i agvPviYi `q, wPv I AvPiYi cweZvi Dci Rvi Pvcov BDwbqbi AMZ fvoviv Mvg RbwQjb| GB gZi wec ejv hvq, 1348
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AZx`xqev`x mvaKiv mywdev` bvg cwiwPwZ jvf KiQb| hkvi Rjvi dzjevox ej Dj-L Kiv nqQ|
Bmjvgi fZi _KB h mywdev`i Rb nqQ m welq cwZ gnj Rbgvbm Aek jvjbi Rxeb mK mevwaK cPwjZ gZ nj, jvjb
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mb ejQb, mywdev` Bmjvg agi GKUv Ask, G welq m`n bB| Zdvr GB klvi viv my Ki Zvjb| Ze wUem ivM jvjbi GKwU PvL b nq
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w`qB Ckii KvQ cuQvbv me| jvjbi agxq cwiPqi ck ZvB Avgiv `LZ cvB wZwb RvwZf` gvbb
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mvbv cxi BZvw` wewfb cxi `iekK K` Ki iwPZ| myZivs evsjvi agxq, nwibv_, wkeP` we`vYei gZ wkwZ ew`i m jvjbi fvei jb`b
mvgvwRK, mvswZK I elwqK Rxebi bvbv mywdev`i cfve Azb iqQ| NUwQj| GgbwK wkjvB`ni VvKzi GU wZwb hZb| nvDmevUi Dci em
Zv jvjb mywdev`x mvaK wQjb wKbv m AvjvPbvq `Lv hvq jvjbi RvwZwi`bv_ VvKzi jvjbi P Ab KiwQjb|
Rxeb mK wek` Kvb weeiY cvIqv hvq wb| wK wZwb wbR hme Mvb iPbv Abw`K `Lv hvq jvjb RbMZfve hw` gymjgvb nZb Zvnj Zuvi
Ki MQb Zv _KB Zuvi Rxebi Dci AvjvKcvZ Kiv hZ cvi| wK mLvbI agxq cwiPq Mvcb Kivi Kvb cqvRb wQj bv| Kbbv Awef evsjvq ew`b
mgmv iqQ, jvjb Zuvi Mvb wbRi Rxebi Dci Kvb Z_ iL hvbwb| KqKwU ch ek wKQy gymjgvb Zv`i Bmjvgx AvPvi ZvM Ki Abyfeev`x gvidwZ dwKi
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mn KiI Zviv wbR`i mvabvq AUj wQjb| Kzwqv wbevmx RbK BgvgDwb Zuvi Kvb agxq Av`ki AMZ Kiv hvq bv| jvjb gvbe AvZvK weePbv KiQb
evDj gZev` I Bmjvg eBZ jvjbi RvwZMZ cwiPq wnmve ejQb, inmgq, ARvbv Ges Ak mv ic| LuvPvi fZi AwPb cvwL Mvb wZwb gbi
fwi vi euvav AvQb muvB| Afii mvK Zzjbv KiQ Ggb GK cvwLi mv_ , hv mnRB LuvPvicx `ni
wn`y wK heb ej ... gvS Avmv hvIqv Ki wK ZeyI ZvK ew` Ki ivLv hvq bv| AvavwZK fveavivq
Zvi KvQ RvZi wePvi bvB|| jvjb cvq `yB nvRvi Mvb iPbv KiwQjb| mnR mij kgq GB MvbwjZ gvbe
A_vr jvjb h RvwZZ wekvm KiZb bv Zvi cgvY cvIqv hvq| BgvgDwb AviI Rxebi inm, gvbeZv I Amvc`vwqK `wfw cKvk cqQ| jvjb h hyM Ges
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wQjb gvwgb mc`vq| jvjb GK gymjgvb KbvK wbKvn KiwQjb| myZivs wZwb gvbyli cwZev`nxbZv, agxq Muvovwg Kzmsvi, jvf, AvZKw`KZv mw`bi mgvR
hw` gymjgvb nZb Zvnj cKvk Kivi Kvb fq wQj bv| wK RvwZZi cwiPq I mvgvwRK weKvki mvgb evav nq `uvwoqwQj| GB KzmsviK jvjb Zuvi Mvbi
wZwb cKvk Kibwb| Ze jbxq welq GB h GKRb AgM mvaK Ges Zuvi fve gvag ckwe KiQb| wewUk Avgj hLb wn`y I gymjgvb`i ga RvwZMZ
mvabRvZ Dcjwi Mvb eySZ Zuvi Rxeb NUbvi AbycL ZZ AvewkK bq| wK wef` msNvZ evowQj ZLb jvjb wQjb Gi wei cwZev`x K^i| nqZv GB
giYvi cRbi MelK I jLKiv jvjbi gZv ^fve cQb gvbylK wbRi KviYB mgmvgwqK f~^vgx, HwZnvwmK, mv`K, eywRxwe, jLK GgbwK Mvgi
^v_ GgbZi me wg_ ev AwZK_bi m~ Rwoq w`Qb, Ub AvbQb ZuvK RvwZ AbK wbii gvbylI jvjbi cwZ AvK nqwQjb|
mskqi cuvK| mvaviY gvbyl jvjbi Mvbi cKZ gwngv bv eyS Zuvi Rxeb cwiPqi eZgvb hyMi mvc`vwqK nvbvnvwb I weli gyL jvjbi GB `kb h
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Zvjv wg_ jvjbi MvbK eySZ KZUzKz mvnvh Kie? AvVviv kZKi cvwK gv, gw`bv, Kvkx, e`veb meB GB `ni ga eZgvb| ZvB jvjbi gyL DPvwiZ
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fveyK| mB mvabvq bvUKxqZv Lye Riix bq, KviY jvKvqZ mvabv AbKUvB AvQ Avw` gv GB gvbe `n
`nev`x mvabvi AvPiYNwUZ Ges Zvi wekl Abyfe _KB RM IV Mvb| mvaK `Lj bvi gb fq
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Di cvBwb ! evm Ki PiB|
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evev Pvqbv Avwg Avi covbv Kwi| ZvB Avgvi Avi cov nj bv| wK Kb? heb KvU ^vgxi mv_ kivjq||
Di cvBwb ! eKvj Avkq bvB Avi
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25 26
cwiPq eiY Ki wbZ nq|
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mLvb Kb gvZvi c`ex aviY Kiv nq bv? Di bB GB Kbi? mvgvwRKfve Avevi Kvb bvMwiKK Zvi evmvb Kv_vq RvbZ PvBj Di Avm
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Kib| Avi weevni ci hw` cqvRb nq ev Kvbv evaevaKZv _vK Zvnj c~e Kvb GK bvgKiv eRvwZK msvZ PvKwii BUviwfD w`Z wMqwQjvg| Avwg ZLb
c`exi mv_ ^vgxi c`ex hy Kib| Kb Avcwb GZv w`bi cwiPqK asm Ki weevwnZ| b~bZg hvMZv hKvb i vZK Avi Zvi mv_ KwDUvii vb _vKv
Avevi bZzb c`ex hvM bZzb GK cwiPq mw Kieb? fe `LQb Kvbv Qj evaZvg~jK| AbK DPwkwZ weevwnZ/ AweevwnZ bvix cyili mv_ AvwgI DcwZ|
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_K fvjv nq c`exi cZb| eY-ag-RvZ-cvZ wbwekl evOvjx mvbiv c`exnxb `L| cyil Ave`bKvixK BUviwfD Uwej wbRi bvg, hvMZv, KvRi AwfZv
ay bvg cwiwPwZ nvK, hgb - mvbvjx, bxwjgv, AvKvk, mvgv, KiYv, ksKi, BZvw` Lye mvaviY ck wRvmv Kiv nQ| wK GKB hvMZvi Avi GKB c`
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Kvb we`vjq, gnvwe`vjq fwZi dg ev PvKix cixvi dg c~iY Kivi AwfZv BZvw`i e`j c_gB RvbZ PvIqv nQ cv_x weevwnZ wKbv! hw` weevwnZ
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AwffveKi bvgi RvqMvq wcZv/^vgx GwU c~iY KiZ gq`i Amyweavq coZ Ave`bKvixi hvMZvi Pq Zuvi ^vgxi hvMZv ekx cvavb cj| ^vgx mvaviY
nq| weevwnZ cyyiliv wcZvKB AwffveK wnmve eQ bb KviY Zuvi wcZv AvQb Kivbx ev eemvqx nj Ave`bKvixi gvb Kg Avi ^vgx DPc` miKvix KgPvix,
wK ^vgx bB (cyil`i ^vgx _vK bv, wcZv _vK| hw`I gvZv Ges x eZgvb DwKj, Wvvi BZvw` nj Ave`bKvixi gvb ekx| ^vgxi hvMZvi bxP Pvcv co
wK Zv`i cwiPq MY)| weevwnZ bvixi ^vgx I wcZv `yRbB AvQb| GLb Mj GK weevwnZ bvixi hvMZv| GLvbB kl bq, bvixi `wnK m`hKI hvMZvi
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27 28
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KvQ Avgvi Ave`b Pjyb mevB wgj ay wcZv ev ^vgxi c`ex bq gvZvi c`exKI ci, z j fwZ nevi AvRK kl w`b, ZvB AvM AvM hvIqvB fvjv, APbv K_vwj
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29 30
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nvq nvq, Gevi wK ne, KvQ wcV Kv_vI h mvBKj mvivevi `vKvb bB| gwji Pv GB zj hZ w`b coZ Pvq m coZ cvie| zj Pvi wbKU nZ Kvb
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Qo w`q nuvUZ jvMj gwj| nWgvvigkvB G K_vI Rvbvjb h, gwji GB welqUv wkv cl`i KvQ mwevi
31 32
wjwLZfve Rvbveb| welqUv QvU Ki `Lvi Kvb KviY bB|
zji KvR wgwUq h hvi evwoZ Pj Mj| APbv evwoi `iRvi mvgb
bcysmK
`uvwoq wQj| gYvjeveyi gyLi nvwm `L APbv eyS wbj zji LeiUv fvjvB ne| mvgbv_ `vm
Ni wMq gYvjeveyi gyL me b APbv cvki Ni gwji KvQ hvq| gwji Zvi
evevi gZv GvZv eyw Avgvi gv_vq bB ZvB ivMi gv_vq Po giwQjvg| Zvi Lye wiqv, ZvgvK mvnvh KiZ cvwi| gvb, ZvgvK evwo Qo w`q AvmZ cvwi|
jM wQj ZvBbv| wK h ejv gv K_v ej gwj - Po gi Zzwg GKRb gvqi gZvB bv wig, Avwg evm ai Pj hve| AvgvK Qo Zzwg Avevi evwo wdie|
KvR KiQv| Zvgvi `wi nq hve|
gwji cvovi Ab GKwU gq gwji zj GKB Kvm co| zji GB bv wiqv, Avgvi wKQy `wi ne bv| Avwg Zv Zvgv`i Iw`K GK ezi
LeiUv cvovZ Gm Qwoq w`j| cii w`b mKvj APbvi PvL coj evwoi mvgb KvQ GKUv cvmj AvbZ hve| PvBj ZvgvK evwo ch Qo AvmZ cvwi - ej
cvovi AbK gvbyli wfo| APbv wKQy eySZ bv ci, gYvjeveyK Nyg _K Zzjjb| Dii Acvq _vK wig|
gYvjevey evwoi evBi hZB mevB wNi aijb| gwj Kv_vq, hB gqwU cvovi wiqvi PvL Ges VuvU wKQy GKUv ejZ Pvq| bv ebvg nuv-Gi co Kx
gyL Dj KiQ, ZvK mevB `LZ Pvq| APbv gwjK Nyg _K WK wbj| gwj hb fve| VuvU boPo ej, Avwg evm Pj hve wig| Zzwg hvI|
evBi hZB cvovi VvKzgv gwji Mjvq dzji gvjv cwiq w`jb| Kvei mv`K GiKg GKUv Di Avkv Kiwb wig| GKUv A^wi fve Zvi PvL gyL|
gwji nvZ dzji Zvov awiq w`jb| Gwj ivZB Gb iLwQj| cvov KwgwUi wiqv Pj hZ PvBj wig WK ej, GKUv K_v wQj wiqv| K_vUv AbKw`b gbi
mfvcwZ ejjb, Avgiv `y-Pvi w`bi ga cvovi c _K gwjK mseabv Rvbvev| Mfxi jvjb Ki iLwQ| wK ejvi myhvM cvBwb|
Kx Ggb K_v wig, hUv AvgvK ejvi wQj A_P ejZ cviwb! GZw`b ai
KqKw`b cvi nq MQ| LeiUv Avk cvki cvovZI Qwoq Mj| H
GKm KvR KiwQ, GKw`bI mgq nqwb K_vUv ejvi! Zvgiv cyiliv wK mevB
me cvovi Kvewj gwji evevi mv_ hvMvhvM Ki ZvivI gwjK mseabv w`Z
GKiKg? cU K_v A_P gyL bB - ej wiqv VuvUi KvY nvwm jyKvq|
Pvq|
wVK wK fve K_vUv i Kie fe bv cq wig ej, Avgiv GK Awdm
wkv cl` _K gwjK Awfb`b Rvwbq zj wPwV GmQ, cl` G K_vI
`xNw`b ai KvR KiwQ|y AvgvK `L Zvgvi Kvb wdwjsm nq bv?
wjLQ ci w`b ZvwiL wVK Ki gwjK cl`i c _K mseabv `e|
wdwjsm ! Zzwg Kx ejZ PvBQ?
GB mseabvi ce hLvb hLvb nqQ, gwj me LvbZB PvK mv_
gvb Abyf~wZ| ZvgvK hLb `wL Avgvi gbi ga hb Kgb GKUv
Ki wbq MQ| jLvcov kLvi Rb PvK Avi PvLi Rj djZ nq bv| gwj Abyf~wZi mvZ eq hvq| Avi Zzwg GZ my`i h, GKevi ZvKvj Avi PvL divZ
Avi Pvi w`bwj Avb`i mv_B KvUZ jvMjv| cvwi bv|
K_vUv GLbB kl Ki w`Z Pvq wig| myhvMUv gvUB nvZQvov Kiv hvq
bv| wiqvi kixi Nul `uvovq wig| AvwiK kwZ m ej, AvB jvf BD wiqv|
Kx cvMji gZ ejQ wig ! Zvgvi _K GiKg GKUv K_v kvbvi Rb
Avgvi g~jevb mgq b KiZ PvB bv| ZvQvov Avwg ZvgvK GiKg fve fvwewb,
`wLwb| Zzwg Avgvi Rv ez| ZvgvK ezi PvLB `wL| Avi Zzwg Kxme Abyfw~ Zi
K_v ejQ| bv, ZvgvK `L Avgvi Kvb Abyf~wZ nq bv| Kvb cyilK `LB
Avgvi Abyf~wZ nq bv - ej wiqv Pj hZ PvBj wig nvZ Ub ai|
Zzwg Gme Kx KiQ? KD `L djj Kjvix nq hve - ej nvZUv
Qvwoq bq wiqv| Zzwg f`Zvi mxgv Qvwoq hvQ wig| GiKg eenvi Avwg Avkv
Kwiwb| Zvgvi fvjevmvK mvb RvbvB, Zzwg ZvK AcgvwbZ Kiv bv| Avi mUv
MnY Kiv Avgvi ewMZ| mLvb Zzwg Rvi LvUvZ cvi bv|
AcwZf wig WK ej, GZ ZvovZvwo Di w`I bv| mgq AvQ| fe `L|
33 34
wiqv cQb wdi `uvovq| ej - Avgvi fvevi cii DiUvI bv-B _vKe| Zzwg wig Awdm em GKUv KvRB KiQ| Zv wiqvi w`K ZvKvbv Qvov Avi wKQyB bq|
AvgvK Avi G welq wei Kie bv| Zzwg wkwZ, wbq eySe - ej Pj hvq cvwLi wKwPiwgwPi k Rvbvjvi KuvPi duvK w`q wiqvi Kvb cek Ki|
wiqv| Avi `yUv gv dvBj evwK AvQ| NUvLvbKi gaB nq hve KvR| GB fe GKUz
Agvemvi AKvi wU jvBUi Avjvq wigi PvL `yUv zavZ evNi nvZ Pvwjq KvR Ki wiqv| Abcv KwDUvii wK-cvWUvK AKviY AvNvZ
gZv RjRj Ki IV| gvbyli gbi Mnb fvjv I g`i h ewk we`gvb Ki Pj wig| KvR KiZ KiZB wiqv wigK wRvmv Ki, Zzwg GLbI evwo
_vK, Zvi h w`KUvi cvj-v fvix _vK, gb mw`KB SuyK co| zavZ evNi cavb hvIwb| Avwg fvejvg AvgviB GKgv KvR evwK| Zv Zzwg KLb hve?
j Zvi zavi wbeviY Kiv| ZvB wkKvi aivi Rb m IZ cZ _vK| zavZ, GB Zv Avi wKQyY| Avi `yUv wW.wU.wc evwK AvQ| njB KvR kl| Zzg
wc, PZzi evN Kmva Pvq Zvi wkKvi aiZ mg nq| Lv`-Lv`K Gi GB KLb DVe? ej wiqvi `w AvKlY Kwi wig|
mK wPiKvjxb mZ| cKj GB mZ ^xKZ| ejZ cviwQ bv - ej KvR gM _vK|
Gi ga KqKUv w`b KU hvq| wiqv I Zvi gv, evbi cixv wbq e wig K_v ejvi Kvb K_v LuyR cvq bv| mI em _vK| Ze AKviY|
_vK| Awdm _K Pviw`bi QywU wbqQ| gv, evb Ges wiqvi msmvi wiqvB GKgv wU jvBUi Avjvwj AbKY AvMB Rj DVQ| evBi gvbyli
ivRMi| evev eQi `yqK AvM gviv MQ| evevi PvKwiUv-B wiqv cqQ| ZvB Kvjvnj AbKUv Kg Avm| GKdvwj euvKv Puv` DuwK giB Wye hvq gNi Avovj|
msmvii mg fvi wiqv wbRi Nvo wbqQ| Zvi gbi cvq mgM AskB mvsmvwiK GKUv Ub hvIqvi Bmj bZ cvq wiqv| Nwoi w`K ZvwKq wegl `Lvq wiqvK|
KvR e| AbwKQy fvevi AeKvk m cvq bv| evbi cixvi cwZ I gvi KLb h ivZ `kUv eR MQ LqvjB Kiwb| Gw`K Zvi KvRUvI km nqwb|
kvixwiK hZ GB wbqB Zvi PZbvi RMr| wbR mvi Dcjw KijI ZvK m wK Gevi KvR e Kiv Qvov Kvb Dcvq bB Zvi| dvBjwj wUq evM wbq
AbKUv Acvsq Ki iLQ| ewiq co| wK evwo hve Kx Ki? Mvwo Zv bB|
Pviw`b ci wiqv Awdm hvq| GKevi Awdmi MUi mvgbB wig `uvwoq| Zvgvi KvR nqQ wig ?
wiqvK `LvgvB ej, Avwg `ytwLZ| mw`bi mB eenvii Rb Avwg jwZ| nuv, wiqv|
ez fe AvgvK gv KiZ cvi bv| AvgvK GKUz Zvgvi evBK Qo AvmZ cvie ?
wVK AvQ wig| Zzwg h Zvgvi fyj eySZ ciQ, mUv `L Avgvi fvjv wbq|
jvMQ - ej wiqv Awdmi dUK w`q wbRi Nii w`K hvq| h wiqv GKw`b Zvi GKv Abyiva mI Zvi evBK IVwb, m-B wKbv
wig wcQb wcQb wMq wiqvK ej, Zvnj eyS wbZ cvwi h, Zzwg AvgvK AvR wbR _K hZ PvBQ! wigi gbi Avb`aviv gyLveqe cZxqgvb|
gv Kij| AvR _K Avgiv `yRb AvMi gZvB fvjv ez| GKmgq wig evBK wbq GKwU KvbvMwjZ cek Ki| wiqv Avcw Rvwbq
nuv| ej `yRbB nvm| ej, GUv Zv Avgvi evwoi ivv bq wig| LUKv eva Zvi gb| wig AKcU fwZ
AvKvk cRv Zzjvi gZv mv`v gN cvj Zzj cvwo `q Kvb `~i bxjvKvk| ej, kUKvU ivv| ZeyI GKUv ARvbv Avkvq wiqvi Kcvj wPvi fuvR| hZ
nvIqvq `vj Lvq Kvkdzji Q| iwOb Elvq e _K Lm co wkDwj dzj| hZ Rbnxb eo ivvi gvo MvwoUv `uvo Kivq wig| wiqv wRvmv KiZB wig nvZ
jyUvcywU Lvq gvwUZ| ivOv nq IV aiYx| c~Rvi Kw`bi QywUZ msmviUvK GKUz ai ej, AvB jvf BD wiqv| Avwg ZvgvK Qvov euvPe bv|
wQq wbZ Pvq wiqv| GK_v fveZ fveZ Awdm cuQvq wiqv| Zvi Uwej AbKwj AvkvUv h mwZ ne GUv wiqv Kbv KiZ cvwiwb| weifve wiqv
dvBj co| KvRwj AvRB kl Ki evwo wdie| ej, Zzwg ez bvgi Kj| fewQjvg mw`bi mewKQy Zzwg fyj MQ| Avgvi
nvq wiqv, ek `LvQ AvR ZvgvK| GK_v ej wig Zvi Uweji cvk aviYv fyj nqQ| ZvgvK ez fe wekvm KivUvB Avgvi Pig fyj nqQ|
PqviwUZ em| Avgvi ga wKmi Kg AvQ wiqv| Zvgvi gv-evbi msmvi AvQ GUv
_vsKm| RbI ZvgvK Avcb KiZ PqwQ| ej wiqvK Rwoq ai|
wig GKUz Avbgbv nqB Pqvi em| gvS gvS wiqvi `w AvKlY Ki| wbRK wigi evcvk wQb Ki wiqv ej, Zzwg h biwckvP Zv Zvgvi
Zvi cvk Nul emZ Pvq| GBfve ek wKQyY KU hvq| wiqvi w`K AvoPvL AvPiYB cgvY w`Q| Zzwg bcysmK|
ZvKvq wig| GKUv wKQy fvebvq Zvi gbi Mfxi Mnb Av`vjb `vbv euva| Zvi Ze i - GK_v ej wiqvi Dci Suvwcq co wig| ZvK cvRvKvj Ki
wevwiZ bqb wKQy GKUv Pvq| PvIqv cvIqvi fvebvq mgq eq hvq| mKvj Mwoq Zzj wbq hvq Svci w`K| gaivZ Rbnxb cvi GKwU bvixKi evKzj AvZbv`
`ycyi, `ycyi Mwoq weKvj nq| wiqvi KvR mgv nq bv| wiqv AvR KvR kl KiB Svci AvovjB Pvcv co _vK|
DVe| Abw`K Awdmi cvq mKjB evwo Pj hvq| AKviY em _vK wig| GZY
35 36
RvwZ, DcRvwZ I RvZxq i Avgv`i AnsevaK bvk Ki hw` fvjevmvi viv
mecj-x ivavKvbi wkvwPv mKjK Avcbvi Ki wbZ bv cvwi Zvnj Zv fwelZi c fvj ne bv| `yfv MekZ
Awbi mvnv, gy`vmvi bvRvi e`, AwfwRr gj Avgv`i wkvcwZvbwji Ggb Aev nqQ h GLvb wk`i PvgP Ki
welqeK LvBq `Iqv wKQyUv gbi cwkY `Iqv nq| wK gvbyli ga cvY
f~wgKv t Wt mecj-x ivavKvb wQjb eg~Lx ewZi AwaKvix| ivRbwZK mvwibx kwi cek NUvbv nq bv| ( Occasional Speeches and writtings
QvovI AvavwZK, `vkwbK, mvwnwZK PZbvi ziY Zuvi Rxebavivq g~Z nq DVwQj| third series)
gvbweKZvev`, cvP-cvvZi mg^q, agxq cv, AvRvwZKZvev` cfwZ w`Kwj wkvi A_ t
ivavKvbi KgRxebi m Avwfve hy wQj| wZwb wQjb we AvavwZK ivavKvY RvwbqQb, Education has been my special subject.
PZbvq mg Ges cvi AwaKvix| Rxebi AwaKvsk mgq mwkxj KvRi ga GRb wkvi cKZ A_ wbq Zuvi wbR^ wPvfvebv wQj| c_vMZ wkvK wZwb cKZ

AwZevwnZ Kivi Pv KiQb| Gnb weij ewZi AwaKvix ivavKvYi wkv wnmve MY Kibwb| GRb wZwb ejQb Education is there to help
wkvmsv wPvfvebvq wQj cMvp eveeva Ges AvavwZK vbi mswgkY| his to findout what we are for in this world. Is it merely to grow leaned,
or is it for the purpose of fulfilling yourself and making yourself an
GKwesk kZKi mgmvgq wek ZvB ivavKvYi Rxebv`ki AvjvKB gvbweK offering to the supreme? Man cannot be satisfied by wealth, by learn-
g~jeva RvMiY GB c mgqvwPZ cqvm ivavKvYi wkvwPv| ing, but by developing the quality of detachment, of renunciation, mak-
ing himself the instrument of a frigher purpose.
ivavKvYi wkv`kb t ivavKvY gvbweK, AvZvi cwiw Ges `qmvi weKvkKB wkvi
ivavKvY wQjb e`v`kb Ges Dcwbl`i wPvavivq Mfxifve wekvmx| cKZ A_ic MY KiQb| Zuvi gZ, .... it must include not only the
fveev`x `kbi wPvavivi vivI wZwb cfvweZ nqwQjb| Zuvi GB `vkwbK cvcU trainning of the intellect but the refinement of the heart and discipline of
wkvwPvi Dci cwZdwjZ nqwQj| wZwb GgbB GK wkvc`vbi K_v ejwQjb the spirit. No education can be regarded as complete if it neglects the
hv AvwZK DbwZi mnvqK| hv ZR ev bwZK kw RvMve| Zuvi gZ, Literacy is hear and spirit.(Occassional speeches and writings, 1956-p. 142)
not education, knowledge is not education, but the growth of wisdom, wkvi A_ GB bq h wewfb welq wKQy Z_ AvZ Kiv| wkv ne
the capacity to look upon other objects with Compassion, that is what PwiMVbi mnvqK| `yej Pwii ivK Kvb gnr KvR KiZ cvibv| wKsev Zvi
is necessary. viv RMZi Kvb KjvY nZ cvi bv| ivavKvYi gZ, The progress of the
ivavKvY cwZwU gvbylK mZ`v nIqvi K_v ejb| RMZi cwZwU nation depends on our character.
e, NUbvi cvZ h PZb^ic ZuvK Rvbvi K_v ejb| AgZm cyvt
Dcwbl`i GB evYx Zuvi ARMZK AvjvwoZ KiwQj| Dcwbl`i Awfg wZwb wkvi Kvhvejx t
mvnm mq KiQb| Dcwbl`B RMZi gvbylK Avnvb RvbvQ - n gvbe ZR^x wkvi KvR wK ne m mK ivavKvYi my wPvaviv wQj| ivavKvY
nI, ZR^x nI| exh Aej^b Ki| wkvi wbwjwLZ Kvhvejxi Dci iZ w`qwQjb
1962 mvji 5B AvM AvbvgvjvB wekwe`vjq fvlY w`Z wMq gvbeKjvY mvab t wkvi gvag gvbeKjvYK mywbwZ KiZ ne| G cm
ivavKvY ejQb - wkKjvi A_ nj `e Dcjw| wkKjvi viv Ab mvK ivavKvY ejQb, No nation in this world can hold its place of primacy
Dcjw Kiv hvq| wkKjvi Dk ayB Avgv` cgv` ev wekl aiYi wkv bq| in perpetrity. What counts is the moral contribution we make to human
wbR^ wkKjvi gvag wbRi ^Z kw Zix nq hv Abi _K wbRK c_K welfare ...... (Occassional speeches and writings, 1956-p. 142)
Ki| wkKjvK agxq mv _K c_K Kiv hvq bv| MYZvwK gbvfve MVb t ivavKvY ejQb, Education must be devel-
wkveevi AmvoZv mK Zuvi wPvaviv AvRI MnYhvM| 1956 mvji oping dedmocratic attitude. Educational institutions should train people
12B RyjvB Kwbqvi bvBivweZ Mvx ggvwiqvj GKvWwg DvabKvj ivavKvY for freedom, unity and not localism, for democracy, not for dictator-
ship.
ejb - eZgvb hyM h mUi myLxi Avgiv nwQ Zv nj AvavwZKevai msKU|
wevb wfwK PZbv MVb t G cm ivavKvY ejQb, Science is to
37 38
be used for productive work. We should develop spirit for enquiry and Avtwelq wfwK `wfw| wkv_xiv wewfb welqi vbi ga mg^q mvab KiZ
dedication in the persuit of science and sccholaarship. cPv Kie Ges GKUv mnhvwMZvi cwiek Mo DVe|
gvbweK g~jeva MVb t ivavKvY bwZK bxwZ mg~n Ges AvavwZK PZbvi kLjv t ivavKvY kLjv ejZ AvZwbqYKB eywSqQb| wZwb wekvm KiZb
viv gvbweK g~jevai weKvki K_v ejwQjb| h, AvZwbqYi AfveB wkv_x`i cvwZ, Pwi Ges HKi gvbK KjywlZ
Abymvbi nv weKwkZ Kiv t G cm wZwb Zvrchc~Y ge KiwQjb, Ki _vK| kLjv Qvov hvMKg Ges AvavwZK Kvhvejx cwiPvjbv Kiv me bq|
We should develop the spirit ofenquiry and dedication to the prrsmit of kLjvi ga w`qB AvZcvjw NUvbv me|
science and scholarship. We waste our years in college in trivialities
wkv_x`i ga kLjveva Mo Zvjvi Rb Zv`i ga myAfvm Zwi
and inanities. We need education in character.
KiZ ne| N.C.C BDwbUi m Qv-Qvx`i hy Ki Zv`i kLjv civqY Kiv
wkvi jmg~n t Wt mecj-x ivavKvY wQjb GKRb gvbeZvev`x wPvwe`|
hvq| wkv_x`i kLjv civqY Kivi Rb Ljva~jvi eev KiZ ne| gvbwmK
GRb wZwb wkvi egyLx ji K_v ejwQjb| wkvi jic ewZi
DbwZi Rb Avgv` cgv`i eev KiZ ne| Qv-Qvx`i mgvRmevg~jK KvRi
weKvk, Pwii weKvk, mswZi mvjb - msiY I DbqY mvab, AvavwZK
m hy KiZ cvij Avcbv _K Zv`i ga kLjveva Mo DVe| ( Disci-
g~jevai weKvk, ewg~jK `Zvi weKvk, RvZxq msnwZi weKvk, AvRvwZK
pline and University Education Commission, Chapter XII)
evSvcovi weKvk, wevbwfwK gbvfvei weKvk BZvw`K wZwb iZ w`qwQjb|
wZwb ejwQjb, The true aim of education, according to the Indian stages, wkKi f~wgKv t wkKi iZ Dcjw KiZ wMq ivavKvY ejwQjb,
is second birth. We are born into the world of nature and necessity, we Teacher is the corner stone of the arch of education. wZwb wkK`i
must reborn into the world of spirit and freedom. In silence and medita- AvPvh ic MY Ki ejwQjb - hvi AvPvi-AvPiY AbyKiYhvM mB-B cKZ
tion we discover the spirit in us, learn truth and love, acquire grace and wkK| ivavKvYi gZ, GKRb cKZ wkK bZzb bZzb cwiwwZi m gvwbq
strength by which we can implement our ideas. bIqvi , vbi cmvwiZ KiZ Ges fwelZi w`K wb`ki
wkvi cvVg t ivavKvYi gZ, cvVg ne Rxebi m mKhy| wZwb mnvqZv Kieb| ivavKvY wekvm KiZb h, A good teacher must know
PqwQjb, wkv_xiv bvbvwea wbqg wkvjvf KiK| fvlv, mvwnZ, mgvRwe`v how to arouse the interest of the pupil in the field of study for which he
(BwZnvm, f~Mvj, A_bxwZ BZvw`) `kb, bxwZZ, Zwe`v, ivRbxwZ, bvMwiKwe`v, is responsible .....
wevb (cvKwZK Ges gvbweK), MwYZ, Kjv, mxZ, Pviwk, ewg~jK/ckvMZ wkKi f~wgKv ne,AvbZvi AKvi `~i Kiv, bePZbvi Dbl NUvbv|
welqmg~n, Ljva~jv Ges kvixiwkv,hvM Ges ag BZvw` ewea welqK cvVgi wZwb ejwQjb, Teachers are thereservoirs of new spirit, the new spirit
Afy KiZ ejQb| ivavKvY fveev`x wPvavivq cfvweZ nqwQjb| mRb of adventure, in the intelectual matters, in social matters, in political
matters. If you do not have that spirit you cannot Communicate that
Zuvi cvVg fveev`x cvVgi welqwj AwaK iZ jvf KiwQj| vbg~jK,
spirit to the youth, who are entrusted to your care .... wkK wbRK
bwZK welqwji cvkvcvwk MwYZ Ges wevb wkvi Dci wZwb i Avivc
KiwQjb| bvix`i Rb c_K cvVgi K_vI ejwQjb| Mvnwevb, `v ic wkv_x`i myL Dcvcb Kieb| G cm ivavKvY ejwQjb, It
is education, it is instruction, it is knowledge and it is also the ex-
wkcwiPhv, mjvBqi KvR cfwZ welqK bvix`i Rb wbavwiZ Kivi K_v ample which the teacher give. (Aggarwal J.C., 2002, p 260-261)
ejwQjb| gvZfvlv, wnw` Ges msZ fvlv PPvi Dci wekl iZ w`qwQjb|
wkY cwZ t ivavKvY vb AvniYi Rb Kvbv wbw` cwZi K_v ejbwb| bvix wkv t bvix wkvi cwZ ivavKvYi mse`bkxj `wfw wQj| wZwb bvix`i
wZwb `ywU welqi Dci Rvi w`qwQjb| h_v wK kLvZ ne ? Ges wKfve cwZ Avgv`i iYkxj mgvRi wPvavivi cwZev` Ki ejwQjb, In ancient times, our
kLvZ ne? GB `ywU w`K mK wkK`i RvbZ ne| KviY Gwj KvhKix women had the ceremony of upanayana performed for them. They were
wkYi Rb LyeB iZcY~ | wkv`vbi cwZ wnmve cheY, cixY, AvjvPbv, also entitled to the chanting of the qayatrijapa.All these things were
open to our women .... it is essential, therefore, that our women should
avbi gvag wkLb, cvVcyKwfwK Kkj, mwgbvi, wUDUvwiqvj eev,
be treated as equal to others in every respect, political, economic,
hvMevqvg Ges Acivvbyfw~ Z (intuition) BZvw`i Dci wZwb Rvi w`qwQjb| cultural and spiritual, That is what we should do.
ivavKvYi wkY cwZi `ywU wekl w`K nj - mnhvwMZvg~jK cwZi m~Pbv Ges
39 40
ivavKvY mvgvwRK cwZeKZv _K bvixRvwZK gyw `Iqvi K_v ejQb| Dr. S. Radhakrishnan (1888-1975), philosopher, humanist, education-
bvixiv hvZ mvgvwRK Rxebi wewfb cyili mgK nq KvR KiZ cvi ist, orientalist and religious thinker was one of those few greatmen of
this Country who distinguished themselves equally in the fields of knowl-
Ges mgghv`vi AwaKvix nZ cvi Zvi Rb Dchy wkvi K_v ejQb| bvixiv
edge as well that of statemanship.
hvZ RvZxq Rxebi wewfb AskMnY KiZ cvi ZviRb Dchy wkvi
eev KiZ ne|
mnvqK Mcx t
wkvq cyK I Mv Mvii f~wgKv t ivavKvYi gZ cyKB mfZvi evnb|
1| eiY wkK mecj-x ivavKvY - we`yr weKvk `, eyK Iqv, Rvbyqvix 2010,
Avgiv MYZvwK, agwbic KjvYKvgx iv MVb KiZ PvB| GRb cyKi
KjKvZv|
cqvRb| Avgv`i RbmvaviYK ejv `iKvi MYZ ejZ Kx evSvq| cyKi
2| Wt ivavKvY - iYy mvivY, R.Avi.Wvqg, Rvbyqvix 2013|
gvagB Zv Kiv hZ cvi|
3| Aggarwal, J.C. (2002), Theory and principles of Education, New
ivavKvYi gZ, cvPxb Mwj mevrK| cvPxb cyuw_-cyK Avgv`i
Delhi : Vikas publishing house Pvt. Ltd.
mZvbymvb mvnvh Ki| mekv cqvRbg& Z`kbg&| kvvb jvfi gvag
4| Banerjee, A.K. (1991). Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, B.H.W., Varanasi.
mZ^icK Dcjw KivB mg kvi mviK_v|
5| Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1957) Occassional speeches and writ-
wPwebv`b Ges Aemihvcbi cyKi iZc~Y w`Ki K_vI ings, second series, New Delhi, Publications Division, Ministry of In-
ivavKvY Zzj aiwQjb| wZwb ejwQjb AvRKvj wewfb jvK wewfb Dcvq formation & Broad Casting, Govt. of India. P-88.
mgq AwZevwnZ Ki| mevg cv cy Ki mvwba _K mgq AwZevwnZ Kiv| Ze 6| Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (1956) Occassional speeches and writ-
mB cyK ne bwZK Ges AvwZK DbwZi mnvqK| Zuvi gZ, The best life one ings, Volume 3, New Delhi, Publications Division, Ministry of Informa-
can have is the life in the company of great books and great men. tion & Broad Casting, Govt. of India. P-142.
wkv_x`i vbi Pvwn`v c~iY Ges vbi mxgv cmvii MvMvii 7| Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan(2009). The pursuit of truth, New Delhi :
f~wgKvi AcwinvhZv Dj-L KiZ wMq ivavKvY weki KqKwU k Mv Mvii Hind Pocket Book.
D`vniY w`qQb| Zvi ga Dj-LhvM AdvWi ev`jqvb jvBeix, jbi
wewUk wgDwRqvg wiwWs ig, KgweR wekwe`vjq jvBeix, IqvwksUb ` jvBeix
Ae KsMm Ges wbD BqK cvewjK jvBeix| e LvZbvgv jLK, `vkwbK Ges
mvwnwZK GB MvMviwji mvnvh wbq wbR`iK mg KiQb| ivavKvY
PqwQjb wkv_xiv MvMvii cwZ AvK nq wbR`iK mg KiK| GRb
wZwb MvMviwji Dchy eenvii K_v ejQb|
GKwesk kZKi cvcU ivavKvYi cvmwKZv t GKwesk kZKi
mgmv`xY Ges wekvqbi hyM Wt ivavKvYi wkvwPvi cvmwKZv wePvi KiZ
wMq ejv hvq, Zuvi wkv msv wPvfvebv wQj `vkwbK cvc~Y, my`~icmvix Ges
eveRxebavivi m mwZc~Y| wkvi cKZ A_ Ges j msv Zuvi gZvgZwU
LyeB MnYhvM| cvVgi m mwZc~Y| wkvi cKZ A_ Ges j msv Zuvi
gZvgZwU LyeB MnYhvM| cvVgi m ev^Rxebi mshvMmvab Ges egyLx
weKwfwK wkvcwZ msv w`Kwj GKvfve Acwinvh| eZgvb Qv wekLjvi
hyM ivavKvYi kLjvZ AZ cvmwK| wkKi KZe Ges f~wgKv mK
Zuvi wPvavivwU ayB MnYhvMB bq; cqvMhvMI eU| Zuvi Rxebavivi cwZ
G AbyKiYhvM| cwikl wnZev`i Dw w`qB AvjvPbv kl Kiv nj -
41 42
cy : Rvwb bv hZxb`v, Avwg KiYv`exi KvQ cv_bv KiwQ, wZwb Mn`ei
wef~wZi `ehvb t eexq cgfvebv KvQ Rvbveb ejQb|
my`xc mb (wef~wZf~lY - `ehvb)
%# = Syy !yV !%y# # x ~v% eexq ivaviI K hb Si co mB GK myi
RwcZ RwcZ bvg Aek Kwij Mv
me_v asm iwnZs mZvwc asm KviY Kgb cvBe mB Zvi|
hvev eb h~bvt m cgv cwiKxwZZ \ (we`vcwZ - c`vejx)
(Dj bxjgwY/kxic Mv^vgx) cyi h cg `vbv euawQj c~e Rb, Rxebi cicviI m cgK
Agi Ki Zvjvi Rb Avkvq Avkvq eyK euva, cqi Avkvi c_ Pq _vK; ivav
kxic Mv^vgx Zuvi Dj bxjgwY M h_v_B ejQb asmi meiKg KviY hgb cqi Avkvq Amv Kib, hvwMbx cyI hb cq Avmvi cwZ wbZ Ni
_vKv mI hv asm nq bv ZvB h_v_ cg| ejvevj G cg Kvg-Mnxb cg, mvRvq, cqi AvMgb Kvji w`b MvY
`nK AwZg Ki Zv b`b Kvbbi mvgMx Zv eUB, eis evweK a~jv a~mwiZ ivavi cg cwZ t
RvMwZK Kvgbv evmbvK AwZg Ki IVv G cg hb ^Mxq cvwiRvZ| cKwZ I nv_K `icb gv_K dzj|
gvbe cwgK wef~wZf~lY Zuvi `ehvb-G GB cvwiRvZK GbB Zuvi K_v mvwnZi bqbK Ab gyLK Zv^yj ||
evMvbK mymwZ KiQb| Zuvi GK GKwU cuvcwo hZxb-cyi cg, weaevigbx `qK gMg` MxgK nvi|
- Zuvi ^vgx, hZxbi PZz_ Rbi gv I hZxbi AswiZUvb I Abvb bvbvwea Pwi| `nK miem MnK mvi||
wef~wZf~lY Dcbvm-Gi m~Pbv jMB ejQb cvwLK cvL gxbK cvwY|
meRxe mems en RxeK Rxeb nvg HQ Rvwb || (we`vcwZ)
Awb nsmv vgZ eP| cyi cg cwZ t
A_vr, G enZ meRxe Z_v mg wKQyB GB eP AvewZZ nq| cy I hZxb hZxbK cy GKUv QvULvUv my`i evoxZ wbq Mj| .... evoxi Pvwiavi
Zuv`i cg c~YZvi Rb GB eP AvewZZ nqQ, cy I hZxbi cg we dzji evMvb, meyR Nvmi gvV| `~i Mv `Lv hvQ| cy ejj Gme Avgvi
KvgMnxb wbKwlZ ng G cwiYZ nqQ mB ePi AveZbi Kwcv_i| Zix Rvbv| Avwg G`k GmwQ AvR AvVviv eQi, Zvgvi Acvq Ni mvwRq
c_gB Avm cyi K_v, eexq cwgKv kxivavi cgi gZv Zvi em AvwQ|
cgI hb wbKwlZ ng| wef~wZf~lY Zuvi cyi GK GKwU cuvcwo DbvPb Ki (`ehvb - wef~wZf~lY)
cyi cgi AtjK `wLqQb| h hb gB fvMx _K hvwMbx, bvix cgi GB cwZZ ivavi be msiY cy hb weZwZf~lYxq ivav nq DVQ|
_K mvwKvq wbRK DwiZ KiQ| Avevi cyi GB cg wPimyLi bq, Zuvi cg-i`vjvwKZ cfve hb
ivav kvgK cq wbR cgK c~Y Ki wbZ PqwQj, hvi Rb wQj Zvi nVvr i nq - kveY MMY Nvi NbNUv| hZxb`vi gyL kvb Avkvi wZPviY,
`ywbevi AvKvLv, wVK ZgbB cyI hZxbK cvIqvi Rb nq DVwQj AvKzj| Avkvi cwZ fvjevmvi AwaK cKvk ZuvK ew_Z Ki| KvQ cqI nvivbvi e`bv
hZxbi cwZ mgwcZcvYv| Dcwbl` ejv nqQ fyge gnvmyLg& bv myLbvw| ZvK cxov `q mvwaKv ivavi gZvB
h cyi AB myL wQj, m hZxbK ai ivLZ cviwb| Zvi c~eRb wbw` nq| ivav
Avi KvMwZi c_ AbveZb gyw jvf Kiv cyi Rb co _vK Kej gv myLi jvwMqv GNi euvwaby
nvnvKvi, m bxiefve RMZi wbqgK wkivavh KijI Zuvi Ai hb eexq Abj cywoqv Mj|
bvwqKvi gZvB AvZbv` Ki IV bvwgqv mvMi wmbvb KwiZ
hZxb : ejZ cvwim cy Rbi ci Rbvi mKwj Mij fj ||
njI Avgiv Kb wgwjZ nZ cviwQ bv| (vb`vm)
43 44
cy eZ ivavi cg hgb ivbyg weewZZ nq, cyi cgI Zgwb weewZZ nq
Rbvii wZZI Aq hb nq, DVQ b`bKvbbi mvgMx ^Mxq cvwiRvZ| iex`bv_ ejwQjb
Zvgvi hvIqvi c_ `eZviv dzj wgjb AvwQj evav ay GK VuvB,
djyK| hZz`v, Avwg nZfvwMbx, wein UzwUqv evav AvwK wekgq,
wPiKvj GKvB _vKe, GB Avgvi fvM|| ev nq MQ wcq|
(`ehvb - wef~wZf~lY) (ee KweZv / mvbviZix)
mZ mZB cy ai ivLZ cviwb hZxbK m Rbvi Qj Zvi _K cyi cg GB wein AwLj fyebi wbwLj AvKvk cwiev| GLvb Dwj-wLZ nq
Avjv`v nq hvq, hb eexq gv_yii nvnvKvi-B GLvb gyL nq IV giYvi Avkvi hZxbi cwZ cg evKzjZv, nvnvKvi, weaev igbxi ^vgxi cwZ
ivav cgi K_vI|
k~Y fj gw`i k~Y fj bMix| GQvovI AvQ evrmj cg| K-hkv`vi gZv hZxb I Zvi gvqi mKI
k~Y fj `kw`k k~Y fj mMix || evrmji AveiY gvov
(we`vcwZ) eexq evrmj t-
cy kx`vg my`vg `vg In b ejivg
`ex ejjb - ZvK Avgvi KvQ wbq hve, wgbwZ Kivq ZvgvRb|
cy ejj - bv AvgvKI cw_exZ cvwVq ej KZ AwZ`~i beZY Zvzi
w`b bv; w`b bv `qv Ki, mwZ ejwQ, Mvcvj jqv bv hvBI `~i ||
^M Avgvi `iKvi bB| mLvMY AvM cvQ Mvcvj Kwiqv gvS
(`ehvb - wef~wZf~lY) axi axi Kin Mgb|
wK, cyi cg wbKwlZ ng| Zv Avb cvov LuvwU mvbv, ZvB wcq beZY ZYvzi ivOv cvq hw` jvM
nviv e`bvq GKUz kvwi Rb hgb g`vm wKsev iNybv_Rxi KvQ hvq ZgbB ceva gvb bv gvqi gb ||
cqiwZUzKz AvuKo euvPZ Pvq, hv AbKUv Kwebv ivavi AbymvixI eU (ejivg `vm)
ivav `ehvbxi evrmj t-
Abi AvQq AbK Rbv hZxbi PZz_Rbi mvbnviv gvqi wejvc
Avgvi Kej Zzwg| gqwU Kuv`Q, Avi wejvc KiQ
civY nBZ kZkZ Y - I Avgvi abgwY; I Avgvi mvbv
wcqZg Kwi gvwb| ... Avgvi gvwbK; PvL PvI, Avgvi
(Px`vm) Kvj Lvwj Ki cvwjI bv Avgvi mvbv
cy Kv_vq hvev Avgvq dj|
gv QjK LvIqvq, KvQ em (`ehvb - wef~wZf~lY)
em coj c_g fvM avivcvZ mvb nvivbvi e`bv I gvqi kvZzi wPi evrmj hb AbKUvB eo nq IV|
cy em `L ek jvM Ii| ... gvqi cwZ hZxbi n gvv I cyi mKKI cKU Ki ewK|
NygvI hZz`v, NygvI; `yzwg Gi cvk AvQ eexq cg fveimi wbe`b, `vmfw| iNybv_ `vmi
Kij gvqi nvZi Po gb AvQ Zv! Mvcvj mev, cyi Mvcvj mev, weMni m evKvjvc GB fwKB cKU Ki
(`ehvb - wef~wZf~lY) ewK ? Kej ivgi fwI Gi Afy| `vmfwi ciKvvq g`vm we`vcwZi
c` AvIovb
45 46
wKq gvbyl Rbwgq ccvwL A_ev KxUcZ|
Kig wecvK MZvMwZ cybtcybt gwZi Zuy m \ im
(we`vcwZ / cv_bv) iweki mb
Zvnj `Lv Mj wef~wZf~lY hgb Dcbvmi ga evrmj cgimi
avivK `wLqQb, ZgbB `vmfwi eexq fMeZxq aviv| Avkv - bZbvivqY imi gvV `yi eM QyU Pjv NvovUvi wcVi mIqvixi w`K PvL coZB PgK
- ivgjvji ga w`q cwjZvK `kb KivjI cyi ZvMi gwngvq, cg IV gvwiqvbv| Aeqmx QjUv A_ev Zvi NvovUv, KviI GKUv bv eywS RvK| mviv
fv^iZvq m cwjZv Pvcv co hvq| cy mB c cdzj nq cgK AgiZ gvV Ryo RbZv cvMji gZv PuvPvQ RvK - RvK| mIqvixi nvZi Rv`yZ hb
`vb Ki| wef~wZf~lY hvZ w`qQb eexq Avwjbv; hv ZvK K_vmvwnZ GK NvovUv QyU PjQ nvIqvi eM| GKUz GKUz Ki GMvZ GMvZ GKmgq mevBK
wewk Avmb `vb KiQ| wZwb hb cKwZcwgK _K `ehvb cgfvebvq jjvU AbKUv cQb dj im wRZ bq RvK| mviv gvV RvK RvK ej Avb`
imKwj AvuKv mv`v Kvco civ ee nq DVQb| gvZvqviv nq IV| mgeZ RbZvi mv_ Zvj Zvj wgwjq RvK RvK ej bP
IV ivRKzgvix gvwiqvbvI|
GZ Avb`i ga weRqxi nvZ cyivi Zzj `evi mgq gvwiqvbv Avwevi
Kij QjUvi PvLi KvY wPKwPK KiQ Rj| `ytmvnmx QjUvi bvg RvK bq,
Bqvb| eqm AvVviv - Dwbk| iO `ya AvjZv| Uvbv PvL, wUKvjv bvK, cyi VuvU|
DPZv cvq Qq dzU| cyivi `evi mgq Bqvbi PvL PvL coZ gvwiqvbvi wKkvix
gbUv Kuc IV| gvwiqvbv j Ki mevB hLb QjUvK GKwUevi Quvqvi Rb
cvMj nq DVQ ZLb QjUv Kgb hb A~Z wbweKvi| ay Zvi PvLi KvY
_K Si covi Acvq Ujgj KiQ `yduvUv Rj| ivRKzgvix gvwiqvbvi gb nj
mB `yduvUv Rj hb Si coZ PvBQ Zvi gbi Dci hvi Avovj nqZv ev
jywKq iqQ Kvbv KiY inm| Avi ZvB eywSev AvR Zvi mvgb `uvovbv GK
gvngqx ivRKzgvix nq DVQ Avi mvaviY cuvPUv bvixi GKRb eBZv bq|
gvwiqvbvi gbUv c_g ay `yj DVwQj| Gevi hb Kvb GK ARvbv
Soi mvgb Zvi KwPcvZvi gZv kixiUv eywSev Kuc DVZ i Kij|
axi axi KLb hb QjwUi Qvqv wbtk Gm co gvwiqvbvi gbi
Dci| gvwiqvbv Zvi P eQi cvi Kiv RxebUvZ AvM KLbI imi gvV Avmwb|
AbKi AbK Abyiva mI GLvb AvmZ Zvi gb PvBZv bv| mw`b aygv
Kvbv GKUv wekl cie Dcj ivRcwievii ixwZ gb m` FZzgZx ivRKzgvixK
imi gvV nvwRi _vKZ nqwQj| Hw`b ivRKzgvixi nvZ w`q cyivi `IqvUvB
ixwZ| mBgZv gnvmgvivn NvlYvI Kiv nqwQj| A_P gvV DcwZ RbZvi hb
ivRKzgvixi w`K Kvb bRiB bB| Zviv gvZvqviv RvKi gvwjK BqvbK wbqB|
gvwiqvbv wbRI mB So Kuc DVwQj| ZeyI Zvi m` wKkvix gbi Zj Kv_vq
hb VuvB Ki bq Bqvb| Avi ZvBZv Gici _K cvqB imi gvV `Lv hZ
_vK gvwiqvbvK| gvwiqvbv hb mwnZi gZv gvV hvq Avi eyKi Zj wK hb
GKUv jywKq wbq Avm| axi axi KLb hb welei gZv cj-weZ nZ _vK
GKUv ck - wK AjwKK gZvq HUzKz QjUv cvqB im wRZ bq| A_P Zvi
47 48
Kvbv DQvmB evBi _K aiv co bv| QjwUi H wbweKvi Pvnwbi bxP hb Bqvb gvwiqvbvi gv_vUv Kvj Ub bq| Puv`i Avjv avqvbv Kv PvL `ywUZ
jywKq AvQ GK Amxg hYv| ARvbvK Rvbvi evmbvwU gvwiqvbvi wfZi KLb hb PvL iL Mfxifve WvK - gvwiqvbv| cigyn~Z wbRK mvgj wbq ejZ _vK,
jvMvgQvov nq IV| Rvbv gvwiqvbv, GKmgq Avwg IB imi gvVK fxlYfve NYv KiZvg| Avgvi
gvwiqvbvi wcqmLx Avqbv| ivRKzgvixi wfZi -evBii cwieZb Zvi PvL cvl, AKgY evcUv mvivRxeb imi gvV cvMji gZv `o eovjv| wRZjv
Govqbv| Iw`K gvwiqvbv gbi K_v KvDK ejZ bv ci gkt Amy nq coZ mvgvb, nvivjv me| Rvbv Zv Avgvi gvI wQj GKRb Amvgvb iceZx I YeZx
_vK| Wvvi-ew` Gm Ilya w`q hvq| gvwiqvbvi evBi eivbvI e nq hvq| ivRKbv| fvjvem weq KiwQj Avgvi evci gZv mvgvb GK QjK| cwZ`vb
ZeyI gvwiqvbv gyL dzU KvDK wKQy ejZ cvi bv| GgbwK AvqbvKI bq| m Avgvi gvK jvKi evoxi wS ch evbvZ Qvowb| ay ZvB bq, imi gvV
Avqbv wK Mvcb LuvRLei Ki wcqmLxi gbi Lei RvbZ ciwQj| wRZj g`- gqQj wbq dwZ KiZv AbLvb,Avi nvij mB Rvjv Gm DMi
m eySZ ciwQj ivRKzgvixi AmyL mvivZ hv Kivi ZvKB KiZ ne| bv nj my w`Zv gvqi Dci| gv gyL eyR me mn KiZv ay Avgvi Rb| Avwg ZLb evcK
nevi e`j ivRKzgvix cvMj nq hve| ZvB Avi mKji eZvi duvK Mj Avqbv VKvZ cvwiwb| jywKq fq fq mme `LwQ Avi Kuc Kuc DVwQ| gv Zvi
hvMvhvM Ki Bqvbi mv_| m BqvbK Abyiva Ki m hb h KiB nvK fvjvevmvi cvqw KiZb gyL eyR| ZviZv AwfhvM Rvbvbvi gZv KD wQj
ivRcvmv` XyK GKevi AZt ivRKzgvix gvwiqvbvi mv_ `Lv Ki| Avqbvi K_v bv| Avwg gvqi Z nvZ evjvZ Mj wZwb nm PvLi Rj jyKvZb| Avi
b Bqvb PgK IV| evcviUv RvbvRvwb nj h Zvi wK cwiYwZ nZ cvi Zv ejZb - evev K_v `, ZzB imi gvV Kvbw`bI hvwebv|
feB Bqvb fq KvuUv nq hvq| ZvB c_g Bqvb ivRx bv njI Avqbv ZvK cvv - Zzwg ZvK K_v w`qwQj Bqvb?
fq `wLq ivRx Kivq| Avqbv ZvK GB ejI Avk Ki h GK_v Avi KD - w`qwQjvg| wK ivLZ cvwiwb| KviY GKw`b evev AvgvK gvqi _K `~i
NyYviI Ui cve bv| m mg e`ve Ki ivLe| mwiq w`j| Rvi Ki ai wbq Mj GKRbi KvQ| mLvb AvgvK iL w`q
Mfxi ivZi gvqvex RvrvK mvx iL ivRcvmv`i GK KvY Gjv| ci Rvbjvg Avw_K kZmvc mBw`b _K m Avgvi gvwjK nqQ| m
miveii euvavbv NvU cvkvcvwk em Bqvb Avi gvwiqvbv| Kv, Amy gvwiqvbv hb GKRb imi KvwiMi| AvgvK RwK Zix Kie| AvgvK imi gvV bvwgq hv Avq
Mfxi kvwZ gv_v ivL Zvi cg`i Kuva| Zvi AembZv Quy q hvq BqvbKI| m Kie,Zvi GKUv gvUv fvM hve Avgvi evevi dwZi Rb| Avgvi Rb Rgv ne
g`yK ej, ivRKzgvix, Zvgvi Zv wKQyiB Afve bB| Ze Zzwg Kb ...... mvgvb wKQy| mB _K mLvb cPzi AZvPvii ga w`q Avwg GKRb cvv RwK
gvwiqvbv Zvi Kv gvgi gZv ZRbx AvjZv Ki Quvqvq Bqvbi VvuU| nq DVZ _vKjvg|
ej, Bqvb ZzwgI Zv imi gvV cvqB nvRvi nvRvi cvD RZv| ZeyI memgq - AvQv Bqvb, RvK wK Zvgvi wbRi?
Zzwg Kb Agb D`vmxb _vKv| cyivi bevi mgq Lykxi cwieZ Kb Zvgvi - nuv, Avwg GKRb cvv RwK nq IVvi ci jvKUv AvgvK wbq hvq Ab GKUv
PvLi Kvj wPKwPK Ki IV? ejvbv Bqvb wK Zvgvi mB Ae hYv! Avwg h Nvovkvj| GB Nvovjv imi Nvov| wK ZvMivB Zv`i Pnviv| `Lj PvL
RvbZ PvB| Rywoq hvq| Nvovjv hgb `vgx, Zgwb Zv`i LvwZi hZi eni| jvKUv GKUv
ivRKzgvix, m Kvwnbx b Zzwg wK Kie? GKRb RwKi Rxebi KiY mv`v Kvjv Qvc Qvc Nvov `wLq ej, AvR _K H NvovUvi gvwjK ZzB| IK
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Avcbviv msc bjb Avgvi wKQy AwfZvi K_v| evKxUv Avcbviv eyS beb| vb Ki, c~RvcvV mi Mv _K So djZ Pvq j _vKv GKUv welv
Avwg ay ejZ PvB h Avwg mB nZfvM ivRKzgvix, gvb Bqvbi gvK euvPvZ AZxZK| wK PvBjB wK gvbyl me cvi! gvwiqvbvI cviwb| nqZv ev Kvb GK
cvwiwb| GK ivRKzgvixi GB cwiYwZi Rb hviv `vqx, Avwg ivRKzgvix nq Zv`iZv wPZvi AvbB gyQ w`Z cvi me M-vwb| gvwiqvbv evanq AvRI ZviB cZxvq|
55 56
MxZcavb Mvg wkiB DcKiY| cavbZ welnwi gv gbmvK ckw I e`b KivB G
Mvg evsjvi HwZnevnx hvvwk Mvbi gyL Dk wQj GB hvvMvb| wK AvR m HwZn gv^q Aejywi c_|
AvR Aejywi c_ PjwP RMZi wP ZviKv (Film-Star) `i RbwcqZvI bnvr wKQy Kg bq|
Kbbv AvaywbK hvvcvjvi AvKlY ewi Rb GB me wPwkx`i DcwwZ mwekl
Kzg`y ib `vm Dj-LhvM| KviY, hvvgv`x `kKMYi wbKU wPwkx`iI GKUv wekl AvKlY
cwijwZ nq| Gi dj `kK wKsev jvK mgvMgI nq cPzi| AbKi KvQ
hvvMvb wbtm`n GKwU HwZnevnx mgybZ wki GK Av`k wb`kb| wewfb welq
wPZviKviv cvq `eZzj| GgbwK e `kKi evwoZ Zuv`i my`kb I my`k QweI
wfwK hvvcvjv mg Mvg evsjvi gvbyli mvswZK KgKvi GK Dj `v
kvfv eab KiZ `Lv hvq|
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ZrKvjxb hvvcvjvZ cavb Pwiwji w`K j iLB bvgKiY wi
bvbvwea Dcvcbv cZ Ki h f~qmx cksmv KiwQjb mwU Avgiv bUx
Kiv nZv| hgb - ejv-jLx`i, Puv` mI`vMi, gbmv-wekKgv BZvw`| ZiRv I
webvw`bx hvvcvjvq weklfve j Ki _vwK| myZivs ZrKvjxb hvvcvjv I
KweMvbi K_v ejZ Mj Dfqwea MvbB mgRvZxq wKsev GKB cKwZi Mvb|
jvKwkvi GK ejxZg wk cqvm m`n bB| wK AvR cwiZvci welq - GZ
GZ`&mI GB `yB aiYi Mvbi gaI emv`k cwijwZ nq| weklZ ZiRv
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Acv Kwe AviI `Z jqi Mvb| Kbbv, KweMvbi AwgjbvZK ZvrwYK
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weklZ h mg gvbyl Mvg evsjvi kvwc~Y cwiek emevm Kib, Zviv
jvKKvwnbx BZvw` ewPgq welqwjK Avkq KiB cwiekb Kiv nZv| Avevi
wewfb aiYi hvvcvjv `LZ cQ` Kib| ejvevj Zviv Qjejv _KB
wdwKix Mvb, `nZvwK Mvb Ges mevcwi evDj Mvb cwiekb KiZb| Mvg evsjvi
GBme hvvcvjv `LZ Af nq wP webv`bi gvag wnmve eQ wbqQb|
ZrKvjxb ^ wkwZ wKsev AawkwZ mvaviY gvbyli AvwiK cwPvq Ges mwq
wekl Ki Zv`i ga hvvcvjv `Lvi Acwimxg KZznj _vKv mI Zv`i G
AskMnY Dciv cvjvwj mv_K ic cwiekb Kiv nZv|
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Abw`K GiB cvkvcvwk cPwjZ wQj eov gvci hvvcvjv, hv g~jZ
wejxb nZ PjQ| cmZ Dj-L Kiv hvq, b`xqvi KbMii cZ Mvgvj
cgvsK wewk c~Yv hvvcvjv wnmve wPwZ| Ze mKvji RvZxq cvjvKvi`i
KweMvb, fvmvb, dwKwi Mvb, `nZvwK evDj Mvb cfwZ wewfb AvwKi Mvbi
ga wekl Ki Mi fo, eR`Kgz vi `, cgv`K fvPvh cgLy ^bvgab hvvcvjv
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iPwqZv`i bvg mevwaK Dj-LhvM| cavbZ cvjvwj wQj civwYK, HwZnvwmK
Zv`i AvZZyw I wP webv`bi wewfb DcKiY|
I mvgvwRK GB wZbwU kYxZ wef| c_gZ GBme hvvcvjvq x Pwi AcvKZ
fvmvb Mvb ejZ g~jZt Avgiv gbmv gji KvwnbxK Avkq Ki GK
Aeqmx QjivB AskMnY KiZv| hvv PjvKvjxb bZ cwiekb cewU wQj hvvi
aiYi MxwZcavb Mvgxb wki gvagKB eywS| weklZ welnwi `ex gv gbmvi wZ
GK AweQ` A| GQvov hvvcvjvi iZB bZ cwiekb wQj LyeB mvaviY
I e`bv KivB njv G Mvbi g~j cwZcv` welq| gbmvgj cvjvq weklZ ejv-
evcvi| GK GKwU AsK kl nZB bZmLx`i bvPMvb h_vwbqg PjZv| GQvov
jLx`i, Pvu` mI`vMi G aiYi KqKwU cavb Pwi wewfb cvlvKi icmvq
weeK I GKvx Pwii gyLI msMxZ cwiekb kvbv hZv| weMZ kZvxi mvZ
nvwRi Kivbv nZv| hvv`j wKsev mc`vqi Ab KqKRb Kzkxje Kvwnbxi
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wK Kvji weeZb mvZ `kKi Mvovi w`K AvwKi Avg~j cwieZb NwUq
GKvwaK PwiI Awfbq KiZb| G mg hvvcvjv hnZz wQj MxZcavb, mB
AvaywbK ic hvv DcvwcZ njv `kKi `ievi| weklZ `y wZbwU Abymi
KviY wbevwPZ MvbwjK mshvwRZ Ki g~j Kvwnbxi MwZ mvi Kivbvi DkB
cwieZb hvvK `Z MwZZ mvdji DP wkLi cuQ w`q Mj|
g~jZ Gwj eenvi Kiv nZ| Ze Gwj KweMvbi bvq ZvrwYKfve iwPZ nIqvq
c_gZ, hvv RMZ AvaywbK gvBKi eenvi wkxK K^i cbi
msjvcwj Lye GKUv DPi cuQvZv bv|
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wekl Ki Suvcvb Mvb I gbmv gjK Avkq Ki Dcvcbv GK aiYi
mg nj| wZxqZ, AZvaywbK RbviUi Gi mvnvh iKgvwi AvjvK mwi dj
57 58
g AvjvK ewPi KvwiMix| ZZxqZ, cqvRbeva gi cwieZb, cwieab I
cybwebvm Ki bIqv nZv| PZz_Z, iKwWs Gi wekl myweav mwi dj gvb
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hvvcvjvK Mvg evsjvi AMwYZ gvbyli wbKU GKwU AvKlbxq wkmwi wb`kb
wnmve GK DbZ chvq cuQ w`qwQj| Gi dj ZiY hvvcvjvKviMYi wewfb L L f~L cw_exi bvbv `k| bvbv ag, RvwZ, eY| cwiekMZ ZviZg cvnvo,
cvjv iPbvq AvMn cKvk I cvjvwji weKvk mvab my`xN wZb `kK ai mMie ceZ, mgy`, b`x| w`M weZZ AvKvk Avi evZvm w`q Acicv awix| m~hi
Mvg M cej cZvc Zvi fvMgb NvlYv KiZ jvMjv| cieZxKvj Aek Avjv, Pw`gv, gNi Qvqv| So, ew, kxZ, Mx GiKg KZ wKQy weqvwe
Pjgvb hvvcvjvi PwiwjK mywbw` Ki AwfbZv Awfbxi msjvc wbaviYi mwi cw_exZ Avgv`i Kvjvi emevm| Gi gaB gvbyli evmf~wg| BwZnvm
gvagB hvvwki AvaywbKxKiY me nqwQj| cvPxbZv _K AvRKi kZvx| GKK `kK kZK ai gvbyl ZvBZv cengvb
GK wekl DP chvqi ee KweMY iwPZ `vkwbK fvehy c`mg~nK RxweZ Ges RxeRMrI Z`c Pjrer| Rb - gZz GB KvjP hvbi Awfhvx| ew
mse ic weklZ ivavKjxjv welqK MxZ KxZbK jxjv KxZb wKsev cvjvKxZb I q Ges jq| mKjiB cek Avi cvbi wbw` mgq ewZKv|
wnmve wPwZ Ki _vKb| weklZ GKRb KxZbxqv I Zuvi `uvnviMY wKsev mc`vq AZtci Avgiv KvjvwZgYi nvZ ai mgKvji hvx Ges wbwZ avegvb
mnhvM GB cvjv KxZb cwiekb Ki _vKb| Ze G cyil Ges gwnjv KvjPi NyYvqY AvewZZ| Gi gaB ivRbxwZ, mgvRbxwZ, abx-`wi`, gZv I
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GQvov GB RvZxq cvjvwji cvkvcvwk Ab GK aiYi hvvi Av`j cvjvMvb cKwZ c` cwiYwZ|
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h_vchvMx MvbiI mshvRb _vKZ| ev gZv aviK`i zpZvq mgvR Rxebi DbqY I jvbv cii _KQ| AvRI
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gvebwZ| e`ywZK MYgvag cPvwiZ wekl gbgvwnbx webv`b gvag gkt ivRbwZK `vqeZvi wkw_jZv, mvaviY gvbylK Drmvnx nZ fxZ Ki| jve,
hvBkK Zvi cej mvnbx kwi wbKU civRq ^xKvi Ki Zvi wbw` Aevb cwZcw, Ansmg Ajvi hb Avw`g cew i evnK Ges kvmK, ivRv, cf,y AvRKi
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c`vi Dci| ejvevj, GB AZvaywbK e`ywZK gvagi cej mvnbx kwi wbKU AvZxq| iv njI Avgvi i| Avgv`iB i| hv Kvj wbiewa cengvb|
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jvKmswZi AbZg aviK I evnK GB HwZnevnx I Miegq hvvcvjvi gnvb wPb iLv A^Q| PZbv eKx Kvievi e`x| gvbeZvi cKvk I weKvk cPvii
wk| mvgMx| A`j e`j wfb Ab Kvb Av`j bB| GB ici AvKvi wfb, wK cKvi
Z_eP| dj ew mv I msMVb ev msv, ivRkw I ckxkw viv jvwZ| gvbx
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f`jvK _vKZ euvav bB| wK gvbe gbi A`i e`i, gvbe mfZvi RvnvR
59 60
fuv fuv k Zvj| gbi f~Mvj cvKwZK PZbvq ay Avwg bq gvbyl _vKZI
Pvq| ZvBZv mvcb GKv nq hvq| eYgq cw_exi weeY eZvq cwikv eva nq, ivRvi Av`k
fvj-vMbv ....| Aekl gb cwe cvq,my`ii mvbx nZ Pvq| my`ii c~Rvq Zvcm nvj`vi
gvbyl AvZgM nZ fvjevm| wPZvi wmz cvo AvuQo co XD .... PZbvi PZb
fvjvevmvi AvwKb| `yi XD MoQ .... fvOQ .... MoQ| AvZgM Abyfe hb cwZw`b fviB KZvevey Nyg _K DV ewiq cob cvZtgY| AvRI wbZw`bi
DPvwiZ cvwLi KvKwj| gZ mv_ iqQ Zvi `xNw`bi wek KgPvix c`| c`K wbq cvZtgY ewiq
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meyR cvZvq Qwoq AvQ Avjv| Av`k| GB ivR Kn KLbv wg_v ejZ cvie bv, wg_vev`xK KVvi kvw
nvmQ iv`, cwiq `ytL kvK fvM KiZ ne| ivRi ga mKj wgj wgk PjZ ne| SMov weev` Kiv Pje
Rxeb Zv bq - AKvi ...| bv, Kvb mgmv nj ivR`ievi bvwjk RvbvZ ne| mZev`xK ivRv mvb Rvbveb
bv ....| Rxeb Aekl AKviv bq| myi AvQ| AvQ mxZ| ZvB Mvb nq I cyivi `eb| wg_vev`xK KVvi kvw cZ ne|
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KweZvq Avkq, ckq| fyeb fiv KZ m` Avgv`i ! ay mKji bq ZvB `ytLi co c`K wRvmv Kij - nuvi c`; `Iqvj wK jLv AvQ, eySZ ciwQm ? bv
enZv evZvm| Rxebi KvjmvZ ZeyI cengvb RxweZ RMr gvbyl| AwaMZ bq evey, Avwg I jLv coZ cvwibv| ZvB wK Ki eySe wK jLv AvQ `Iqvj| b
mKji myL ZvBZv hy h_ver| fvjv g` Ges myi I A-myii kvkZ ` Anin| Zvi Avi eyS KvR bB, Pj H eUMvQZjvZ wMq GKUz ewm| ILvb wMq ZvK me
Kvjvnj gvbyli| ivRbxwZK`i| ivRbxwZi QvU eo iKgvix fvi i` eje `Iqvj wK jLv AvQ| evey c`K `Iqvji me jLv me eywSq ejZB,
cLi Zvc `vn| GB `nb Rvjvq RjQ mgvRNi| myLi evox| cgi DZv| civMi c` Nvo bo ejj, ZvBZv ewj evey gv ejwQj c` hZ wec`B AvmyK KLbv
DviY| `vZi m`h| Avb`i ivyi| cUi w`| A_P K bq mgvRez| Abvq Kiwe bv, wg_v K_v ejwe bv, wg_v ejj Zvi wRe Lm coe| gvqi K_v
fvebv Aweivg| DviYi wekvm Zey euvPvZB ne| Rxeb mvZw^bx ..............| gZv Avwg KLbv Abvq Kwibv, ev wg_v ewj bv| c` mnR mij jvK, I KLbv
`ytL hvi mvnvM Ki bxie PvLi Rj, Zvi AvZwejvc mg GB wm Abvq AvPiY Ki bv|
Rj cevwnZ nvK PZbvi mivei| b`xZ| mgy`| Ges Aekl GB fviZi GKw`b MvQ ZjvZ em evey I c`i ga bvbv M nwQj| Ggb mgq
gnvgvbei mvMiZxi| wekKwe iex`bv_ VvKzii cvqi cvZvq| ^vgx weeKvb`i MvQi gMWvjZ GKUv my`i cvwL Gm em| evey I c`i w`K cvwLUv ZvwKq wK
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mxgvwqZ Rxebi Qv cwimi wevwiZ nvK Rxebeva| AwgKvj AwgZ bq| cvwLUvK ekx Lvq ej LuvPv _K Zvwoq w`qwQjb, AweKj H cvwLwUi gZ
iL hvq Ab mKvj| `LZ| evey c`K _vg ej, evM _K GKUv wezU ei Ki cvwLwUi w`K Quyo
w`jb, cvwLUv MvQ _K bg mB wezU Lvevi Rb GwMq Gj| evey ZrYvr
nvZi jvwV Quyo cvwLi w`K gviZB cvwL fq cvwjq Mj| eveyi jvwV wVKi
Aii ki Pq eo k gvbyli Avi nZ cvi bv| b`xi Rj wMq coj| GK mvZ fvmZ fvmZ Pj Mj| cvwLUvK AbymiY Ki
b`xi cvo w`q DoZ _vK, wKQy`~i wMq `LZ cj jvwVUv ivRevwoi vbi NvU
ZvB Awekvm ^ic Mn kK fq KiZ ne ...........
_K GKwU gq Kzwoq wbq ivRevwoi w`K Mj| gqwU jvwVUv wbq mvRv
- bZvRx myfvlP` emy ivRevwoZ wMq ivRvi KvQ Rgv w`q ejj, ivRvgkvB GB jvwV Avwg b`xi NvU
vb KiZ wMq cqwQ| ivRv gqwUK jvwV ivR`ievi Rgv w`q evwo Pj hZ
ejj| cvwLUv ivRevwoi Qv` Do Gm em| LvwbK ev`i Rvbjvi duvK w`q
ivRKzgvix my`i cvwLUvK `LZ cq cnix`i ai AvbZ ej| cnix cvwLUvK
aiZ Mj, cvwL cvwjq DoZ _vK| cnixiv wcQy wcQy QyUZ QyUZ nuvwcq co
61 62
Ges GKUv eUMvQi ZjvZ Gm _gK `uvovq| cnixiv `LZ cj `yRb jvK H c` Zzwg Zv eveyi m AbKw`b ai AvQ| mZ Ki ejZv G jvwVUv Avmj Kvi?
MvQZjvZ em wbR`i ga M KiwQj| nVvr Iiv mevB `LZ cj cvwLUv Wvbv c` ivRvgkvBK cYvg Ki ejj, ivRvgkvB byb G jvwVUv Avwg GKw`b eveyi
fi Ki Do Gm eUMvQi gMWvjZ wMq emj| ivRevwoi cnixiv cvwLwUK KvVi evi wcQb cvB Ges jvwVUv Gb eveyi nvZ Zzj w`B| mB _K evey
aievi Rb Pv Ki wedj nq ivRevwo wdi Gj| ivRw`b jvwV wbq cvZtgY eivb| Ze evey Avgvq GKw`b ejwQjb GB jvwVUv
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ivRevwoZ GKUv jvwV Rgv coQ| hvi jvwV ne ZvK Dchy cgvY w`q jvwVUv ivR`ievi jvwVUv Gb jvwVi AMfvM icvi Puv`wb KU `Lb , mZB Puv`wbi
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ivRevwoZ wMq nvwRi nq, ivRvgkvBK jvwV dir cvevi AvwR Rvwbq `ievi ivRvgkvB eveyK WK ejjb Avcwb wg_vevax| ivR`ievi `uvwoq wg_v
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mvgb cj `yMvj `yUv Kwlq Po gi wRm KiZ wK Zvi Aciva ? wK nvq a~cKvwV I a~c`vbx| cvk GKUv wPiKU jLv AvQ GB GKkv a~cKvwVi myMi
GKB ej fvjvevmv| wPbq Kvb gvag jx Avi weKvki dvb Kivi K_v gZv Zvgvi Rxeb myiwfZ nvK| jxi Avi eySZ evwK iBjv bv K cvwVqQ|
RvbZ cvi| ZviciB i nq wPbq I jxi ga SMov| hvi dj^ic Zvi jxi Lye BQ wQj Gg.G. coe| ZvB Zvi LiP eve` cbi nvRvi UvKv jxi
mK fO hvq| Avi Zvici jx weKvkK dvb Ki Ges ej - GB h weKvk, QvUfvB Gi nvZ Zzj w`q ejj GB UvKvUv h Gg.G. covi LiP wnmve kievwo
Zvgvi Rb AvR Avgvi fvjvevmvi gvbylwU nvwiq Mj| Zzwg gvbyl bI Zzwg GKUv hvevi w`b nvZ w`q `q ej we`vq wbj weKvk| weqevwoi cvk duvKv gvV| gvV
Agvbyl| weKvkK AvR Avi wKQy ejZ w`Q bv| weKvk ay PzcPvc bQ| AbK Gm emQ weKvk jvj myav wbq| Avi mvbvBqi AvIqvR fm AvmQ Kvb, hvi
Lvivc Lvivc K_v ejj weKvkK Avi ejj Zzwg Avi Kvbw`bI dvb Kie bv, gvbUv wVK GBiKg
Zvgvi mv_ Avgvi ezZ kl| hw` Avgvq GK mKi Rb fvjvem _vKv fvjvem hvev ez fvjvemB hvev|
Zvnj mB fvjvevmvi w`we iBjv Kvb w`bI Avgvi Rxeb Avme bv| Avgvi
mvgb gyL `Lve bv ej dvbUv KU w`j| weKvk ay PvLi Rj dj GKUv
69 70
Gi _K eo `v eva nq Avi ne bv|
wekvqbi cwicwZ bwZKZvi cvmwKZv jvf`Yb wKs wcbZv h`w wKg& cvZK:
gvnb Kzgvi gj mZs Pcmv P wKswP gbv h`w Zx_b wKg& |
xy S, !yV yyy #y mRbs hw` wKs wbR: ^gwngv h`w wKs gb:
mwRv hw` wKs abichkv h`w wKs gZybv|
bqwZ BwZ bxwZt| A_vr hv gvbe mgvRK mywbw` c_ PvwjZ Ki ZvB bxwZ| fnwi / bxwZkZK/55/90 c:| (2)
hw`I bxwZkwU ivRbxwZ,mgvRbxwZ, A_bxwZ I agbxwZ cfwZ evcK A_ chy GB wekvqbi hyM DbZ I DbqYkxj `kwj hw` cviwiK DP
nq| G bxwZ kwU kvmbagi ewk, mgvR Rxebi mymshZ aviv, A_msv AvKvLv ic AZvekK jvfi ekeZx nq Ze mZB wek gZzgyL cwZZ ne|
wbqgvejx, agwfwK AvPvi AvPiY BZvw` A_ eeZ nq _vK| AvRKi wekvqbi LjZvi AwZ Ab Kvb cvci cqvRb ne bv| ZvB DbZ I Dbqbkxj `kwji
hyM bwZKZvi cvmwKZv wK AvQ? nqZv wePvii GUvB h_v_ mgq| Avi hw` bv mZwbv, cweZv, mRbeva I mrwe`v ic bwZK wkvi cqvRb| ime
_vK Zvnj gvbyli Kw, mfZv I mswZ meB wg_v cwZcb ne| AvRKi wk AgZg&| (3) AgZ im _K GB cw_ex ewZ ne| ZvB hw` Avgiv GB cw_exic
AvMvgx w`bi fwelr| Zv`i bwZK wkvi gvag gvbwmK `pZv I PvwiwK DrKl Mvfx `vnb Awfjvlx nB, Ze ermZzj GB RbMYK cvlY KiZ ne| (4)
mvab bxwZevK keY, gbb I wbw`avmbi AZvekK cqvRb AekB iqQ| RbMY AbeiZ c~Yfve cwicy nj KjZvi bvq cw_ex bvbv cKvi dj c`vb
AvRKi wek^i cZK ciZ ciZ ivweivax KvhKjvc gbyl mgvR AwZ, Kie| (5) ZLb wekvqbi A_B h_v_ nqQ ej gb ne|
jvwZ, cZvwiZ I wekvm fi gvn wbgwZ| wekevmx gi` mvRv Ki cwZev`i GLb ck| wekvqb cw_exi megvbyli Avw_K myiv Ges mxwgZ ^vQ`
fvlv nvivZ emQ| Zviga h cwZev`i cwZawb kywb Zv bwZKZvi I gbylZi A_vr Avw_K mvgi wfwZ cwZ gvbyli ewK I bv`wbK weKvk Zivw^Z KiZ
Rqawb| GB wekvqbi hyMI gvbe gb cKZ gbylZ eva Dy KiZ, cviwiK cvi? Avgvi gZ gvbyli ew^v_i ga wbwnZ AvQ Zuvi hyw I wevbmZ
gxfve RvMZ KiZ, cg I cxwZi eb `p KiZ, bxZ m^wjZ mvwnZ cvVi bwZKZvi Drm| axkwi viv ew gvbyli gb bwZKZvi Dcjw Rbvj wbR
iZ Abyf~Z nq| gvbyli `Z weKvki ^v_ m wbR _KB mvg I ^vaxbZvgq RMr eevi cev
vbb nxbvt cwftmgvbvt| GB vbB gvbyli wekl wbR^ m`| GB ne| Avi mvg I ^vaxbZv cw_fxZ icvwqZ nj gx mnRB Rb be| hgb
vbB Zvi fvjg` wePvii cwiPvqK| GB vbi Afve gvbyl cZ cwiYZ nq| AvR wek gvbe mfZvi ewK I bv`wbK weKvki Rb hgb cwZwU gvbyliB
hnZz AvRKi wek kvw kLjv, my cwiek I cviwiK mve AbKLvwb `vwi` _K gyw Ges Avw_K myiv cqvRb| mBic Anxb fvMev` I gvbyli
m`vPvii Dci wbfikxj ZvB eZgvb mgqi cwicwZ wKQy bxwZevKi AvjvKcvZ ewK I bv`wbK weKvki c wZKi| G fn wii mB bxwZevKB eZgvb
KivB cei Dk| wekK mZKxKiY KiZ cvi| KviY ab bvk nZz wenxb gvbyli KvQ GKgyVv
wesk kZvxi cvq kl w`K cw_exi eyK h AvjvK ewZKv wbq nvwRi avbi g~j AbK ekx| Avi A_evbi KvQ GKgyVv avbi g~j AwZZzQ| Hkh
njv Zv wevb I chywi hyM| ZviB nvZ ai wek wkv, ag, Kjv I KwZ GK weivU cw_ex ZYi gZv ej gb nq|
gjeb i njv| mgvRZvwK _K abZvwK A_bxwZ cvKvcvwKfve mg wek cwixYt Kwr nqwZ hevbvg& cmZq
nvZQvwb w`Z _vKjv| wekvqbi Quvqvq mg ivB Zv`i AvRv wZK mK vcb m cvr m~Yt KjqwZ awixs ZYmgvg& |
ecwiKi| wK Mvj euvajv mB bwZKZvi ck, Kwei iex`bv_i Zuvi Kvegq AZvbKv`ijNyZqv_ly awbbv -
fvlvq ZvB h_v_B ejQb - K KZUv w`e Avi wbe| wgjve wgwje gnvgvbei gev ewb c_qwZ P msKvPqwZ P ||
mvMiZj| (1) wekgvbei KvQ ck RvMjv, Avgiv wekvqb PvB bwZKZvi gvMK fnwi / bxwZkZK/45/81 c:| (6)
Qvov, bv wek|evqb I bwZKZv hyMc` PvB, KvbUv ? Gi KviY GKUvB Avgiv `vwi` gvbylK Afve, Acyw, A^v I Awkvq Agvbyl Ki ivL Ges
Avgv`i RxebK my`ifve Mo ZzjZ Mj bwZKZvi AbymiY Kiv cqvRb| Zv ZvK Anxb KvwqK kg eva Ki| Zv`i ewK I bv`wbK weKvk Ki|
bv nj wekvqbI GKw`b wdK nq hve| Kbbv hw` wekvqb PvB bwZKZvK eRb Aciw`K Pig `vwi`i ga h gvbyli Anxb A_ Ges fvMwejvmi mvb
Ki, Zvnj fnwii bxwZevKB wPib mZ nq Avgv`i Dbqbkxj weki KvQ Rxeb hvcb Ki, ewK bv`wbK `wKvY _K mI cZzj Rxegv| iex`bv_
71 72
Zvi Kvegq fvlvq h_v_B ejQb - cvZ iLQv hvi m Zvgvi cvZ
UvwbQ| (7) ZvB cw_exi me gvbyli Avw_K myiv Ges mxwgZ ^vQ` A_vr
hgivRi `ievi
Avw_K mvgi wfw Zivw^Z KiZ AvR wek bwZK mZKxKiY eo cqvRb| ckv cvj
cwikl GK_v ejZ PvB mZB eZgvb wek bxwZwkvi cvmwKZv AvQ|
KviY Avgiv wejvm Hkh GZUvB g h DcKvixi DcKvi KZZv ^xKvi cibyL| weeK t
Avgiv fyj hvB mB wkv - djvMg ewj AebZ nq, gNwj b~Zb RjKYv wek evi mg wKQyi mvx mgq|
viv AbK `~i ch cmvwiZ nq, gnvcyilMY mgwKvj DZ nb bv| civcKvix mgq KLbI _g _vK bv|
ewMYi ^fveB Gic| (8) Avgiv fyj hvB mB wkvB -mRb gnZi, cwZwbqZ mvgb GwMq Pj m me`v MwZkxj|
evKmshg khi, Bw`qwbew vbi, webq kvvbi, mrcv eq abi, mgqi mv_ mv_ GB gnvweki -
vanxbZv Zcmvi, gv cfyZi, AKcUZv agi f~lY| (9) GB Ywj RvbZ mewKQyB cwieZbkxj|
nj Avgv`i mrPwievb nZ ne| ZvB mrPwiB mek f~lY|(10) hv`i we`v, mgqi kke, heb I evaKK
Zcmv, `vbkxjZv, vb, mr^fve, m`Y I agfve wKQyB bB, Zviv cZzj, Avgiv Dcjw KiZ cvwi bv|
cw_exZ fvi^ic| Zviv gZjvK gbyl wePiY Ki|(11) cwikl GB wmv Ze Kx mwi kl jMI mgq kl nq hve bv ?
Avmv hvq GB cki mgvavb hg-`ievi AvR,
GZ mrcyilvt civ_NUKvt ^v_s cwiZR h wevwiZ Di `eb, ^qs hgivR||
mvgvbv civ_gy`gfZt ^v_vweivab h|
Zngx gvbeivmvt ciwnZvs ^v_vq wbNw h hgivR t
h Zz Nw wbi_Ks ciwnZs Z K b Rvbxgn| bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt
fnwi / bxwZkZK/74/108 c:| (12)
Kve K_vi hg `ievi mevi DcwwZ
B`ex Pvgyvi KvQ fw I cYwZ|
weeK gbyl wPmn mKj YxRb
mevi AbygwZ wbq, hg - `ievii Y|
wewai weavb mgZv Avb, mw-wwZ-jq
wbqwZiB Kgx Avwg, hgivR cwiPq|
wePvi Avwg wbic, eywS bv Avcb ci
hgb Kg Zgb dj, nZ cvi fqi|
bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt

weeK t
mv _K mwi Rxeb hv wKQy wbq wek
ivRB gviv e nwQ wZj wZj Ki wbt^|
AvR ei Qv KzuwowU dzj nq dvU Kvj
wki RxebI heb kl Avm eKvj|
n Av`i hZ jvwjZ GB gbyl `n
73 74
cf~Z wejxb nj Avcb ie bv Kn|| ejbv evey gvbyl Kv_v cvq|

gbyl t hgivR t
Rb nqQ gvbyl icZ, iqQ gZzfq bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt
gvbe `n giYkxj Agi KLbI bq| ^M, gZ, cvZvj GB wZbwU fyeb
vcZ, AvwacZ hZ AcZ Uvb mevB Avgiv mgxn Ki hgivR ej gvb|
wZ nq ay ibxq ie `n ne wbcvY| Kgdji wePvi Avwg bvgB fqi,
wein e_vq we `q Kie nvnvKvi cvcx Zvcx vbxYxI Kuvc _i_i|
k~Y cvlvK kqb Kwiq `n ne mrKvi| myhvM cj AvwgI eje Avgvi gbi K_v,
wZPviYi Agq Rvqvi fjvq fvme Kn Kg Avwg AwePj bB Kvb e_Zv|
AwPbcyii Aaiv AvZv, ie ay Abygq| gZevmx ej hg wbzi, cvl, k
gZ KD AvgvK c~Rv Ki bv k~b Avgvi f|
wkx t Kwei fvebvq AvgviI AbK myL `ytL AvQ
Rbi kl cwiYwZ gZz kxZ, Mx, So, Sv, wechqi gvS|
GB kvkZ evYxi mc KZ DcPvi KZ `eZv c~Rv cvq cwZw`b
KweK awbZnq - hgcyixZ gnvivR nq ay Avwg KvUvB w`b|
mvivRxeb gbylKzj hv hv Kg Ki
gb ej Zzwg AvQv/ PvL ej bB wP wnmve ivLb cwZ i i|
Zzwg _vKv cf~Z, meRxeZB|| gnvmwPe wP GB Zv cvkB `uvwoq
wbweK wnmvei K_v ejeb K evwoq||
wP t
Elv _K Mva~wj Avi mv _K cfvZ, wP t
m~hi mvgb cw_ex, Ki cwYcvZ| KwZ GB hgcyixZ, DcwwZ AvR
A GKwU AveZbB, w`b Pj hvq, YxRbi ga, Kwi GKmv_ weivR
eQi, hyM, kZvxI hvq - cwZw`bi bvq|| mKj MYgvb mn, agivR Abb
gZi k cvYx, gvbyl hw` awi, mKji gvS _K, wbRI Avwg ab|
wk, hyeK, e me, h hvi Kg Kwi|| wbe`b AvQ gvi, KqKwU K_v,
fvj-g`, fvM-ZvM, AvPvi-wePvi mB mZhyM _K, wjL fiwQ LvZv|
hgivRi Kvhvjq, nq mywePvi| gvvZvi Avgj _K, wjLwQ Avi wjLwQ
civwYZ gZ, wnmve - Avwg wP ivwL, cwZ gyn~Z wbZbZzb, msweavbI wkLwQ|
gvbyli me KZKgi, AsK Kl _vwK| mZ, Zv, vcii wZbwU hyM cwiq
Nvi KwjhyM AvR, GBLvb `uvwoq|
wkx t wnmve wgjvZ wMq, ivR LvB nveyWyey
gyLvm gyLUv iL/ cvlvK A XK KZevi Ave`b KiwQ, ejyb cfy ?
c Avi R wKQy gvbyl mR iq weij emwZ wQj, cvYx mB hyM
75 76
wcucoi gZv AYwZ cvY, AvR GB hyM| AUv wgje Kxm, K ev Rvb|
GKv GKv mvgjvZ cvwi bv Avwg Avi Rxebi Awg GB jMb
cwZw`bB `vex Kwi PvB KwDUvi| wnmve e gb, msMvcb||
ZeyI kvbbv KD, Avgvi K_v, wfo Vvmv cw_exi g Qo
cfy ejb wPi, wnmveI e_Zv? cvwo w`Z ne `~i e`~i
AvaywbK MwZkxj, KZ hvbevnb wZ weRwoZ gvqv, ggZv dj
GKeviB myBP wUcj, K kvb Kvi eviY? we`vq gbb, wbRK gy Ki ||
nVvr Scvs Ki, ogywoq Nvo
KZ cvY AKvjB, hvq cicvi? fvj g`i me wnmve kl
AhyZ wbhyZ AvR, gZz nQ wbZ hgivRi gZ AvMgb wNi
ZeyI cfy ejb, gZzB wPimZ| PjZvq DwM nq, cvw_e Rxeb
Mvm Ki k~bZv, gb axi axi||
Mvb t
fewQjvg hve Kvwk/ nq ie Kvwkevmx wnmve wbKvk cv - wP
Kvgwmz bxo Avwm Wywejvg Avevi wbglZ WK bq - wePvivjq|
Avgvq Ki cvi, Gevi Avgvq Ki cvi| LvZv Lyj, wgj Ki AsKUv
wbt^ nq, hZ nq, hgvjq||
hgivR t
bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt weeK t
bgt bvivqbvq bgt
hgb Zvgvi Kg ne ZgbB ne dj bgt kxKvq bgt
DcvwRZ cvii KwowU ie ay m^j| bgt bvivqbvq bgt
iqQb gnvgbyl kxgvb ivgcyix `ni AvZv we`nxi ci Kvji cevn iZ
Zvi fvebvi K_vI wKQy keY Kwi || ^Rb nvivbv mvZ eq hve dy avivi gZv|
kxnwi wbRI gvbyl icZ gZ RbQb
gbyl t AeZvi nqI myL `ytL fvM Ki MQb|
wcZv gvZvi Avkxev`, ab gvbe Rxeb ZvKI Kg KiZ nqQ mZ cwZvq
e`bv Kwi wmw`vZv, MYcwZi PiY| Kzi Ksm iveY asm ZviB cPvq|
Aemy beMn, `k w`KcwZ Avcb Kg DwbZ nq kvkZ Qwe GuK
Zvgv`i Avkxl nvK AMwZi MwZ| Zuvi AvZvI we`nx nqQ bki `n iL|
`xvi wkvi mbvZb i`i cvq bgt bvivqbvq bgt
bZgK nq mevBK cYwZ RvbvB| bgt kxKvq bgt
fvM ZvMi gvbe Rxeb AvQ wKQy e_Zv bgt bvivqbvq bgt
kvmn GB `ievi ejwQ wKQy K_v|
wbqg bxwZZ evav, GB fyeb gbyl t
77 78
Rb nqQ gvbyl icZ, iqQ gZzfq hZY `n AvZv _vK cvY ZZY
gvbe`n giYkxj, Agi KLbI bq AvZv Qvwo wei `n wbcvY jY|
KZ c~Rv cveY muc MwQ gb h cvYxZ hZ _vK `eZ Y
ZeyI Rxeb eywS, wedj weKvk mB cvYxi PZbv Mf ZZ DbZ Y||
wbe`b mgcY,me fvebvi kl g` fvjv Kgi dj AvZv aviY Ki
KZznj ck Kwi, `eZv mKvk|| Z_-bw_ wbq Avm hgivRi `ievi|
hviv Rb, Lvq-Nygvq, ay AcZ evovq
hgivR t Zv`i KvQ AvZvi K_v, e`~i Aaivq||
bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt, bgt Pvgyvq bgt
wP t
mv _K mwi Rxeb fvebv _KB nqQ mw Kvji MwZZ mKvj `ycyi mvi ci wbwk
fvebv nj fvei Avavi, fvebv _KB cy Kw| Agvemvi Kc wWwOq c~Y kkx
fyfvMxiv fvebvZ cvq fvM I ZvMi Kvgbv evmbv mw wwZ jqi MwZZ GgbB ikvm
gnr fvebvi AvKlYB gnwl`i Dcvmbv| `vb Ki w`ZB ne kl wbtkvm|
wbZbZzb fvebv _KB Avwevii ^Mevm,
KzPx`i fvebv -Mij nq AbKi mebvk| hgivR t
fvebv KLbI mvMii gZv gbi mKZ XD w`q hvq AvZvi AvQ Ab kw Avb`gq
Dcjwi Avjcbv w`q mRb wkx fvlvZ mvRvq| cf~Zi KviYI AvZv `qK Ki |
AbK gvbyli c_g fvebv gie bv Zv m Kvbw`b AvbZvB mecKvi myL I `ytLi KviY
cf~Zi GgbB wewqv bexb GKw`b neB cexY|| vbi Dbl nq PZbvi RvMiY|
GK AciK eySZ wkLjB AvZxqZv evo
gbyl t AvZvK kvi AUzU eb, K Zvi wQb Ki?
AvZvbB k vb, kv Dj-L Kiv KvwU KvwU P` m~h AvKvk mgy` wZ
gvbyli GB `ngw`i cf~Z Mov| GKic _K AviK icZ, wbqZ AvewZZ|
f~wg Rj AvKvk evZvm - Avi Avjv gbyl GB `nicI ZvB icvii Aaxb
G`i mgZv wbq cvYxi Rb njv|| KLbI wk, wKkvi hyeK, KLbI cv cexY|
cybivq Kvb bexb `nZ, AvZvi Aevb
wkx t Rb gZzi D AvZv, Ab - Avqyvb|
Avgvq gvbyl Kiv bvMv Avi .......
wkx t
hgivR t Zzwg Awg Kvvix ic
AbvPvi, AwePvi, `yivPvii dj Gmv n `qvj,
KwjhyM cvYnvwb AwaK AKvj vYi Zix wbq Gmv, hkv`v `yjvj||
Avwg ay Avgvi `n Kb Ggb fvwe ?
meRxeZ Avwg AvwQ cigvZvi AbyMvgx| weeK t
79 80
cvcx Zvcx AfvRb AvcvZ myLi DcKiY ~j nq gb I `n
Kcv Kiv `yhvM Y AnsKvii KbvI a~wjmvr nq Kn|
fe Kvvixi icwU aiv Avnvi wenvi wg_yb wb`v meB Kgi Ask
Zzwg Avcb KiYvq || AhZ Avi AwZPvwiZvq nq Rxebi asm|
myi eua GKZvivZ, gb evDj Mvb Mq hvq, CkvKvZi mw` ay, LuvR - Acii LuyZ
AvZv icx, GKwU Zvi, jvUvB Nywoi Rxeb KvUvB|| mskvabi w`kvix whwb, wZwbB AM`~Z|
weeK t
gvbe `n wZbwU kwi RvMZ wgkY hgivR t
Rxebevcx PjZ _vK `n gb gb| MvUv Rxebi Kgi dj AvZvZ nq wZ
c_g kw gvZMfi Azi Awavb bexb mvg `n cKv cybivq weKwkZ|
wZxq kw `q cwiek, hv cf~Zi `vb| wbcvY `n mrKvi njI AvZv Awebki
ZZxq kw mviv Rxebi Kg _K cv Yvw^Z my AvZvi kwZ RvwZi||
wkwi GB fvMdj Kvji MwZZ ev|
Rxebi Akv Ljvq, fm Pwj, v fjvq| wP t
_vKZ PvB ckv `vjvq, Zvgvi KiYvq, cfy Zvgvi KiYvq AZxZi gZv AvMvgx w`biI Ab mvx mgq
Rxeb Pi mUKvj kxnwi `eb Afq|
wP t dj Avmv w`bwji wnmve e gb
AvZv AweKvi mykw Awebvkx evqexq kke heb Qo evaKi AvMgb
A`k - RvwZ eicx hyM hyM Abygq| cwZKvi iZ,KeP, KD ev Zx_evmx
`ni AvZv we`nxi ci Kvji cevn iZ wP hgivRK ejb gZ Nyi Avwm|
^Rb nvivbv mvZ eq hve dy avivi gZv|
hgivR t
gsjy t Kejgv kvmb kvlY ivRv hw` nq Kfy
gvbyl Avwg gsjy GLb eyjev `yUv K_v whwb mKji `vm nZ cvib wZwbB hvM cfy&
fyj ne Zv gv w`eb wjeb bvKv e_v| fvjKZv hw` nZ PvI AvM nI fvjKgx
kw fvM hvB eyjb gvi KvQ joeo AvZvbi mvb nI Awf mnggx|
avcvi gvV ^M njv, gv`i RjZ Ni? ah gbi mbvcwZ exh `ni ej
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ckvmwbK webvmi mgq Rjvi bvgKiY nqQ gywk`vev` knii bvg _K| 1704 GQvovv 1793 _K 1925 mvj ch GB Rjvi mxgviLv ckvmwbK KviY eevi
mvj evsjvi `Iqvb gywk`Kzwj Luvv cv`wkK ivvR^ msMni K` XvKv _K gywk`vev` cwiewZZ nqQ| bevex Avgj gywk`v-PvKjvi AMZ wQj gvj`n-cvebv-ivRkvnx-
kni vbvwiZ Kib| Aek bMii cb `xNKvj AvMB nqwQj| wewfb M GB b`xqvi Askwekl, eov exif~gi GKvsk Ges fvMjcyi| BsiR Avgj G Rjvi
bMii wewfb bvg `Lv hvq| GKwU gZvbymvi mb kvn Avgj (1493-1519 mxgviLvi bvbv cwieZb NUwQj|
Lxt) bvbKcx mbvmx gyKmy`b `vm GB bMi cwZv Kib Ges Zuvi bvgB GB ivR^ eevi msvii j B Bwqv Kvvbxi Avgj KwgwU Ae&
bMii bvg nq gyKmy`vev`|3. ifwbD MwVZ nqwQj| GB KwgwUi cwieZ evW Ae& ifwbD KvR i Ki
GB knii Dj-L gj c`k-lvok kZK iwPZ fwelcyivYi ev 1786 mvj| evWi cwmWU mvi Rb kvii cve gvZveK 1787 mvji 29
L AskI| mLvb GB bMii bvg gvivmy`vev`, hv KvbI GK heb KZK cwZwZ| gvP KvjKvUv MRU wew Rvwi Ki dZwms ciMYvK gywk`vev`i m mshy
Ze wewfb bvg cPwjZ _vKjI gywk`Kzwj Luv mviv c`ki ivR^ K` GLvb Kiv nq|4. exif~g I wezcyii Rwg`vwi m mgq gyywk`vev`i Afy wQj| H GKB
vbvwiZ Kivi AvM `ywU bvg ej cPwjZ wQj Zv nj gyKmy`vev`, AciwU ZvwiL (29-03-1787) exif~gK hy Kiv nj wezcyii m|
gLmy`vev`| kvmbK` Ges vbxq ivR^ msMni K`^ic G knii iZ wQj| 1793 mvji 11 Rvbyqvwi Mfbi Rbvij-Gi Av`k 5
mevcwi GLvb GKwU UvKkvj wQj| 1679 Lxt gyKmy`vev` UvKkvj gy`vwZ GKwU 1.cvi cwg wbR ivRkvnxi GjvKv wQj Zvi GKvsg gywk`vev`i Afy nj|
gy`v mveK cwg cvwKvbi jvnvi msMnkvjvq msiwZ AvQ| evwK gnjwj b`xqvi m hy nj|
wiqvR-Dm-mvjvwZb Abyhvqx gKmym Lvb bvg GK ewYK GLvb mivBLvbv Ggbfve gnjwji cybwebvm Kiv nj hvZ Rjvi mxgvbv cv ev Mvi
Zwi Kib| GB ewYK I AvBb-B-AvKeixZ Dj-wLZ gKmym Lvb GKB ew| Dfq Zxi bv _vK| (Rjv webvm cavb b`xwji GKUv f~wgKv _vK fvMxi_xi
AvKeii KvhKvj evsjvi myev`vi mC` Lvbi fvB wQjb gKRym Lvb| cvUbv Gcvi KjKvZv, Icvi nvIov Rjv| Gcvi Di Pwek ciMYv I b`xqv, Icvi
Rjvi nvwRcyi gKmym Lvbi Zwi cv_ii gmwR` AvQ| 1786 Lxt jLv wmqvi- Mwj Rjv| Gcvi gywk`vev`, Icvi gvj`n| evMi Lvj bvgK Rj wefvwRKvwU
Dj-gyZvwiYi Abyev`K igi gZ vbwUi cvPxb bvg gyimy`vev`, cieZx bvg b`xqv I Di Pwek ciMYvK c_K KiQ| Gi ewZgI AvQ fvMxi_xi
gKmymvev` Ges mekl nq gyiwk`vev`| Aci cvi nIqv mI HwZnvwmK KviY bexc ckvmwbKfve b`xqv Rjvi ga
Avevi GI cPwjZ BwZnvm h, 1700 mvj JiRe gywk`Kzwj LuvK _K wMqQ| wK fMvwjK ev A_bwZK Aj wnmve Aayybv bexci m
evsjvi `Iqvb Ges gKmymvev`i dR`vwi wbhy Kib| ci gywk`KzwjB XvKv eagvb Rjvi ^vfvweK mshvMK ^xKvi KiZ ne| b`x I b`xi ZxieZx Aji
_K ivR^ Av`vqi K`I gKmymvev` mwiq wbq Avmb| mgvU JiRe ZvK b`xRxeb mB Aji gvbyli Rxeb I hvcb KZUv iZc~Y Zv Avgiv mKjB
evsjv, wenvi Ges Dwolvi bvqe-bvwRg c` wbhy Kib| gywk`Kzwj bvwRg Rvwb| myZivs GKwU Aji aviYv KiZ Mj f~Mvj, ckvmwbK webvmmn GKwU
c`vwfwl nIqvi ci knii bvgKiY Kib gyywk`vev` Ges gywk`vev` bMi nq ^Z mvsw ZK Aji cKbv MVb KiZ nq|6) 27 m^i, 1793 gywk`vev`i
IV evsjv, wenvi Ges Dwolvi ivRavbx| cyivbv bvgwUI ew`b ch eeZ nq| 250wU Mvg ckvmwbK KviY hy Kiv nj exif~gi m| wPivqx e`vei mgq
1760 mvj ch wewfb `wjj `veR gyKmymvev` bvgwU `Lv hvq| gy`v q bvgvYi Rjvi eZgvb fMvwjK cwiwai Di cwgvski wKQy GjvKv gywk`vev`i A
wfwZ wbwZfve bvgKiYi mvj wbw` Kiv hvq| 1704 Lxt gyKmymvev` UuvKkvj fy wQj bv| Abw`K m mgq exif~g Rjvi mgM ivgcyinvU gnKzgv Ges m`i
kl gy`vY nq Ges H eQii wWm^i gvm gywk`vev` UvuKkvj c_g gy`vb nq| gnKzgvi GKwU Ask gywk`vev` Rjvi ga wQj| mgKvjxb wewfb wicvU `Lv hvq
Rjvwji ga mxgvbv wb`k wbq mskq wQj| Rwgi gvwjKvbv, ivR^ Av`vq,
gywk`vev` ckvmwbK mxgviLvi cwieZb dR`vwi eev MnY Gme welq wbq mgmv `Lv w`Z| Zv mI wPivqx e`ve
105 106
i ci 1794 - 97 G mgq KqKwU QvULvUv i`e`j Qvov Kvb cwieZb NUwb| 11. 1875 mvj Mvi `wYZxi gvj`n Rjvi h Mvgwj wQj Zv gywk`vev`
3. 1806 mvj gywk`vev` RjvK wejvc Kivi K_v fvev nqwQj| GgbwK Rjv Gj| Mv,cv I Rjx nj Rjvi h_vg Di c~e, c~e I `wY c~e mxgvbv|
gvwRU I Rjv RRi c` AejyI Ki `Iqv nqwQj| kl ch Aek cwg exif~g _K ^ic wms, kicyi I Kzbcyi ciMYvi 39wU Ges muvIZvj
Kvjiwkc& wejvc Ki exif~gi m hy Kiv nqwb| wK fvMxi_xi cwgi ciMYv Rjvi KvKRvj ciMYv _K 7wU Mvg gywk`vev` hy nj| GB wewZB
wexY GjvKv mvKzwjcyi (bvbyi), cuvPgywY (eoTv), `ybMvg(`ywbMvg), cjmv, gywk`vev` Rjvi cwZwU _vbvi Aaxb Ajwj mywbw`fve wPwZ Kiv nq|
bjnvwU GB _vbvwjK exif~gi m hy Ki `Iqv nj| (ijkb 1, 12. 30-10-1876 ZvwiL gywk`vev`i 170wU Mvg hy nj exif~gi m|
1806)7. 13. 1879-G eoTv _vbv exif~g _K gywk`vev` Gj| ivgcyinvU I bjnvwU Pj
4. 1809 mvj exif~gi Kvji-Gi c` Aejy nj| exif~g hy nj gywk`vev`i Mj exif~g| H eQi mvgkiM, mywZ, iNybv_M, jvjMvjv, fMevbMvjv,
m Ges GKRb AvwmvU Kvji (wmDwo) H Aski `vwqZ _vKjb| H eQiB mvMi`xwN, gywk`vev`, wRqvM, enigcyi, nwinicvov, ivYxbMi, ejWvOv, WvgKj,
Avw_K mvkqi Rb gywk`vev`i ewkifvM Ask Pj Mj exif~gi RRi nvZ| bI`v, Rjx, beMvg, Kv`x, LoMvg, fiZcyi I eoTv GB KzwowU _vbv wQj gywk`vev`
1820 mvj Avevi exif~g ^Z Rjv wnmve ^xKwZ cvq| Rjvq| H eQi _K Rjvi MVb I AvqZb gvUvgywUfve AcwiewZZ _vK|
5. 1824 mvji 17 gvP jb Pzwi ej WvP`i KvQ _K KvwkgevRvi mwbwnZ Gici 1925 mvj cvi MwZc_i wePzwZi Rb Rjvi cwiwa mvgvb cwiewZZ
KvwjKvcyi Mvg gywk`vev`i m hy Kiv nq| nq| H eQi 15 m^i GK wewi (3514 wc:Gb) ej ivRkvnx Rjvi PviwU
6. 1834 -G cjmv _vbv Gj gywk`vev`, wK fiZcyi _vbv hy nj exif~g| Mvg gywk`vev` Rjvi Afy nq|
1839 -G cjmv _vbv Avevi hy nj exif~gi m| 1854-G fiZcyi _vbv 14. 1947 mvj `k ^vaxb nq| evsjv nq LwZ| ivWwKd ivq`v` Abyhvqx
gywk`vev` wdi Gj| Rjx I bI`v _vbv hy nj b`xqvi m| Zwi nj Kwigcyi gywk`vev` cwgei Afy nq| ivWwKd ivq`v`v NvwlZ nevi ci gywk`vev`
gnKzgv| cwgei m hy njI ivWwKd iLv eivei c~e I Di-c~e mxgvbv wPwZ
7. 8-3-1854 mvj fvMjcyi _K I KvwjKvcyi dvivvev` _vbv gywk`vev` Gj| KiZ wMq wK Amyweavi myLxb nZ nq| ivWwKdi wb`k Abyhvqx Mv-cvi
8. 1852-55 G KYj MvmUji cwiPvjbvq Rjvq Rwic nq hv ifwbD mvf g~jmvZi wVK gvSLvb eivei AvRvwZK mxgvbvi Aevb| wK KvQ cvb`xZ
bvg cwiwPZ| m mgq Rjvq wQj DwbkwU _vbv mvgkiM, myZx, gxRvcyi, KqKwU Pi _vKvq GLvb gamvZi wbkvbv KwVb nq co|
Lvgiv(GLb iNybv_M), `Iqvb mivB (GLb jvjMvjv), ivYxZvjvm, Mvqvm (eZgvb GB mskq wbimbi Rb 1949 mvj MwVZ nq evM UvBeybvj| evM
nwinicvov), `jZevRvi (`jZvev`), Di kni _vbv (eZgvb Kv`x), `wY UvBeybvji Av`k ejv nq gv_vfvOv b`xi g~jmvZi gvS eivei fviZ-cvwK
kni _vbv (eZgvb ejWvOv), PvqbWvOv (AgZKzi KvQ), KjvYM (beMvg), vbi mxgvbv iLv| 1948 mvji Gqvi dUvMvd Abyhvqx Rjx Mvgi _vbv I
e`xnvU (eZgvb mvMi`xwN), MvKY, LoMvg I fiZcyi| Kvws MvDi `wY cwg we`y A_vr b`xqv Rjvi Di c~e KvY Mvb`xi
ckvmwbK GjvKvi cwieZbi m m ivR^ msMni GKKwj gk _vbvi mxgvbvi Di ch `wYvwfgyL Zv eq Pj| gv_vfvOvi Drmwe`y _K
Aweb I wew nq co| MvmUji cwZe`b Abymvi c_g wefvMwj wQj Mv-cvi g~jmvZi ga h we`yi mijiwLK `~iZ me _K Kg ne, mB
mymse | Rwg nvZ e`ji m m `Lv w`Z bvbv AmwZ| GKwU ciMYv ev Rjvi we`ywU ne fviZ-cvwKvb AvRvwZK mxgvbvi `wY c~e we`y| GB we`y _K Mv-
evwm`v hw` Ab Kvb ciMYv ev Rjvi Rwgi gvwjK nq, Zvi g~j Rwg h ciMYvi cvi g~jmvZi gvS eivei fviZ-cvwKvb AvRvwZK mxgvbv wbw` ne| evM
mLvb ivR^ ZvwjKvq bZzb RwgwU Af y nq hvq| Gfve GKwU Rjvi Rwg XyK UvBeybvji ivq Abyhvqx Pi ki`vRcyi I cvkeZx GKwU Pii wKq`sk gywk`vev`
co Ab Rjvi ivR^ ZvwjKvq| gywk`vev`i ivR^ ZvwjKvq `Lv hvq XyK coQ Z_v fviZi Afy nq| AwaKvsk Pi GjvKv Pj hvq mveK c~e cvwKvb| GB
XvKv I Pwek ciMYvi Rwg| nj eZgvb gywk`vev`i MVb|
9. 1855-56, ifwbD mvfi ci `k nvRvix ciMYv gywk`vev` _K muvIZvj
ciMYvi m hy nq|8 ckvewPi Avfvm :
10. 1863 mvj b`xqv _K weay c vov,jvKbv_cy i , GKWvjv bvwRicy i ,
Av`yjewoqv, WvKvwZqvcvZv, evwj cfwZ 340wU Mvg gywk`vev` Afy Kiv nq| ckv I ewwebvmi eZgvb GB cwimsLvb ZLbB Rxe nq IV hLb Avgiv
107 108
`wL h, GB Aji wn`y RbMvxi ckvMZ Rxebi m gymwjg RbMvxi Qvov Zvi cwiPq Dvi Kiv `ytmva m`n bB| Avgiv msw mgq I cwimi Zvi
ewi wfwMZ mv`k I emv`k mvgvwRK mZi w`K Avgv`i gbvhvM wb`k wKQy AMvQvjv bgybv nvwRi KiZ cvwi gv|
Ki| Kuvmv, wgvb wKsev kLwk hgb wn`y RbMvxi cvavb ZgbB gymwjg
RbMvx wewfb ckvq wbqvwRZ AvQb| byij Avwgb wekvm c~ev M Zvi GKwU Z_m~ t
wek Qwe Zzj aiQb| ZuvK AbymiY Ki Avgiv gywk`vev`i gymwjg mc`vqi 1. gywk`vev` Rjv MRwUqvi: Iq ej wWw MRwUqvim& DPwkv wefvM,
wewP ckv cwiPqi GKUv aviYv cZ cvwi| cwge miKvi Ges RjvkvmK I mgvnZv, gywk`vev`,bf^i, 2003, ct 1|
wn`y RbMvxi gZv AwaKvsk gymwjgB KwlRxex I wbZv `wi`| GB
Aj emsLK wenvwi gymjgvb Gm emevm i Kib Guiv RvZ Rvjv ev Avbmvwi 1K. kZxe ivnv: AjPPvi Zwek (cKvwkZe), AvRKi cwZfvm, ct 12-
gvwgb ZuvwZ| Rxcyii eiR, gn`cyi, iNybv_cyi, euvai avi, wgavcvov, dzjevwo, 13|
Aivev`, aywjqvb, ejWvOv BZvw` vb GB Rvjv`i `Lv hvq| Avwgb RvbvQb 1L. Z`e|
h, Lvv ev LvvB bvg Gu`i wbR^ GK fvlv AvQ| Avgv`i Abygvb LvvB 1M. Z`e, ct 18|
cyivcywi gyLi fvlv| nwinicvovi ZiZxcyi _vKb e`iv| jvjevM gymwjg 1N. gywk`vev` Rjv MRwUqvi, c~ev, ct 1|
mvdvBKgxi `Lv gj| Gu`i AwaKvsk GLb PgKvii KvR Kib| nwinicvovi 2. gywk`vev` Rjv MRwUqvi: Iq ej wWw MRwUqvim& DPwkv wefvM,
MvavwiZ gymwjg PuvBiv evm Kib| Kvw`i wnRj evm Kib gymwjg wbwKwi cwge miKvi Ges RjvkvmK I mgvnZv, gywk`vev`, ct 1|
mc`vqi gvbyl| Gu`i ckv gvQ I UwK gvQi eemv| aywjqvb, fMevbMvjv, 3. Z`e, ct 3|
Rxcyi I AvLwiM ek wKQy gymwjg cwievi gvQi eemv KiZv| nwinicvovi 4. Z`e, ct 3|
^iccyi, WvgKji fvZkvjvq evm Kib jvnvwo mc`vq| Gu`i RvZ eemv 5. Z`e, ct 3|
jvvi eemv| mvMiw`wNi evwjqvZ evm Kib Ave`vj mc`vq Guiv Mviy, 6. kZxe ivnv: c~ev , ct 19|
gvl,QvMjK Lvwm Kib| jvjevMi gnbviv avB Ges nv^jv| Gu`i cyiliv 7. gywk`vev` Rjv MRwUqvi, ct 3|
Nvovi cvq bvj civbvi KvR Kib| enigcyii LmvWvOv, nwinicvovi `icvov, 8. Z`e, ct 4|
bI`vi WvOvcvovi fiviv mc`vqi gymwjgiv evmbi dwiIqvjvi KvR Kib|
myZx Ges `vMvwQi kikvevw`qv RbMvxi ckv weqi bvP, Mvb I Kvc Kiv| Kvw`
gnKzgvi MvKY, cuvP_ycx, `wYL, MvjvnvU, KuvZzinvU, QvwZbvKvw`, emvqv
wezcyi cUzqv mc`vq evm Kib| Guiv AbKB mvcyowMwi Ki, euv`i bvwUq,
fvjyK bvwPq, cvwL wkKvi Ki RxweKv wbevn Kib| Gu`i AbK Avevi cU
AvuKb, cU Ljvb| iNybv_Mi Ave`vj mc`vq Pvlevmi m NuyU wew Kib|
gywk`vev`i egvbyl wn`y gymjgvb Dfq agKB AvPiYi ga w`q cvjb
Kib| jvjevMi Kzgxi`n I aigcyi gymjgvb KZvfRv mc`vqi evm `Lv hvq|
cUzqv, mvcyo, e`, jvjewM Ges Ave`vj mc`vqi gvbyliv Dfq agKB gvb
Ki Pjb| nwinicvovi LvgvigvwU, Rvgbvev`, kicyi, ZiZxcyi, WvgKji
Kzgvicyi, ejWvOvi iZbcyi, evaewoqvZ e `vdvwj cwievi evm Kib| Guiv
cuvPcxi I gvwbKcxii DcvmK| Guiv GKw`j cxii Mvbi ceZK|
gywk`vev` Aji gyLi fvlvq GB wewP ckv I agvPiYi Mfxi cfve
coQ| ckvMZ fvlv ev cdkbvj jvyqR QvovI GB wewgk RbmgvRi fvlv
eenvi mxgvnxb ewPi mw nqQ| eRbi wgwjZ cqvm Ges weZZ cwimi
109 110
wLwZ nqwQj agK wfw Ki| ZvB GKUv Av`kMZ Aevb _KB fviZ
fviZ Bmivqj mK bZzb gvo DmivqjK mg_b wavM wQj| cvjvBb mgmvi mgvavbK ivmsN 1947
Wt wmivRyj Bmjvg Gi g gvm BDbvBUW bkbm& kvj KwgwU Ab cvjvBb MVb KiwQj|
y# xy z!y !y Syyy V #y fviZ ZLbI ^vaxb nqwb ZeyI GB KwgwUi 11Rb m`mi AbZg wQj fviZ|
KwgwUi 8 m`m cvjvBbK Bw` I Avie`i ga fvM Kivi cve w`qwQj|
Rbi cvq mv_ mv_ BmivqjK ^xKwZ `vb KijI fviZ c~Y KUbwZK mK fviZ, Bivb I hyMvk-vwfqv GB cv ei wec gZcKvk KiwQj| fviZ wQj
vcb KiwQi cvq 42 eQi ci| fviZi c_g w`Ki Bmivqj bxwZ wQj bv k msLvjwN `j| msLvMwi `k cvei mc fvU w`qwQj| mB myev` 1948
bv wg| fviZi bxwZ wQj Aviecx wK fviZ bvbv welq Avie `kwji KvQ Gi g gvm Bmivqj iv Zwi nq| fviZ m m BmivqjK ^xKwZ `qwb| GB
_K h_vh_ mg_b bv cq KUbwZK bxwZZ cwieZb Ki eveg~Lx we`kbxwZ welq fviZ Zvi ^vaxbZvi AvMi bxwZB AbymiY KiwQj| RvZxq KsMmi bZviv
AbymiY i Ki| fviZi Bmivqj bxwZZ bZzb gvo Gj 1992 mvj, cvjvBb Bw``i Pvwcq `Iqvi wei wQj| 1936 mvj Aj Bwqv KsMm
wc.wf.bimxgv ivIqi Avgj| KwgwU GK weewZZ Rvwbq wQj KsMm BDivc Bw``i `yfvMi cwZ mnvbyfw~ Zkxj
fviZ Bmivqj mK `ywU chvq wef| c_g chvq 1950-1992 wK wewUk mgivi mvnvh wbq Bw`iv cvjvBb wbR`i `vex cwZv Kivi
Ges wZxq chvq 1992 Gi cieZxKvj| c_g ce, fviZi Bmivqj bxwZ nj h Pv KiQ Zv wb`vRbK| KwgwU wekvm Ki h Avie I Bw`iv cZ
avivevwnKZvi wb`kb hv wKQyUv Av`kev` viv PvwjZ Avi wZxq ce nj cwieZbi mnhvwMZvi gvag cvjvBb GKwU ^vaxb MYZvwK miKvi MVb Kie hLvb
hyM hv KVvi eveev`x bxwZ viv cfvweZ| c_g chvq cwiPvwjZ nqwQj ^vaxbZv Bw``i Rb h_ mvsweavwbK myiv _vKe| gnvZv Mvx nwiRb cwKvq
Av`vjbi bZ e ``i viv hviv ^ v fvweKfveB wQjb mvg v Rev` I wjLwQjb Bw``i cwZ Avgvi c~Y mnvbyf~wZ AvQ... Avwg Zv`i Dci e
JcwbewkKev`i weivax| ZvB mvgvRev` I JcwbewkKev` _K m` ^vaxbZvcv eQii AZvPvi mK AewnZ| wK Avgvi mnvbyfw~ Z AvgvK bvq wePvii cqvRb
Gwkqv I AvwdKvi AbMmi Ges `wi` `kwjK wbq Zwi KiwQj RvUwbic mK A Kiwb| Avgvi KvQ Bw``i RvZxq ^`kf~wg MVbi Rb Kvbvi Kvb
Av`vjb| c_g cavbgx Rnijvj bni wQjb we`kbxwZi icKvi| BmivqjK Ave`b bB ... Ab e gvbyli bvq Zviv Kb h `k Zv`i Lv` evmvb w`qQ
RvUwbic Av`vjb mvwgj Kiv nqwb Kbbv ZvK mvgvRev`i mcmviY mB `kK wbR`i ^`kf~wg Ki bq bv| wVK h A_ Bsjv BsiR`i, dv
wnmveB `Lv nZ| fviZ Ges Bmivqj `ywU `kB ^vaxbZv jvf KiwQj wewUk divwm`i wVK mB A_ cvjvBb Avie`i|
mvgvRev` _K GK eQii eeavb| `ywU NUbvi ga cv_K nj fviZi ^vaxbZv fviZ BmivqjK cwZvi mv_ mv_ ^xKwZ bv w`jI Bw` iv`i
wbq Kvb ckwP bB| Avi Bmivqj iv MVbi eaZvK ^xKwZ `qwb AbK cwZ Kvb welfve cvlY KiZ bv| c_g w`K Gi vwqZ wbq nqZ fviZi
`k| m`n wQj| b~Zb GKwU `ki me Rb nqQ Avgv`i Acv KiZ ne - GB
fviZ I Bmivqj DfqB MYZvwK `k| ZeyI fviZi mv_ AbK welq wQj cavbgxi AwfgZ| Gici Bmivqj ivi Aevb _K Zi nZ
Bmivqji Zzjbv Pj bv| AvKvi AvqZb RbmsLvq Bmivqj fviZi wbwiL _vKj fviZi AevbI BwZevPK nZ _vK| GB iv Rbi KqKgvm ci bni
bMb| 2011 mvj fviZi RbmsLv wQj 125 KvwU Avi Bmivqji gv 78 ejb, Bmivqj ivi bvq KvRKg KiQ| AviI KqKgvm ci ejb,
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Bmivqji cfve AwZgvvq ewk| Bw`iv Aek Zv`i KgKv viv weki mgxn hv Avgiv ^xKvi Kwi| 1948 Gi g gvm _K 1950 Gi m^i ch bnii
Av`vq Ki wbqQ| Bmivqji mv_ mK vcb eZgvb mKjB AvMnx| myZivs GB PviwU weewZ cgvY Ki h fviZi Bmivqj bxwZ avc avc Zi nqwQj|
fviZ ewZg nq wK Ki? fviZI ZvB Bmivqji mv_ mymK vcb KiQ| 1950 Gi 18B m^i gvm fviZ BmivqjK ^xKwZ `vb Ki| Gi KviY evLv
Bmivqj ivwU Zwi nqQ cvjvBbK wLwZ Ki agi wfwZ| Ki miKvwi ejjb, MZ `yeQi ai Bmivqj wUK AvQ Ges fwelZI wUK
wRIjev` nj GB ivi cvY| `k MVb ag KLbI wfw nZ cvi bv GgbUvB _vKe| ZvB ^xKwZ `vb|
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111 112
fviZ avivevwnKfve mg_b KiwQj Avie `k I cvjvBbK| 1956 myqR wZwb bniK evSvZ mg nqwQjb h Bmivqji mv_ Nwb mK vcb
Lvj RvZxqKiY wbq weZK Bmivqj viv wgki AvgY Ges cyivZb mvgvRev`x Kij gymwjg mc`vq Ges Avie `kwj Am nZ cvi| gvBKj ePvi,
kw B-divwm RvUi mv_ nvZ wgjvbvi wb`v Ki fviZ| GB NUbvi AbZg bnii RxebxKvi, GgbI ejQb h, AvRv` hZw`b ivRbxwZZ mwq _vKeb
KviY wQj fviZ viv Bmivqj Gi mv_ c~Y KUbwZK vcb bv Kiv| bnii ZZw`b fviZi gacvP bxwZ e`jve bv| Bmjvg agvej^x Avie`kwj _K
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1966 mvj Bw`iv Mvx cavbgx wbevwPZ njI c~eZb bxwZZ Kvb cwieZb vbi KUbwZK cfve ^agx Avie `kwji Ici AvUKvbvi evmbvI cfve djwQi
NUwb| GB mgq ivmsNi gnvmwPei Ave`b mvov w`q Bmivqj fviZ `ywf GB bxwZ cYqb| bnii Avgj AbymZ mxgve Bmivqj bxwZZ cieZxKvjI
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Gi Abyvbi AbygwZ `Iqv nq wb hw`I Gi cwiPvjK wQjb fviZxq eskv~Z KviYB fviZi Bmivqj bxwZZ cwieZb NUwQj| 1962 Z fviZ-wPb hy
Ryweb gnZv| Avie`i cwZwqvq fviZ z nqwQj| Avevi cvwKvb Kw`K welq Avie
1967 Gi Avie-Bmivqj hy fviZ Avie`i c wbqwQj| GB hyi `kwj me`v fviZ weivax Aevb wbqQ| 1962 mvj ivmsN Kvkxi welqK
Rb BmivqjK `vqx KiwQj fviZ| 1973 mvji Avie Bmivqj hy fviZ GK iwRDjkb wgki fvU`vb weiZ _vK Avi Ab `kwj cvwKvbK mg_b
BmivqjK wb`v Ki Ges mg_b KiwQj wgki I wmwiqvK| 1977 mvj RbZv KiwQj| 1965 Z wZxq fviZ cvK hy wgki ev` Ab Kvb Avie `k fviZi
miKvi MwVZ nj AbK fewQj fviZi cwg Gwkqv bxwZZ wbwZ cwieZb cvk _vKwb| mw` Avie I RWb cvwKvbK mivmwi Avw_K mnvqZv w`qwQi Avi
Avme wK we`k gx AUjwenvix evRcqx mB Avkvq Rj Xj NvlYv Kijb Bivb I Zzi mvgwiK mvnvh`vb KiwQj cvwKvbK| fviZi Aviecx bxwZ
cwg Gwkqv bxwZZ GLbB e`ji mvebv bB Avi GB Aj kvw cwZwZ bv AevnZ _vKjI Avie`i fviZ bxwZ AbK mgq wQj nZkveK| 1971 Gi
nIqv ch Bmivqji mv_ mK ^vfvweK ne bv| 1979 mvj wgki I Bmivqji fviZ cvwKvb hy wgki, AvjRwiqv I wmwiqv wbic wQj| KzqZ, mw` Avie
ga kvw Pzw mvwiZ nj Bmivqj Avkv KiwQj fviZi bxwZi cwieZb NUe I RWb fviZi wb`v KiwQj| wjweqvi bZv Kbj Mvvwd fviZi wei aghy i
wK Zv nqwb| Bw`iv miKvi BmivqjK mcmviYev`x iv ej gb KiZ| 1982 WvK w`qwQjb| ZrKvjxb ciiv gx ^Y wmsn Avie`i cwZwqvq nZvkv e
Z Bmivqj jevbb `Lj Kij ev^i Bmivqj wgkbi ghv`vi Aebgb NUvbv Kib| Abw`K weivwaZvi ceI 1962, 1965 Ges 1971 Gi hymg~n fviZK
nq Ges GKB eQi AbywZ w`wj- Gwkqvb Mgm Bmivqwj wqvwe``i hvM w`Z lxwgZ AvKvi mgiv mieivn KiwQj Bmivqj|
`Iqv nqwb| ivRxe Mvxi AvgjI (1981989) GB avivevwnKZvq Kvb Q` avivevwnKZvi ceI fviZi Aviecx bxwZ mgvjvPbvi myLxb nqwQj
cowb| Gi AvMI fviZ Bmivqji wei ivmsN DvwcZ AbK eevK AbK mgq| `ki Afi GK`j ivRbwZK bZv I eywRxex kwYi GKvsk
mg_b KiwQj| 1974 wc Gj I K cheYKvix `ki ghv`v `Iqvi bxwZK Bmivqji mv_ mK ^vfvweK Kivi `vex RvwbqwQj| wn`y gnvmfv, ^Z cvwU,
fviZ mg_b KiwQj Ges 1975 wc Gj I K cvjvBbi RbMYi GKgv mshy mvkvwj cvwU, fviZxq RbmsN, cRv mvkvwj cvwU wewfb mgq miKvii
cwZwbwa ^xKwZ w`qwQj| 1974 mvj Bmivqji wei wqv eqKU NvlYv Kiv Bmivqj bxwZi mgvjvPbv KiwQj| GK`j eywRxex 1960 Gi `kK _KB
nq| 1975 mvj wRIbev`K eYwel Gi mv_ mgZzj Ki ivmsN h 3379 Bmivqji mv_ KUbwZK mK vcbK mg_b Kib| G`i ga wQjb Kwe I
iRywjDkb cvk Kiv nq| fviZ Zvi mc fvU w`qwQj| RvZxqZvev`x bx mivwRbx bvBWy, mvsevw`K I jLK Lyke wmsn, dv gvim,
fviZi Avie`i mg_bi wcQb wQj GKw`K mvgvRev` weivax Av`k bxi` P` Payix, HwZnvwmK ivwgjv _vcvi cgLy | G`i AbK hy wQjb Bwqvb
Abw`K wQj BmjvwgK ckwU| Avie`i Av`vjbK fviZ mvgvRev` weivax d Ae Bmivqj bvg GKwU msvi mv_| G`i mg_b Bmivqj ckswmZ nqwQj
Av`vjbi Ask wnmve fveZ Abw`K Bw``i^`kf~wg MVbi D`vMK `LwQj hw`I fviZi we`kbxwZ wbaviY Zv`i Kvb cfve wQj bv|
cvvZ mvgvRev`i mcmviY ic| fviZ weivU gymwjg RbmsLv Ges Zv`i fviZi Afi Bmivqji mv_ mK ^vfvweK Kivi `vex gk Rvivj
mgagx Avie`i mv_ GKvZevai K_v fviZK fveZ nqwQj| bnii Avgj nZ _vK| AbKB AwfhvM Kib Bmivqji cwZ cKvk weivwaZvi KviY
wkv gx gjvbv Aveyj Kvjvg AvRv` wQjb gacvP bxwZ ZwiZ g~j KvwiMi| fviZ gvwKb mKi DbwZ NUwb| gvwKb KsMmi AbK Bw` m`m hviv fviZi
113 114
mg_K wQjb wK fviZi Bmivqj bxwZi KviY Zviv fviZi _K `~i wQjb| Ges fviZ mvm weivax Awfhvb Bmivqwj chyw Dvebi AwfZv fviZi
IqvwksUb GB Bw` jwei mnhvwMZvq fviZ Bmivqj mK ^vfvweK nZ i c DcKvix ne| DPc` gx I ivRbxwZwe``i mdi eoQ| biwmgv miKvii
Ki| 1987 mvj AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committe) DPwkv gx ARyb wmsn 1994 mvji Ryb gvm Bmivqj mdi Kib| Zvi mdi
AvgwiKv KZK cvwKvbK AWACS wewi cve AvUK w`qwQj| fviZ Lywk Dj-LhvM Kbbv wZwb Bmivqji mv_ mK ^vfvweKKiYi cej weivax wQjb|
nq wqv eqKU Zzj bq Ges gZvi cwimi evovbv nq Bmivqji ev^ 1993 mvji g gvm Bmivqji we`k gx wmgb ciR fviZ mdi Kib Ges
wgkbi| Kvkxi ck Bmivqj jwei mnhvwMZvK `iKvwi gb nj| Kvkxi wbq cKvk Kvkxi wbq fviZi AevbK mg_b Kib| 1996 Gi wWm^i , 1997
AMvbvBRkb Ae BmjvwgK KvAcvikbi evisevi cvwKvbi mg_b iwRDjkb mvji RvbyqvwiZ Bmivqji ivcwZ GRvi IqRgvb fviZ mdi Kib| Gb wW
cvk fviZK z KiwQj| Bmivqj Zvm LjZ AvfixY ivRbwZK Pvc eowQj G miKvii Avgj (1998-2004) ^iv gx Gj K Av`evwb 2000 mvj Bmivqj
miKvii Ici| fviZi ^v_i mv_ RwoZ Ggb e welq Avie`i cwZwqvq mdi Kib| Zvi j wQj mvmev`i wei AvRvwZK mnhvwMZv Mo Zvjv|
fviZi cwg Gwkqv bxwZZ cwieZbi `vwe IV| Aviecx bxwZi e`j cwZiv gx hke wmsn Bmivqj mdi Kib| GB mdiKvj wZwb NvlYv Kib
Bmivqjcx bxwZ MnYi `vwe gk Rvivj nq| h Bmivqj nj GKgv `k h cvwKvb mgw_Z mvmev` gvKvwejvq fviZK
GB cwiZbi cwiek Zwi nqwQj AvRvwZK, AvwjK Ges Avf mvnvh KiQ| AvgwiKv hyiv ev BDivwcqvb BDwbqb cvwKvbi wb`vq mie
ixY AbyL~j cwiwwZZ| weRwci Dvb Bmivqji mv_ mK ^vfvweK Kivi bq wKsev fviZi mvnvh GwMq Avmbwb wK Bmivqj nj GKgv `k h GB
AvfixY ivRbwZK `vex Rvivj nq| mvwfqZ BDwbqbi cZb, Vvv jovBqi mvm gvKvwejvq fviZK DPchyw w`Z cZ| Bmivqji cavbgx Avwiqj
Aemvb, GK gii weki De, 1992 mvj gvw`` Avie Bmivqj kvw eVK, 2003 mvj fviZ mdi Kib| mvibi mvb `Iqv fvRmfvq cavbgx AUj
fviZi A_bwZK D`vixKibi AvKvLv, cwgi mv_ weklZ gvwKbhy ivi wenvix evRcqx ge KiwQjb h Dfq`k mvmi wkKvi Ges mvm weivax
KvQ _K DP chyw jvfi BQv, BmjvwgK mvmev`, Bmivqji mvgwiK mvnvh jovBq GK Acii kwiK| Dfq `ki DPc` mvgwiK KZv`i cviwiK
jvf, RvU wbic bxwZi AmviZv BZvw` welqmg~n fviZi Bmivqj bxwZZ mdi jMB AvQ|
cwieZb NwUqwQj| Zvici `yB `ki mK gk Nwb _K NwbZi nqQ| KsMmi bZZ BD wc G miKvii Avgj (2004-2014) c~eZb Gb
mvgwiK I emvgwiK evwYR cf~Z cwigvY eoQ| fviZ eZgvb Bmivqji wW G (bvkbvj WgvvwUK Avjvq) Rgvbvi ivRbwZK nuvK WvK wKQyUv nvm
mvgwiK Ai meenr Zv| cvq| hw`I g~j Bmivqj bxwZZ Kvb cwieZb NUwb| DPchvqi mdi AevnZ
GBic AbyKj cwiwwZZ 1992 mvji 29k Rvbyqvwi fviZ Bmivqj _vK| 2006 mvj Kwl gx kvi` cvIqvi, evwYR gx Kgvj bv_ Ges DPwkv
c~Y KUbwZK mK vwcZ nq| GB mK ^vfvweKKiYK KD KD `LQb gx Kwcj wmej Bmivqj mdi Kib| 2012 mvj we`k gx Gm Gg Kv
hyMvKvix cwieZb wnmve| mK ^vfvweK Kivi AbZg dj nj wcvwK evwYRi Bmivqj mdi hvK Bmivqji cavbgx HwZnvwmK AvLv w`qwQjb| 2014
gvMZ ew| 1992 mvji 200 wgwjqb evwYRi cwigvY 2012-2013 A_ mvj bi` gv`x cavbgx wbhy nj Bmivqji cavbgx evwgb bZvwbqv
eQi eo nqQ 6 wewjqb| wZxq dj nj mvgwiK mnhvwMZv I mgievwYR ZvK ^vMZ Rvbvb| bi` gv`xI Bw``i nvbyLv Drmei mgq UzBUvi wne fvlvq
ewi mvebvi vi Lyj Mj| 1962,1965 Ges 1971 Gi mxwgZ mvgwiK mnvqZv fQv Rvbvb| bZvwbqv cZz i `b wnw`Z| H eQiB Bmivqji mxgv eev
AviI mvebv Zwi KiQ| Avi GKwU my ivRbwZK cwieZb nj fviZ Avi cwi`kbi Dk Bmivqj mdi Kib ^iv gx ivRbv_ wmsn| GmeB nj `yB
ivmsN AvwbZ Bmivqj weivax cv e wbwePvi mvq `q bv| AbK wek-lK `ki mKi NwbZvi bwRi| msev` cKvk fviZ ivmsN cvjvBbi cwZ
fviZi GB bZzb Bmivqj bxwZK Vvv jovB Di hyMi evemZ we`kbxwZ h mg_b GZKvj w`q AvmwQj Zv cZvnvi Ki wbZ cvi|
ej AvLvwqZ KiQb| Av`kev` _K GB eveev`x bxwZZ DiY nj fviZxq Bmivqji cwZiv A_bxwZi c fviZi evRvi Lye iZc~Y| Kbbv
KUbxwZi cwiYZ gbZvi cwiPvqK| Bmivqji mgi evwnbx AvgwiKvb mgiv mymwZ Ges Zv BmivqjK mvnvh
mK ^vfvweK nIqvi Avi GKwU dj nj mvmev` weivwaZvq cviwiK eve` `Iqv nq| hvi Ab A_ Bmivqji mvgwiK evwnbx Bmivqji mgiv
mnhvwMZv| mK ^vfvweK nIqvi GKgvmi gaB cwZiv gx kvi` cvIqvi Drcv`bKvix Kvvbxwj _K ^ gvvq A k q Ki| ZvB GB
cKvk NvlYv Kib h mvmev` `gb Bmivqwj mnvqZvK fviZi KvR jvMe KvvbxwjK ew`wkK evRvii Dci wbfi KiZ nq| fviZ weki eng mgiv
115 116
Zv wnmve Bmivqji cavb evRvi nq DVQ| `ywU `ki ga wcvwK evwYR nj cvjvBb Bw``i RvZxq ^`kf~wg MVb| GB j ARb Bw`iv h
eoQ wVKB wK fviZi Ab AbK `ki Zzjbvq Zv bMb| fviZi c_g `kwU ivRbwZK Av`vjb i KiwQj ZvB wRqbev` bvg cwiwPZ|
evwYwRK Askx`vii ga Bmivqj bB| BD G B (United Arab Emirates ) 3. G. wR. G Gm. wR. RvBw`, ` GvBKcw`qv Ae ` Bwqvb bvkbvj KsMm,
fviZi ZZxq eng evwYwRK Askx`vi| mw` Aviei mv_ 2014-2015 A_ fwjDg 8, bqvw`wj-, 1977, ct 478|
eQi wcvwK evwYRi cwigvY wQj 39.4 wewjqb Wjvi Ges Bivbi mv_ 14 4. ivR` Afqvi, ` BfywjDkb G wdDPvi Ae Bwqv Bmivqj wijk|
wewjqb Wjvi mLvb Bmivqji mv_ wcvwK evwYRi cwigvY wQj gv 4.52 www.tau.ac.il / humanities/abraham/india-israel.pdf, ct 7
wewjqb Wjvi| Bmivqji `wKvY _K fviZ iZc~Y Kbbv 2014 mvj 5. K wc wgk, Bwqvb cwjwm Ae wiKMwbkb Ae Um G MfbgUm, `
fviZ wQj Gwkqvi Bmivqji ZZxq eng Ges mvgwMKfve `kg evwYwRK AvgwiKvb Rvbvj Ae BUvibvkbvj, fwjDg 55 bs 2, Gwcj 1961, ct 406,
Askx`vi| fviZ cZ we`wk wewbqvMi wbwiL Bmivqji vb AwZbMb| Gwcj GBPwUwUwc // WejyWejyWejy.
2000 mvj _K Avei 2012 ch fviZ cZ we`wk wewbqvMi ZvwjKvq 6. Z`e, ct 406 - 407
Bmivqji vb 43 Zg Avi wewbqvMi cwigvY nj 55.32 wgwjqb Wjvi| myZivs 7. Z`e, ct 408
wcvwK evwYRi wbwiL Bmivqj Avie`kwji Zzjbvq ewk iZ cZ cvi 8| wbKjvm e-vij, ` iwfwjDkb Ae Bw`qvm Bmivqj cwjwm KbwUwbDwqwU,
wK? PbR G KcvgvBR wm 1922, AdvW BDwbfvwmwU cm,bqvw`wj-, 2015,
mvgwMK AvjvPbvi wfwZ `yB `ki mKi weeZbi avivq hv jYxq ct 124-129.
Zv nj Gwkqvq MnYhvMZv cvIqvi Rb Bmivqji fviZi bvq D`xqgvb `kK 9. Av_vi wR iwebd, bigvjvBRkb Ae Bw`qv - Bmivqj wijk xjeY di
ewk `iKvi| Avi fviZi w`K _K Bmivqj bxwZ AbK ewk mvgwiK diwU Bqvm, Gwkqvb mvf, fwjDg 35, bs 5, 1995, ct 493.
cqvRbxqZvi viv cwiPvwjZ| Bmivqj hfve msLvjNy Avie`i cwZ Ges 10. Z`e, ct 494
`LjxKZ f~L cvjwwbq`i cwZ h AvPiY Ki fviZ wbq Zv mg_b Kibv| 11. Z`e
wK Zv cKvk ejZ KzwZ| mvcwZKKvj Aek fviZi wkwZ gawe kwYi 12. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 502
GKvsk hviv cvvZ Rxeb `kb wekvmx Zviv Avie`kwji mv_ mK Pvq bv| 13. Rvmd nvw`m, B`-Bmivqj wijkbm, Bwqv BUvibvkbvj mUvi
Zviv Bmivqjcx bxwZ MnYi ^c| Zv`i wekvm Bmivqji msLvjNy bxwZ KvqvUviwj, fwjDg 29, bs 2, 2002, ct 101
fviZi AbyKiY Kiv DwPZ| `wYcx ivRbwZK `jwjI gymwjg `kwji 14. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 502
mv_ wbweo mK vcbi weivax| Giv cvjvBbK mg_b Kiv ZZxq wekev` 15. Pxbi ci fviZ nj wZxq A Avie `k h wc Gj I K ^xKwZ w`qwQj| G
ej gb Ki| ZvB Bmivqj Zvi mg `gb cxob bxwZ mI D`xqgvb fviZ AvR welq miKvwi weewZ wn`yvb UvBgm, 11 Rvbyqvwi, 1975.
^vMZ| `xNgqv`xZ fviZi ^v_ Avie`kwji mv_ mymKi gaB wbwnZ ej 16. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 502
hviv wekvm Ki Zviv AvR wcQbi mvwiZ| 17. e-vij, cvMv, ct 195.
18. gvBKj e-Pvi, Bwqvm dib cwjwm Avb BUviwcUkb, wbDBqK BbwwUDU
Ae cvwmwdK wijk, 1957, ct 14
1. wj Ae KvwUm evB ccyjk, http://simple.m.wikipedia.org. 19. Avi K kxevf, Bwqv-Bmivqj wijkbm, ` Rvbvj Ae cwjwUKvj mvq,
2. wRqb nj RiRvjgi GKwU evBejxq bvg| Bw`iv ivgvb`i wei we`vn fwjDg 31, bs 3, 1970, ct 244-245.
e_ nIqvi ci wbevwmZ nqwQjb| wbevmb emevmi mgq Zviv me`v RiRvjgi 20. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 494
K_v gb ivLZ Ges cZn cv_bvi mgq ejZb cii eQi RiRvjg| GwU nj 21. e-vij, cvMv, ct 157.
agxq wRqbev`| Ze Dbwesk kZK w_qvWvi nvRj bvg GK Rvgvb Bw` Gi 22. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 499.
ivRbwZK Dk e Kib| wZwb The Jewish State (1896) bvg GKwU 23. Z`e
cywKv iPbv Kib hLvb wZwb wjLQb h Bw` mgmvi mgvavbi GKgv c_ 24. ivR` Afqvi, ` BfywjDkb G wdDPvi Ae Bwqv Bmivqj wijk|
117 118
www.tau.ac.il / humanities/abraham/india-israel.pdf, ct 11, Gdg
Bbevi, ` Bwqv-Bmivqwj AvuZvZ, www.biu.ac.il >Besa>Inbar
25. e-vij, cvMv, ct 159-162, 167-172.
26. e-vij, cvMv, ct 158-159
27. Av_vi wR iwebd, cvMv, ct 503.
28. Z`e
29. ` wn`y wembm jvBb| 7 RyjvB 2013.
30.UvBgm& Ae Bwqv, 22 deqvix, 1992
31. Bwqv UzW, 19 Ryb, 1993
32. e-vij, cvMv, ct 290
33. kwgi nvmvb, BfywjDkb Ae Bwqvm cvjvBb cwjwmt G dj dg ` nvBUm?
mvkvj mvqwU, fwjDg 36, bs 1/2, 2008, ct 89
34. ` wn`y, 10 m^i, 2003
35. Bwqv Bmivqj wijk, DBwKwcwWqv.Kg
36. Z`e
37.Z`e
38.Z`e
39. ` wn`y, 22 wWm^i, 2014
40. Dekx miKvi, BR Bwqvm UW DB_ Bmivqj wmwMwdKv Gbvd Uz RwUkwbs
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119 120
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Wt mZib wekvm dmj djvbvi| AbfveI i nj bvbv cixv wbixv| AvgwiKv _K f~vi exR
I gv`vwR avb Avwbq jvMvbv eevI wZwb KiwQjb| ezei wR`jvji mnvqZvq
.... Mvgevmx`i Amvb Kviv bv, h wkvq Avgv`i cqvRb Zv ay knievmx`i Avjy PvlI i KiwQjb| wZwb wbR GB Pvl Avkvbyic dj bv cjI , cieZxKvj
bq, mg `ki ga Zvi avivK cevwnZ KiZ ne| ... Mvg Mvg AvR gvbyli GB AbK Pvwliv cPzi djb cqwQjb| iex`bv_ eySwQjb, Pvli KvR AvaywbK
AwaKvi wdwiq w`Z ne| AvR Avgv`i mKji Pq eo `iKvi wkvi mvg| vb-wevb I chywi cqvM KiZ nj wkwZ gvbyl`iB c_g GwMq AvmZ
Kvjvi-G, iex`bv_i cwj-fvebv cKvk cqQ GBfve| ne| mB fvebvK cwZv w`ZB 1906 Lxt cy i_x`bv_ I ezcy mvlP`
fviZel Mvg cavb `k| ZvB MvgRxebi mgmv mgM `ki mgmv| `ki gRyg`viK AvgwiKvi Bwjbq wekwe`vjq cvVvjb Kwlwe`v I Mvwe`vq cvi`kx
DbwZi mvcvb weZZ nq AvQ Mvg _K Mvgvi ^`kx mgvR, mfvcwZi Ki AvbZ| GK eQi ci RvgvZv bM`bv_KI we`k cvVvb GKB Dk| G
AwffvlY, cvebv mwjbx cfwZ bvbv eZvq iex`bv_ `kevmxK `kmevi _KB evSv hvq Kwlwe`vi cwZ, iex`bv_i HKvwK AvMn I Avw_Kfve wcwQq
KvR wbqvwRZ nq Mvg gvbyli DbqYi Pvq ce nZ Abyiva KiQb| Rwg`vix cov nZ`wi` KlK`i Kx AvwiK wQjb wZwb| cy ev RvgvZvK evwivwi ev
`Lvkvbvi Rb wZwb `xNw`b wkjvB`n wQjb| ZLwb cwj- Dbqbi fvebv Zuvi `kb-mvwnZ coZ bv cvwVq, Kwlwe`v coZ cvVvbv mB AvwiKZviB cwiPvqK|
ga GmwQj| Zuvi fvlvq - `k Avgv`i h enr KgvbK cZ Kwiqv ZzwjZ RvgvZv bM`bv_K jLv GKUv wPwVi wKQyUv Ask DZ Kij Kweii gbvfve
nBe| Kgb Kwiqv Zvnv Avi Kwie? DP P~ovK AvKvk ZzwjZ Mj Zvnvi Aviv fve evSv hve| wZwb wjLwQjb
wfwK ck Kwiqv cwZwZ KwiZ PvB, Ze cZK Rjv nBZ Zvnvi wfZ Muv_vi Zvgiv `ywf cxwoZ cRvi AbMv mi Ask wbq we`k Kwl wkLZ MQ|
KvR Avi KwiZ nBe| cwj-K evBi _K `L c~Y Kivi Kwg AcPvi wZwb wdi Gm GB nZfvM`i Ab Mvm wKQy cwigvY hw` evwoq w`Z cvi, Zvnj GB
Nvi weivax wQjb| Zuvi cwj-Dbqb cwiKbvi g~j K_v Mvgevmxi AvZkwi wZc~iY nq gb mvbv cve; gb iL Rwg`vwii UvKv Pvli UvKv Ges PvwlivB
Dbqb I ^wbfiZv| m`v RvMZ mPZb AvZ KZZK iex`bv_ AvZkw ejQb| Zvgv`i wkvi eqfvi wbRiv AvacUv Lq Ges bv Lq enb KiQ wbR`i
h kw wbRK Rvb, wbRK Pb, mvgvwRK KgKvi m wbweofve RwoZ mvsmvwiK DbwZi PqI GBUB Zvgv`i c_g KZe ne| [cwj-cKw Z (M cwiPq
_K wbRK m~Y Ki, mv_K Ki - mBB nj AvZkw| iex`bv_i cwj- Ask), 12 KvwZK 1314, cv - 230]
DbqYi g~j PvweKvwV mgevq eev| m eevq cii ciiK wRwZqv eov Bwjbq wekwe`vjq _K evPjvm Ae mvq wWwM wbq i_x`bv_
nBZ Pvwne bv, wgwjqv eov nBe| KgkgK wgwjZ Kivi gvag `vwi` `~ixKiY `k wdijb 1909 Lxt| iex`bv_ ZLb kvwwbKZb Avkg we`vjq MVb K
me ej wZwb gb KiZb| wZwb Avkv e KiwQjb, fviZeli RxweKv hw` evcZ ZeyI wkjvB`ni KzwV msjM 80 weNv RwgZ dvg Zwi Ki w`jb| mLvb
mgevq bxwZi Dci cwZwZ nq, Ze fviZ mfZvi avxf~wg Mvgwj Avevi euP nvZ Kjg KvR i nj| gvwU cixv I mvi Zwii MelYvMvi, cvi mvnvh
DVe I mg `kK euvPve| mgevqi gvag iex`bv_ cwj-evmxi KvQ Ggb GKwU RjmP Ges AvgwiKv _K cqvRbxq hcvwZ Avbvbv nj| civaxb `k Kwli
hvMi Zwi KiZ PqwQjb| mLvb cwZwU gvbyli kw cwZwU gvbylK BwZnvm G GK wec-e|
kwgvb Ki Zvj| KlK`i GKUv eo mgmv wQj gnvRbi KvQ _K bIqv FY| GB FY
Kwli DbwZi Rb hwki eenvii wZwb wec wQjb bv| evwbK Zv`i Ub wbq hZ mebvki `viMvovq| Zv`i iv Kivi K_v feB Kwe
cixv wbfi Drcv`b eevq gvbyli kg jvNe nq Ges A_bwZK m` `Z ew mgevq wfwZ Kwl evi cwiKbv Kib| 1905 Lxt Kwei D`vM vwcZ nj
cvq - GB mZ wekvmx Kwei mB KviYB MvwwRi PiKv Av`vjbi weivwaZv cwZmi Kwlev| mvgvb my` KlK`i FY c`vbi eev nj| wK Pvwn`vi
KiwQjb| Pvli DrKl Dvebi viv Pvwli D`gK lvjv Avbv LvUvevi Pv Zzjbvq mwZ wQj Kg| 1913 Lxt bvej cyivii jvwaK UvKv Kwe cwZmi
bv Ki ZvK PiKv NvivZ ejv kwnxbZvi cwiPq| evB Rgv iLwQjb| Kwlev, MvgxY ev GB kwj GLb cwiwPZ njI
iex`bv_ wkjvB`n _vKvKvjxb Kwleevi cwieZb NwUq KlK`i ZLb Zv wQj fvebviI AZxZ| G welq iex`bv_i RxebxKvi cfvZ Kzgvi gyLvcvavq
A_bxwZi g~j wfwK cv KiZ PqwQjb| ZvB wZwb i Kijb nvZ Kjg wjLQb - ..... iex`bv_ hLb cRv`i ga wgZewqZv I mgevq kw RvMiK
121 122
Kwievi K_v fvweZwQjb I mvgvb Kg ce nBqvwQjb ZLb evsjv`k miKvwi Rj cwivi Ki GB evwoZB cwj- cybMVbi cixv wbixv i KiwQjb
Kv-AcviwUf Av`vjb nq bvB| (iex`Rxebx - cfvZ Kzgvi gyLvcvavq, 2q Kwe| GB ce Kwecy i_x`bv_, RvgvZv bM`bv_, kvwwbKZbi wkK mvl
L, Zq msiY, ct 145) wg cgyLi gvag cv_wgK KvR i njI g~j KvRwU KiwQjb Gj&gnv wK
AvaywbK chywZ Kwli DbqYi gvag cwj-MVb hgb iex`bv_i Gi Rb Acv KiZ nqwQj AZ `k eQi| Gjgnv Zvi AwffveK`i BQvi
fvebvq wQj, Zgwb wZwb wekvm KiZb cwj-gvbyli `b NvPvevi AbZg cavb wei GKcKvi Rvi KiB fviZel Pj Avmb 1921 Lxt bf^i gvm| 1922
Dcvq wkv| memvaviYK wkv w`q weki me gvbyli m Zv`i hvM NwUq w`Z Gi 6 deqvix wZwb myij Kwl MelYv K` vcb Kib| cieZx Zvi bvgKiY
ne| KviY, wek _K wewQb nq Zv`i gbUv Mvg Ges GKNi nq AvQ| Zv`iK Kiv nqwQj cwj-msMVb K` ev Institute of Rural Reconstruction |
me-gvbei RvZ Zzj Mie w`Z ne| Ze GB wkvi Avjv wbq Zv`i KvQ c_g GwU wQj myij mwgwZiB Aaxb| ci 1923-G Pj Avm kxwbKZb mwgwZi
cuQvZ ne kvi m| AbyMn ev AbyKv Ki bq| G`i gbK cZ ne, ga| GB ce Kvjxgvnb NvlI nq DVwQjb Kwei wekl mnhvMx, whwb 1907
Zv`i m wgjZ ne| Lxt kvwwbKZb Gm ePh we`vjq hvM w`qwQjb| Gjgnv Ges Zvi x
1915 Lxt Wvt wR`bv_ g wnZmvab gjx bvg GKwU cwZvb Wivw_ BU hgb nvZ Kjg KvR KiwQjb Zgwb Avw_K mnvqZvI c`vb
Mob| iex`bv_ ZuvK DrmvwnZ Kib| iex`bv_ wnZmvab gjxi c _K KiwQjb| kxwbKZb bvgK GB KgK`i KgbxwZ Kx ne Kwe Zv AvMB
cwj-i DbwZi Rb GKwU Kgmw~ P iPbv Kib| GB Kgmw~ P cKvki ga w`qB wjLwQjb The object of Sriniketan is to bring back of life
iex`bv_i cwj-fvebvi ^icwU cKvk cvq| 1) wbii`i wKQy wKQy jLvcov I in its completeness into the villages making themself reli-
A kLvbv| 2) QvUv QvUv Kvm I cywKv cPvi viv ^viv, mevhZ mK ant and self-respectful acquinted with the cultural tradition
wkv`vb I gvjwiqv, hv, bvbv aiYi ARxY D`ivgq ivM cfwZ cwZivai of their own country andd competant to make an efficient
Rb mgeZ Pv| 3) wk gZz wbeviYi Dcvq wbaviY I eev Aej^b| 4) Mvg use of modern resources for the improvement of their physi-
Mvg cvbxq Rji eev| 5) Mvg Mvg h_ FY`vb mwgwZ cwZv I `wi` jvK`i cal, intellectual and economic conditions. (kxwbKZbi Mvovi
KvQ Gi DcKvwiZv c`kb| 5) `ywf, ebv, goK cfwZi mgq `yt`i wewea K_v - mZ`vm PeZx, ct 19)| cieZxKvj kxwbKZbi KgcwZK cavbZ
mvnvh `vb| 1890 _K 1915 ch c~ee I Die (wkjvB`n, cwZmi I AvUwU fvM fvM Kiv nqwQj Zv _K wekl iZcY~ `ywU welq GLvb Dj-L Kiv
mvRv`cyi) Ges 1922 _K 1940 ch exif~g iex`bv_ cwj- -cybMVb hy nj t
wQjb| LvRbv evwK coj cRv`i Rwg hvZ gnvRbi nvZ Pj bv hvq Zvi Rb * I win the friendship and attention of villagers and cultiva-
iex`bv_ GKUv eev iLwQjb| hvi Rwg Zvi `Lj iL, dmji AaK _K tors by taken a real interest in all that concerns their life and
wKwZ eKqv LvRbvi Rgv Iqvwkj Ki bIqv| Avgjv`i AZvPvi _K cRv`i welfare and by making a lively effort to assist them in solv-
ivi Rb iex`bv_ ciMYvwjK KZKwj Aj fvM KiwQjb| ing their most pressing problems; I take the problems of
eZgvb Pvwl ev Abvb ewi ^v_ Mvgvbqb h mgevq Av`vjb I the village and the field to the classroom for study and dis-
mgevq msMVbi Ici Rvi `Iqv nQ, iex`bv_ Zvi cw_Kr| nwk-cwkY cussion and to the experimental farm for solution.
I Drcv`bi ga w`q gq`i ^wbfi Ki Zvjvi KgKv AvR Pvwiw`K PjQ| gv wZbwU MvgK wbq kxwbKZbi Avw`cei KvR i nqwQj|
G KvRi m~Pbv iex`bv_ KiwQjb Zuvi cyea~ cwZgv `exi mvnvh| ZuvZ, evwUK, cieZxKvj GB KgKv weZZ nqwQj 85wU Mvg, hvi AvqZb wQj cvq lvU
KvwUs-Ujvwis, m~Pxwk cfwZZ cwkwZ nq gqiv hvZ msmvi Avq evovZ eMgvBj| g~jZt wZbwU GjvKvq fvM Ki djv nqwQj GjvKv| mymsnZ I wbweo
cvi Zvi Rb gq`i cwkY K` cwiPvjbvi eev KiwQjb wZwb| GjvKv ic wPwZ MvgwjZ Kwl, wkv I ^v msv welqwji Ici ewk
civaxb fviZel wewUk Kwlwe` Gjgnv -Gi wekl mnhvwMZv jvf bRi `Iqv nZ| mcmvwiZ GjvKvq Kvbv wekl Kgmw~ PK K` Ki `yB GjvKvi
KiwQjb iex`bv_| kxwbKZb MVbK Gj&gnv-Gi Amvgvb Ae`vb iqQ| gvbyl GKwZ nq Zv`i AwfZv wewbgq KiZb| Avi cveZx GjvKvq kxwbKZbi
1912 Lxt kvwwbKZbi wKQyUv `~i myij Mvg AewZ GKwU KzwVevwo iex`bv_ Kgxiv Aevr nvbv w`q Mvgevmx`i m wewfb welq AvjvPbv Ki Zv`i AwfZvi
wKbwQjb ivqcyii Rwg`vi KYj bi`cmv` wmsni KvQ _K| Avkcvki kwiK nZb|
123 124
kxwbKZbi mgvRKgx`i Kwe PvifvM fvM KiwQjb| mymsnZ I mcmvwiZ N) Kwl FY`vb mwgwZ
GjvKvq hviv ZYg~ji KvR KiZb Zv`i ejv nZ MvgKgx| KqKwU MvgK wbq O) mP mgevq
MwVZ msm`i `vwqZ wQjb K`Kgx| Avi GK Kgevwnbx wQj AvgwZ wekl| P) mgevq grmPvl mwgwZ
Avi PZz_ fvM wQjb MvgxY mnhvMx bZZ| eg~Lx KghK Kwe GBfve we Q) mgevq eqb mwgwZ
vijvf NUvZ PqwQjb| wbw` mgqi eeavb wbqwgZ Kgx`i wbq mfv KiZb R) wekfviZx mgevq K`xq ev
Kwe ^qs mLvb Zuvi eZv Ges MvgxY cybMVb welqK jLvwj Kgx`i weklfve
DrmvwnZ KiZ| kxwbKZbi mywekvj KgKv GKwU mviwYi ga w`q cKvk Kiv mvgvwRK wkv K) wkvm
nj, hvi ga w`q GKwU msw cwiPq cvIqv hve| L) cv_wgK evwjKv we`vjq
M) wkvPPv
kxwbKZbi I welqwfwK KgcwiKbv t N) jvKwkv msm`
O) eq wkv
welq KgcwiKbv I cqvM P) vggvY MvMvi
A_bwZK Kwl K) cixv-wbixv Q) wkvwkwei
L) cwkY R) eZxevjK msMVb
M) Kwl mcmviY S) MvgxY weev`i wbw
N) Mv-cvjb
O) gyiMxcvjb ^v K) Rb^v mgxv
P) gvQPvl L) wKwbK
Q) ggvwQ cvjb M) mgevq ^v mwgwZ
N) wKwbKvj jveiUwi
MvgxY wkv K) eqb O) Kz wPwKrmv K`
L) Pvgov cvKv Kivi KvR
M) Pgwk MelYv I cwkY K) Mvgmgxv
N) `viwk L) avb MelYv
O) grwk M) f~wg mgmv msv MelYv
P) Mvjvi KvR N) ^v mgmvv welqK MelYv
Q) eB euvavbv
R) nvZ Zwi KvMR MvgxY Drme D`&hvcb I mxjb K) kxwbKZb cwZv-evwlKx D`&hvcb
S) euvk I eZi KvR L) njKlY Drme
T) evwUK I Abvb Kviwk M) wkvrme
U) gwkb kc I cvIqvi nvDm (mRbt mva-kZel iex`iY msLv,2015)
MvgxY gvbyl`i msMwVZ Ki, Zv`i vb, `Zv Ges AwfZvK KvR
mgevq K) cwj- Dbqb mwgwZ jvwMqB MvgxY mgmvi gvKvwejvi eev KiwQjb iex`bv_| GK`j weklI
L) mgevq ^v mwgwZ ivLv nqwQj hviv g~j PPvK` _K wekl mgmvwjK wPwZ Kie Ges wek-lY
M) agMvjv Ki Zvi mgvavbm~ Mvg _K Mvgvi cuQ `e| GBfve GKwU mmsnZ cwiKbv
125 126
cwj-i mvaviY LU LvIqv gvbyli Rb Dcnvi w`qwQjb iex`bv_|
weMZ GKkv eQi ai eZgvb fviZeli Mvgvbqb cwiKbvq iex`fvebvi AvwRI m G gb
mywbw` cfve iqQ| kxwbKZb I wekfviZx cwZvi ga w`q mviv fviZeli mykxj miKvi
KvQ GKwU evZv iL MQb| wK ^vaxb fviZeli c_g cwiKbvi `wjj
mgw Dbqb Kgm~wPi Dci GKwU m~Y Aavq hme Drmi K_v ejv nqQ, ZvZ gvoUv NyiZB jvKUv nVvr Mvoxi mvgb Gm cojv| eK Klvi AvMB avvUv
kxwbKZbi Dj-L bB| A_P cwj-evmxi h AMMgb Avgiv cZ KiwQ, Zvi wMq jvMjv jvKUvi eyK| wQUK wMq jvMjv Wbi cvk jvBUcv| Mvox
kKo wbwnZ AvQ iex`bv_i gaB| _K bvgvi AvMB c_Pvixiv jvKwUK b`gv _K Ub Zzjjv| `yKvbi cvk
_K Ges bvKKvb w`q ZLbv _vK _vK i Si coQ| PvL`yUv wi| `LB
eySjvg me kl| Zey fq Pzc Ki AvwQ| mv AvMZ| we`vqx m~hi xY Avjvq
jvKwUK fvjv Ki `Lv hvwQj bv| nVvr we`yr evwZwj Rj DVjv| mB
Avjvq jvKwUK mevB fvjvfve `LwQj| mevi gyL GKwUB K_v - K GB
jvKwU? vbxq `vKvb`vi`i ga `yGKRb ejjb - ek wKQy w`b nj jvKwUK
GB gjvjx gvoB Nvivdiv KiZ `wL| Ze jvKUv h cKZ bq Zv `LB
evSv hvq| gb nq Mvg _K GmQ| jvKwUi K_v kvbv gv Zvi x wgZv wfo
Xj Ii KvQ wMq GK ` `LZ jvMjv| wgZv GZY Avgvi cvk MvwoZ
njvb w`q `uvwoq wQj| wdi Gm Avgvi cvk `uvwoq ejj, GLb Kx ne? Av
Av fq fq ejj - gb nq jvKUv cvMj UvMjB ne ... ZvB bv? ejjvg,
Pnviv `LZv ZvB-B gb nQ|
gyL GKivk `vwo| GKgv_v Dv Lyv Pzj| cib kZwQb Rvgv cvU|
GZUvB gwjb h, is Pbv hvQ bv| Rvgvi bxP w`q RivRxY kixiUv `Lv hvQ|
Zey PnvivUvq mvi Qvc AvQ| gb nq Kvb fvjv dvwgwji Qj| Ggb mgq
GKwU cywjk _vgjv wfoi cvk| PviRb mv`v cvlvKi cywjk wfo Vj jvKwUi
KvQ Mjb| GKRb cywjk wRm Kijb - Mvwo Kvi? Avwg fxZ^i ejjvg,
mvi Avgvi| Avgvi bvg avg Mvwoi bv^vi me WvBwiZ wjL wbjb| jvKwUi
cwiPq Rvbevi Rb vbxq jvKRb`i wRvmvev` Ki Kvb nw`k cjb bv|
GKRb cywjk jvKwUi cKU nvZ XywKq wKQy KvMRc ei Kijb| KvMRi
fuvR LyjZB ewiq Gjv GKwU dUv| bv, Kvb cyili dUv bq| dUvwU GKwU
my`ix A eqmx gqi| `Lj gb nq hb m` Zvjv| Zvici ei nj GKwU
mvbvi AvswU| Zvi Dci BsivwRZ jLv GKwU Ai M| dUvUv mevB `LQ wK
Kvb nw`k cvQ bv| Avwg `~i `uvwoq KZKgi fwelr m^ wPv KiwQ| Avgvi
x nVvr `wL wfo Vj wfZi wMq cywjkK ejQ, mvi, dUvUv AvswUUv wK
`LZ cvwi? I wmIi wmIi, GB wbb, ejB GKRb cywjk dUv Ges AvswUUv
wgZvi nvZ w`j| Avwg Pq `wL, I eov eov Ki PvL Ki GKevi dUvi w`K
Ges GKevi AvswUUvi w`K ZvKvQ Avi Nb Nb wbtkvm QvoQ| cywjk ej DVjb
- gvWvg, Avcwb jvKwUK Pbb bvwK? Kvb K_vi Reve bv w`q I Awbgl
127 128
ej wPrKvi Ki mjm nq cojv| c_Pvixiv Ges cywjk aivawi Ki cvk KvjKvUv cywjki eo Awdmvi| Dwb evcviUv `LQb| ZvQvov H jvKUv GKUv
G.Avi.Gm. nmwcUvj wbq fwZ Ki w`j| Wvvievey ejjb, nVvr kK cq Ggb evDyj cvMj | wZbKzj KD AvQ ej gb nq bv| wKQy UvKv hve ZvQvov Avi Kx
nqQ| `yw`b i wbj me wVK nq hve| `yw`b ci nmwcUvj _K wgZvK evwo ne| Zv GZw`b ci nVvr G K_v| bv Ggwb| eySjvg wgZvi gb IB jvKUvi K_v
wbq Gjvg| Wvvievey ejjb, Ii gbi Ici Pvc co Ggb Kvb K_v ejeb GLbI NyicvK LvQ| ejv wZbU cvq| weKj gNjv w`qv Aviv NbNvi nq
bv| Wvvieveyi Dc`k Avwg Ai Ai gb PjwQ, wK Avgvi `q GK Amn Gjv| nvIqvi ZxeZv gkt evoQ| Lvjv Rvbvjv w`q Vvv nvIqv AvmQ| Avgvi
hYvq me`v Zvjcvo Ki| wbRi gbK ck Kwi - K GB Awbgl ? wK mK kxZ kxZ KiQ `L I GKUv K^j wbq Avgvi Mvq Ub w`Z w`Z ejj, Zzwg
wgZvi mv_ Ii? Kb I Avb nq Mj? Ggb nvRviv ck AvgvK cvMj Ki Lye wPv KiQ ZvB bv? Avwg eySZ cviwQ Zvgvi gbi Ici w`q wK So eq
Zzjjv| gb gb cwZv Kijvg, GB inmi g~j D`NvUb AvgvK KiZB ne| hvQ? Rj wmMviUUv ZLbI Avgvi nvZB wQj| myLUvbUv w`q Rvbjv w`q dj
ek wKQyw`b nq Mj wgZv AbKUv ^vfvweK, my| Zey Avo AveWvj w`jvg| auvqvi Kzjx QvoZ QvoZ evwjkUv eyKi wbq DV emjvg| ejjvg nVvr
_K Pq `wL Kgb hb D`vm D`vm fve, wbwj| Lvjv AvKvki w`K Pq Gme K_v Kb? wgZv kvfve Avgvi nvZ`ywU Pc ai ejj - Avwg Rvwb, Avwg
_vK, WvKj PgK IV| ciY `yGKwU gvgywj wRvmv - Kx Awdm QywU nq Mj, me eywS, Avwg Zvgvi mv_ AbK Awfbq KiwQ| Avwg AvR aiv co MwQ ckv
KLb Gj? Zvici Kvco mvgjvZ mvgjvZ ej - cvlvK Qo gyL nvZ ayq evey| wekvm Kiv Avwg Avi Zvgvi mv_ Awfbq Kiev bv| Avwg jvwdq DV ewj
Gmv, Avwg Pv KiwQ| GKB weQvbvq `yRb| gb nq, `yB AcwiwPZ ewi kvb wKmi Awfbq? Kvi mv_ Awfbq? Kb Awfbq? wgZv kvfve ejj - wPrKvi
mnvevb| Avwg eySZ cvwi wgZv GK Ae Amn hYv wbq w`bvwZcvZ Ki| wK Kivbv, Pzc Ki ay kvbv| h cki So Zvgvi `qK `ygo gyPo Pzigvi Ki
Kb I AvgvK me ejZ cvi bv| mvivw`b ivZ AvwgI GK Amnbxq Pvcv hYv w`Q - m cki Di Zzwg cq hve| Avwg mwZB ZvgvK eje - K IB Awbgl?
wbq hi gZ euP AvwQ| LvB `vB Awdm Kwi, bnvZ bv nj bq ZvB| Avgvi mv_ Ii wK mK? Avwg me eje ZvgvK| Avi jyKvPzwi Ki wK jvf?
cl gvm| kwbevi| kxZi mKvj| GK kxZ Zvi Dci gNjv AvKvk| GKUv -vb nvwm Ii VuvUi duvK gyn~Z wgwjq Mj| Avwg Ii gyLi w`K GK `
wngj nvIqv| wekx jvMQ| Pvb bv KiB Awdm QyUjvg| kwbevii Awdm| ZvovZvwo Pq AvwQ Avi I AbMj ej PjQ -
QywU nq Mj| gvbwmK Akvw I `yhvMc~Y AvenvIqvq ez`i mv_ Avv `Iqvi ZLb Avgvi eqm, 15 eQi| Kvm Ub G DVwQ| megv iRv AvDU
gvbwmKZvB wQj bv| mvRv evox wdi Gjvg| evox XyK `wL, G Kx! G Kvb wgZvK nqQ| Rvbyqvix gvmi 8/9 ZvwiL ne| covbv fvjfve i nqwb| wUwdbi
`LwQ! G h m~Y Avjv`v wgZv| K eje Kw`b ai Ii gbi Ici w`q So eq ci zj QywU nq Mj| wPv ejj - Avgv`i evox nq Pj| ZvK GKRbi mv_
PjQ| ^vfvweK ejj fyj ne| m~Y A^vfvweK| nvwmLywk fve| NiUv wQgQvg cwiPq Kwiq `e| Avwg ejjvg - Kvi mv_? I ejj - Pj `LZ cvwe| Zv ej bv
Ki mvRvbv MvQvbv| dzj`vwbZ bvbv is Gi dzj| gyL K_vi dzjSzwi| fvewQ K GmQ Zv`i evox? Qj bv gq? wK nj Zvi fvj nq? - Avgvi fvjvi
Kvbv iYxq w`bwUb bv Zv? iYxq w`bi K_v ejZ Avgv`i weevn evwlKxi mv_ cwiPqi mK wK? wPv ej - `LjB eySZ cviwe|
K_v gb nj| wK bv m Zv 24 k dvyb| AvRZv wek cl| AbK w`b ci Avwg Gevi wPvK ewj - Avwg wK wmwiqvmwj ejwQ - ejbv, K GmQ Zv`i
wgZv bvbv AvBUg ivbv Ki AvgvK ewmq LvIqvjv| LvIqv kl Ki nvZgyL ayq evox?
eWig wMq LvUi GKcvk njvb w`q em evwjkUv Kvji Ici iL wmMviUUv Avgvi evevi GK ez wQjb| Pvi eQi nj gviv MQb| evox eWvii KvQ eqov
awiqwQ Ggb mgq wgZv kvwoi AvuPj nvZ gyQZ gyQZ Avgvi Mv Nul emj| Avwg Mvg| ILvb KvwKgv Qj gqK wbq _vKb| Awbgl`v Lye gwiUvwiqvm, GBP.Gm
AbK w`b ci Ii Kvgj kixii D cik Abyfe KiwQ| Ii w`K gyL Nywiq G vi cq cvk KiQ| Bswjk Abvm wbq nveov KjR fwZ nqQ| Avgv`i
ejjvg - Kx evcvi Zzwg Lj bv h? - wL` bB ci LvevY| BZemi evox _K covbv Kie|
wigvU wbq wUwf Ab KiZB wgZv Avgvi nvZ _K wigvUUv Ko wUwfUv e Ki fvjvB Zv, Zvi me mveR Awbgl`v `wLq `e| K_v ejZ ejZ wPv`i
w`j| ejjvg GUv Kx nj? I Avgvi K_vi Kvb Di w`j bv| Ni wb| `wL I evox Gm nvwRi njvg| wPv Avgvi ay KvmgUB bq| Avgvi Nwb ez| mB Kvm
`ynvZ w`q eWmxUi myZv wQuoQ| gyLUv gyn~Zi ga dvKvk nq Mj| fvejvg Iqvb _K GKmv_ covbv Ki AvmwQ| wPv`i evox hgb Avgvi Aeva hvZvqvZ,
Kx hb eje| bxieZv fO I wRvmv Kijv - GB mw`b cywjk Zvgvi Mvwoi Zgwb wPviI Avgvi evox Aeva hvZvqvZ| `yRbi nwiniAvZv|
bv^vi bvgvavg wjL wbj, Kvb LuvR wbqQv| ejjvg Avgvi KwjM igbi gvgv wPvi Ni XyK `wL - GKwU Qj em eBqi cvZv DvQ|
129 130
wPv ejjv - Awbgl`v, wgZv| Avgvi Lye fvjv ez| GKmv_ cwo| Zvgvi Zvgvi gvqi wPwV| wPwVUv LyjZ LyjZ Awbgl evpxi wcQb AvgMvQZjvq Pj
KvQI I wK coZ Avme - ej wPv AvgvK ejj - Zviv K_v ej, Avwg AvmwQ| Mj| Avwg wMq `wL - wPwV nvZ wbq Awbgl`v Mxi gyL `uvwoq AvQ| - ejjvg,
wPv ev_ig Mj| Avwg Awbgl`vi mvgb Pzc Ki `uvwoq AvwQ| Awbgl`v c_g Kvb Lvivc msev`? - Kvb Di bv w`q wPwVUv Avgvi nvZ w`j ejj - co `L|
_KB Pzc Ki em wQj| KqKwU evi ay PvLvPvwLB nj| K_v Avi njv bv| wK wPwV co eySjvg - Awbgli KvKv ev^i Kvb GK emiKvix Awdmi
w`q i Kie Zv fveZ fveZ wPv Gm Mj| Avwg wPvK ejjvg AvR Pwji eo Awdmvi| Awdm KqKRb jvK be| AwbglK wbq Dwb AvMvgx iweevi
- ci Avmev| ejB `Z evoxi w`K cv evovjvg| gbi ga KZ K_vi So eq ev^ cvwo `eb| evii ga evox hZ wjLQ| wPwV coB Avgvi eyKi
PjQ| c_g `LvZB Avgvi `n gb GKUv we`yr SjK w`q Mj| Kb Ggb ga acvm Ki IV| Avwg bxie wPwVUv Awbgli nvZ w`q ZworMwZZ evox Pj
nj? GB `yPvL w`q Zv KZ gvbylK `wL, KB Ggb nqbv Zv! gbi ga Kej Mjvg| mvi ci _K Avwg weQvbvq qB AvwQ| Kvb wKQyB fvjv jvMQ bv|
GKwUB bvg NyicvK LvQ - Awbgl`v, Awbgl`v, Awbgl`v| KLb h ivZ 9Uv eRQ RvwbB bv| nVvr `wL - gvqi Vvv nvZi nk Avgvi
bvbviKg Qj Quy Zvq Avwg GLb cvqB wPv`i evox Avwm| Avwg evev gvqi Kcvj| PvL gj ZvKvZB gv ejj - wKi kixi Lvivc? bv bv kixi Lvivc bv|
GKgv mvb| evev wgwjUvixZ PvKzix Kib| eQii AwaKvsk mgq evoxi evBi fvjv jvMQ bv| ejj AvB DV AvB| nvZ gyL Rj `| Avwg fvZ evowQ ej gv
_vKb| gv Avgvi Kvb evcviB evav `q bv| wekl Ki wPv`i evox| wbqwgZ evBi Gm ej, wK evcvi, bexb KLb Gj? gvqi gyL bexb Lyovi bvg b
Avwg Avi wPv mvi mgq Awbgl`vi KvQ cwo| Awbgl`v me mveRB fvjv| eySZ cvwi| Awbgl cvwVqQ| Avwg m m DV Gm ewj - Lyov wfZi Gmv|
Zvi KvQ BsivwR,A, wevb meB cwo| ivZ cov kl nj Awbgl`v AvgvK Lyov wfZi Gm Avgvi nvZ GKwU wPiKzU awiq w`q ej, AvR Avi eme bv
cwZw`b evoxZ cuQ `q| wbRb wbivjv Avuavi `ywU cvYx cvkvcvwk 15 wgwbUi gvgwb, Pwj| bexb Lyov wPv`i evwoi KvRi jvK| Lye fvjv| Awbgli NiB
c_ 1NUv ai GwMq PjwQ| gvS gvS gb nZ ewj - GB c_ hw` bv kl nq, _vK| `yRb fvix fve| gvS gaB Lyov Avgv`i bvbvfve n Ki| wPiKzU
Ze Kgb nZ Zzwg ejZv? GfveB w`bi ci w`b, gvmi ci gvm, eQii ci jLv AvQ ciw`b mKvj 10Uvq evox hvwQ| Kvj ivZ bUvq b`xi NvU eKzj
eQi Pjj `ywU ZwlZ `qi bKwUK AvmKvwgZv| cw_exi hv wKQy my`i, meZB Zjvq Zvgvi Acvq _vKe| K_v AvQ| wVK bUvq| fyj nqbv hb| BwZ Awb|
Avwg Awbgl`vK LuyR cZvg| Ii mvwba AvgvK GK ^Mxq Abyfe w`Z| GKw`b wPiKzU cq Avwg fe cviwQbv wK Kiev? nvmev bv Kuv`ev| GK myLi hYvq
hw` bv `LZvg, eo wbtm jvMZ| Awbgl`vI Avgvi Afve `viYfve Abyfe Avgvi `q Zvjcvo KiZ jvMj| cii w`b evi ivZ bUv| wcqvjx b`xi
KiZ| - fvejvg, Gi bvgB fvjevmv, cg, gneZ| Gi RbB gvbyl e wKQy ZvM NvU| bxj AvKvk GK L Puv`| eoB gwjb| ZviB AveQv Avjv Gm coQ wcqvjxi
^xKvi KiZ cvi| gvbe Rxebi GLvbB ^v_KZv| fvjvevmvnxb cgnxb `q g`y ZvwqZ eyKi Dci| Pviw`K bmvb| euvavbv eKzj MvQ Zjvq GKwU Qvqv
a~mi evjyKvgq gif~wg| meyRi mLvb Kvb vb bB| KweZvi Kveaviv - wkxi g~wZ| eo AvcbRb| gyn~Z cuQ Mjvg eKzj MvQi Mvp AKvii eyK| cvq cuvP
Kvbfvm mis Gi Zzwji Uvb, m Zv cgiB m`h| mxgvi euvab Qvwoq Avgv`i wgwbU wbie wb_i| nVvr gbZv f Ki Awbgl ej IV - Kx evcvi K_v ejQ bv
cg Amxgi w`K avweZ nj| Avgv`i evoxi cvk w`q eq PjQ wcqvjx b`x| Kb? wc-R wKQy ejv| Ii `ywU ev AvgvK Ave Ki ej| Wvwjs ZywgB ay K
Qv b`x| Ze eviv gvmB Rj _vK| GB b`xZB Mvgi jvK vb Ki, muvZvi cvQ, Avwg cvwQ bv? wewjf wg, AvB jvf BD,AvB jvf BD,AvB jvf BD dg `v
KvU| Avwg I wPv GB b`xZ gvS gvS vb Kwi| muvZvi KvwU| KZ Rvrv ivZ Kvi Ad gvB nvU| Rxeb gvb ayB myLi w evmxK mgxiY bq| Rxeb gvb
hLb mevB Nyg AvQb ZLb AvKvki Puv` Avi meyR Kvgj `yfvi Dci Avwg I Mx, elv, kir, ng, kxZ I em| m~hi Zxe `nb Puv`i gvjvqg mylgv| GB me
Awbgl`v cii D mvwba KvwUq w`qwQ mK wgwbU NUv| Avgv`i PvIqv wKQyi gZB Zzwg Avgvi KvQ mZ| Kvb SoSv mvBKvb wKQyB ZvgvK Avgvi KvQ
cvIqv gjvgkv meB PjZ wPvi AMvPi| wPvi evevi LyeB Avkv, Awbgli _K Avjv`v KiZ cvie bv| ev^ wMq PvKwiUvi Kbdvgkvb KiB Avwg Qgvmi
mv_ wPvi weq `e| we.G Abvm cvk Kivi ciB wPvi evev Awbgli gvi KvQ ga ZvgvK wbq ev^ cvwo `e| eKvi Rxeb ^c `Lv hvq| Ni euvav hvq bv|
cve wbq hve gbvwi KiB iLQ| wPv Avi Avwg nveov Mvjm zj _K Avi m Ni nq biK hYvi| eve eo KwVb| Avgiv myLi jvwMqv euvwae Ni| Avi
GBP.Gm cixv w`qwQ| Awbgl`vi cixv kl| GLb wZbRbB evwoZ _vwK| gv Qgvm Acv| Avwg ggyi gZv Ii K_v b PjwQ| KLb h wbRK
AXj mgq| wZb wgj NyiZ ei nB| wPvi evev cvgvvi| evoxZB cvAwdm, Ii KvQ DRvo Ki muc w`qwQ eySZB cvwiwb| nVvr Awbgl ej Pj div
GKw`b wZbRb Nyi evox wdiZB wPvi evev kkxKvevey AwbglK WK ejjb hvK, ivZ nqQ| Avwg mw^Z wdi cq Avgvi m` Zvjv GKwU dUv Ii
131 132
cKU XywKq w`B| Avgvi Avyji mvbvi AvswUUv Awbglb Avyj cwiq w`q Avi evox wdi hvqwb| `v`v h Kv_vq nvwiq Mj KD ejZ cvi bv| gv Kuv`Z
cv Quyq cYvg Kwi| Awbgl AvgvK Rwoq ai Ii mvnvMi Kvgj k Avgvi Kuv`Z A nq MQ| Avwg KvbiKg cvBfU wUDkvwb Ki msmvi PvjvB| Avgv`i
`n gb fwiq Zvj| hvIqvi AvM Avgvi Mv Quy q kc_ Ki ej cwZ mvn GKwU KZ Avkv wQj `v`vi Dci| me kl| gvUv gvBbi PvKixI cqwQj| jvK ej
Ki wPwV wjLev| fyj nebv `Lv| `v`v bvwK Avi euP bB| gv ej I GKw`b bv GKw`b wdi AvmeB| wgZvw` Zvgvi
Qq gvm AwZevwnZ| Awbgli Kvb wPwVci nw`k cjvg bv| ivM wekvm nq! `v`v gviv MQ? Zzwg wK ejZ cvi wgZvw` `v`v Kb Ggb nq Mj?
`ytL Avgvi `q we`xY nq Mj| evev QywUZ evox Gm Avgvi weqi Rb DV co gyn~Zi ga Avwg cv_i nq Mjvg| PvL eyR Avwg gb gb ejjvg, n fMevb,
jvMj| Avwg weqZ evua mvajvg| Aekl gwiqv nq ejjvg, AwbglK Qvov Avwg G Zzwg wK Kij? GB cvc PvLi euva fO KLb h `yKzj c-vweZ nq cw_ex
KvDK weq Kie bv| Kvb dj nj bv| ei Aviv Dv nj| GKw`b wPv gvK Svcmv nq Mj eySZB cvwiwb| Giga wkcv ej IV, wgZvw` Zzwg Zv bvbv
Gm ejj - h evOvjx KvvbxZ Awbgl RqU KiQ m Kvvbxi gvbRvii RvqMvq hvI, GKUz LuvR Ki `Lvbv? gv ej, `v`v KvjKvZvB Kv_vI AvQ|
GKgv gqK bvwK m weq KiQ| K_vUv b Avwg wekvm Kwiwb| wK evev - ZvB ckvevey ,Zzwg hLb KvjKvZvq eovZ hvIqvi Rb AvgvK ejj,
hLb ejj LuvR wbq `LQ - K_vUv h_v_ ZLb Avwg Avi ah ivLZ cvwiwb| ZLb Avwg Avi AgZ Kwiwb| Avwg Rvwb, AwbglK LuvRvi Rb G GK myeY myhvM|
ivM `ytL fewQjvg wbRK kl KiB `e, ciYB gb njv - bv, Pig AwbglK `Lv cvIqv Avgvi GKv `iKvi| ZvB MvoxZ Zvgvi cvk emI Avgvi
cwZkva be| kl ch evevi BQvK gb wbjvg| Zvi ezi GKgv cy ckv `ywU PvL Awbgli A^lY m`v e wQj| Avgvi gb ejwQj Awbgli mv_
ivqi mv_ Avgvi weq nq Mj| GZw`bi myLi ^c Zvmi Nii gZ Pzigvi nq Avgvi `Lv neB| GLb ckvevey eySZ cviQ - Awbgl Avgvi K? wK mK Zvi
Mj| i nj meyR ebexw_Kvq `vevbji `nb| AvwfRvZi Pig wkLi DVI mv_ Avgvi? Avwg ZvgvK wKQyB w`Z cvwiwb| Avwg VM, ceK| cwZwbqZ Zvgvi
gyn~Zi Rb fyjZ cvijvg bv AwbglK| ZzjZ cvijvg bv Ii Qwe Avgvi `q mv_ Avwg Awfbq KiwQ| Zzwg `nUvK jyV KiQv wK gbi Ni gwYKvbi
nZ| cq nvivbvi wK hYv Avwg gg gg Abyfe KiZ jvMjvg| GB weq gb nw`k Zzwg cvIwb| G wPvwiZv Avgvi Avi mn nQ bv| AvgvK Zzwg gv Ki `vI
_K gb wbZ cvwiwb wK fvMK gb wbq gvwbq wbZ PqwQjvg| cvwiwb| c-kv--ev-ey|
evievi Pv KiI ni MwQ| Aeva gbUv eo eBgvbx Ki| eo hYv `q| eo K_vUv k nZ bv nZB wgZv nVvr gyL _yeo gSi Dci coj| ckv
e_v `q| weqi Pvi gvm ci evci evoxZ Gjvg| Gi ga wPviI weq nq evey fvejb, mw`bi gZ kK cq mjm nq MQ| ZvovZvwo nmwcUvj bIqv
MQ| gb gvbwmKZv fvjv bv _vKvi Rb Ii weqZ AvmZ cvwiwb| wPv GLb nj| Wvt evm cixv Ki ejjb, G vb Avi wdie bv| cUvwmqvg mvqvbvBW&
Kvjbvq kievoxZ| Ii LuvR Lei bevi Rb I`i evoxZ Mjvg| Avwg Avi LqQ|
wPv h NiUvq emZvg mB Nii LvUi Dci emZ w`q wPvi gv Pv KiZ ivbv Ni
Mj| Avwg `wL LvUi ZvlKUv ek wKQyUv DuPz| ZvlKUv DvZB `wL 24/
25Uv Lvg| cZKwUi Dci Avgvi bvg| Lvgjvi cZKwU gyL Lvjv| Lvgwj
kvwoi ga jywKq `Z evox wdi Gjvg| wPwVwj hZ cwo ZZ Avwg GK Amn
Ae hYvq wng nq hvB| kl wPwVZ wjLQ Kzwo nvRvi UvKv gvm eZb|
knii DcK GKwU evmv fvov wbqwQ| KvQB mgy`| gbvgyKi cwiek| Ni
mvRvevi `vwqZ wK Zvgvi| 24k dvyb Zvgv`i evox hvwQ| 26k mvRv ev^|
cZxvi bB cqvRb| GB 24 ZvwiLB wQj Avgv`i weqi w`b| wPv Avgv`i GB
fvjvevmvK KLbB mybRi `Lwb| wK I h Avgvi mv_ GZ eo eBgvbx Kie
Avwg Zv ^cI fveZ cvwiwb|
weqi cuvP eQi ci wPv`i cyKziNvU Awbgli evb wkcvi mv_ `Lv|
Kgb AvQv wRvmv KiZB I nvD nvD Ki Ku` DVj| ejj wgZvw`, `v`vi Kvb
LuvR bB| H h mevi ev^ _K GmB Zvgv`i GLvb Gj, Zvici _K `v`v
133 134
GLb AskZ gNjv/AabwgZ cZvKvi wbP cvV Kiv ne kvK cve/
eKwYK wek-lYi Avjvq myaxi `i Zuvey jvKk wZ, wZwb AvZnZvB KiwQjb/ hw`I e Z Zjvki ci/
gB I k KweZvQ (Avb` cyivi 1422 KvbI gM Zvi jvk cvIqv hvqwb| hw`I GB ee Kejgv msev`
c`vbi msKxY NivUvcB mxgve bq| aygv evBii fwUzKzB GKRb msev`
cv KveM) cvVKi| Rv`y ev KweZvwUi klvskI GB GKB kjx AbymiY KiQb Kwe|
Rq Pex mLvb wZwb wjLQb -cv_ii mB cwe cuwy _ Lyj/ gUv kb MZKvj
cvV nj Zv _K KqKwU cv/Rvbv Mj bv `eZv I gvbe-mfZvi
1422 ev Avb` Rqx KveM, myaxi `i Zuvey gB I kKweZvQ| wgwmswj;/hw`I wevbxiv wbwZ h/ gvby li MVbZ GK Avh
KveM, bvwK k KweZvi msKjb - GB iKg GKUv cv_wgK g Zix nq KveMi m~Zvq/ cwZvcb Kiv AvQ c`i AKvl I `eZv`i wjkixi|
wkivbvgi ga w`qB| hw`I mB g Yvqx| Zvici GK GK DNvwUZ nq mgq PZbv myaxi `i GB Kvei KweZvwjZ hb GK `kgvb cwimii
hvwcZ mgq I mgqnxbZvi GK GKwU cv| Ze Zvi Ai gvjvi Zvrch Dvi ga Ljv Ki| AZxZ I fwelZi h icK wKe wbgvY Kib mwjK hb
h_B Avqvm mva| mvwnZ ZvwK ivjuv evZ mvwnZK Lisible ev cvV^fvex Mentally visual Kiv hvq| Zuvey gB I k KweZvQ bvg bvg KweZvwUZB
Ges Scriptible ev jL^fvex GB `ywU kwYZ fvM KiwQjb| myaxi `i GB Kwe wjLQb - mgq I Zvi cmiY hLb Avgvi gw K` cvMjv NwU
KveMi KweZvwj coZ coZ gb nq mBwj Scriptible ev jL^fvex evRvq/my`~i AZxZ I fwelr wUq Avm GK we`yZ ... GLvb mgqK
kwYiB AMZ | GB aiYi cvVKwZi cvV MnY Kvj cvVK wbRK wbwq Dcfvv hb ivevii evi gZv AZxZ I fwelZi `yB giZ Ub ai, cigyn~ZB
evwbq ivLZ cvib bv| cvVvvii bv`wbK cwqvq AskMnY Kib Ges mvwnZi Qo w`q Avevi GKB Aevb wbq GmQb Kwe| mgqi GB mPjZv Avevi Kvb
KrKkj, fvlvi wekl eenvi Zuvi Awfwbeki K`we`y nq IV| Zvim KweZvq Gm _gK `uvwoq MQ| hgb -Gmv, wPrKvi Kwi KweZvq `wL,
AbK ewK cwikg Ki GB RvZxq mvwnZi Zvrch `qg KiZ nq| myaxi Avgiv APj m~h Nwoi bxP AvuK KvUwQ| GB mgq PZbvi m~ aiB A~Z
`i Zuvey gB I kKweZvQi KweZvwjI hb wVK ZvB| `xwZ cvVK GK Avh Awev`x NvY Gm co Zuvi KweZvq| ZvBZv Rj`wP n we gN
eZxZ Gi cKZ imv^v`b Lye GKUv mnR mva bq| mevcwi Plurality of mean- KweZvq Kwe ejb- Zzwg Zv mKjB Rvbv, Kxfve gvbyl/ eyovq AKvj
ing ev AbKv_KZv DivaywbK mvwnZ mRbi h AbZg ewk; ZvK c~Yic Avi WvB Ki, euvavbv `uvZi bxP/ wRf AvMj MvjM Ki|
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157 158
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Zuvi mek bvUK Puv` ewYKi cvjvq (1964) wZwb ki bvMwiK myweavev`i weivax ky wg gb KiZb, wbRi KvQ hv Avkv Kiv hvq bv, Zv
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mvgvRev`i cwiPvqK wnmve cvPxb fviZ `Lv hvq| GB ciiv Avgiv myjZvwb GKwU kvLv| Avgiv BsiwR FolkloreGi cwZev` wnmve jvKmswZ kwUK
I gyNj hyMI `LZ cvB| gyNj mgvU`i m ivRcyZ Kbv weevn mK ejZ evsjvq MnY KiwQ| jvKmswZ nj GKB ic fMvwjK, mvgvwRK, A_bwZK,
cvwi| weLvZ `yB gyNj mgvU Rvnvxi I kvnRvnvb `yRbB wQjb ivRcyZ ivRKbvi HwZnvwmK cwiek wekl wekl RbMvx h AvPvi, AvPiY, RxebPPv, mvwnZ,
MfRvZ mvb| AvaywbK MYZi hyMi cviwiK eevwnK mK ivRbwZK I wk I jwjZ Kjv BZvw`i HwZnvbyyhvqx Abykxjb ^vfvweK cvigZv ARb Ki
mgvRZi wfZK gReyZ KiQ| Zvi AvjvPbv, wePvi, msiY, PPv cfwZB jvKmswZ wevbi AMZ| hgb -
jvKvPvi (Folk Custom), jvKwekvm (Folk Belief), jvK Drme (Folk
Mm~ t Festival), jvKwk (Folk Art), jvKbZ (Folk Dance), jvKag (Folk
1| w`jxc Kzgvi Mvcvavq, fviZ BwZnvmi mvb Avw`ce t c_g L, mvwnZ Religion), jvK msvi (Folk Superstitions), jvKmvwnZ (Folk Lit-
jvK, 2000 erature), jvKmswZ mgM gvbemgvRi AMZ GK GK RbMvxi mvswZK
2| G.Aj.emg, AZxZi Dj fviZ, (cMwmf cvewjkvm, 2005) `cY ej AwfwnZ Kiv hvq|
3| w`jxc Kzgvi Mvcvavq, fviZ BwZnvmi mvb Avw`ce t wZxq L, mvwnZ Folklore is the material that is handed on by tradi-
jvK, 2007 tion, either by word or mouth or by custom and practice.
4| fvi Pvcvavq, fviZi Av_-mvgvwRK I ivxq eev, cvPxb hyM, cMwmf jvKmsw Z h weivU welqK Zvi vb ivRi AMZ KiQ, jvKmvwnZ
cvewjkvm, 2001 ZviB GK HwZnmb I ewPgq c`k|
5| ivwgjv _vcvi, fviZeli BwZnvm, IwiqU, e-vK mvqvb, nvq`vev`, 1980, A_vr jvKmswZi mevcv mgkvjx kvLv jvKmvwnZ| Pwi Ges
(evbyev` Kvv) MVb cKwZ Abymvi jvKmswZ ev Folklore-K `ywU cavb fvM fvM KiZ
cvwi|
K) e wbfi jvKmswZ ev Material Folklore
L) A-e wbfi jvKmsw Z ev Non Material Folk-
lore.
GB `yB fvMi ga c_g fvMi AMZ nj cvlvK cwiQ`, KzwUi
wk, jvK fvh, wewfb kYxi cv ev `Iqvj wP BZvw`| GK K_vq ejZ
Mj ejZ nq jLv evcvii Kvb mvnvh QvovB wekl RbMvxfy gvbyli
Dvebx kw h mKj eK icvwqZ Ki ZvB nj e wbfi jvKmsw Z| Acic
jvKmvwnZ nQ A-e (Non Material Folklore) wefvMi AMZ | GKRb
cvvZ mgvjvPK jvKmvwnZi msv w`Z wMq ejQb - Folk literature
is simply literature transmitted orally. A_vr jvKmvwnZ nj mB
mvwnZ hv mvi gyL mw nq gyL gyLB cmvi jvf Ki| weeZbK ^xKvi Ki Ges
gvbe AwfZvK Avkq Ki RxweZ _vK|
AbKi gZ, jvKmvwnZ AcwikxwjZ ev wbii Mvg RbMvxi mw|

165 166
Gi Mvq jM _vK gvwUi M| ^vfvweKfveB GB mvwnZi Rb nq gvbyli gyL wit and spirit of a nation are discovered by their proverbs.
gyL| DPZi mvwnZ hLvb GK GK wekl ewi wbR^ m` jvKmvwnZ m wbw` fMvwjK Li ga AewZ GKwU `ki cvKwZK cwiwwZi mwVK aviYv
mgM mgvRi m` ic MnxZ I weewPZ nq _vK| cvIqv hvq cev`i ga| Ckvb KvY gN/ So IV RM| cev` wisedom
jvKmvwnZ cev` ev cePb AwZ cvPxbKvj _KB Pj AvmQ| cev`i Gi _K experience Gi g~j AbK ekx| hgb - Muv b Kvbvq / cyKzi b
eqm wbaviY Kiv me bv njI cev` h jvKmvwnZi cvPxb kvLv m welq Kvb cvbvq| e gbxwli aviYv h cev`wj gvbemfZvi Dbli m mB gwLKfve
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GK_v wVK h gvbwmKZvi ev gbbkxjZvi w`K w`q h mKj RvwZ Lye ekx`~i mimZvI Mfxi fve cKvk KiZ mg_| Kgej Rxeb cev`i g~j Lye ekx,
AMmi nZ cviwb Zv`i ga cev`i cPjb bB wKsev _vKjI Zv wbZvB KviY A mgq Avgv`i AbK KvR mgvav KiZ ev K_v ejZ nq|
AwKwrKi| cev` nj my`xN eve Rxebi e cixwZ mZi imgq cKvk| Ze
cev` ev cePb RvwZi my`xN eenvwiK AwfZvi mswZg imvwfew| GwjZ mnR gvbweK ew mg~ni I wbM~p Zi Avfvm cvIqv hvq - Correc-
cev`K ejZ cvwi, cK ePb| Awfavb cev`i GKwU A_ nj t ciivMZ tive and creative step for better life. mvgvwRK, ivRbwZK, ewMZ
evK| ciiv ejZ jvK ciiv DfqKB evSvq| cev` GKw`K w`q hgb wewfb fvebvi cKvk NUvq cev`| evsjvi e cev` bvix Rxebi `ytL e`bv,
cvPxb Zgwb Abw`K w`q AvaywbKI| GwU ew`b ai cPwjZ nq AvmQ, GB mvgvwRK wP mn A_- ivRbwZK, BwZnvmI Qwoq AvQ|
A_ cvPxb Avevi cPwjZ gbvfve cKvk Ki wewfbgyLx ew I mgvR Rxeb e Kvb Kvb cvvZ cwZ gb Kib, cev`i QqwU Y _vKv AvekK|
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gyLB cev`i cPvi I cmvi| jvKwZ nj cev`i evnb| mvaviY eywii e`wkZvi gvUvgywUfve cev`i msv _K Avgiv cev`i wZbwU Yi K_v RvbZ cvwi|
cwiPq cvIqv hvq cev`| Avi mB e`wkZvi cKvk mim I msw| cev` nj hgb - mswZv (Brevity), A_enZv (Sensibility) Ges mimZv (Saltness)|
AvcvZ ZzQ wK ^icMZ Mfxi Dw| mvaviYi m` ZvB mnRhvM| cev`i cev`i mimZvUzKz wbtm`n DcfvM| KLbI KZzK, KLbI evMe`, KLbI
welq ewP Ab^xKvh| bvbv KviY GB cev`i msv wb`k Kiv AZ KwVb| e we`c, KLbI Avevi k-l-PvZzhi mvnvh GB mimZvi mw Kiv nq| hgb -
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imgq msw evKi cPjb `Lv hvq, GwjK cev` ej| cev`i jvKwcqZvi GKwU KviY nj mimZv| hw` el gvNi kl/ ab ivRvi
cev` mwKZ b`kxq Dwi BsiRx Abyev` A proverb is c~Y `k| AbK mgq cev` `vi f~wgKv bq| hgb - msmvi myLi nq igbxi
a short sentence baased on long experience. A_vr ewi ev Y| A_ev bvPZ bv Rvbj DVvb euvKv|
RvwZi my`xN eenvwiK Rxebi AwfZv _K h msw A_P imwfwK wc MVbMZ ici w`K _K cev` wZb aiYi nZ cvi|
evKi Drcw nqQ ZvK ej cev`| cev`i mZ nj `kRb gvbyli AwfZvi K) Ac~YevK ev evKL (Phrase)
mZ| evsjv cev` GB mK ejv nq - `kRb ivwR hLvb, Lv`v ivwR mLvb| L) c~YevK (Sentence)
Wt mykxj Kzgvi ` Zuvi evsjv cev` msMni f~wgKvq Dj-L KiQb, cev` M) GKvwaK evK
GKRbi mnReywZ mnmv cwZdwjZ nBjI Bnv eRbi myjf eywi Dcvq I c_g aiYi cev`i D`vniY f wN Xvjv, Av`vq KuvPKjvq BZvw`|
wc cqvMi A| cev` mK divmx wkvwe``i ge Proverbs wZxq aiYi cev`i D`vniY cii KvR Kvgvi e A_ev gvNi kxZ
are crystalizedd forms of human experience and as human evNi Mvq|
experience gives no definite solution aany problem, prov- ZZxq aiYi cev`i D`vniY nj Agvemvi gv_v fvix/ c~wYgvi jR fvix|
erbs can not do so other. A_ev AwZ eo NiYx bv cvq Ni / AwZ eo my`ix bv cvq ei|
cvvZ `vkwbK eKb cev` mK ge KiQb The genious cev`i `yB ic K) GKwU M`cev` I L) AbwU c`cev`|
167 168
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Zviv khexhi AwaKvix wQj| gahyM Zviv mg ivRv`i mbic `kivi
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Zv`i cwZekx Zdwkjxfy RvwZi ga mB cwigvY cvIqv hvq bv| myZivs GBiKg 2| evsjv jvKmvwnZ PPvi BwZnvm - Wt eiY Kzgvi PeZx|
e AbMmi RvwZi cvPxb msvii AwZ Abyfe Kiv hvq cev`| wK cvPxb 3| evsjv cev` vb-Kvj-cv - Wt eiY Kzgvi PeZx|
HwZnkvjx`i ga mB cev`i mvb cvIqv hvq bv| 4| evsjv cev` - Wt mykxj Kzgvi `|
Wt AvZvl fvPvhi gZ, h RvwZi fvlv mg Ges cqvM Kkj AwZ 5| evsjv jvKmvwnZ HwZnvwmK Dcv`vb - Wt iex`bv_ kvmgj|
PgrKvi, Zv`i gaB mePq ekx cev` cvIqv hvq Ges mB RvwZi mvswZK
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cvZwnK Rxebi eenvwiK fvlvi ga `LZ cvIqv hvq wcZv, cev`i fveI
Zv eZgvb| GKK_vq cev`i fvlvB bvix`i gyLi fvlv, cev`i Rxeb`kb bvixiB
Rxeb`kb| myZivs gbbkxjZvi AMmi wbii bvix mgvRi gaB wc Ges
h_vh_fve cKvki cqvRb cev`i c_g De nqwQj Ges cieZxZ Gi
welqe cyili ewngyLx Kvhi Kvjg wevi jvf KiQ|
jvKmvwnZi cZKwU Mvbi hfve De NUQ cev`iI De nqQ
mB fveB| hgb x mgvRi ga ciii K_vq Ggb GKwU evK mnmv ei
nq Gj, hv mnR GKwU PgK mw Kij, mB PgrKvwiZi Y GwU ZrYvr
DcwZ Ges mKji gb Mu_ Mj| GfveB gyL gyL mgM mgvR Zv cPwjZ nq
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jvKmvwnZ GKvfve AwkwZ ev AawkwZ Mvg gvbyl ev Z_vKw_Z BZi RbiB
wQj DcfvM welq| ZZvKw_Z wkwZ gvbyl GK `LZb Aevi `wZ| AvR
169 170
gZzqv agxq gZv`k t Av`vjb XvKv, gqgbwmsn Ges dwi`cyi - GB QqwU Rjvq| Awef evsjvq wn`y mgvR
G`i vb wQj wZxq - c_g vb wQj gvwniv| 1901 mvji RbMYbvq bgt``i
I mvswZK HK msLv wQj 18,48,483 Rb| 1931 G Zv nq 20,94,957 Rb| c~e evsjvi gvU
Mvcvj gj I my`xc gj wn`y RbmsLvi Zzjbvq bgt`iv wQj 1901 mvj 17.66%| 1931 G wQj
18.94%| Avi Dwj-wLZ QqwU Rjvq Zviv wQj msLvi| gvU RbmsLvi 75%
fviZi RvZxq Av`vjbi RvZcvZi mgmv GKwU AZ iZcY~ wQj bgt`| ckvi w`K _K Zviv wQj KwlRxex Ges Abvb Drcv`bi mv_
mgmv| RvZxqZvev`x Av`vjbi mgM chvq Ryo `ki HK Mo Zvjvi KvRK hy wK wn`y mgvR Zv`i Kvb ghv`v wQj bv| wkv mw, gw`i cek,
KUKvKxY KiQ GB mgmv| FKe`i cyilmyZ ejv nqQ - evbvnm mvgvwRK Abyvb hvM`vb cfw Zi AwaKvi _K Zviv ewZ wQj| Zviv wQj DPeYi
gyLgvmx`, e ivRbKZ, DKZ`mh`& eks, c`fs `vZvRvqZ A_vr evi AZvPvi I kvlYi wkKvi| GBme KviY mvgvwRK ghv`vi A^lY GB mc`vqi
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Ask fviZ Pj AvmZ _vK| wbwLj fviZ cKvkbx, VvKzibMi Di Pwek ciMYv 2009|
GB mKj Dv gvbyl`i wbqB VvKzi bMii cb NU, cieZx Kvj
`xN mgq ai bgt` Z_v wewfb wbeYi gvbyl GB VvKzi bMi emwZ vcb Ki|
mB mgq VvKzibMi Kvb ij kb wQj bv, ebMuv _K wkqvj`n ch Kqjvi
Bwb ij PjZ| 1952 mvj cg_ib VvKzi cwgei ivRcvj I mncvVx
Kjvmbv_ KvVRyi mnvqZvq VvKzi bMi ijkb vcb Ki| ij kb vwcZ
nevi m m GB iZ e`j hvq| e gvbyli AvMgbi dj GB Aj axi axi
RgRgvU nq IV| 1948 mvj K-qv`kxi w`b GLvb c_g gZzqv gnvgjvi
m~cvZ nq| ZLb _K i Ki eZgvb mgq ch cwZ eQi kx kx nwiPuv` VvKzii
Avwefve wZw_Z VvKzibMii gjv nq AvmQ| 1948 mvj hLvb A wKQy gvbyl
wbq Drmei m~Pbv nqwQj 2016 mvj mLvb f msLv jvwaK nq MQ|
eZgvb mvnevcx GB Abyvb I gjv AbywZ nq|
gZzqv ag Av`vjb evsjvi mvgvwRK mvswZK I ivRbwZK AZ
iZc~Y f~wgKv wbqQ| fviZeli Abvb ivRi gZ evsjvq RvwZf` c_v Lye
ekx KVvi bq wK wewfb `wjZ kYxi gvbyl DPeYi mvgvwRK cvavbK ^xKvi
bv Ki wbR`i ^Z AwZi `vex Zzj aiQ|
gZzqv gjv GB Av`vjbi m hy wewfb wbeYi gvbyli wgjb |
cwgei wewfb Rjv mn cwZekx `k evsjv`kI GB agi h_ cfve
iqQ| GB agi Drcwj Z_v gZzqvagvej^x`i Avw` evmvb evsjv`k| GB
gjvK K` Ki `yB ei ga mcxwZi cwiek Zix nqQ| eZgvb Kvj
ivRbwZK I GB gjv I msMVb b`xqv I Di Pwek ciMYv Rjvi wbeYi
gvbyl`i ga iZc~Y cfve wevi KiQ| cwge ivRbwZK cvjve`ji
GB gZzqv gnvmsN iZc~Y f~wgKv wbqQ| 2011 mvji ci _K evsjvi
ivRbwZK Gu`i geagvb cfve j Kiv hvQ|

mnvqK M t
1. wecvYP`, g`yjv gyLvRx I Avw`Z gyLvRx fviZel ^vaxbZvi ci 1947-
2000 (c_g msiY) Avb` cvewjkvm, KvjKvZv 2006
173 174
nqQ
fviZxq wkvi mvgvwRK mgmv K) Zcwmwj RvwZ (Scheduled Caste)
gaywgZv ` L) Zcwmwj DcRvwZ (Scheduled Tribe)
cieZxKvj AviI wKQy fviZxq MvxK cvrc` Mvx wnmve wPwZ Kiv nqQ,
wkv ewi mvebv I ewZ weKvki cwqv| GB cwqv wk Aev Ges Zv`i ejv nq Abvb AbybZ kYxi gvbyl (Other Backward Class)
_K c~Yeq gvbyl nIqv ch wewfb cwkYi ga w`q wkv_xK mgvR fviZxq mgvReevq wkv I mvgvwRK i myweavfvMi Amvg
`vwqZkxj f~wgKv cvjb KiZ kLvq| GB mvgvwRKxKiY cwqvi ga w`q ew bZzb NUbv bq| cvPxbKvj _K AvaywbK hyM ch wewfb mvgvwRK Dcv`vb GB
mgvRi GKRb bvMwiK nq IV Ges bZzb bZzb mvgvwRK ixwZbxwZ I HwZn Amvg mwZ AbyNUKi KvR KiQ| wkvwe``i fvebvq mvgvwRK mgiKg myweavi
AvZxqKiYi ga w`q GKRb c~Y `vwqZkxj ewZ ic weKwkZ nq| Amvg ev elg _vKjI wkv Gi evcKZv ekx| wkv elg mgvRi
elg Kej Abi Ici cfve LvUvq hvi dj Amvg ev elg `Lv `q| Gi Abvb Amvg `~ixKiY evav mw Ki| cvPxb fviZ GB elg cvavb
ga w`q mvgvwRK gZvMZ cv_K m~wPZ nq| GB gZvMZ cv_Ki wewfb wfw cqwQj eYwfwK kYx wefvMi AcevLvi dj Ges agxq Muvovwgi KzdjZv
AvQ| hgb mwMZ, cwZvwbK KvVvgvMZ, mvswZK g~jevaMZ BZvw`| wnmve| cieZxKvj BmjvwgK kvmb kvmK kwYi AmnhvwMZvq mvaviY gvbyl
h Kvb mgvR AvaywbKKvj wkvK mvgvwRK cwieZbi nvwZqvi wnmve wkvi myhvM _K ewZ nq| wewUk fviZ miKvii Dchy `wfwi Afve,
weePbv Kiv nq| fviZxq wkv Kwgkbi cwZe`b wkvi GB w`KwUi Ici myhvM myweavi msKxYZv, Avw_K mnvqZvi KcYZv Ges mevcwi PuyBq cov
iZ `Iqv nqQ| GB cwZe`b ejv nqQ, fviZxq wkvK Ggbfve msNwUZ bxwZi cqvM wkveevq Amg Aev mwZ mnvqZv KiQ| wewfb mgxv _K
KiZ ne hvZ Zv RvZxq Av`ki DchvMx mvgvwRK, A_bwZK I mvsw ZK cwieZb h Z_ cvIqv hvq Zv _K Rvbv hvq elg AvwjK I kYx wfwZ GLbI
NUvZ mg nq| wK mgvRi mKj ew hw` mgvb myhvM myweav fvM KiZ bv eZgvb| wewfb wkv Kwgkb I KwgwUi mycvwiki wfwZ wkv mKj kYxi
cvi ev mgvRi ga hw` wKQy ew myhvM myweav _K ewZ nq| Ze mvgvwRK RbMYi Rb wekl myhvM myweavi mw Kiv nqQ| wK Zv mI wkvi
cwieZb ev DbwZ me bq| cw_exi wewfb `ki mvgvwRK weeZbi aviv Abykxjb mgmyhvMi mydj cvIqv hvqwb| 1986 mvji RvZxq wkvbxwZZ ejv nqwQj
Kij `Lv hvq| mgvRi GK kwYi gvbyl mgvR AMMwZi g~j aviv _K wewQb mgmyy hvMi bxwZK KvhKix KiZ nj AbMmi kYxi RbMY`i Rb wekl myweavi
nq coQ| GBme ewiv mgvRi g~j `n _K Rxebx kw msMn KiZ cvi mw KiZ ne| ^vaxbZvi cieZx Kvj, miKvix cPv mI wkv GB elg
bv| dj `jMZfve `yej nq co Ges wcwQq co| Zv`iKB ejv nq cvrc` `~i bv Kivi KviY wnmve wkvwe`iv wbwjwLZ fvebvwjK cKvk KiQb-
Mvx ev `yej kwYfy gvbyl| 1. ^vaxbZv jvfi ci fviZxq msweavb wkvK mvaviYfve ivRwji Gwqvify
hnZz wkv GKcKvi mvgvwRK myhvM myweav mnZz wcwQq cov Mvxfy welq wnmve wbavwiZ Kiv nqwQj| IB eevi dj cZKwU ivR miKvii Zvi
ewiv Gi _KI ewZ nq| ZvB GB kYxfy gvbyli wkv AvaywbK wkv eevi wbR^ Avw_K gZv Ges cv_wgKZv Abyhvqx RbMYi Rb wkvi myhvMmyweav mw
GKwU iZc~Y mgmv| cw_exi wewfb mgvR wKQy gvbylK wcwQq cov Mvxfy KiZ mg nqQ| GB bxwZ AbymiY Kivi dj mefviZxq i Amvg eRvq
ejv nq| wK GB RvZxq kYxKiYi Kvb wbw` gvb bB| Ze fviZel wcwQq iqQ, ivR ivR wkvi wewfb Aji ga Ges wewfb kwYi RbMYi
cov Mvxfy gvbyl ejZ A_bwZK w`K _K hviv `yej,wkvMZ w`K _K hviv ga myhvM myweavi I elgi mw nqQ|
AbMmi Ges mvgvwRK cwieZb hviv mwq f~wgKv MnY KiZ cvibv, ZvivB 2. fviZxq mgvRi MZvbyMwZK msvii cfve `ki e msLK gvbyli gb
wcwQq cov kYxfy| GLbI mveRbxb wkv welq gvbwmK w`K _K Abxnv eZgvb| GB msKxY gvbwmKZv
fviZ ewkifvM gvbylB Mixe I wbii, Ze me `wi` I wbii gvbylB AbK RbMYi wkvi myhvM myweav mwi c_ Aivq nq `uvwoqQ| hgb,
wcwQq cov kYxfy bq| hviv mvaviY fviZxq gvbi Zzjbvq AbK ewk Mixe, GLbI Avgv`i `k Mvgvj emevmKvix gvbyl ev wekl kwYfy gvbyl bvix
AbK ewk msLvq wbii Ges AbK ewk cwigvY mvgvwRK w`K _K AenwjZ wkv mK h_ mPZb bq| Avi IB KviY Zviv h_ msLvq gq`i we`vjq
ZvivB wcwQq cov Mvxfy| hvIqvi evcvi Drmvn `Lvb bv| dj Mvgvj I knivj wkvi Rb cyil I
fviZxq msweavb wbwjwLZ `ywU kYxi gvbylK cvrc` Mvxfy ejv bvix`i wkvi myhvM myweavi ga cv_K mw nqQ|
175 176
3. `xNw`bi Aenjvi dj `k e msLK wbii RbMY mw nIqvq Zvi civ iv wekl eev MnY KiZ cvi| Zv`i Rb bIqv H wekl eev mvgi
cfve wkvi myhvM mwi c_ AbK Aivq nq `uvwoqQ| miKvix Aby`vb AwaKvii cwicx ne bv hnZz wekl eevi g~j Dk mgvR mvg cwZv,
hZB _vKzK bv Kb ev miKvi hZB Drmvn `LvK bv Kb, vbxq gvbyli Drmvn elg `~i Kiv| PZz_ Aavq ivcwiPvjbvi wb`kg~jK bxwZmgg~n AvjvPbv KiZ
Qvov Kvbv Aji wkvi myhvM myweav mw Kiv hvq bv| fviZ wewfb Aji wMq 46 bs avivq mgvRi `yej Aski gvbyl`i, weklZ Zdwmwj RvwZ I DcRvwZi
gvbyyli ga mviZvi ZviZgi `iY wkv evcvi vbxq gvbyli ZviZg NU| gvbyl`i wkv msv I A_bwZK ^v_ msibi ck ivK wekl hZevb nZ
ZvB eq RbMbi wbiiZv `k wkvi mgmyhvM mwi c_ AbK Aivq ejv nqQ|
nq `uvwoqQ| mgvR wcwQq cov gvbyl`i Rb wekl wPvfvebvi AviI cgvY cvIqv
4. fviZi wewfb Aji cvKwZK Aevb AbK wkvi h_vh_ myhvM hvq msweavbi lvok Ask| Zdwkwj RvwZ Ges Zdwkwj DcRvwZ`i Rb wekl
myweav mwi Aivq nq `uvwoqQ| GB wekvj `k Ggb AbK Aj AvQ, eev MnxZ nqQ| msweavbi 341 I 366 (24) bs aviv `ywUZ Zdwmwj RvwZ
h mKj vb hvMvhvM eev bB ejjB Pj| dj GB mKj Aji RbMY ejZ wK evSvq Ges 342 I 366 (25) bs avivZ Zdwmwj DcRvwZ ejZ Kv`i
`ki Abvb Aji Zzjbvq Kg mvgvwRK myhvM myweav fvM KiZ eva nq| GB evSvbv ne m K_v ejv nqQ| Dfq B ivcwZ KZK miKvix wewi
KviY `ki ewkifvM Aji Zzjbvq IB mKj Aj wkviI myhvM myweav gvagg Zdwmwj RvwZ I DcRvwZwjK wPwZ Kivi K_v ejv nqQ|
Kg| AbybZ mc`vqwji DbwZK KvhKix eev MnYi j 1953 mvj
5. fviZi gZ wekvj `k cvKwZK m`i Amg eUb _vKv ^vfvweK| Avi GB KvKv mvne dvjjKvi Kwgkb MwVZ nq| 1955 mvj Kwgkb Zvi cwZe`b ck
cvKwZK m`i ewP Abyhvqx, wewfb Aji mvaviY gvbyli ewi ga cv_K Ki| cwZe`b PviwU gvb`i wfwZ fviZi 2399wU eYi Awaevmx`i mvgvwRK
`Lv hvq| h wkveevi ga `k mvaviY gvbylK wkv `Iqv nq Zv eve I wkvMZ w`K _K AbMmi ej wPwZ Kiv nq Ges Zv`i Aevi DbqYi Rb
Aevi cwicwZ mKj Aji gvbylK mgfve mnvqZv KiZ cvi bv| dj miKvix PvKwii msiYi cve Kiv nq| Kwgkb h PviwU gvb`i wfwZ
wekl wekl Aji gvbyl ev wekl wekl ewZ wbqvwRZ gvbyl, GB wkveevi AbMmiZv cwigvc Kivi K_v ej mwj nj K) wn`y mgvR RvZcvZi wfwZ
cmvi Drmvn cKvk Ki bv| GB KviYI `k wkv myhvMi elg `Lv hviv wbi Aevb Ki; L) h mc`vq ev RvZi AwaKvsk gvbyl wkv
hvq| AbMmi; M) miKvix PvKwiZ hv`i msLv AZ Kg Ges N) hv`i ga eemv
6. wekl wekl Dchy wkK-wkwKvi Afvei Rb wkvi myyhvM myweav evwYR hy gvbyli msLv Kg| cwZe`bwU h_ evegyLx bq ej gb Ki
mw Kiv me bv nIqvq `k wkvi elg mw nqQ| hgb eve AwfZv Z`vwbb K`xq miKvi Zv MnY Kiwb| Aek GK wb`ki gvag K`xq miKvi
_K j Kiv MQ, fviZ Zcwkwj DcRvwZ AaywlZ Aj wkvi myhvM myweav ivR miKviwjK wbR wbR ivRi Aev Abyhvqx AbMmi kYxi ZvwjKv cYqb
Kg| KviY, IB kYxfyy bvMwiK`i ga Dchy wkKi Afve AvQ| ZvQvov Kivi AbygwZ `b| Ze H ZvwjKv cYqbi mgq RvZcvZi Pq A_bwZK Aevi
`~ieZx Aji gvbyyl`i ga IB me Aj wkKZv Kivi cwZI Abxnv j Ici AwaK iZ c`vbi K_v ejv nq| Ac`k, wenvi, RivU, Ry I Kvkxi,
Kiv hvq| KYvUK,, Kivjv, gnviv, cvve, Zvwgjbvoy I DZZic`k GB 10wU ivR
7. wevb I chywi AMMwZi hyMI cqvRbxq wkv I cwkYi Afve `ki AbybZ mc`vq wPwZ Kivi Rb wbR wbR Kwgkb wbqvM Ki, wK Zviv cvq
RbMYi GKUv eo Ask mB chywi mvnvh MnY Ag| dj MZvbyMwZK Dcvq mKjB RvZcvZi wfwZB AbMmi mc`vq wjK wPwZ Ki|
Kwl I wk Drcv`bkxjZv cqvRb Abyhvqx ew cvQ| dj A_bwZK AMMwZ msiY eev mI AbybZ mc`vqi gvbyli cKZ DbqY bv nIqvi
_gK coQ| wkv Gi cfve coQ iZifve| KviY msiY eeviB Kvb cqvRb bB ejvUv AmZ| eis msiY eevi
^vaxbZvi cieZxKvj fviZxq msweavbi ZZxq Aavq gwjK wUwj `~i Ki Gi Aceenvi e Ki msiYi cKZ DkK mdj Ki
AwaKvimg~n AvjvPbv cm 15 bs avivq ejv nqQ h ag, eY, RvZcvZ, wj ZzjZ ne| msiYi dj mvgvwRK wefvRb hvZ bv evo, mvgvwRK wef` hvZ
A_ev Rbvbi wfwZ iv bvMwiK`i ga KvbiKg elg Kie bv| wK vqx ic bv cvq, AbMmi kYxi gvbyl hvZ ciwbfikxj nq bv cob m evcvi
cvkvcvwk H GKB avivi 4 bs Dcavivq ejv nqQ h mvgvwRK Ges wkv mZK `w ivLv cqvRb| `LZ ne msiY eev hb vqx ic bv cvq| gb
wcwQq cov kwYi Rb, Zcwkwj RvwZ I Zcwkwj DcRvwZi gvbyli AMMwZi Rb ivLZ ne GUv GKUv AeZxKvjxb mvgwqK eev| mvgvwRK I A_bwZK w`K
177 178
_K AbMmi mc`vqi gvbyl`i DbZ I AbMmi kYxi gvbyl`i mgchvqfy
Kivi RbB GB msiY eev| ejv hvq, mgvR elg `~i Kivi jB GB
evsjvi PUKj Av`vjb I
cqvRbxq Ges cwiKwZ Avqx Amvgi eev| Mjx Rjv 1850-1930
gxbvx nvj`vi
Z_m~ t
1. wkvi mgvR evwbK wfw Wt mvbvjx PeZx|
Dbwesk kZKi wZxqva fviZel wkvqY i njI DcwbewkK
2. mvgvwRK wkv Wt Rq gU, Wt weivRjx Nvl, Wt igv `e, iZv wekvm|
KvVvgvq Zvi MwZ wQj AZ axi| wkvqbi c_g hyM h `ywU wki `Z cmvi
3.wkvi BwZnvm I mvcwZK NUbvcevn Wt Awbi PeZx I gnt wbRvBij
NUwQj Zv nj ewk Avi cvUwk| evsjv`k wekl Ki Mjx b`xi `yB ZxiB
Bmjvg|
cvUKjwj mwbewkZ wQj| fviZeli c_g cvUKjwU Mo DVwQj Mjx RjvZB
4. fviZxq ivRbxwZi weZwKZ welq AiYvf Nvl|
RR AKjvi D`vM hvi bvg wQj wilov Bqvb wgjm& Kvvbx wjwgUW| GB
5. fviZxq kvmbeev I ivRbxwZi iciLv Wt wbgvB cvgvwYK|
wgj cwZvq cuwy R wewbqvM KiwQjb GKRb evOvjx weki evey| GB wgjwU cwZwZ
nq 1855 Lxt| AwKQyw`bi gaB Mjx b`xi `yB Zxi Ryo Mo IV AmsL
cvUKj| 1884-85 mvj gvU 24wU PUKj Mo IV hvi kwgK msLv wQj 51,902
Rb| 1917 mvji ga 76wU PUKj Mo IV hvi kwgK msLv wQj 2,66,038
Rb| 1929 mvji ga fviZel gvU 95wU PUKj Mo IV hvi kwgK msLv
wQj 3,47000 Rb| Gi ga 90wU cvUKjB wQj evsjv`k| evsjv`ki
cvUKjwji cavb K` wQj nvIov, Mjx, KjKvZv I 24 ciMYv Rjvq|
Mjx Rjvi PUKjwji ewkifvMB AewZ wQj kxivgcyi gnKzgvq|
1882 mvji ga Mjx Rjvq gvU 5wU PUKj Mo IV| 1866 Z kxivgcyi
Bwqv RyU wgj, 1873-G Puvc`vbxZ Puvc`vbx RyUwgj, 1888 Z Zjwbcvovq
wfvwiqv wgj I wilovq nwsm wgj Mo IV|1882-83 mvj Mjxi 4wU I
nvIovi 5wU wgj gvU 20,323 Rb kwgK KvR KiZv hvi ga cyil kwgK wQj
10,228 Rb,bvix kwgK wQj 4698 Rb, wk kwgK 1923 Rb| 1888-89 mvj
GB `yB Rjvq gvU PUKj kwgKi msLv wQj 24,525 Rb| 1898 mvji ga
Mjx Rjvq h cuvPwU RyU wgj Mo DVQ Zvi kwgK msLv wQj 17,689 Rb|
1911 mvj Mjx Rjvi gvU 8wU PUKj gvU kwgK msLv wQj 30,375 Rb|
Giga cyil kwgK wQj 21,609 Rb, bvix kwgK 5638 Rb Ges wk kwgK
3128 Rb| 1912 mvji Industrial Statistics _K Rvbv hvq Mjx Rjvi
9wU PUKj cyil kwgKi msLv 41,300 Rb, bvix kwgK 9875 Rb , 14 eQii
Da Qji msLv 16,879 Rb, gqi msLv 7,180 Rb, 14 eQii bxP evjKi
msLv 1054 Rb Ges evwjKvi msLv 308 Rb|

kwgK wbqvM t - PUKjwji gvwjKvbv wQj BDivcxq`i nvZ| GB BDivcxq


gvwjKiv m`vi wbqvM KiZ| Bwqvb RyU wgj Avmvwmqkbi wicvU m`viK

179 180
The lower subordinate ejv nqQ| AbK PUKj m`viiv dvigvb kwgK msMVbi m~Pbv I kwgK Av`vjb (1850-1930) t- JcwbewkK
wnmveI KvR KiZ| kwgK wbqvMi gvwjK m`vi Pzw _vKZ| Avi Gi djB KvVvgvq fviZeli wkvqb nqwQj Avi GB cwigj PUKj kwgK Av`vbKI
PUKj m`vi`i wbqY I KZZ eRvq _vKZ| m`viiv AvoKvwV nq `~ieZx Mvgvj bvbvfve cfvweZ KiQ| GRbB c_gw`K kwgK`i GKvsk wQj AvswkK mgqi
_K kwgK wbq AvmZ| AbK mgq Giv wbRi cwiwPZ Mvg _K wbRi PbvRvbv kwgK| ZvB Zviv msMwVZ kYx wnmve Mo DVZ cviwb| GQvov Mvovi hyM kw gK`i
ez, AvZxqRbKI KviLvbvq wbqvM KiZ| 1921 mvji Av`gmygvix wicvUI KlK myjf gbvfve, ag, eY, Mvxi cfve Zv`i GKwU kwY wnmve Mo DVZ
ejv nq - kwgK wnmve KviLvbvq KvRi Rb m`viiv Mvg _K jvK msMn Ki evav w`qwQj| wK Gme evav mI JcwbewkK KvVvgvq AvaywbK wk weKvki
cvqB Zv`iK m Ki KjKvZvq wbq Avm, GKm ivL Ges hZY bv ch cvq m~Pbv _KB kwgKiv Zv`i kvlY I ebvi wei ^ZtZfve cwZev`
Zv`i Kv_vI eev KiQ ev Avevi evox cvVvQ ZZY ch Zv`i ga kLjv RvwbqQ| KLbI KviLvbvi gvbRvi I mycvifvBRvii AgvbweK AvPiYi wei
Ges wbR^ wbqY eRvq ivL Ges GB m`viiv mvaviYZ wenvi, Dwolv A_ev KviLvbv PZi `vv, nvvgv ev gvbRvi mycvifvBRvi`i `wnK cxobi gvag|
Dic`ki jvK Ges Zv`i wbqvM mxgve _vKQ Zv`iB Mvgi `wi` jvK`i axi axi Zv`i mPZbZv hZ ew cqQ ZLb Zviv wbR`i bvbviKg `vex hgb
ga| GB KviYB evsjvi PUKjwjZ GK GKwU Aji jvK`i cvavb KvRi NUv nvm, gRyix ew, agxq Drme QywU, m`vi I myycvifvBRvii AgvbweK
`Lv w`Z| AbK mgq m`viiv ew Zix Ki kwgK`i fvov w`Z| kwgKiv hZY AvPiYi wei cwZev` Av`vjb msMwVZ KiQ| GgbwK agNU Av`vjbI
ch m`vii AbyMZ _vKZ ZZY ch m`vi`i evmvb _vKZ cviZ| AvbyMZ mvwgj nqQ| Avii GBme cwZev` msNwUZ nqQ ewnivMZ`i KvbiKg nc
bv cj m`viiv aygv evmvb _KB DrLvZ KiZ bv, Zvi wbR^ cfve LvwUq QvovB| GB chvq wkecyi, KuvwKbvov, kvgbMi, NyNywo, KvBf, eivbMi, kvggbMi
KvR _KI QvUvB KiZ| Ze m`vi`i AZvPvii gvv mxgv Qvovj AbKmgqB Mjx, MvWbixP cfwZ PUKjwjZ kwgKiv wewfb `vex Av`vqi Rb agNU
kwgKiv m`vi weivax Av`vjb I agNU mvwgj nZ| Avevi AbKmgq Kvb Kvb msMwVZ Ki| Gi ga Dj-KhvM `ywy U agNU nq eReR PUKj I MvWbixPi
wgj m`viiv kwgK `i`x wnmveI f~wgKv cvjb KiQ| Avevi KLbI KLbI Mjx PUKj| 1895 Lxt 2iv g eReR PUKji cvq 7000 kwgK m`vii
kwgK Av`vjb ev agNUi mgq kwgK`i mv_ nvZ nvZ wgwjq Av`vjb ev kvlYi wei cwZev` Rvwbq KvR e Ki `q| 6 mvn KvR e _vK|
agNU mvwgj nqQ| 1890 ch PUKjwjZ evOvjx kwgKi msLvB wQj ewk Kvvbxi wZi cwigvY `uvovq 80,000 UvKv| ay A_bwZK `vex`vIqv bq, GB
wK beB Gi `kKi ci _K ewnivMZ kwgKi msLv evoZ _vK| GBme ce kwgK`i msnwZevaI j Kivi gZ| mnKgx `i QvUvB ev wbhvZbi cwZev`
kwgKi ewkifvM AvmZ wenvi, Dic`k, Iwokv, gac`k, gv`vR cfwZ Aj ev Ab PUKji agNUx kwgK`i mg_bI Zviv KvR e Ki w`qQ| 1895
_K| c_g w`K PUKjwjZ kwgK`i 15/16 NUv KvR KiZ nZ| h gRyix mvji Avei gvm MvWbixPi Mjx PUKji kw gKiv 2 Rb mnKgx K QvUvBqi
cZ Zv w`q `yejvi Lvevi RyUZ bv| bvix I wk kwgK`i Ici PjZ AK_ cwZev` agNU Ki| 1900 Lxt KuvwKbvov wgj kwgK`i agNUi mg_b Puv`v
AZvPvi, Aeva kvlY I wbhvZb| dvix AvBb _vKjI gvwjKiv Zv gb PjZ msMni Rb KvgvinvwU wgji KqKRb kwgK`iK eiLv Kij cwZev`
bv| Avevi cvc gRyix _K GKvsk m`viK Lykx ivLvi Rb w`Z nZ| kwgK`i kwgKiv wevf `Lvq|
evmvbi AevI wQj kvPbxq| AKvi, fvcmv, A^vKi, Avjv evZvmnxb myZivs ejv hvq h, PUKj cv_wgK chvhi Kvb cwZev` cwZivaB
NycPx Ni Zv`i GKmv_ Mv`vMvw` Ki _vKZ nZ| kwgK`i KvbviKg exgv ev wPvfvebvnxb cwZev` wQj bv| KviY h Kvb cwZev` Rvbvbvi Rb GgbwK GKwU
wZc~iYi eev wQj bv| dvix Kwgkbi wicvU _K Rvbv hvq bvix I wk wgji GKwU wWcvUgUi kwgK`i GKm Rov Ki KZci KvQ `vex ck
kwgK`i kvlYi gvv wQj AeYbxq| KviLvbvi wZb Pvi gvBj `~i _K fvi Kivi Rb I msMVb I cwiKbv cqvRb| ZvB Lye QvU cwimi njI kwgK`i
ivZ bvix I wk kwgKiv nuU KviLvbvq AvmZ| w`bivZevcx KvR Kivbv nZ| ga c_g hyM _KB msMwVZ nIqvi PZbv ev kvlYi wei msMwVZ cwZev`i
Gi dj Zv`i ^v fO coZ, bvix kwgK`i eZb wQj Lye Kg, hw`I Zv`i PZbv Zix nqwQj|
KvRi evSv Kg wQj bv| bvix kwgKiv KvR Kivi mgq Zv`i wk`iI m wbq Mjx RjvZI GB ce AbKwj agNU nq| 1879 -80 Z Mjxi
AvmZ| KviLvbvi A^vKi cwiek _vKvi Rb H mg wk`i AbKB Amy Puvc`vbx wgj wmvj wmdU c_v Pvjyi wei kwgKiv agNU Ki| 1881 Z
nq coZ| kwgK`i Ici GB AgvbweK kvlY Zv`i bwZK RxebK cyivcywi kvgbMi wgj GKRb m`vi I UvBgwKcviK eiLv Kivi cwZev` agNU nq|
asm Ki `q| 1895 Z Puvc`vbx wgj gRyix ewi `vexZ agNU nq|
181 182
wesk kZKi m~Pbvq `kRvov mvgvRev` weivax ^`kx Av`vjbi cviwb| GB mgq RvZxq bZe ` `kxq wkcwZ`i evcvi wQjb GKevi bxie|
cUf~w~ gZ kwgK cwZev`, msNl I agNUi bZzb Rvqvi Avm| GB ce Av`vjbwj ZvQvov kwgK`i ga ivRbwZK mPZbZv I msMvgx gbvfve _vKv mI
wQj ^vaxb, Avevi GB ceB kwgK Av`vjb ewnivMZ A_v r mwq ivRbxwZwe``i RvZxqZvev`x bZe` Zv KvR jvMvZ cvibwb|
Abycek NU| GB c_g RvZxq Av`vjbi mv_ kwgK Av`vjbi GKwU hvMm~ ^`kx Av`vjbi Dvj cei ci kwgK Av`vjb LvwbKUv fuvUv
vwcZ nq| cowQj wVKB, wK Av`vjb GKevi _g _vKwb| kwgKiv wbR^ D`vM
mvweK ivRbwZK RvMiYi cwZ kwgK`i gaI GKaiYi ivRbwZK wewfb `vexZ wekl Ki A_bwZK `vexZ Av`vjb Pvwjq hvq| c_g wekhy
mPZbZv `Lv `q| RvZxq Av`vjbi wKQy wkwZ gawe bZv hgb Awkbx cieZx eQiwjZ kwgK Av`vjb Zxeic aviY KiwQj| hy cieZx A_bwZK
Kzgvi evbvRx, cfvZKzmyg ivqPayix, Ac~e Kzgvi Nvl, cgZvl evm cgyLiv msKU, `eg~jew, gRyix nvm, kwgK QvUvB cfwZ kwgK`i Rxeb h msKU Zix
kwgK`i msMwVZ Kivi D`vM bb| Zv`i mnhvwMZvq AbKwj BDwbqb Mo KiwQj Zvi dj gRyix ew, evbvm, LvivwK BZvw` `vexZ evievi Av`vjb
IV Bwqvb wgj nvm BDwbqb| wk kwgK`i AskMnY RvZxq Av`vjb GK Suvwcq coQ| Zgwb mgKvjxb ivRbwZK RvZxq I AvRvwZK cwiwwZ kwgK
Rx Pwi wbq GmwQj| GB mgq kwgKiv AbK ewk msMwVZ wQj| evsjvi 37wU Av`vjbi ZxeZv ewZ mnvqK nqwQj| 1919 Lxt ivIjvU AvBbi cwZev`
PUKji ga 18wUZB kwgK agNU nq| hw`I GB cei agNUwj nqwQj g~jZ mviv `kevcx h niZvj wevf AbywZ nq ZvZ kwgKivI AskMnY Ki| 10B
A_bwZK `vexK K` Ki; Z_vwc Av`vjbwjZ ivRbwZK cfve GKevi Gwcj MvxwRK Mvii cwZev` h ^ZtZ niZvj cvwjZ nq ZvZI kwgKiv
A^xKvi Kiv hvq bv| 16B Avei 1905 - G efi w`b nvIovi dvU M-vi AskMnY Ki| kwgK`i GB msMvgx gvbwmKZvK j KiB RvZxq Av`vjbi
PUKj evcK Amvl `Lv `q| PUKji evOvjx Kivwbeveyiv gymjgvb kwgK`i bZviv RvZxq Av`vjbK kwkvjx Kivi Rb kwgK`i msMwVZ KiZ GwMq
nvZ ivLx civZ hvq Ges mvPvii e`gvZig& awb `q GZ KZc evav w`Z Avmb| Avi GiB cwicwZ Mo IV 1920 Lxt All Inddia Trade Unionn
Mj msNl ea hvq| KZci Ryjygi cwZev` kwgKiv KvR e Ki `q| GB Congress| Aek mefviZxq i UW BDwbqb Mo IVvi ciI ivRbwZK
cwiewZZ cwiwwZZ kwgK`i Avw_K `vwe`vIqv iZc~Y nq `Lv `q| 7000 bZv`i cfvegy AvcwK A_ ^vaxb kwgK cwZev` I mwqZv AevnZ wQj|
kwgKiv 15 w`bi HwZnvwmK ivRbwZK I A_bwZK msMvg Aekl Rqjvf wLjvdr I AmnhvM Av`vjbi cvcU weki `kKi Mvovi
Ki| KZc kwgK`i mg `vwe`vIqv gb bq| GB wgji wZxq agNUwU nq w`KwjZ kwgK mwqZv I h_ msMvg bZzb gvv cvq| AbK B kwgK`i
1905 Gi 7B wWm^i| gvbRvi divi `yyRb kwgKK e`gvZig& awb `Iqvi ga _KB D`vM DV GmQ| PUKji ZuvZx ev wbvi A_ev QvcvLvbvi
Rb cywjki nvZ Zzj w`j cwZev` kwgKiv `jefve agNU Ki| GB kwgK`i KvwRUvi ev gwmb kwgKiv cwZev` Mo Zvjv ev agNU Pvjvbvi evcvi
nq gvgjv job evwivi Awkbx Kzgvi evbvRx| D`vM wbqQb| KLbI agNU Pvjvbvi Rb cwZev`x kwgK`i ga _KB Avqx
Mjx Rjvi PUKjwjZI ^`kx Av`vjbi cfve `Lv hvq| 1905 adhoc KwgwU MVb Kiv nqQ| 1920-26 Gi ga e PUKj BDwbqb Mo
Gi bf^i wilovi IqwjsUb RyUwgj agNU nq| kxivgcyii Bwqv RyUwgj IV| 1921 G Mo IVv KuvwKbvov jevi BDwbqb, 1925 G Kvwj`vm fUvPvhi
mycvifvBRvii `yeenvii cwZev` GKeQii ga wZbevi agNU nq| (31k D`vM Mo Zvjb fvUcvov jevi BDwbqb| 1925 G wkebv_ evbvRx nvIovq
RyjvB 1906, 17B wWm^i 1906, 29k RyjvB 1907)| 1907 G wilovi Mo Zvjb RyU jevi BDwbqb| 1923 G bnvwUZ cwZwZ nq Mixcyi IqvKvm
IqwjsUb I nwsm wgjI agNU nq| Ggc-qxR Avmvwmqkb| 1925 G cwZwZ nq ej RyU IqvKvm Avmvwmqkb|
GB Av`vjbwji ga ^`kx hyy Mi g~j mvZi RvZxqZvev`x ivRbxwZi cieZxKvj hvi bvg cwieZb Ki ivLv nq PUKj gR`yi BDwbqb|
AbK jYB Z aiv cowQj| GK_v A^xKvi Kiv hvq bv h ^`kx hyM Avevi GB Kzwoi `kKB gvKmev`xiv kwgK I kgRxex`i msMVbi KvR
PUKj kwgKiv Zv`i Av`vjb Amvgvb D`vM I msnwZi cwiPq w`qwQj, Ze wbR`i hy Kib| g~jZ gvKmev`x`i D`vM Mo IV IqvKvm G cRvUm
^`kx hyyM agNUwj g~jZ evOvjx kwgK`i vivB AbywZ nqwQj| PUKj weivU cvwU| GKw`K kvlY I wbcxoY mK kwgK`i AwfZv I PZbv Abw`K
msLK AevOvjx kwgK`i hy Kivi Kvb ivRbwZK cqvm wQj bv| ZvQvov GB KwgDwb`i ZrciZvi NvZ cwZNvZ Kzwoi `kKi kl `yy-wZb eQi kwgK kYxi
cei Av`vjb AbK mgq mc`vqMZ PZbvI AbK mgq KvR KiQ| Ze GB ivRbxwZ I Av`vjb eo iKgi AMMwZ NU| 1928 G `ywU chvq PvBji
mc`vqMZ PZbv wn`y I gymwjg kwgK`i ga Kvb vqx wef` iPbv KiZ jvRjv PUKj AvUgvm ai agNU nq| evDwoqv PUKjI agNU nq| Gw`K miKvi
183 184
kwgK`i ggeagvb msMvgx gbvfve wePwjZ nq kwgK Av`vjbi Ici cuvokx
AvgY PvjvZ i Ki| GKw`K Rbb wbivcv AvBb I wkweiva AvBb Gi gZ
Avw`evmx weevn wewPv
`gbg~jK AvBb cvk Ki AvPgKv kwgK Av`vjbi MvUv ivwWKvj bZZK AavwcKv mvgv gvBwZ
Mvi Kii i Kij gxivU loh gvgjv| 1929 Gi 20k gvP 31 Rb KwgDwb
bZvK Mvi Kiv nj| GB cUf~wgZ i nj PUKj kwgK`i c_g mvaviY m~P~ bv t - weevn nj GK ev GKvwaK cyili mv_ GK ev GKvwaK gwnjvi mgvR^xKZ
agNU 1929 Gi RyjvB AvM gvm| GB agNUi cavb KviY wQj kwgK`i KvRi wgjb| bvbv AvPvi Abyvbi cwicwZ mB ^xKwZ gj| GiB gvag wgwjZ
NUv 54 _K 64 NUv ew Kiv| miKvix weeiY _K Rvbv hvq h, 1929 Gi cyil I xi ga Ges mB wgjbRvZ mvb mwZi ga cviwiK KZe Ges
22k RyjvB _K RMj fvUcvov I KuvwKbvov Aji mg PUKj, 5B AvM AwaKvii Afyw NU|
wkqvj`n I ejNvUv Aj mg PUKj agNU i nq| 13B AvM agNU Qwoq Dr. Waslermarck weLvZ mgvR wevbx weevni msv c`vb KiQb
co Mjx Rjvq| GB agNU bZZ w`Z GwMq Avm ej RyU IqvKv m BDwbqb| Gfve| gvbyl cKwZMZfveB mvgvwRK Rxe| Zvi `bw`b ev cvZwnK Rxebi
hvi mfvcwZ wQjb kwgK`i wcq gvZvRx cfveZx `vk| GQvov wQjb ewg cwZwU c`c bvbv mvgvwRK wbqgKvbyb I ixwZbxwZi ga w`qB cwZcvwjZ nq
gyLvRx, Kvjx mb, Avyj gvwgb, Avyj ivK Luv cgyL| gvwjKci Abvq _vK| cvYx mc`vqfy mgvR cyil I bvixi wgjb GK Acwinvh AgvN mZ, hv
gbvfvei dj agNU `xNvqx nq| agNUi bZvmn e kwgKK Mvi Kiv nq| ewZg mwi avivevwnKZv ivq Kvb c_ bB| gbyl Rxeb Phvq GB wPib
evsjvi mvaviY gvbyl agNUi mg_b GwMq Avmb| 10B AvM AvjevU nj RvMwZK mZwU mgfve KvhKix| wK gvbemgvR cyil-xi wgjb iqQ wekl
KjKvZvi bvMwiK`i GK mfvq agNUi cwZ mg_b Rvbvbv nq Ges Avw_K mvnvhi wekl ^ZZv hvi ga iqQ cf~Z wbqg I e weavb| weevnB GKK fve
Rb Ave`b Rvbvbv nq| `pZvi m GB agNU PjZ _vKvq kl ch miKvi gvbemgvR x cyili ga hb wgjb wbqY Ki _vK| mgvRi GB wekl
gxgvsmvq AvmZ eva nq| AKwgDwb`i kwgK bZv`i GKvski m Bwqvb w`KwUK mv_KZvq chewmZ Kivi RbB eva nq weevni AvMgb I m~Pbv|
RyU gvbydvvwis Avmvwmqkbi KZwj kZmvc gxgvsmv nq| PUKji c_g weevn welq KqKwU g~jK_v t - weevn GB c_vwU gvbe mgvR GK Awfbe
agNU wQj c_g UW BDwbqbi gvag msMwVZ agNU| c_v| mvaviY hb wgjbK AwZg Ki weevn eb x cyili mwwjZ RxebhvvK
vwqZ eiY Ki| weevni bvbv wewa wbqg cieZxKvj cvwievwiK RxebK `pZvq
chewmZ Ki| cwZwU mgvR eevq weevn nj GKwU RwUj mvswZK welq hvi
ga Rxei Rxeb AZvekK hb zavi ckgbi eevi mv_ mv_ ewea
mvgvwRK Kvh Kiv hgb Mniv, wkcvjb, A_bwZK Rxeb cwiPvjbv Ges Abvb
AvbylwK mvswZK cqvRb gUvbvi eev iqQ|
weevn wewa t - weevni `ywU cavb wewa cPwjZ Zv hKvb mgvRiB nvK bv Kb,
G`i GKwUi bvg Aweevn I AciwU nj ewnweevn| Aweevn c_v nj hKvb
cyil weevnKvj wbRMvxfy gwnjvK x wnmve MnY KiZ cvie| hKvb
fviZxq mgvR eevZ cPwjZ I wZxqwU A_vr ewnweevn c_vwU nj Kvb ew
Zvi wbR `ji ga weevn KiZ cvie bv| GQvovI weevn wewaZ Abyjvg I
cwZjvg weevn wewa jbxq| Abyjvg nj hLb DPRvZ I DP esk ghv`vmb
cyil Zvi Acv wb RvwZ I eski gwnjvK x ic MnY Ki| Acic
cwZjvg nj hLb Kvb wbRvZ I eskRvZ cyil Zvi Acv DPRvZ ev eski
gwnjvK xic eiY Ki| cvPxb fviZi cwZjvg weevn eibxq wQj bv hw`I
mgvR Gi cPjb wQj|
weevn wewPv t - cwZwU mgvR weevni bvbvic wbqgKvbyb ixwZbxwZ wfb wfb,
185 186
hv weevn BQyK ewK mswk- mgvRi weavb gb PjZ nq| Zgwb GK mgvR Kvb hyeK hyeZxi AwbQv mI nVvr Ki hw` Kcvj wm`yi gvwLq cvwjq hvq
Avw`evmx mgvR hLvb weevni A~Z ixwZ cwZ AvRI A~Zfve cqvwMK mwU Zvnj Zvi KvQ _K mKj wgj Rwigvbv I .... wbq weevn Abyvb mb Ki| h
jLvwUi ga w`q AvjvPbv nZ PjQ| c_gZ, Avw`evmx Mvx`i ga Pz weevni bvg wm`yi .......|
Avw`evmx`i K_vB AvjvPbv Kiv hvK g~jZ GB Avw`evmx Mvx Ac`k, Iwokv, UvWv t - UvWv`i weevni hvMvhvM QvU eqm _KB nq _vK| gq`i eqm
Zvwgjbvo I KYvUK cfwZ ivRwjZB jbxq| Kvjv ev`vgx _K Mvp eYi mvaviYZ 5-6 eQi njB eevwnK hvMvhvM i nq hvq| UvWv`i mgvR
`nZK, gvSvwi DPZv, KzwZ Pzjwewk GB Avw`evmx`i GK weevn ixwZB cPwjZ| ecvZg~jK weevn eev cPwjZ| KqKfvB wgj GKRb gwnjvK weevn Ki I
weevn cwZ Lye mij I msw| c_g ei Zvi fvex xK GKwU kvwo I e-vDR mKjB gwnjvwUK mvaviY x wnmve MY Ki| Kvb GKfvB weevn Kij mvaviY
Ges kvwoK GKwU e-vDR Dcnvi wnmve c`vb Ki| ZviciB weevn Abyvb i mvgvwRK c_vbyhvqx Zvi x `vc`xi bvq Abme fvB`iI x cwiMwYZ nq| GB
nq I ei eD GKwU gv`yii Dci em I Zv`i ei cvfvM GK mv_ eua `Iqv aiYi weevn xii Ni Kiv wbq Amyweavi mw nq| x wKQyw`b Ai cvjvg
nq| ZLb DcwZ mKj Avkxev` I fQv Rvbvq| Pz`i ga Avevi MvegZ cZK ^vgxi mv_ AwZevwnZ Ki| Ze GB aiYi weevn mvbi Avmj wcZZ
weevn weklfve cPwjZ| hyeK hyeZx cYqve nq weevni AbygwZ Pq e_ nj vcbi wbicY LyeB gykwKj nq `uvovq| GB KviYB j Kiv hvq h ^vgx`i
Mvg Qo cvwjq wMq weevn mb Ki| ci Avevi Zviv evwoI wdi Avm| Ze ga h wcZv nZ BQyK m Zvi xi mvZgvm Mfvevq GK Abyvbi gvag ZxiabyK
Pziv gvgvZv-wcmZzZv fvBevb`i weevn weklfve cQ` Ki| weaev weevn Dcnvi `q| Rji cwiek GKwU Rj c`xci myL GB Zxi abyK Abyvb
G`i mgvR cPwjZ wbqg| mb nq| UvWv`i fvlvq GwU cyilyrcywb| GB Abyvbi ciB H cyil H m
weinvo mc`vq t - weinvo mgvR mvivivZ weevni cv cvxi gv - vbi mvgvwRK wcZv wnmve cwiwPZ nq I `vq`vwqZ cvjb Ki _vK|
evevB m^ mb Ki| mg wKQy K_vevZv Zviv wi Ki| GB weevni bvg nj UvUv t - UvUv`i mgvR g~jZ `yaiYi weevn cPwjZ (1) `vev e AvBqv (2)
..............| GB weevn ........ wekl f~wgKv MnY Ki, weevni w`b GKwU euvki wRwcqv e AvBqv| c_gwU Lye RuvKRgK mnKvi mb njI AbKwj Mi
SzwoZ KbK wbq Avmv nq| mg Uvv Ryo weevn nP i nq| wZbPvi Rb ewj`vb w`q Zv`i gvsm I g` w`q Mvg mKjK AvcvqY Kiv nq I wZxq weevn
gvbyl ZvK eq wbq Avm| eii evoxi DVvb GKwU DuPze`xZ `ywU kvjcvZv cwZZ `y-GKwU Mi wKsev k~Ki ewj `Iqv nq| cvq me weevnB AwffveK`i
cvkvcvwk ivLv nq| Gi GKwUZ Kb c~egyL Ki Ges AciwUZ ei cwg gyL `Lvkvbv Ges cwiPvjbi gaB AbywZ nq|
Ki `uvwoq _vK| `yRb gwnjv GKwU Kvco eiKbi gvSLvb cmvwiZ Ki ai Mviv t - Mviv`i ga KqKwU A~Z aiYi weevn c_v cPwjZ hgb - Kvb
_vK| Gmgq ei I Kb wZbevi ciii w`K Pvj Quy o `q| Gici vb cwieZb GKRb ew Zvi LyoZzZv evbK weevn KiZ cvi Avevi BQv Kij Zvi KvKvi
Ki bq Giv| ci ei I Kbi nvZ igvLv GKL Ki Kvco `Iqv nq Gi weaev xKI weevn KiZ cvi| AbKmgq weaev KvKxgv Zvi fvmyicvK weevn
bvg wmbvB| `yRbB wmbvBwUK gvwUZ k Kwiq Avcb Mxevi Dci ivL| Zvici KiZ bvivR nj KvKxgvK wZc~iY w`Z nq| Kvb cyil GKvwaK x MnYi
ei Kbi Mxev I Kb eii Mxev H eL w`q k Ki| wZbevi GBfve Kivi cvvj Zvi c_gv xi AbygwZ bIqv Acwinvh| mw hvZ nvZQvov bv nq hvq
ci Zviv AvgcvZvi gvjve`j Ki ei Kbi Kcvj wm`yi `vb Ki weevni mRb G`i mgvR bvKib RvgvZv weaev kvoxKI weevn Ki _vK|
cwimgvw NUvq| GQvovI weinvo`i Aviv wewP weevn aiY cwijwZ hgb gyv t - gyv`i fvlvq weevnK ejv nq Avivw`| G`i KvQ weevn nj Kejgv
wbqwgZ weevni gZB wm`yyi `vbi gvag Uvvq cvbfvRbi gvag weevnK ejv bvixcyili wgjb bq `yB cwievii gaI mvgwMK wgjb| Qj`i 18 I gq`i
nq bvg-bv-cvb-Kcvj| KLbv Kvb hyeK hyeZx ciiK fvjvem Mvg Qo 15-16 eQi eqmi weevn mK nq _vK|
cvwjq ^vgx xi gZv wKQyw`b evBi emevm Ki wdi Gj Uvvq mevB GKwZ muvIZvj t - Giv Avevi weevni bvbv aiY wekvmx| hgb -wKwis e evcjv
nq Zv`i weevni ^xKwZ c`vb Kij Zvi bvg D`iv-D`ix Kcvj| Gici iqQ GB weevn NUK cvcvxi mvb w`j AwffveK`i AvjvPbvi ci hvMgvwS
Kvb ... hv wKbv wekl GKRb hyeKK ^vgx ic cvIqvi BQv wbq GKRb hyeZx Kbi evwoZ wMq K_v dj, ci KbK Kvj ewmq GKwU nuvmyjx Dcnvi
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Newyork, 1938.
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Dr. R.M. Sarkar, 1997, Kalimata Press, 19/D.H.23
Gayaleagans,Calcutta - 700006.

Bose N.K. - Cultural Anturopology and other essays, Indian


Associated publishing co. calcutta 1953.
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195 196
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agwbicZvK agnxbZv A_ MnY bv Kivq fviZel ivxq I mvgvwRK i ^Qvq MnY Kie bv| cKZ MYZvwK ivi KZe ne agxq Awekvmi Kej
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weeKi ^vaxbZvi evw my`i~ cmvix ej Gi AvIZvq AviI AbK aiYi ^vaxbZv iv my `~iZ eRvq ivLe| Kejgv hLb Rb^v ev bwZKZv wewNZ nIqvi
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Rvbvbv, agvPiY I agcPvi Kivi AwaKvi| dj weeKi ^vaxbZvi AwaKvi (2) ivi mecKvi c`vwaKvix (gx, wePvicwZ BZvw`) _K i Ki meii
evw cieZx evKei Aevwi ANvZ LwZ nqQ| agevai gwjK Avavi KgPvix ch mKjB AvPvi AvPiY, K_vevZvq, cvlvK-cwiQ`, agwbic
nj ^vbyfe| h c_B GB Abyfe cuQvb hvK bv Kb, ZvZ Acii mv_ msNvZi fveg~wZ eRvq ivLeb| Zuviv mKjB `vwqZfvi MnYi mgq kc_ evK cvV Kieb
Kvbv mebv _vK bv| wK agvPiY AwaKvsk B AvbyvwbK wqvwbfi| HKvwK cZqi m, Ckii `vnvB w`q bq|
ag I agwbicZv GK Acii wecixZ I eix Ges h_v_ agwbic (3) wbevPbx cwqv m~Yfve agxq ev mvc`vwqK wqvKg I wPvfvebv gy
nIqvi Rb agK AMvn Kiv cqvRb GwU AekB GKwU Pigcx Aevb| AwaKvsk ne| agmc`vq wfwK cv_x gbvbqb ewRZ ne|
wPvwe` GB aviYvK mZ ej gb Kib bv| Zuviv ejb h eixfveg~jK nIqvi (4) mecKvi we`vqZbi wkv_x`i ga hywkxj wPvPPvi ceZb NUvZ ne|
197 198
(5) Gmei Rb fviZxq msweavbi cqvRbxq mskvabx NUvZ ne| mecKvi fviZ Qvov Av`vjb I AKvwj `j
PZbv Ges agxq AvPvi AvPiY msvi wekvm ewRZ iv eevi gaB fviZi
fwelr wbwnZ AvQ| myKv cvj
cwikl ck RvM, G aiYi cKZ agwbic iv cwZvi c_
Kvbw`K| G cm gb ivLv cqvRb h g~jZ Av_-mvgvwRK I ivRbwZK fviZ Qvov Av`vjb fviZxq ^vaxbZvi BwZnvm GKwU AZ iZcY~
cwieki cwieZbi ga w`qB gvbyli RvMwZK PZbvq cwieZb Avm| aygv welq| wewUk mvgvRev`x kvmbi cvq klw`K RvZxqZvev`x KsMm `ji cwiPvjbvq
ew gvbyli Z_vKw_Z wPw ev `qi cwieZbi ga w`q PZbi cwieZb mefviZevcx mekl eng Av`vjb wQj GwU| mgM fviZi wewfb c`k, wewfb
my`i~ civnZ| gvbyli ewRxeb Abykxjb I mvabvi cqvRb AvQ| wK Zv gvbylK kYx, wewfb ivRbwZK I AvwjK `j,wewfb agxq mc`vq I msMVb GB
Zvi mgvRK ewk `~i wbq hZ cvi bv| GKgv AbyK~j RvMwZK cwiek wbwgZ Av`vjbi cwZ Zv`i wewfb cwZwqv c`kb KiQb| Avgv`i AvjvP welq
njB gvbeRxeb bePZbvi Dbl Zivw^Z nZ cvi| KvbI iv m^I mK_v fviZi Di cwg cv AewZ cvvei wkL RvwZi agxq msMVb AKvwj`ji
mZ| eZgvbi KjywlZ ivRbwZK MYZi cwieZ RbMYi wbqYvaxb cKZ
f~wgKv GB Av`vjbi cwZ wK iKg wQj Zv `Lvi Ges evSvi Pv Kiv ne GB
MYZ iwPZ bv nj G`k cKZ A_ agwbicZvI cwZwZ nZ cvie bv|
mvgZ I abZi Aemvb Ges `Z Avw_K weKvk I mgeUb bv nj cKZ ce|
gvbeZveva mw nZ cvi bv| mB m Aviv cqvRb evcK MYwkvi gvag AKvwj `ji cvcU t fviZxq ivRbxwZi Ab GB agxq msMVbwU 1920
RbMYi wevbgbZvi `Z weKvk| A_vr cKZ MYZ,evbxK mgvRZ Ges Gi `kK AmnhvM Av`vjbi mgq _K iZc~Y nq IV Ges cZfve
wevbgbZv Mo bv IVv ch G`k cKZ agwbicZvi AvwefveI wejw^Z gymwjg jxM I wn`y gnvmfvi gZvB fviZxq RvZxq ivRbxwZZ wbRK iZc~Y
ne| Ki Zvj| cvvei wkL mc`vqi GKwU wbw` agxq welq i`yqvi
Av`vjbK wNi GB msMVbwUi weeZb nq hv g~jZ AKvwj Av`vjb bvg
Z_m~ t cwiwPZ| cvvex k AKvj _K GB kwU GmQ| Kvj A_ gZz| AKvj
* Kz
y v^ gx, we.(1998), mvkvj P Bb Bwqv, w`j-x: KvbvK cvewjkvm cvBfU gvb gZz nxb| AKvwj gvb gZz nxb GKwU welq| eZgvb GwU GKwU wkL`i ivRbwZK
wjwgUW| `j cwiYZ nqQ| ....The word Akali, a term now appropriated
by members of the dominant sikh political party.1
* kxwbevm,Gg.Gb.(1972), mvkvj P Bb Bwqv, bqvw`j-x: IwiqU jsgvb| wkL agi wZbwU iZc~Y welq nj i, M Ges i`vqviv ev
i`vqvi| GB i`vqvi HwZnMZfve axi axi wkL RvwZi agxq, mvgvwRK,
* AgZ mb, msKUi gyL fviZi agwbicZv, AZxk `vk KZK g~j BsiwR mvswZK Ges ivRbwZK Rxebi K` cwiYZ nq| ibvbK cewZZ GB eev
_K Ab~w`Z, KjKvZv: bvfvj wimvP mUvi, 1405 ev| ZLb _KB Pj AvmwQj| wK ek wKQy gnvwi nvZ co axi axi i`vqvi
Ges wkL agi cweZv b nZ i Ki Ges 1849 mvj cvve wewUk Aaxb
* e`vcvavq, RqvbyR,, (2009), MYZ ag I ivRbxwZ, KjKvZv: wgg&|
Pj hvq| Zvici ewkifvM wkL agvbwj esk ciivq gnviv, miKvii
* `vm, cywjb (2001), agwbicZv I eZgvb fviZ, KjKvZv : mgvRZ gbvbxZ m`miv hfve PvjvZ i Kib ZvZ wkL mc`vq bvbv mvgvwRK `ybx wZi
(Gvmvwmqkb di mvkvj vwWR). ga Wye hZ i Ki| ....most of the sikh shrives had passed
into the control of the hereditary Mohantos and the Govern-
* bZvRx myfvl gy wekwe`vjqi dvDkb Kvm Bb wnDgvwbwUm& Av mvkvj ment nominated managers and custodians and the religious
mvq& Gi cvV msKjb, chvq 5, GKK 22. leaders of the Sikh community had fallen prey to a number
of social evils.2
* Nvl, wngvs (2010) fviZi kvmbeev I ivRbxwZ; KjKvZv wgg& | GB Aev _K wkL mc`vqK DiYi Rb wewfb mvgvwRK msvi
* gnvcv, Abvw`Kzgvi (2011), fviZi kvmbeev I ivRbxwZ, KjKvZv: my`| Av`vjb i nq| GB Av`vjbwji ga wQj wbisKvix Av`vjb, bvgavix

199 200
Av`vjb, wms mfv Av`vjb cfwZ| wesk kZKi c_gw`K AKvwj`ji mvgvwRK GK kwkvjx I cviwiK mnhvwMZvq mK AKvwj `j I KsMmi ga vwcZ
I ivRbwZK Av`vjb D Av`vjbwji wfwf~wg _K DwZ nq Ges axi nq| Gi dj i`yqvi Av`vjbi gZv AvwjK welq mg_b I mnhvwMZv Ki
axi Zv ivRbwZK mPZbZv cv nq RvZxqZvev`x Av`vjbi Askic wPwZ KsMm hgb Zvi msMVb weZZ KiwQj Zgwb AKvwj `jI cvvei RbMY I
nq| RvZxq Av`vjb wewUki wei mvwgj nq RvZxq Av`vjbK kwkvjx I eMeZx
AKvwj `ji ivRbwZK weeZb t AKvwj `ji agxq I ivRbwZK msMvg Ki ZzjwQj|
cyivwnZ, gnv, wkL agvbi wewfb ^v_v^lx`i wei hgb wQj Zgwb Zvi fviZ Qvov Av`vjb cm AKvwj `j t AKvwj `j I cvvei RbMYi
mv_ mv_B GB Av`vjb wewUk mvgvRev`i weiI GK cej Av`vjb wQj| ga h RvZxqZvev`x PZbv Mo DVwQj Zv wK AmnhvM Av`vjb kl nq
The religio -political struggle of the Akali - directed against hvIqvi mv_ mv_ kl nq hvq wb| 1942 mvj fviZ Qvov Av`vjb AKvwj
the priests, Mahantas and other vested interests in the sikh `j Ges cvvei mPZb gvbyli mvgvRev` weivwaZv Ges ZvZ AskMnYI wQj
shrines and consequently against the British imperialism - wekl Zvrchc~Y|
was one of the most powerful movements of modern India.3 fviZ Qvov Av`vjbi wmv hLb bIqv nq ZLb fviZi wewfb
GB cej kwkvjx Av`vjbK KsMm I Mvx fxlYfve RvZxq ivRbwwZK `j I mc`vqwfwK `ji ga bvbvb wav I `Lv w`qwQj|
Av`vjbi KvR jvMvZ PqwQjb| AKvwj Av`vjb cvvei ivRbwZK mPZbZv KwgDwbiv hgb GB mgq fviZ Qvov Av`vjbi wmvi weivwaZv KiwQj,
ewZ hgb iZc~Y f~wgKv wbqwQj Zgwb cvvei RvZxqZvev`KI k Av`vjb m~Y Abxnv `wLqwQj Zgwb gymwjg jxM Ges wn`y gnvmfv I ivxq
KiwQj| GZw`b ch hviv wkL mc`vqi ^NvwlZ bZv wQj, weklZ gnv Ges ^qsmeK msN I weivwaZv Ges wewUkK mnhvwMZv KiwQj| AKvwj `jI wK
f~gvwaKvixiv Zv`i A^xKvi Ki RvZxqZvev`x Av`vjbi wkwZ gawe, ^ZtZfve ev cknxbfve GB wmvK gb wbZ cviwb|
evwivi, DwKj, zj-KjRi wkK, Aemicv mbvwefvMi AvwaKvwiKiv Gi ZeyI AKvwj `ji GKvsk GB Av`vjb AskMnY Ki| fviZ Qvov
bZZ w`Z GwMq Avmb| Zviv AvMi bZv`i gZv wewUki wb`k PjZ Avi Av`vjbK Zxe msMvgi RvqMvq wbq hZ PqwQj| AviK Ask weivwaZv bv
AvMnx wQjb bv| KijI mvgvb AvBb Agvb Av`vjb AskMnY Kivi ga w`q wbR`i
AKvwj `ji GB bZZ i`yqvi Av`vjb _KB DV GmwQjb Ges RvZxqZvev`i ZKgvUv wVKVvK ivLZ PqwQjb| Ab Ask gvvi Zviv wms-Gi
Zviv Mvxi bZZ AmnhvM Av`vjb AskMnYi mv_ `ki ^vaxbZv Av`vjbi bZZvaxb Mvx GB mgq wewUk miKviK c~Y mg_b `Iqvi K_v ejwQjb|
kwiK nqwQjb| AKvwj Av`vjbi mgq _KB AKvwj-KsMm cii mnhvwMZv gvvi Zviv wmsqi eei mv_ fviZxq KwgDwb cvwUi eei AbK wgj Luy R
I wbfiZv i nq Ges `yB `j cii ciii KvQvKvwQ Avm| 1939 mvj cvIqv hvq - fviZ Qvov Av`vjbK mg_b Amg_bi welqK K` Ki|
ch GB cviwiK mnhvwMZv Ges RvZxq Av`vjb AKvwj `ji AskMnY hvBnvK, ZeyI ek wKQy wkL Ges AKvwj bZv GB Av`vjb AskMnY
PjZ _vK| GB AKvwj `ji `yB bZv evev LiK wms Ges Zvici gvvi Kib Ges wewUki KvivMvi wbw nb| Gu`i ga Dj-LhvM ewZ wQjb
Zviv wms Gi Ae`vb h_| It was mainly due to the Akali congress Rji Rjvi jvmviv Mvgi m`vi `yjv wms Gi cy jvf wms mBwb| 1921 mvj
association during the Akali movement that two leaders i`vqvi msvi Av`vjbi mv_ hy nq cob Ges cieZxKvj ivRbxwZi
come closer to each other and that the sikhs become mv_I hy nb Ges 1924 mvj Kvivi nb| fviZ Qvov Av`vjb mwq f~wgKv
inextrically involved in congress activities. Actually, the two Ges bZZ`vbi RbI wZwb wewUki Kvcvbj cob Ges Kvivi nb| 1947
groups among the sikhs the Akali advocates of purely reli- Gi 9B gvP Zvi gZz ch wZwb wkivgwY AKvwj `ji mfvcwZ wQjb| 5
gious reform and others who looked upon gurdwara, re- GQvov vbx igyL wmsI wQjb GKRb wewk AKvwj bZv Ges RvZxq
form only as a part of the larger programme of the countrys Av`vjb AskMnYKvix| Zvi cyiv bvg wQj vbx iggyL wms gymvwdi| wZwb
freedom - remained united till 1939, initially under the lead- cvvei `kg gyLgxI nqwQjb 1966 mvj| Abvb bZv`i gZv wZwbI
ership of Baba Kharak Singh and later that of Master Tara 1920 `kK RvZxq Av`vjbi mv_ hy nb|
Singh.4 wewUk weivax RvZxq Av`vjb AskMnY Kivi Aciva wZwb 1920
201 202
_K 1947 Gi ga AbKeviB KviveiY KiZ eva nb| AvBb Agvb Av`vjb, m~ wb`k t
mZvMn Av`vjb, fviZ Qvov Av`vjbi cZvKvZj mgeZ Kivb Ges fviZ 1. www.Sikh wiki.org./index.pup/Akali.
Qvov Av`vjb bZZ `Iqvi Aciva Rj hZ eva nb| fviZ ^vaxb nevi 2. Mohinder Singh, The Akali Movement, Delhi 2008, P-6.
ci wZwb jvKmfvi m`m nb, KsMm IqvwKs KwgwUi m`m wbevwPZ nb, cvve 3. Ibid, P- 75.
c`k KsMm KwgwUi mfvcwZI nb| GQvov wZwb jvf wms Gi gZvB cvvei 4. Ibid, P- 77.
gyLgxI nb| 1976 G Zvi gZzi ci ZvK giYvi cwef~~lY cyivi fviZ 5. In wikipedia. org/wiki/ Labh - singh - saini.
miKvi ZvK mvwbZ Ki|6 6. In wikipedia. org/wiki/gaini.
fviZi v`kZg cavbgx AvB.K.Rivj I RvZxq Av`vjbi mv_ 7. In wikipedia. org/wiki/ I.K.Gujral.
hy nb Ges fviZ Qvov Av`vjb bZZ `b Ges h_vixwZ wewUki Kvcvbj 8. www. Indianetzone.com > thome > Reference > History
co KviveiY KiZ eva nb|7 of India > Indian Freedom struggle > Quit India Movement.
Avgv`i Dcii AvjvPbv GK_v cgvY Ki bv h, AKvwi `ji mevB
Ges me cvvex RbMYB fviZ Qvov Av`vjbK mg_b KiQ| Avmj fviZ
Qvov Av`vjb AskMnY Kiv wbq AKvwj `ji GK cej wav I RoZv `Lv
`q Ges GB ck AKvwj `j PviwU fvM wef nq co| Gi dj `Lv hvq h,
AKvwj `j GKw`K hgb RvZxq KsMmK mg_b KiQ Zgwb Abw`K wewUk
miKviKI mnhvwMZv KiQ| GB `vjvPj _K gywi Rb AKvwj `j GKwU
mjb Avnvb Ki 1942 Gi 26k Ges 27k m^i jvqvicyi Rjvi
fvwnjv Mvg| GB mjb fviZi ^vaxbZvi cB wmv MnxZ nj AbK Avjvc
AvjvPbvi ci| GB wmv hLb AKvwj `ji PviwU Mvxi MvPi Avbv njv ZLb
GK`j PvBj c~Y RvZxqZvev`i c_ nuvUZ, AviK `j PvBj wewUk mbvevwnbxZ
cvvex`i Aevb wVK iL RvZxq Av`vjb AskMnY KiZ, AviK `j PvBj
cvvei miKvii m hy _vKZ| dj mB `vjvPj AevB eRvq iBj| GBfve
`Lv hvq h, RvZxqZvev`x Av`vjb ev fviZ Qvov Av`vjb wkL`i mg_b
wQj memgq wQj `vjvqgvb| So the reaction of the sikhs was much
tilting as they were not certain enough as to which side
would have been more beneficial for them.8
cwikl ejv hvq, wkLRvwZ ev AKvwj `j `yw`KB Zv`i mg_bi nvZ
evwoq w`q GwMqwQj| Kvb GK iwLK wP AKvwj `j evv cvvex`i KvQ _K
fviZ Qvov Av`vjb wQj bv| ZeyI GK_v wbtm`n ejv hvq h, AKvwj `j h
agxq, mvswZK I mvgvwRK Av`vjb i KiwQj 1925 mvji ci wkivgwY
AKvwj `ji Av`vjbK RvZxq ivRbxwZi g~jmvZi mv_ hy Kivi h cPv
PvwjqwQj Zv wedj nqwb| KsMm cvve cieZx Kvj GB `ji nvZ aiB
RvZxq ivRbxwZi wevi NUvZ ciwQj G welq Kvb m`n bB|

203 204
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215 216
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Avmb, .... cyivbv bxie / e`bvi M fvm - b`xi XD-Gi K_v Kzqvkvq dzivq fvlv gvayh gvbyli wPK imi mvb `b| mUvB Zvi kw|
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217 218
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219 220
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ga djQ, ZvB KD Avi bvixi cwZ Aenjv ev AwaKvi nbb-Gi _K weiZ Bengal 1951 - 2011.
_vKZ eva nqQ dj ^vfvweKfveB Zcwkwj kYxi bvix wkvi cmviZv ew 13) Kgj Payix, Di 24 ciMYvi BwZe, gWj cvewjwks nvDm, KjKvZv -
cvQ GgbUv Avkv Kiv hvq| 73, c_g cKvk - 1987|
^vaxbvi ce fviZ miKvi I ivR miKvi Zcwkwj bvix`i wkv 14) Govt. of India, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan : A programme
AMMwZi Rb bvbv cwiKbv, mvsweavwbK avivi cqvM, wewfb Kwgkb, KwgwUi of universal Elementary Education , Ministry of Educa-
MVb NwUqQb| Zv mI Zcwkwj bvix`i wkvi AMMwZ mvlRbK bq| Kbbv tion, New Delhi, MHRD.
wcwQq cov kYxi cwZ mKj m`& gvbwmKZvi eovB Afve `Lv w`qQ| Gic 15) Govt. of India, Mandal Commission, New Delhi, 1980.
cwiwwZZ miKvii Aviv mwq f~wgKv wbZ ne| hvZ Ki cwgei Zcwkwj 16) Kanya Shree Prakalpa, 2013, http://wbkanya
bvixiv AvaywbK wkvq wkwZ nq DVZ cvi| shree.gov.in / kp. Date - 12/10/2015.

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KjKvZv - 700019, gvP 2009|
12) Census report, Growth of Female literacy in West
225 226
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!! y yv# yv# #y x yGy y! !! #wy 13z !v 1940 yr# yy # !y! xhs
h vz yz y h xy yhs % z y yy y vzy
yvy y! xyy y yhy A%[ ! !
xyy y xy! ! y yz ~ yz xy yz yr# yy !
y h A ! ydy z y! ~z y vzy # vzy !
#wy ydy yr# x,y !y # yd x!y y z ~ yy xy y !
~y%! vz!k !% y # ~ !v ~ vzy # yz
!! yd x!y ! y y h$ 1920 # y z y
yr#! != !y ~z x!y !yy !y yy xyA % y % #
yz y y x x ! vzy_ t y! [y xy v
vzj
xyy yy h xhs ! yy y y# x% y # vz! !% vy[y v
[ y y xy # vzy xy ! ! x xyy ! yyy
y yy y y x y y# @ yz y x yz ! yy yy yy
y yy xy x ! y %O#) vz yz yyy% %yyy
A y ! y y % y z xy h ,!# y y y y
yy xyy ! y y y !y y xy ~ %! ! yy ! y
y xyy ,!# x y y y y F yy y
yy r ... y ydy! yz ! !vy! yz y x%!
y xyy y y ! ! y yz yz @ yyy xyzy
yy y ! z # y v #%y z % y y y
y y ! y y! z #%y y z my y ! !
x!y x ! xy vz z y!_ !y!v
~...y xy h , ! y # !! h yy , y!v
xy ,% yy xy y y xyy % y xy y
y y y !%z %! y z xyy y yz !y y!v
x%# y y y h ,!# xy y! xy... )y v !
! y != xy% xyy ! yz y y yr#y y
y! y # yy y y y ~z ! %o ~ yv

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