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ISSN-2277-8780 G

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5 !m# xy! 1423 xQy 2016 &, . G, . , j A,
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9635359025, 9434552238, 9434165623, 9635508115
e-mail : sanjitdhanicha@rediffmail.com
sarmiladas16@rediffmail.com
amiarani@rediffmail.com

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- 1939) efvlv I mvwnZ (1896) Awemsevw`Zfve evsjv mvwnZi mec_g MvgxY MelK `xN Qq eQi ai AKv cwikg Ki Mo Zzjjb - evsjv mvwnZi
mywjwLZ BwZnvmI| cuvPeQii Kwb `xbk P`i m ZLbI iex`bv_i cwiPq BwZnvmi eywbqv`| hv ay evOvwj Z_v fviZxq`i ga bq BDivc evcK mvov
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ivLZ ne `xbkP` mbi efvlv I mvwnZ MwU cKvki AvM mvwnZi Abykxjb `ywU L cKvk Kijb evsjv mvwnZi c_g mv_K BwZK_v; efvlv
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BwZnvm PPv ay evsjv fvlvZ bq, BsiwRZI nqwQj| DrmM KiwQjb| meZ wcyivi ivRv exiP` GB Mi Rb Avw_K mnvqZvI
KiwQjb| Awef e`k Zvi wbR^ mvwnZ mwi BwZK_v `kx - we`kx mKji
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1830 Kvkxcmv` Nvli On Bengali Works and Writes. cKvwkZ evsjvi we` mgvR iYxq mvov dj w`j| Avi cZK msiY ek
1852 ijvj e`vcvavqi evOvjx KweZv welqK ce| wKQy cwieZb eSb I mshvRb Ki efvlv I mvwnZ MwU AviI meRb Mvn
1853 Ckii Av`k kZvxi evsjv mvwnZ (msev` cfvKi cKvwkZ) Ki Zzjjb| wZxq msiY cKvwkZ nq cuvP eQii ga|
1853 we`vmvMii msZ fvlv I msZ mvwnZ kv welqK cve| c_g msiY 14 m^i 1896|
1869 nwigvnb gyLvcvavqi Kwe PwiZ (c_g L) wZxq msiY 14 m^i 1901|
1871 gn`bv_ Pvcvavqi efvlvi BwZnvm(c_g L) c_g msiY MwU cKvkKvj wcyiki exiP` `e egb ZLb gZzkhvq| whwb
1871 ewgP` Pvcvavqi Bengali Literature (Calcutta Re- efvlv I mvwnZ Mi eqfvi enb KiwQjb| ivRv exiP` `e egbi gZz khvq
view-Z cKvwkZ)| MwU ivLv nqwQj| wZwb coZI i KiwQjb wK wZxq msiY cKvwkZ
1873 ivgMwZ bvqiZi evOvjx fvlv I evsjv mvwnZ welqK cve (wkvi nevi AvMB gviv Mjb|
we`vmvMii AbyciYvq cKvwkZ) wZxq msiYi f~wgKvq `xbkP` jLb Zuvi `q we`viK AvwZ|
1877 igkP` `i The Literature of Bengal. c_g msiY _K wZxq msiY h AbK ewk mshvRb NUQ Zv ejvB evj|
1878 ivRbvivqY emyi evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ| wZwb wjLQb
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RvbZ cvwi wkv wefvMi cwiPvjK cW&jvi mvne we`vjqjvi Rb 70 Kwc nb| 20 eQi GB c` wZwb cwZwZ wQjb| 1920 Lxt KjKvZv wekwe`vjq
q KiwQjb| wewUk miKvii KvQ GB e`vbZv cq `xbkP` AbycvwYZ evsjv fvlv I mvwnZ wefvM bvg GKwU bZzb wefvM Lvjv nq| `xbkP` mb wQjb
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Zuvi efvlv I mvwnZ MwU 1896 _K 1941 Lxt ch 7wU msiY nqwQj| `k - we`k `xbkP` t
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g~` Yi c~e cwZcei Wi cevaP` evMPx, Gg.G.wW.wjU. (cvwim) gnvkq ML vwb 1. Mediaeval Vaishnava Literature.
Av`cv cvV Kwiqv GKwU msw cwiwk iPbv KwiqvwQjb, Zvnv Ag msiYi 2. Chaitanya and his companies.
klfvM mshvwRZ Kiv nBqvQ| 3. Folk Literature of Bengal.
4. Bengali Ramanayas.
`xbkP` I iex`bv_ t 5. Glimpses of Bengal.
1896 Lxt hLb `xbkP` efvlv I mvwnZ MwU cKvk 6. Chaitanya and his age.
Kib; ZLbI ch Kwei m cwiPq wQj bv| cuvP eQii QvU `xbkP`i m 7. Bengal prose style.
iex`bv_i c_g cwiPq nq 1901 Lxt| evsjvi evN KjKvZv wekwe`vjqi KYavi 8. Eastern Bengal Ballades.
AvZvl gyLvcvavqi m cwiPqi cuvPeQi AvMB Kwei m cwiPq nq| efvlv 9. History of Bengali Language and Literature.
I mvwnZ MwUi Rb WvKhvM `xbkP`K Awfb`b cvVvb Kwei iex`bv_| 10. Typical selections from old Bengali Literature.
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`xbkP` wMqwQjb kvwwbKZb, Avevi i`e GmwQjb evMevRvii evwoZ| cksmvc~Y mgvjvPbv cKvwkZ nq| 6 b^i MwUi f~wgKv jLb cLvZ divwm
`xbkP` mbi cy AiY mbK kvwwbKZbi Avkg covbvi Rb fwZ cwZ wmjfuv jwf| 1 b^i Mi f~wgKv jLb KgweR wekwe`vjqi AavcK
KwiqwQjb| R.wW. Gvimb| 4 b^i Mi f~wgKv jLb ^qs fviZi mwPe jW RUjv|
iex`bv_, `xbkP`K wcqeily, cxwZfvRbly, ezeily m^vab c evsjv I BsiwRZ bq Eastern Bengal BalladesMwU divwm fvlvZ
jLb| Ze mePq ewk eenvi KiwQjb wcqeily kewU| `xbkP` KweK cKvwkZ nq| cLvZ divwm mvwnwZK ivguv ivujvi evb c~eei cj-xMxwZKvi
kvfvRbly I fwfvRbly m^vab c wjLQb| AvPvh `xbkP` mbi cLvZ divwmZ Abyev` Ki cKvk Kib| 1922 Lxt wc Ad Iqjm& mgvU Ag GWIqvW
ivgvqYx K_v Mi iZc~Y f~wgKv wjLwQjb wekKwe iex`bv_| KjKvZv wekwe`vjq _K `xbkP` mbK wW.wjU. Dcvwa `vb Kib| 1911 Lxt
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25 26
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27 28
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29 30
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31 32
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33 34
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35 36
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37 38
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msMvgi Kvwnbx Dvj nq DVQ| Zviv Rqx nqQ| wK kniZjxi hkv`viv welv` AveMi evSv nq AvQ|
civ nqQ| ^vaxbZvi mgKvji cvi `ywU Dcbvm wP (1947) I ^vaxbZvi
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Avi ^vaxbZvi ^v` gywKvgx RbZvi wei agxq fveveM DrKw`K Pvc wav wP Dcbvmi cUf~wg I c-Ui eveZvUv AwaK iZcY~ | Avevi
KiZ Pvq, wK Zviv Rqx nq| wPjKvVvi mcvB DcbvmI GB evcviUv gyL| 1945 mvj wekhy kl nevi
GKUv welq ek , gvbe mfZvi BwZnvmUvB njv RxebmsMvgi| ci `kevcx Zzgyj wevf `Lv `q| G eQii bf^i gvm AvRv` wn` dRi
hLb gvbyli K_v dvUwb, hLb Zv`i ebRxeb, Bkvivq I bvbv D&rKU k wZbRb bvqKi wePvi I ` nIqvq mgM `k wevf PigvKvi aviY Ki| GB
KvRKvg PvjvZv, Avb RvjvZ hLb kLwb ZLbI Zviv AwZ wUwKq ivLvi wevf g cywjk I mb evwnbxi gaI Qwoq co|5 GB evweK NUbvi
jovB Rvwi iLQ| Zviv KZ jovB KiQ| Avwg ejwQ bv h mUv wQj Struggle icvqY nj wP| GB Dcbvmi NUbvi MwZ AwZ `Z, Pwi msLv AMbb| cLi
for the fittest Kbbv msMvg Ki KiB gvbeRvwZK hvMZvi cwiPq w`Z NUbvi cevn Pwi wgwQji mvZ Aek GKgyLx| gvwbK eRbi `q aZ `kcxwZ
nqQ| gvbe RvwZi ga hviv msMvg Rvwi ivLvi Zi AvZZvM Kij ZvivB Zv I Av`kK wbixY KiQb wbRi Rxebv`ki AvjvK|6
wbwfK, ZvivB hvMZvi gvb` gvbeRvwZi nvZ w`q MQ Zv`i DivwaKvi wPjKvVvi mcvB Dcbvmi evweK NUbv cvUvI wQj RbZvi wez
wnmve| AvR mfRMZi AbK gvbyyl jovB msMvgi K_v bj bvK wmUKvq, wK nq IVvi c h_ AbyKj| 1966 mvji 19 Gwcj kL gywRei ingvbK
gvbemgvRi jovB Zv _g hvqwb| eis Avgiv AvR Aviv KwVb jovBZ co hkvi MdZvi Kiv nq| Rvwgb gyw w`q 23 Gwcj cybivq ZuvK Rvwgb AhvM
MwQ| mB jovB bvbv aiYi mvmi wei, ivbwZK Acwbqgi kvmbi wei, IqviU MdZvi Kiv nq| Zvici _K Zvi wei Dchycwi gvgjv `vqi nZ
39 40
_vK| GK Rj _K AviK Rj vbvwiZ nZ _vKb wZwb| kl ZuvK wbq mvb wbqvwRZ Ki `q| iy bvgUv wbqB c_g cvVKI GKUz weg co
hvIqv nq AvMiZjv loh gvgjvi Avmvgx wnmve XvKv KvUbg|7 m~Y hvq| K`xq Pwi Z_v bvqK Pwi Imgvb wbRI weg co Zgwb Zvi m m
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ISv GB cwiKbvi m hy| Awfhy`i KqKRb AvMiZjvq wMq fviZxq DRbv I AwiiZvi KviY AjxKexY `wMvPi nq, hvK Avgiv w`ev^ci
mbvevwnbxi Awdmvi`ii m Pv m^ AvjvPbv KiwQj|8 GB KviY GB webvmI fveZ cvwi Ggb aiYi exYi cvkvcvwk wekmy`ixi cyiz Dii
gvgjvi bvg `Iqv nq AvMiZjv loh gvgjv| Abvb ivRbwZK bZv ev miKvix cwZfvm Imgvbi hb Zvobv cYvw`Z nqI Avevi w_wZq hvq| mKvjejv ^c
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loh gvgjvi gagwY nq IV Ges ZvK gy Ki Avbvi Rb Rbgbi cwZw`b GiciB iyy Avm Imgvbi KvQ AveyZvjei wjZ wbnZ nevi msev`
wevi NUZ _vK, Avi kL gywReii AvIqvgx wjM `ji cwZ RbMYi AvbyMZI wbq - Imgvb XyK hvq gKeyj nvmbi Ni, mLvb _K ivvq, Kuva jvki LvU,
evoZ _vK| GB cUf~wgZ AvLZvivgvb c-U ev AvLvbfvM ev Kvwnbxi QK cywjki MvwoZ mIqvi|
wbgvY Kib| wPjKvVvi mcvB Dcbvmi `ywU c-U, `ywU c-UB msMvgx RbZvi wfo|
g~j Kvwnbx AvewZZ nQ kL gywReii gyw Av`vjbi wgwQj wgwUs mgveki
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Gi Kvwnbx fvM gvUB mij cKwZi bq| Avevi h myMw_Z ZvI bq| hnZz GB
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A_vr GB Dcbvmi c-UUv RwUj| wgw || wLwRi, wLwRii gv I iingZDj-v || Ryy vb, Ryvbi gv I wLwRi ||
Dcvcb cwZi `wKvY _K `Lj wPjKvVvi mcvB Gi c-U Ryvbi gv I ingZDj-v || wLwRi I AvjvDwb || Ryvbi gv I Kvgiwb ||
cvbvivwgK ev weZZ I wkw_j auvPi AvLvbfvM| cvbvivwgK c-U AbK wLwRi I eRjy|| AvjvDwb I ingZDj-v || AvjvDwb I wmZviv || gKeyj nvmb
Pwii fxo; Pwiiv hZLvwb UvBc - agx ZZLvwb ew^fve wewk bq, Pwi I I Zvi cwievii Abvb m`m|| Imgvb, kIKZ, Avbvqvi, AvjZvd I wmKv`vi
NUbv mK GLvb wKQyUv wkw_j, Rxebi weZZ I wewP eveZvK cwZwew^Z || Ryvb, wLwRi I Imgvb|| XvKvi ivv, wgwQj RbZv, cbi gq`vb, evqZzj
Kivi Awfcvq cvbvivwwgK c-Ui cUf~wg wek` I evcK nq|9 Avevi MVbMZ gveviig gq`vb Ges mgvek||
w`K _K GB DcbvmwU evKvi bq| GB DcbvmwU cvKvi I ngvKvi GB `yqi c-U bs -2 t DcKvwnbx t
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Rxebi UzKiv Qwe, GKwU fve`w I wKQy Pwii mgvnvii mij ^ZtZ Zvi MvRx || Avbvqvi I Avdmvi MvRx|| Avbvqvi I nvmb Avwj dwKi|| Lqevi Avwj
MwZ| Kvb GK cv Rbi Rxeb cwigvi wewP AwfZv Mw_Z G c-Ui wbgv Y|10 I nvmb Avwj dwKi || Avbvqvi, PsUz I Avwje || beRDwb, Kigvwj I
ngvKvi c-U Rxebi weZZ cwZ wbwgZ GK RwUj MVbic| g~j Kvvwnbxi m cPvi evev (Kiv gj)|| Avbvqvi, bv`y I PsUz || Avbvqvii eo PvPv I gRvgvgv
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ngvKvi c-U PgrKvifve web| wPjKvVvi mcvB DcbvmwUZ Kejgv c-U bs 1 ev g~j Kvwnbx
Kvwnbxi g~j Dcv`vb Pwi Ges eZvi webvm| wPjKvVvi _vKjB h_ nZv, c-U bs 2 ev DcKvwnbxi Kvb cqvRb wQj ej gb nq bv|
mcvB Dcbvmi eZv i nq hvq A~Z AvKwKZvi gvoK, Imgvbi g~jKvwnbxi m DcKvwnbxi Kvb mshvM bB| AvQ myZvi gZv GKwU cvq A`k
^cPvwiZvi ga w`q Imgvbi kkei DM DrK nq cvVKK Zxe Kvnj mshvM iLv, m nj AvbvqviK jLv Rvjvj gvvii wPwV| GB wPwVZ Rvjvj
41 42
gvvi ZvK Zv`i Mvgi Aev mK AewnZ KiQ| Zv`i Mvgvj Lye Mi Pq ewk wKQy PqwQj|
Pzwi nQ| Zv`i evwoZ eQi Kvgjv wnmve KvR Ki bv`y civgvwYKi Mi Pzwii GB Dcbvm Imgvbi mgvivj iqQ wLwRi| wLwRii Rxebei
NUbvi Dj-L AvQ, Zvi GRvnvi _vbvq bqwb, eis ciw`b ZvK Kviv hb cvw kkeUvB wQj Vjv LvIqv| dvjy wgwi KvQ Zvi gv hLb wQj ZLbI ZvK Avq
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BZvw` BZvw`| GB wPwV Imgvb co gv| Avbvqvi ZvK coZ w`qwQj| ImgvbK ingZDj-vi dvBdigvm LvUZ nZv| eov nqI m wbt^, KvR Ki wVKB, wKQyB
Mvg hvevi Rb m cve w`qwQj wK m hvqwb| Imgvb gvbwmKfve fxlY Amy _vK bv| ingZDj-vi MviR KvR KiZ m, ivRbxwZ Kivi Rb ZvK miZ nq|
nq coj Kigvwj Zvi mev klv Ki& ingZDj-vi fvM AvjvDwbi MviR KvR i Ki `q| Ryvbi gvqi m
g~jKvwnbx hgb AvKwK i nqQ Imgvbi ^ci Abyfe w`q, 14 weq nevi ciI m Kvb iKg evwofvovUzKz `q| Avevi wLwRii gv Ges Ryvbi
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wLwRi ivRbwZKfve AvKwUf|wgwQj mgveki bvg bj wKsev `Lj m mLvb
Avmj DcKvwnbx m~Y GKwU ^Z Kvwnbx ejj AZzw nq bv| Ze
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Aek wPjKvVvi AveZvI Zvi gbvweKi AbZg KviY| Kvivdzi KviY
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ivby Zv w`qQ, `e`vm gvKv cgi K_v Qo w`jvg| wK Imgvb Zv cwZ vi hKvb cv _K wgwQj eivq, kvbv hvq k-vMvb kvgmynvi i
wbZB mgq cvi Ki `q| GKUz k Avm, Pz^b Pz^b fwiq `Iqvi Dvc e_v hZ `e bv, Rji Zvjv fvOev kL gywRevK Avjev(ct 232)|
BZvw` Iivj Avdqvi ek nZ cviZv, GZ hbZvi Ae`gb RwbZ wevUi KLbv mgvek evqZzj gvKvig, KLbv cb gq`vb| iziU, weZK, c_,
mvebv gyQ hZ| wK Imgvb hfve hbZvi Iivj Avdqvi Ae`wgZ KiQ, wgwQj, Kvidz, wj, gZz , wUqvi Mvm c-wUs-Gi wekl A| GBmme GKm aiv
ZvZ Zvi gbvweKvjb I gbvivMx nevi c h_| Avevi ivbyi fvB iyi cwZ gyykwKj| Avevi wez RbZvi bvbv AvKwUwfwURI GB cm ibxq t gIjvbv
Zvi cg AvQ, m Zvi AvZiwZ| fvmvbxi wgwUs _K ewiq wgwQji jvKRb eagvb nvDmi cvk AvMiZjv
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evwoi gvwjK ZvK iZ `q| `vZjvi fvovU gKeyj nvmbi AbycwwZZ Zvi Avwj ZLb H RRmvneK LuyRwQjv nb nq| (ct 226)||
eov Qj cywjki wjZ wbnZ nj ZvK ingZDj-v iyK w`q WK Avb| GK Imgvbi KPvwiZv, ^cP vwiZv I AjxKexYi cmwj hw` mvRvbv
mB _K gKeyj nvmbi cwievii m`m`i m Zvi GKUv mK I m^i hvq Abvb c-wUswj XvKv co hvq| Kbbv wgwQj wgwUs I mgveki c-wUswj
c_ ck nq| gKeyj nvmb Zvi Kvjvcvbv gq ivbyyK Zvi KvQ cvBfU coZ g~jKvwnbxi mnmvsmwMK Wvqgbmb| hLb c~e cvwKvb kL gywReii Rj gywi
cvVvq wnmve KiB, KjR - UjR Zv IB Imgvb, ivby Zv eyS wbqQB, Zvi m Av`vjb, wgwQj, mgvek PjwQj ZLb AvbvqviivI Zv`i KwgDwb Av`vjbi
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gvqi dvBdigvm LvUZ hvq| bv Imgvb, VuvU w`q l wbZ mvnm cvqwb| m Zvi week weg BZvw`i cwZ GB Dcbvmi ewk ngvKvi c-U wbwgZi cwZK
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43 44
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Aviv wKQy, m fvebvi Kvb Aemi ivLvi cqvRb wQj bv| evsjv Dcbvmi Ryvb mvnvhi Rb cZ nq|
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nvZ coQ Zvi Mvq| ew I mgvRi A^q Ab^q, msNvZ I mshvM ew^ic eivZ cvi bv| GZB m wP weg co MQ h KvvDK m wPbZ cviQ bv|
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Abyl Zvi gv_vq GKwU KweZvi jvBb nq IV Kvidz `vMvbv c_, ivwejv wbRi kkewZ I wZi AbylK wjq dj, - Zvi weg Zvi ivMi
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v Ki| evbi nvvRev GmwQj, Imgvbi Kcvj mI GKUv e-v jvMvq| (ct 284)||
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Imgvbi gvbwmK Aev AviI Lvivc nq| m cvivbqW wkRvdwbqvi w`M Wye Mj|
ivMxZ cwiYZ nq| m wLwRiK k~b SzjZ `L| kIKgZ agK `q| Ryvb Kigvwj Pj Mj h ImgvbK `Lvkvbv KiZv| Avbvqvi GKjv co
45 46
hvq| Imgvbi m Avbvqvi iziU LZ hvq| Imgvbi Rb Lvevi I Ab`i mbv Ki| (ct 304)||
Pv wbq Avbvqvi wPjKvVvq cek Ki| AvjZvd wePwjZ| Ryvb Gm Kx hb GKwU `kev Av`vjb Pjj Kej mB `ki gv kni bMi ev
Bkviv Ki Avi Imgvb Pj hvq Qv`| Szj wLwRiK z -WvBfvi Avvi c-vqvi w`Z Av`vjbi cKwZ, ew I eZv Zzj aij Pj bv| ZvB H ev Av`vjbi
Pvq m| wK bvMvj cvq bv| wLwRiI k Ki bv| Imggvb Ijv PvBZB Ryvb Kvjmxgvq Mvgvji cwiwwZI cvmwK| bPr m~YZ v Avm bv| ZvB wPjKvVvi
w`q `q| Imgvb Quyo `q h`yUv| wLwRi aiZ cvi bv| zy - WvBfviUv co mcvB Dcbvm Avbvqvi`i Mvg I Abvb msjM Mvg I Zvi Awaevmx`i
Qv`i KvY| Avi c-vqvi co hvq wbP| wbP wMq Ryvb mwU LuR
y Z _vK| `ovZ RxebRxweKvi Qwe Zzj aiv nqQ|
`ovZ Imgvb nuvwcq hvq, acvm Ki Qv` em co| Avbvqvi wMq Kuva nvZ knii Zzjbvq Mvgi wbwe wKsev evZ RbZvi Aev AbKLvwbB Lvivc
w`ZB myeva evjKi gZv Zvi m Pj hvq| Imgvb IK weQvbvq ewmq `q| GB nq _vK| Kbbv Zzjbvg~jKfve Mvg mvgZvwK Pvc ewk _vK,Avi _vK bvbv
NUbvq Imgvbi gbvRMr Aviv cwiewZZ nq| Avbvqvi Avi AvjZvd Zvi AcwiwPZ| eg~j msvi I AjwKK avb aviYv, hv mvgZvwK kwK mg_b Ki| eivMx
Zviv `yRb Kbj| m gy nZ Pvq| A_vr m ej AvMWyyg evMWyg Bb Lvjv wfUv Ggb GKwU ekeZx aviYvi welq|
gvV| wK e KcvU| m Avew Ki `yBRb Kbj GKLvbv LvU, e KcvU Lqevi MvRx Mvgi gvZei, Zvi K_vZB mKj IV em| WvKvZ gviv
Bqm e KcvU| m evBi eivZ Pvq| wLwRii m wgjZ Pvq| Pi Zvi wekvj eo Mii ev_vb nvmb Avwj dwKii Aaxb AvQ| m Zvi VKevwRi
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ZvK evwoZ `e ejwQj ej gb Ki| Avmj m evwoZ hZ Pvq wKbv Zv m Gb Rgv Ki H ev_vb| beRDwb, Kiv gj (cPvi evc), Kigvwj, bv`y
RvbZ PqwQj| civgvwbK`i Mi ej` Pzwi nq hvq| G aiYi Pzwi mKj Mvg PjZ _vKvq Mwie
gvbyliv Zv`i Pvli KvhgZv nvivq, mKj w nq IV|
me wKQy wVKVvK e| Avbvqvii Lye Nygy cvq| m Af wb`vq AvQb nq|
Avbvqvi XvKv _K Zv`i Mvg Avm KwgDwb cvwUi msMVb Kiv hvq
Zvi cvqi avvq Imgvb RM IV| wLwRi ImgvbK Zvov `q evwoZ hvevi
wKbvv Zvi Rb| bv`y civgvwbKi Qj PsUz KwgDwb Av`vjb bZv Avwjei
Rb| Imgvbi cQve cvq| jyyw Zzj i Ki m, cvBc w`q cvwY Xvjvi gZv
AbyMvgx| Zviv Mvg Mvg wbcxwoZ gvbylK msMwVZ Ki Lqevi MvRx, Avdmvi MvRx,
Nywiq Nywiq Nii gai me wKQyi Dci cQve Ki wfwRq `q, evwK hUzKz wQj
nvmb Avwj dwKi`i wei PsUz Avwjeiv nvmb Avwj dwKiK cywoq gvi|
mUzKz w`q wfwRq `q Dcyi nq kvqv mwUi(Avbvqvii) bv`ymby`ym cvQvLvwb|
Rvjvj gvvi Lqevi MvRxi m AvbvqviK cwiPq Kwiq `q `yRbB
wK Avbvqvii GZI Nyg fvOwb| Imgvb evwjki Zjv _K PvweMvQv wbq bq| `yRbK gvc|
`iRvi Zvjv Lyj dj| wKy ewiq hvevi KcvU LyjZ cvi bv| Aekl Rvov eivMx wfUv MY Av`vjZ eme| PsUz IB wfUvi Ici cmvwiZ eUMvQi
cvqi jvw_Z Imgvb KcvU Lyj dj| Imgvbi GB me ZrciZv Avbvqvii Wvj Szwo BZvw` cwivi Ki AbKB gb Ki GBRb Zvi Dci wRb wZKi
Kvb wbqB avv w`wQj| wK m ZLb Avg~j Nyg we| (ct 301)|| cfve coe|
KcvU Rvov cvqi jvw_Z KcvU LyjZ wMq MwZ mw nq,dj Imgvb eivMx wfUvq MYAv`vjZ em| Lqevii gZz` NvwlZ nq| Avdmvii
wMq co ivvi Dci wPrcUvs nq| wLwRii agK Imgvb jvd w`q IV| Imgvb me mw RbMYi ga eU `evi wmv nq| PsUy avivjv KzVvi wbq Zix,
cv evovq| ivvi RbmvZ fm m PjQ Rbmb ivWi gvnbvq| m wLwRii Av`k cjB m Lvjvm ne| Rvjvj gvvi Avi Avbvqvii Abyiva Lqevi
m cvj-v w`q cvi bv| m ej, Avnb! ...Gz Rjw` Kib Imgvb mve! GB ch Ryvi bvgvR coevi Rb ek mgq cq hvq| Avi mB duvK w`q Lqevi cvwjq
Imgvb gvbwmK wegi AveM Pj| Gici g~j Kvwnbx Avevi euvK bq| hvq| Aek GB KvR AvIqvbx jxMi Qv msMVb kqvj eyw LvwUq cvnvivi
wfvwiqv cvK Gm `yPi `Iqvi ci Imgvbi m wLwRii mshvM iYfvM AvjMv Ki `q|
KU hvq| ZvK Gevi GKvB c_ LuyR wbZ ne| eywoMv cvi nZ cvij ZvK kl gywRei ingvb gyw cvIqvi dj AvIqvbx jxM AvBqyecx MYZx`i `j
VKvq K? bIqv i Ki| mUv kni i nqQ AvM, ci MvgI i nq| myhvMi
GLb Avi cvmb bB, bB weg| RjRv GKUv kixi wbq Imgvbi menvi Ki Avdmvi MvRx| PsUzK jvK w`q gi `q| Avwje wdi Avm bv|
nuvUv Qvov Zv MwZ bB| Aekl Imgvb m~Y bZzb gvv cvq| m nq IV GK m aiv co Lybi gvgjvq| Avdmvi evRxi AvqvRb eivMx wfUvq AvIqvbx jxMi
cwiewZZ bZzb eZvi cZxK| Kviv mva bB h ZvK mB Imgvb MwZ ej mfv Pj| AvIqvbx jxMi Wvbvi Zjvq mvgcx cfyiv VuvB bq| Av`vjbi Zvov
47 48
kni I Mvg Kg hvq| Zviv kL gywReii evYx DZ Ki| GB Kqw`b Kvidz
w`qI Avb bfvbv hvqwb| AvR GZv gvbyl ewiq Gjv kvjvi Avb GKevi cvPxb fviZi wkv eevi
wbf fvjv? (ct 259)|| nuv wbf Mj Zv| bZviv Rj XvjZ i Ki me weeZbi wewfb w`K
RvZxqZvev`x eZvq fvBme, ... eez kL gywRei ingvbK Avgiv cwg
cvwKvbx`i nvZ _K gy Ki GbwQ| GB Kve, GBme `vjvbKvVv - me GLb Wt kwgjv `vm
Avgv`i mw| ... Gmei wZ mvab Kiv gvb wbR`i evwoZ Avb jvMvbv| xy!y !%y# # x ~v%
(ct 260)|| Avevi Mvg Mvg eivMx wfUvi RbmfvZI cvq GB K_viB iYb kvbv
hvq| fvBme, AbK msMvg, ZvM I wZwZvi dj Avgv`i Av`vjb AvR mvaviYfve aiv nq cvPxb fviZi BwZnvmi m~Pbv NU Avh AvgY Gi mgq
mvdji vi cv| evOvjxi RvZxq bZv eez kL gywRei ingvbK evsjvi _K|1 Avhiv fviZ Avmvi ci _K fviZ wjwLZ Dcv`vbi cvPzh j Kiv
gvbyl AvR cwgv`i KvivMvi _K gy Ki GbQ| ... Avgiv hw` wbR`i ga hvq, Zvi Dci wfw KiB fviZi cvPxb BwZnvmi mgqKvjK g~jZ `ywU fvM fvM
nvbvnvwb Kwi| evOvjx nq evOvjx evwo RvjvB, GK nZv Ki, Ii dmj KU Kiv hvq, h_v - c_g chvq A_vr 2000 Lxt c~e _K 200 Lxt c~e Ges wZxq
wbR`i ga f`vf` mw Kwi Zvi myhvM be Kviv ? A_vr GBme bZv gvbylK chvq A_vr 200 Lxt c~e _K Lxxq mg kZvx ch|2 GB chvq `ywU wefvwRZ
Zv`i eni gywi Av`vjbi c_ hZ wbla Ki Ges hviv Avb cvwL Zv`i nqQ g~jZ agi wfwZ| evY ag Ges cieZxKvj e ag cvPxb fviZ
Av`vjb bvbv fve wbwfq `q| cvavb wevi KiwQj| ag ay hyM wefvRbB bq, Mfxi cfve djwQj gvbyli
AvLZvivgvb Bwjqvm 1967 _K 1969 ch, kL gywReii gyw RxebPhvq Ges mgKvjxb wkv eevq| Avh mfZvq mgvR Rxeb AbZg wQj
jvf ch, c~e cvwKvbi ivRbwZK cvcU webvm KiZ wMq kni I Mvgi RvwZ eev| Y I Kgi wfwZ mgvR mw nqwQj evY, wq, ek I `
Dfq i mvgwMKZvi bvbv w`K Qwei gZv Zzj aiQb| GB KvRwU KiZ wMq GB PviwU eYi| GB eY eevi GKwU A wQj PZzivkg eev| GB eev Abymvi
wZwb Zvi wPjKvVvi mcvB Dcbvm g~j Kvwnbx I DcKvwnbx ev mnKvwnbxi gvbyli RxebK PviwU chvq wef Kiv nqQ| GB PviwU chvqi c_gwU nj
ga mgvivj mK vcb KiQb Ges Zv njv evOvjx RvZxqZvev`x aviYvi ePhvkg A_vr wkv jvfi mgqKvj| Gici wQj Mvn , evbc I mbvm Rxeb|
bkv aivbvi AveMmRb| Aek jLK GUv Pvbwb| wZwb Zv ImgvbK bZzb c_ ePhvkgi Dj-L cvIqv hvq FK - ew`K hyM _K|3 ePhvkgi c_g wZbwU
PvwjZ KiQb| Imgvb I Avbvqvii Awfbe hyyMj Pwi we^ gawe kwYi eYi gvbyl wkv jvfi myhvM cZ, wK cieZx ew`K hyM axi axi mgvR
wbgvn I KVvi mgvjvPbv Kivi ciI wK jLK mB kwYi gaI bZzb `vM RwUjZv ew cvIqvq evY Qvov Abvb RvwZi AwaKvi mzwPZ nq| ii Avkg
Luy R cvb; wbeMxq wLwRi I PsUzi va I `vn, Zv`i mgqnxb ec-weK
cvKwZK - kv cwiek, wkv_xK ePhvkg cvjb KiZ nZ| i I Zuvi cZx
Awfhvvq cwiewZZ gawe kwYi mse`bkxj Aski GKw`b kvwgj nIqvi mvebv
wQjb wkv_xi wcZvgvZv ^ic, i ev wkKi m wkv_xi mK wQj wcZv I
`Lb AvLZvivgvb Bwjqvm|13
mvbi bvq| Dcbqb Abyvbi ga w`q wkv Avi nZ, evY, wq I ek
^vgx weeKvb` Zuvi ` RvMiY ce h ` aviYv w`qQb,. g~jMZfve
cwievii Qjiv c_g w`K Dcbqbi AwaKvi cZb, gq`iI cyivKvj
Zvi ga kwYMZ eZv bB, AvQ mgwMZ Awfew; weMZ w`KwUI bB,
Dcbqb nZ ej wZkvKvi hg I nvixZ ge KiQb| Ze evYvw` M
AvQ PZzeYMZ Aevbg| iex`bv_ Zuvi Kvji hvv ev i_i iwk bvUK h
``i wb`k KiQb, Zv g~jZ mgvRi wcwQq cov ev wcwQq ivLv gvbyli KZ Zi GaiYi Kvb Dj-L cvIqv hvq bv|4 evY wkv eevq mZ vb jvf I AvZvi
K_v ejQb| Avi AvLZvivgvb Bwjqvm ejjb wcZcwiPqnxb wcwP`i K_v, gywi DciB mevwaK iZ `Iqv nZ, GB wkv eev wkv_xi ew^vZZvi
Mwie gvbyljvi K_v mnvbyf~wZkxj gawei GKwU Aski kvwgj nevi K_v| Dci cwZwZ wQj|
wewUk kvmbvaxb mgM fviZevmxKB Zv weeKvb` ` ej AwfwnZ ePhvkg wkv_x - wkKi KvQ _K wewfb vb jvf KiZb,
KiQb, mgM fviZevmxi RvMiYI NUwQj, ZvB Zviv AvR ^vaxb, wK fviZxq`i cieZxKvj AviI `yB aiYi wkvcwZvbi AwZi K_v Rvbv hvq (1) weZK
kvmbvaxb h mg fviZevmx AenwjZ cvevmx cvq ew ^vaxbZvnxb nq coQ, mfv ev cwil` - hvi AbZg iZc~Y mw nj Dcwbl`| AbK hv Zvi evBi,
Zv`iI GKw`b RvMiY NUe| Avi AvLZvivgvbI Avkv Kib h mnvqK kwi wfZi gvbe RvwZ GK I GKvZ, GB g~j fvei Dci Dcwbl` iwPZ| (2) cwZ`i
mnhvM wbeMxq`i GKw`b DZb NUe| mgvek mfv, AbK mgq ivRviv GB aiYi mfv Avnvb KiZb|5 Ze evY
49 50
wkv eevq cieZx ew`K hyM _K wewfb eYi gvbyli Kgi Dci iZ Rb Aby`vb c`vb KiZ, ay ivRv ev iv bq mgvRi wewfb abx ew ev
Avivc Ki RvwZMZ wef`K axi axi cKwUZ Kiv nq, dj ew`K wkv RvwZ DPivRKgPvix wkv eevi ccvlK wQjb| ag ev wkvi Rb wbi Rwg (AMnvi)
eevi Dci wbfikxj nIqvq, evY`i cvavbB cwZwZ nq| ev Mvg `vbi e wb`kb cvPxb fviZ cvIqv hvq|7 Ze GB Rwg `vbi ceYZv
AvavwZK I cvw_e RMr viv GB mgq gvbyli Rxeb AvewZZ nZ| wkvi hyMB mePq ekx j Kiv hvq|
viv gvbyl GB `yB RMZ Zvi AwZ eRvq ivLvi Rb DchvMx nq DVZ Pv cvPxb fviZ wkv eevi c_g chvq A_vr 2000 Lxt c~e _K
KiZb| Gi m iZ cZ wkv_xi Pwi MVb| evY wkvi j wQj g~jZ 200 Lxt c~e gaeZx mgq AvavwZK welq wekl iZ cvIqvi KviY GB mgq
wZbwU - mZ - vb AvniY, mvgvwRK KZe I agxq AvPvi - AvPiY cvjb wkvjvf wkv eevi Afy nqwQj hvM - h, wewfb agxq AvPvi Abyvb wkv Ges
Ges GB mei Da Pwi MVb| GB j cuQvbvi Rb civwe`v I Acivwe`vK KQmvabv| GB mgq gv ev gyw jvfB wQj Pzov j| mgq cwieZbi m m
evY wkvi Afy Kiv nq| gyKv cwbl` Awiv ejQb, FK, mvg, hRyi, ewMZ mwi De, ckvwfwK Rxebi RwUjZv ew, ivbwZK PZbv BZvw`
A_e e`, wkv, K, evKiY, wbi,Q` I RvwZl Ges GB aiYi mKj wKQyB gvbylK evegyLx Ki Zvj Ges Lxt c~e wZxq kZKi c~e _KB gk evY
nj Acivwe`vi Afy, civwe`v nj aygv cig cyil jvfi nZz|6 aygv agi cfve KgZ _vKvq AvavwZK wkvi cvkvcvwk iZ cvq evegyLx Ges
cyil wkv_xivB bq,gwnjvivI ew`K mvwnZ cVb cvVb KiZb, GgbwK e we`~lx nvZKjg wkv| weewZZ mgq cvPxb fviZ mvwnZ , evKiY, ivZ, `kb,
gwnjv ew`K mvwnZ iPbv KiQb Ggb cgvY e Dcv`vb _K cvIqv hvq, ZKkv, KvwiMix Ges wevbwfwK welq hgb - wPwKrmvkv, mvgwiKkv, Mn
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cgyL| wK cieZx ew`K hyM _K bvix`i ^vaxbZv axi axi mzwPZ nq, Zv`i weklfve cmvi jvf Ki hv fviZi evBi _K AvMZ we`kx`i KvQ g~jZ
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kl ce cvwicvwkK Aevi Pvc evY ag Zvi iZ nvivq, g~jZ `ywU cwZev`x mgvR wPwKrmK`i Akvi welqwU kZ c_ evYi eYbv _K evSv hvq|9 Ze
ag e I Rb ag evY ag cvavb nvm Ki| GB `yB ag ay mgvR A_bxwZZ cieZxKvj wPwKrmK`i iZ wPwKrmvkvi RbwcqZvi mv_ mv_ ew cqwQj|
bq mgKvjxb wkv eevi DciI cfve wevi KiwQj| e I Rb agi ga RxeKi M _K cvPxb fviZi wevb mK Rvbvhvq| RxeK wbR Zkxjvq
e agi cfveB wQj wkvi Dci h_ ekx I my`~icmvix| e wkv eevq mvZeQi wPwKrmvkv AaqY KiwQjb|10
iMni Kvb AwZ wQj bv, GLvb wkv `Iqv nZ e msN I wenvi| GLvb Zkxjv fviZi cvPxbZg wekwe`vjqic LvwZ ARb KiwQj| Kw_Z
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wkvi Kvb mv`k wQj bv GK_v ejv hvq bv Ze emv`ki cwigvY wQj h_ cvPxb Mvvii ivRavbx Aj Mo DVwQj| wkv cwZvbic Zkxjv Lxtc~e
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Dci evY`i GKQ cvavb LwZ nq Ges e wkv eev AbKvsk MYZvwK cwZvbi hvM wkK`i Dci wbfikxj wQj| cmbwRr, RxeK, cvwbYx Ges
wfwi Dci Mo IV| GLvb hvMZvB wQj wkvi cavb gvcKvwV, RvwZ ev eY bq| KwUj Giv mKjB wQjb Zkxjvi Qv|11 GB cwZvb evY I ewkv
Ze c_g w`K gq`i Rb Kvb eevB e wkv cwZvbwjZ wQj bv| GKB m iZ cqwQj| igkP` ` GB cm ejQb, e aggZ fviZi
cvPxb fviZ wkv eev cwiPvjbvq ivi Zgb Kvb f~wgKv wQj bv| cPwjZ agi Kvbic weivPiY KiZ Pv Kiwb| ZvB e kZvx ai `yB
cvVg iPbv _K wkv cwZ, wkv_x wbevPb ev fwZ mKj welqB wbfi KiZ aggZ (evY I e) cvkvcvwk Aevb Ki GK Acii cwZ mwnzZvi `v
wkK ev wkv cwZvbi Dci| GgbwK cvPxb fviZ wkKi bvgi Dci vcb KiQ|12 Ze GB cvPxb HwZnkvjx wekwe`vjqwU 455 Lxt bvMv` Y`i
wkvK`i RbwcqZv AbKvsk wbfi KiZ| Ze iv wkv cwZvbwj cwiPvjbvi AvgY asmcv nq|13
51 52
cg kZvxi ci bvj`v AbZg DPwkvi cwZvb ic Mo IV| Ze GB Central Book Agency (P) LTD,Calcutta,2001,PP. 17
cwZvbwU AkvK Zvi Rbvb mvwicy Mo ZzjwQjb ej Rvbv hvq| GB 3. fviZ BwZnvmi mvb(1g) w`jxc Kzgvi Mvcvavq, mvwnZvjvK,
wkvK`wU hyM, nlhyM GgbwK cvjhyMI Zvi AwZ eRvq ivLZ mg nq| KjKvZv,2000, ct 131 - 132
bvj`v wekwe`vjq vZKvi welqwjZ weklxKiYi myweav wQj| GB 4. cv, ct 130
wekwe`vjq fwZi eqm wQj 20 eQi| Ze GKgv hvM QvivB Zv`i gavex 5. Ibid B. R. Purkait, PP. 16
wfwZ bvj`vq covi myhvM cZb| Gi cVb cvVbi gvb GZ DbZ wQj h 6. Education in India: Past, Present, Future - Jyoti
we`ki e Qv GLvb wkvjvf Drmvnx nb| GLvb e Qv GmwQjb Pxb, Prasad Banerjee, Central Library,
wmsnj, mygvv, Rvfv I wZeZ _K| wK cvj mvgvRi cZbi m m bvj`v Koikata,2007 (7th Edition),PP. 48
wekwe`vjq asmcv nq|14 7. cvPxb fviZi A_bwZK BwZnvmi mvb - iYexi PeZx, Avb`,
bvj`v QvovI DifviZi AbZg cvPxb wkvcwZvbwj nj - KjKvZv, 1411 (2q gy.) ct 272 - 274
wegkxjv, ejfx, RMj cfwZ| GB wkvK`wjiI h_ mybvg wQj| `wY 8. Ancient India - R. C. Majumder, Motilal Banarasidass,
fviZ gw`ii Aby`vbi wfwZ Mo DVwQj DPwkv K`wj| cj-e, PvjyK, Delhi, 1971 (6th Edition),PP 452.
ivKU Ges Pvj`i wewfb ckw Ges ZvgdjK wkv cwZvbi Rb Aby`vb 9. cv, w`jxc Mvcvavq, ct 135
c`vbi wb`kb cvIqv hvq| `wY fviZi Dj-LhvM wkvcwZvbwji ga 10. WWW. Education System in Ancient India _
wQj ivKU ivRZ mvjvrwM, cj-e ivRv`i ccvlKZvq Mo IVv wkv cwZvb, SciForums _ com.htm (15th Nov.2009)
GQvov wQj wZifveivBDi I gvjKvcyig bvg DP wkvK`|15 11. Ibid , J. P. Banerjee,PP. 70
myZivs cvPxb wkv eev wQj wekl DbZZi, evY wkv eevi Avkg 12. Civilization in Ancient India - R. C. Dutta,PP. 127.
wkv mgM cvPxb hyM Zvi iZ m~Y nvivqwb| Zvi cvkvcvwk DPwkvi GKvwaK 13. Ibid, R. C. Majumder,PP 456 & WWW. Education
K` Mo DVwQj hLvb Dfq agiB h_ cfve wQj| Ze evY wkv eevq System in Ancient India _ SciForums _ com.htm
AvavwZK welqwjK wekl iZ `Iqvq evY`i h cvavb cwZwZ nq, 14. Ibid , J. P. Banerjee,PP. 72
eag I `kb mB cvavbK AbKvsk Le Ki wkvq MYZvwKiY NUvq| 15. Ibid , J. P. Banerjee,PP. 77
GQvovI wkvi cvVm~wPZ `kb mvwnZ QvovI eenvwiK welqwj wekl iZ
cvq Ges cw_exi wewfb cv wkvbyivMx gvbyl I chUKiv GB wkv eevi
AvKlY cvPxbKvj wewfb mgq fviZ Avmb| Ze cvPxb fviZi wkvi GB
Ygvb I wekLvwZ ewntk cavbZ gymwjg AvgY AbKvsk asmcv nq|
mgM gahyM wkv eev I wkv cwZvb mB YMZgvb cybtcwZv me nqwb|
cieZxKvj Dwbk kZK RvZxqZvev`x fveavivq Avc-yZ nq `kevmx hLb cyivZb
HwZnK wdwiq Avbvi Pv KiwQjb ZLb ac`x hyMi wkvi iZ cybtcywZwZ
nq Ze ZvK m~Yic wdwiq Avbv Avi me nqwb|
m~wb`k t
1. The Making of Early Medieval India - B.D.
Chattopadhyaya, Oxford,New
Delhi,2005 (4th Impression) PP.4
2. Milestones in Ancient and Medieval Indian Educa
tion - Biswa Ranjan Purkait,New
53 54
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gnxqmx eMg ivKqv 1880 mvji 9 wWm^i Aaybv evsjv`ki A evsjv wefvM Pvjy Kib| wK cieZx `yeQii ga mwU Avevi e nq hvq|
MZ iscyi Rjvi cvqive` Mvg GK mv Rwg`vi esk RbMnY Kib| Zuvi Aekl 1929 mvj cybivq mLvb evsjv wefvM Pvjy Kiv nq| BwZga gymwjg
wcZvi bvg gn` Avey Avjx nvq`i| ivKqvi evjbvg wQj iveqv LvZzb| weklZ mgvR AbK cwieZb cwijwZ nq| Zv mI KzmsvivQb mgvRcwZ I agv
GB bvgB wZwb mgM evsjv`k evcK cwiwPwZ jvf Kib| gjexiv Af eywi cwiPq `vb Ki we`vjqi wZmvab Zrci njb| wK
ZrKvjxb gymwjg c_vbymvi nvq`i cwieviI c`vc_vi KVvi Abykvmb eMg ivKqvi mrwPv I feyw Ges AKv cPvi dj we`vjqwUi Divi
cPwjZ wQj| ivKqvmn Zuvi Abvb mn`ivMYivI wbggfve Gi wkKvi nqwQjb| kxew I DbqYg~jK KvR mb nZ _vK Ges kl ch mwU miKvix Abygv`b
ivKqv kkeKvj Aviex I dvmx fvlvq wKQyUv cv_wgK wkv eZxZ Zuv`i fvM jvf Ki mycwZwZ nq|
KvbI cwZvwbK wkvjvfi myhvM NUwb| Ze Zuvi we`vrmvnx AMRv Kwigybmvi gnxqmx eMg ivKqv GBfve we`vjq cwZvi gvag AbMmi gymwjg
nhZ ivKqv evsjv fvlvq wekl eyrcw ARb Kib| evwjKv`i Dchy wkvi myhvM`vb Ki bvix wkvi DbwZ mvab KiZ PqwQjb|
gv 16 eQi eqm 1896 mvj ZrKvjxb wenvi c`ki GK mv hvZ Zviv wkv PZbvq DP Av`ki AwaKvwib~x nq Ges myKbv, myMw nbx Ges mygvZv
gymwjg cwievi ivKqvi eevwnK mK Mo IV|Zuvi ^vgxi bvg wQj mq` ic wbR`i cwiPq `vb mg nq| ZvB `pK wZwb ejwQjb Our girls
kvLvIqvr nvmb| wZwb wQjb wecZxK Ges cvq cpZi wbw` mxgvq cuQ should not only obtain university degree,but must be ideal
MQb| Ze Zuvi cyilvwPZ ic hebi PvBZI ivKqv Zuvi Y gy nqwQjb| daughters,wives,mothers or in must say obedient daugh-
myZivs ivKqv Zuvi `vZ Rxeb KLbI AmyLx wQjb bv| GK_v wbwavq ejv ters loving sisters beautiful wives and intractive mothers.
hZ cvi| `ki bvix mgvRK wewfb Dcvq `k I RvwZi mev Kivi g~jg
kvLvIqvr nvmb Zuvi wkvRxeb h_ gavkwi cwiPq w`qwQjb| `xwZ Ki `ki mevxb DbwZ mvab KivI Zuvi AbZg cavb Dk wQj|
wZwb cvUbv KjR _K mMie vZK DxY nb| BsivRx mvwnZI wZwb wQjb gnxqmx eMg ivKqv ZvB wbwLj e gymwjg gwnjv mwgwZi cwZv KiwQjb|
wekl cvi`kx| Kwl welqK DP wkvjvfi Dk kvLvIqvr wejZ hvv Kib| GB mwgwZi eg~Lx Kgaviv wQj| weklZ GB mwgwZi cavb KvR wQj ^vejw^Zv I
mLvb _K wkv mgvcb Ki wZwb DPc` miKvix PvKzix MnY Kib| Zvici AvZwbfiZv m^ gwnjv`i mPZb Ki Zvjv Ges Zv`i hvMZvmbv Ki
61 62
Dchy RxweKvi myhvM`vb Kiv| GQvov Kbv`vqM AwffveK`i wewfbb KvR
mnvqZv Kiv|
BwZnvmi cvcU bexci
eMg ivKqv cZ ivRbxwZZ AskMnY bv KijI Zuvi mgKvjxb eweeya Rbbx mfv
ivRbwZK mvZaviv _K m~Y wewQb wQjb bv| `ki ^vaxbZv Av`vjbi
Aivj _K wZwb bxie ^`ki Rb AbK DbqYg~jK I mevg~jK KvR KiQb|
Wt wkniY PeZx, Awbi mvnv, mZg ivR mvnv
1917 mvji KsMmi KjKvZv Awaekb h ^QvmweKv `j MwVZ nqwQj
ZvZ emsLK gwnjv AskMnY Ki mwUK mvdjgwZ Kivi Zuvi f~wgKv Objectives of the Study
wQj mwekl iZc~Y| cKZc eMg ivKqv wQjb GKRb RvZxqZvev`x
gwnjvbx| wZwb wQjb ^vaxbZv Av`vjbiI GKwb gywhvv I c~Y mg_K| Kvb GKwU cK MnYi wcQb wKQy gnr Dk _vK| Local His-
Ze wewQbZvev`x KvhKjvci Nvi weivax| Kbbv wewQbZvev`x`i cwZ ivKqvi tory Project wnmve e weeya Rbbx mfvi BwZnvm Abymvbi wcQbI mBiKg
we`ygv mnvbyf~wZ wQj bv| wZwb Zv`i NYvi PvLB `LZb| hnZz Zviv `ki wKQy Dk iqQ| h_v
k| 1| e weeya Rbbx mfv BwZnvmi c_ Aejycvq GKwU cwZvb| GB cwZvbi
cmZt GKwU ce eMg ivKqv wjLQb Avgiv aygv wn`y, Drcwi BwZnvm Avgiv Gi _K RvbZ cvie|
gymwjg ev cvmx, Lxvb A_ev evOvwj, gv`vRx, gvovqvix wKsev cvvex bB, mec_g 2| AZxZ fviZel bexc wQj msZ PPvi GKwU cxVvb| e weeya Rbbx mfv
Avgiv fviZevmx, Zvici Abvb RvwZ| eMg ivKqv evsjvfvlvK h_ bexci msZ PPvi MieK AviI KZUv Mievw^Z KiwQj Zv Avgiv Rvbe|
fvjvevmZb| Ges gymwjg`i gaI evsjvfvlvK evcKfve cPjbi iZc~Y 3| GB mfvq wewfb fviZweLvZ we` cwZmg~n wKfve fviZi PZzvVxKw`K
f~wgKv MnY Kib| Zuvi iwPZ AwaKvsk ceB evsjv I BsivRx fvlvq jLv| evsjvi ac`x wkveevK Azb ivLZ cqvmx nqwQjb m welq Avgiv AeMZ ne|
gymwjg mgvR bvix gyw Av`vjb I bvix RvMiYiI wZwb wQjb gnvb AM`~Z| 4| e cvPxb Ges Mievw^Z GB mfv wKfve axi axi Aejycvq nq Mj Zvi
weklZ gymwjg bvix mgvRi c`vc_v, Awkvi AKvi Ges KzmsvivQbZv BZvw` KviYwj RvbZ cvie|
mvgvwRK evwa `~i Kivi Rb mviv Rxeb msMvg Pvwjq 1932 mvji 9 wWm^i gv 5| GB mfvi cybixebi Rb bexci cwZgjx Z_v msZvbyivMx eweM
52 eQi eqm wZwbwnavg ZvM Ki cijvK Mgb Kib| aygv evsjv bq, wZwb eZgvb wKfve cqvm Pvwjq hvQb, Zv Avgiv RvbZ cvie|
wQjb MvUv fviZeliB Me I AnsKvi| Gevi 135Zg cqvYel GB gnxqmx 6| GB mfvi fwelr cwiKbv wK Zv Avgiv RvbZ cvie|
Av`k bvixi cwZ Avgiv Mfxi kv wbe`b Kwi|
Importance of the Study
HwZnvwmK w`K _K e weeya Rbbx mfvi iZ ejvi Acv ivL
bv|
1| `xN cvq GK kZvx ai bexci msZ PPvi HwZnK Ges PZzvVxKw`K
wkveevK AvMj iLwQj HwZnevnx GB e weeya Rbbx mfv|
2| mvi AvZvl gyLvcvavq AvgZz GB mfvi mfvcwZ wQjb|
3| GB mfvi cwiPvjbvq wbqwgZ Av`, ga I Dcvwa wefvM cixv bIqv
nZ Ges KZKvh`i iZ Dcvwa c`vb Kiv nZ|
4| GB e weeya Rbbx mfviB feb 1949 mvji 3iv bf^i bexc ivxq
msZ gnvwe`vjq cwZwZ nq|
5| GB gnvwe`vjqi PZzvVxKw`K cvV MnYi Rb cwgei evBi _KI
AbK wkv_x GLvb AvmZb|
63 64
6| 2002 mvji Gwcj gvm GB wkv cwZvbwU cyivcywi e nq hvq| Gi Z Analysis and Interpretation
Mie cybivii Rb Ges cybtcwZvi Rb 2014 mvji AvM gvm MwVZ bZzb
cwiPvjb mwgwZ AvcvY Pv Pvwjq hvQ| mgM fviZel msZ PPvi AbZg cxVvb wnmve bexci GK wekl
LvwZ wQj| bebvq, bewZ, beZ, ee`kb Ges ee mvwnZi gZv msZ
PPvi Dj-LhvM wjZ bexci Aev wekew`Z| wewk bqvwqK evmy`e
Use of Sources
mvefg, Zvi myhvM Qv ZvwKK P~ovgwY, iNybv_ wkivgwY I mvaK P~ovgwY, Zmvi
bexci e weeya Rbbx mfvi GB AvwjK BwZnvm AvjvPbv KiZ wMq Avwg cYZv Kvb` AvMvgevMxk, vZ wkivgwY iNyb`b fvPvh cfw Z bexci MieKZ
`yB iKg Drmi mvnvh wbqwQ| h_v - Primary Source Ges Secondary mvb`i e` `ywZ AvRI mgyj| ^bvgab AavcKMYi Aevmx nq wewfb
Source. kv cvig nIqvi gvbm `k, we`ki e Qv mgeZ nZ GB bexc| bvj`v,
Zkxjv, gnvwenvii gZv bexci wewfb Uvj PZzvVx m^wjZ wekwe`vjq
Primary Source `kx - we`kx Qvi KjZvb m`v gyLwiZ _vKZ| cvPxb mvwnZ Ges HwZnvwmK`i
iPbvq Gi e Dj-LB Avgv`i `wMvPi nq| G cm e`veb `vm VvKzi iwPZ
1| mvsLZx_ cwZ Mvc`yf~lY (1371 mvj), bexc msZ PPvi BwZnvm, c_g
kxPZbfvMeZ Gi GKwU DwZi Dj-L KiZ cvwi|
L, Kvw cm, bexc|
bvbv`g nBZ jvK bexc hvq
2| AvwjK BwZnvmi GKRb mPZb wkv_x wnmve Avwg e weeya Rbbx mfvi
bexc cwo jvK we`vim cvq|
eZgvb mv`K gvbbxq Wt AiYKzgvi PeZx gnvkqi m mvvrKvii gvag
Rxebi DbwZmvab KiZ nj we`v wkv AvekK| Kejgv KZKwj
wewfb welq RvbZ cvwi|
cyK K Kivi bvg we`vwkv bq| h we`v wkv Kij gvbyl `efve aviY Ki
3| GQvov ivxq msZ
gnvwe`vjqi ZrKvjxb KiwYK gvbbxq myeva Kzgvi gnvkqi
I Akl Yivwki Avavi nq mwUB nj cKZ we`vwkv| PZyvVxi iMY mB
KvQ _KI mB mgqi gnvwe`vjq mK AbK wKQy RvbZ cvwi|
wkvB Qv`i w`Zb| Zviv RvbZb Qv`i AtKiYK wbgj KiZ bv cvij
Ai I evn welqi c~Y cwZwe^ ZvZ coZ cvi bv I we mi iY bv nj
Secondary Source ZvZ vbvwZKv eyw Drcb nq bv| GBRb vbvc`ki c~e gvbwmK wbgjZv
AvekK|
1| myeY Rqxi cvvj bexc ivxq msZ gnvwe`vjq; GKwU mgxv| Wt 1886 Lxt we` cwZgjx msZ wkvi evcK cmvi wekl D`vM
f`yKzgvi wmv| MnY Kivi Rb msZ we`v weeabx we` Rbbx mfv bvg GK cwZvb MVb Kib|
[ bexc cyivZ cwil` viKM (1999 mvj), ZZxq el msLv, cKvkK, bexc cvBK cvovi ivRv B`P` wms Ges wewk cwZ i`K fvPvh gnvkqi R
cyivZ cwil`, bexc ] cy Aemicv WcywU gvwRU gn`bv_ fvPvh gnvkq h_vg mfvcwZ I
2| wekKvl ( Encyclopaedia indica , mg fvM) mv`Ki c` AjsKZ Kib| 1897 Lxt IB mfvi bvg cwieZb Ki e weeya
[ Publisher : BR Publishing Publication, Delhi, 1886] Rbbx mfv ivLv nq Ges wbevwPZ mfvcwZ I mv`K wnmve b`xqvi gnvivRv
xwZkP` ivq Ges we` cwZ meki mvefg Kvhfvi MnY Kib| GB mfvi
Delimitation of the Study cwiPvjbvq wbw` cvVg Abymvi wbqwgZ wewfb wefvM Av`, ga I Dcvwa cixv
MnY cwZi m~Pbv nq| Ges KZKvh`i iZ Dcvwa `vbi eev Kiv nq| wewfb
mgq e wewk eweM GB e weeya Rbbx mfvi mfvcwZ I mv`Ki c`
1| bexc msZ
PPvi BZnvmb| AjsKZ Kib| Zv`i ga mfvcwZ wnmve mvi AvZvl gyLvcvavq, mvi viKvbv_
2| e weeya Rbbx mfvi D`vM bexc msZ PPv, wewfb mvswZK I mvi^Z PeZx, mvi gb_bv_ gyLvcvavq, Wt weRbKzgvi gyLvcvavq I igvcmv` gyLvcvavq
mvabv| (mvi AvZvl gyLvcvavqi cy) cfw Zi bvg mwekl Dj-LhvM| Dj-L Kiv
65 66
hZ cvi h, mvi AvZvl gyLvcvavq AvgZz GB mfvi mfvcwZ wQjb| 1907 ^vaxbZv jvfi AewnZ ciB e weeya Rbbx mfv K K` Ki bexc msZ
mvj e weeya Rbbx mfvi evwlK mgveZb Abyvb mvi AvZvli HwZnvwmK PPvi cevnK Azb ivLZ wewfb gnj _K D`vM MnY i nq| bexci KZx
fvlYwU wekl cwbavbhvM| wZwb ejwQjb - bexci Z MieK iv mvb wewk msZvbyivMx mywcg KvUi gvbbxq wePvicwZ ivLvjP` gyLvcvavq
Kivi Rb Avwg vi vi wfvcv wbq hZ cZ| Ckii Avkxev` gnvkqi myhvM cy Wt weRbKzgvi gyLvcvavqi cZ mnhvwMZvq, cwgei
Avwg e Yxmfvq Avmb AjsKZ KiwQ, m^waZ nqwQ, wK bexci ZrKvjxb wkvgx gvbbxq nib Payix gnvkqi AvwiK mnhvwMZvq Ges bexci
GB cwZ mgvRi mfvcwZi Avmb AjsKZ Kiv Avgvi KvQ wekl cwZgjxi HKvwK cPvq e weeya Rbbx mfviB feb 1949 mvji 3iv
Miei I Abyfei welq| `ki ivRvMY, Rwg`vi kYx I e abx ew GB bf^i bexc ivxq msZ gnvwe`vjq cwZwZ nq|
mfvK A_ mvnvh Kib Ges Zvi viv `ycvc cuyw_ I cyK msiY I mw myZivs bexc msZ gnvwe`vjq vcbi Drmf~wg wnmve e weeya
q me nq| cwZ ivgbv_ ZKwmvi evwfUvq h PZzvVx wQj, Zv jevmx Rbbx mfv BwZnvm m^vabvhvM cwZvb|
RbK abx eveyjvj AvMiIqvji UvKvq BUi Ni Zix nq hv cvKvUvj bvg GB e weeya Rbbx mfv q PZzvVxKw`K wkveevq cvVgi ga
bexc cwiwPZ wQj| mB RxY evwowU ZKwmv gnvkqi GK Aatb eskai h mKj welqwj covbv nZv, mwj nj evKiY, Kve, wZkv, cvPxb bvq,
hLb wewi cve `b, ZLb 1935 mvj e weeya Rbbx mfv H evwowU wKb be bvq, ee `kb, nwibvgvgZ evKiY, e`v `kb cfw Z Dj-LhvM|
bq Ges cqvRbxq msvi I bZzb feb wbgvY Kivq| h mKj fviZ weLvZ cwZ e weeya Rbbx mfv q wewfb mgq wewfb
e weeya Rbbx mfvi m~Pbv jMi KvhweeiYx g~w`Z AvKvi A`vewa wefvM Aavcbv KiZi Zv`i ga Dj-LhvM njb cwZ wc_bv_ wZZx_,
Mvc`yf~lY mvsLZx_i M ( ct 34) g~w`Z AvQ hv wb ewYZ nj| cwZ gbvib wZZx_, cwZ AvZvl bvqvPvh, cwZ hvZe` bvqvPvh,
g~jZt eYvkg - a I msZ wkvi cmviB mfvi gyL Dk| wK Bnv cwZ AvZvl wmv, cwZ myi`P` cZx_, cwZ wngvs`vm wZZx_, cwZ
QvovI mfv `yt evY cwZMYK bvbvfve mvnvh `vb Kib| ebgvjxPiY ZKZx_, cwZ KvbvBjvj AwaKvix, cwZ c~YP` AvPvh|
mfv, zj KjRi GgbwK cv_wgK we`vjqiI QvQvxMY ga msZ cvq GK kZvx mvdji m mg wefvM Aaqb Ges Aavcbvi AMMwZ
wkv cPviv_ mfvi cvb mfvcwZ uweRbKzgvi gyLvcvavq gnvkqi wZ iv_ j Kiv MjI wesk kZKi mvZi `kK _K GB mfvi Z_v bexci
weRbwZ cwZhvwMZv ceb KwiqvQb| cwZ ermi msZ AvewZ, iPbv I fvlY PZzvVxKw`K wkveevi gvebwZ NUZ _vK| wewfb wefvM k~b AavcK
cwZhvwMZvq c`K I cyivivw` c` nBqv _vK| c` wbqvM e nq| gavex QvQvxi msLvI nvm cZ _vK| mevcwi mgM ivR
mfvi cvVvMvi msZ Mvw` I cyuw_ cfwZ msMni eev AvQ| Dchy msZ wkvi cwZ miKvix Aenjv Ges wbqwgZ cixv MnYi MwZ nIqvq
Mni Afve GB Kvh Avkvbyicfve cwiPvwjZ nBZ cvwiZQ bv| m`q `kevmxi mgM ivRi Abvb msZ PPvi cwZvbi gZv e weeya Rbbx mfvi AaMgbI
`w cv_bxq| Zivw^Z nq| Dchy fwelZi c_ e nIqvq wkv_x I AavcK Dfq cB
wewea `e I cKvhi Rb hvnvZ cyivwnZMY Dchy wkv jvf wbirmvwnZ nq co| eZgvb GB Awg Aev GKevi kl jM cuQQ|
KwiZ cvib, Z`yk mfv wbR^ feb GKwU ciwnZ wkv `vb msv MVb BwZnvm Abymvb Ki Avgiv RvbZ cvwi e`ki msZ wkvi Dci
KwiqvQb| GLvb wbqwgZfve wkv_xMYK nvZ Kjg civwnZ wkv`vb Kiv AvNvZ BwZc~eI GmQ| mb ivRv`i Avgj gymjgvb AvgYi mgq bexci
nBqv _vK| GB msvi cwiPvjK cwZ kxgbvib wZZx_| e cwZ gnvkqK ........... nbv mn KiZ nqwQj, e g~jevb cyuw_ web
msZ
fvlvq fvlY`vb hvnvZ `kevmx A mgqi ga ` nBZ cvi, nqwQj| msZ PPvi c_ cvq i nq cowQj| Z_vwc wK bexci `pPZv
Z`yk mfv GKwU msZ fvlY`vb msv cwiPvjb KwiZQb| Bnvi cwiPvjbv cwZgjx Drmvn nvivqwb| mg cwZKzjZvK KvwUq msZ PPvi cevnK engvb
KwiZQb - cwZ kxwbZvb` wZZx_| iLwQjb| eZgvb miKvix D`vmxbZvq e weeya Rbbx mfvi wkv cwiKvVvgvwU
GZ`eZxZ msZ kvvw`i MelYv Kvh cwiPvjbvi RbI mfv AvekK g wqzgvb nq coQ| AavcK wbqvMi Afve 2002 mvji Gwcj gvm
eev KwiqvQb| A_vfve GB wefvMi Kvh Avkvbyic AMmi nBZ cvwiZQ bv| _K GB cwZvbwU e nq hvq| wK GB cwZKjZvi gaI cvq wbf hvIqv
G welq gvbbxq miKvi evnv`yi I msZvbyivMx `kevmxi mnhvwMZv Kvgbv Kiv c`xcwUK Rvwjq ivLvi Rb bxie wbijm cPviZ iqQb bexci `yB cexY
hvBZQ| wewk msZ ewZ - Giv njb cwZcei Wt Kzgvibv_ fvPvh Ges AavcK
67 68
Wt AiYKzgvi PeZx| 2014 mvji AvM gvm MwVZ eZgvb e weeya Rbbx 3|AvaywbK wkveevq Education K ejv nq Behaviourial Science|
mfvi cwiPvjb mwgwZZ cwZ fvPvh Ges PeZx h_vg mfvcwZ Ges G Counselor (wkK) wnmve wkK`i AvPiY wkv_xi AvRxeb MVbi
mv`Ki Avmb AjsKZ KiQb| Zv`i HKvwK cPvq bexc mcwZ 7 I GKgv mnvqK kw (Guiding Force)| e weeya Rbbx mfvi h mKj
8B g mb nq Mj cvP we`v mjb(Conference on Orinetal AvPvhi bvg Dwj-wLZ nqQ Zviv Rxebi AvPiYi ga w`q wkv_x`i wkv `vb
Studies) hvi gyL Dk bexci msZ PPvi cybixeb (Rejuvena- Ki wkv bvgi mv_KZv eRvq iLwQjb|
tion of Chatuspathi-centric studies in Nabadwip)|
e weeya Rbbx mfvi eZgvb mv`K Wt AiYKzgvi PeZxi KvQ 4| AvRKi wkvwevb Curriculum, Syllabus Ges Text Book ^Z
_K GB mfvi cvPxb, eZgvb I fwelr cv mK hUzKz vb jvf Ki Avgiv wZbwU cqvRbxq KvVvgv wnmve mZZ weivR Ki| wK fviZeli ac`x wkv
mg njvg, Zv wbic eevi wb`kb wnmve PZzvVxKw`K wkveevq wkK wbRB wQjb cvVg
1938 mvji `wjj Abyhvqx e weeya Rbbx mfvi Aevb wQj 1 GKi (Teacher was himself a curriculum)| e weeya Rbbx mfvi AvPvh`i
5 kZK RvqMv Ryo, eZgvb hv gv 15 KvVv RwgZ cwiYZ nqQ| evwK Rwg ga Gic e D`vniY j Kiv hvq|
e`Lj I nvi nqQ| bexci GB HwZnvwmK I HwZngwZ vb cwi`kb
Ki Ges Wt PeZxi KvQ _K Rvbv Mj h GB gnvwe`vjq cvV`vbi Rb 5| e weeya Rbbx mfvi AvPvh`i cvV`vbi cwqv (Pedagogy) _K h
GKwU eo nj Ni wQj hLvb GKmv_ fvM fvM Ki wewfb cwZ gnvkq wewfb wekl cqvRbxq w`KwU mZZ DvwmZ nZ, Zv nj Ethology (Science of
welq covZb| GQvov wQj Aa gnvkq, Awdm jvBeixi Rb GK GKwU K| Character) | Example is better than precept- GB gnvevKwUi
GB gnvwe`vjq evBi _K Avmv wkv_x`i Rb 7wU K wQj| GQvov e weeya Ce weMn nq IV Zuviv wkveevq h cvYi mvi KiwQjb, Zvi msiY
Rbbx mfvi wewfb ckvmwbK I wkvmsv Kvhvejxi Rb GKwU Awdm wQj| Av cqvRb|
wKQyUv msvi Kiv njI AwaKvsk Kwj eZgvb fM`kvcv iqQ| cwZcei
eybv ivgbv_i wZ weRwoZ ZuZzj MvQ AvR Avi bB| AvQ aygv GKwU Kzqv|
AZ ZveRbK evcvi GB h GZ ^bvgab GB cwZvb AavcbviZ cwZiv
References
mB mgq _K 2002 mvj e nIqv ch lower division clerk- Gi 1| myeY Rqxi cvvj bexc ivxq msZ gnvwe`vjq; GKwU mgxv| Wt
eZbg Abyhvqx eZb cZb| MZ eQi e weeya Rbbx mfvi D`vM GLvb f`yKzgvi wmv|
msZ K_v ejvi GKwU AeZwbK cwkY `Iqv nq| eZgvb cwZ iweevi GB [ bexc cyivZ cwil` viKM (1999 mvj), ZZxq el msLv, cKvkK, bexc
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MAJOR FINDINGS [ Publisher : BR Publishing Publication, Delhi, 1886]
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1902 Lxt 24 k gvP ZvwiL `vjc~wYgvi w`b KjKvZvq cg_bv_ wec-ex `ji Af y Kiv nqwQj| Mv`jcvov mwgwZ Mv`jcvov eve mwjbx
wgi bZZ AvbyvwbKfve cKvwkZ nq Abykxjb mwgwZ| gk GB mwgwZi kvLv bvg (Kvb Kvb m~ gekZ my` mwbjbx ejv nqQ) AwfwnZ wQj| Mjx
Ab wevi jvf KiZ i Ki| wec-ex Av`vjbK msMwVZ Kivi Dk Aiwe` KjRi AavcK RvwZlP` Nvl, Wvd KjRi Dc`bv_i `yB mncvVx
Nvl wbR 1902 I 1904 GB `yB& mvj evsjvq Avmb| GB `yBeviB wZwb P`bbMii Dicvovi Agi` Pvcvavq I kxivgcyii lxKk Kvwjvj Ges bi`bv_
Wyc- KjRi AavcK PviP` ivqi m mvvr KiwQjb| wec-ex Av`vjb e`vcvavqi GKv ez kxkP` Nvl eve mwjbxi m Nwbfve hy wQjb|
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mvj _K P`bbMi ivRbwZK mPZbZv gv_v Pvov w`q IV| 1904 mvj bvMv` cvjb KiwQjb| ef Av`vjbi cvcU gwZjvj ivq Zuvi Kgaviv cv
77 78
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ZvQvov P`bbMi hnZz divmx kvmbi Aaxb wQj mnRB BsiR miKvi wgj P`bbMi wbevmx wKkvixgvnb muvcyB bvgK GK ewK LuyR ei KiwQjb|
P`bbMii Dci nc KiZ cviZ bv| divmx kvmbi Afy _vKv mI wKkvix wQjb evix` I Awebvki ez| Zv`i civgk Abyhvqx divmx `k _K
mBic wekl KVviZv bv _vKvi KviY nZz mnRB Ab vbi gvbyliv GLvb A Avg`vbx Ki mB A evix` I Awebvki nvZ Zzj `q| 1907 Lxt ga mgq
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GLvb mnRB wbR`i Mvcb ivLZ cviZ| wewfb vbi mv_ ec-exK mK KvR nqwQj|15
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wec-ex`i cqvRbxq A GLvb _KB Avg`vbx Kiv nZ| iv wec-e msMvg iZc~Y f~wgKv wbqwQj|16
AvMqv Qvov evcKfve A mieivni Rb h AwUi K_v fvev nwQj Zv nQ 1905 mvj wec-ex Av`vjbi AbZg bvqK wQjb Dc`bv_
evgv| AvMqv mieivn K`j nIqvi cvkvcvwk evgv Zixi AbZg K`j e`vcvavq| wZwb h we`vjq covbv KiZb mB we`vjqi wkK wQjb
wQj P`bbMi| c_g GB KvR AvZwbqvM KiwQjb nvULvjv wbevmx bM`bv_ P`bbMii weLvZ wec-ex PviP` ivq| Dc`bv_i gvwbKZjv wec-ex mwgwZi
Nvl| wZwb wicb KjRi imvqbi AavcK myikP`i wbKU GB welq cv_wgK m cZ hvMvhvM wQj| PviP`i evwoZ Dc`bv_i mv_ KvbvBjvj `i
wkv MnY KiwQjb|11 mvvr nqwQj| ^fvlx KvbvBjvji Pwi gvayh AvK nq Dc`bv_ Zuvi mv_
gwZjvj ivqi evovBPxZjvi h wec-ex K`wU Mo DVwQj mLvb Mvcb Avjvc KiZ BQyK nb| KvbvBjvj bi`bv_ e`vcvavqi mncvVx wQjb|
gbx`bv_ bvqK bvgK GK wec-ex Avmv hvIqv KiZb| mLvb AavcK myikP` Dc`bv_i K_vgZ bi`bv_ KvbvBjvjK P`bbMii v wbq Avmb|
Nvl evgv Zixi Kkj gbx`bv_ bvqKK c`vb KiwQjb| wZwb myikeveyi gvwbKZjv evMvbi KvR m^ KvbvBjvji mv_ Dc`bv_i AvjvPbv nq| GB
evmMn _K DbZZi evgv Zixi Kkj wkL P`bbMiK evgv Zixi K` Mo mgqKvj Dc`bv_ hyMvi `jfy wQjb Ges evix`Kzgvi Nvli bZZ
Zvjb| gbx`bv_ bvqKi Zix evgv fviZi wewfb vb cvVvbv nq wewfb gvwbKZjv Aj 32, gyivwicyKiz ivW Zv`i wec-ex Av`vjb msv h KvhKjvc
ec-exK Kvh mv`bi Rb|12 PjwQj Zvi m cZfve hy nqwQjb| Dc`bv_i mv_ wbfZ Avjvc
Aiwe` Nvli wb`k wec-ex Awebvk fvPvhi cwiPvjbvq I ^vgvx AvjvPbvi gvag KvbvBjvj hyMvi `ji wec-ex Kgaviv m^ RbwQjb Ges
weeKvb`i vZv Wt f~c`bv_ `i (1880 - 1961) mv`bvq KjKvZvi 27 Zvi cwicwZ wZwb Zuvi fwelr KZei nw`k cqwQjb| Aek wZwb i
KvbvBjvj ai jb _K wec-ex`i gyLc ic mvvwnK hyMvi cwKv cKvwkZ PviP` ivqi KvQB ^`wk `xvq `xwZ nqwQjb Ges GRb wZwb cqvRbxq
nq 1906 Lxt 3 iv gvP| cwKvwUi bvg `Iqv nqwQj hyMvi bvg wkebv_ kvixwiK I gvbwmK cwZ wbqwQjb|17
kvx iwPZ mvgvwRK Dcbvm _K| hyMvi cwKvK Aej^b Ki h mKj 1907 mvji kli w`K Dc`bv_ e`vcvavqi gvidr hyMvi `ji
wec-exiv mgeZ nq KvR i KiwQjb cywjki bw_c Zvi cwiPq nj hyMv m KvbvBjvji hvMvhvM nq| ZuvK KvRi wKQy fvi `Iqv njI gvwbKZjv
i `j|13 ec-exK msMvgi cwZi P`bbMi hyMvi `j iZcY~ f~wgKv evMvbi wec-e cPvi m wZwb hy nbwb| P`bbMi wdi Gm `ji Kg
cvjb Ki| cmvii Rb KvbvBjvj wKQy kvLv mwgwZ vcb Ges gvwbKZjv evMvbi KvRi Rb
1907 mvj weRqv `kgxi w`b Aiwe` Nvli vZv evix`Kzgvi Nvl A_ msMn KiZ i Kib| wZwb Lye A mgqi ga P`bbMi Aj cuvP - QwU
79 80
kvLv mwgwZ Mo Zzjjb| Zuvi gw GZ AmvaviY wQj h, mwgwZwjZ wec-ei evMvbK wkvK` bv Ki fevbxcyii 78 bs ivW mivR Kzgvi gRyg`vii evwoZ
Kvb msme AvQ Zv evSv hZ bv|18 evgv wkvi K` Mo Zvj| gRtdicyi wec-ex`i evgv wbc BsiR kwK
hyMvi `ji c _K 1907 Lxt 4Vv Avei ZvwiL QvUjvU GyR Avi wi _vKZ `qwb| 1908 mvji 1jv g ivZB cywjk Kwgkbvii evwoZ H
dRvii iuvwP hvIqv Dcj gvbKzy I P`bbMi kbi gvS Zuvi UbwU wec-ex NuvwUwj Zj-vwk welq civgk nq| 2iv g mKvj _KB wewfb wec-ex NuvwUwj
jvBbPzZ Kivi Rb Kzwgj-vi Dj-vmKi `i mvnvh GKwU gvBbi mvnvh bb| cywjk LvbvZj-vwk Ki| gyivixcyKiz NuvwU ewUk miKvi ZQbQ Ki e wec-exK
wK yZuvi cPv e_ nq| cZveZbi mgq Zuvi cvYbvki cwiKbv Kib evixb Mvi Ki| GB mKj wec-exMYi ga KvbvBjvj I PviP` ivq wQjb AbZg|
Nvl,mnKvix wQjb Dj-vmKi ` I cdj z - PvKx| wK jdUbvU Mfbii wekl 1908 mvj KvbvBjvj ` I Abvb`i Mvii dj P`bbMii wec-e cPv
UbwU wfb c_ KvjKvZvq cuQvq|19 GK mURbK cwiwwZi myLxb nq| P`bbMii wec-e gvbm wwgZ nq hZ
1907 Lxt kli w`Ki P`bbMii nvULvjvq h ^`wk mfvi AvqvRb emj kxkP` Nvl I gwZjvj ivq wekl D`vM P`bbMiK K` Ki mviv
Kiv nqwQj ZvZ AbZg RvZxq bZv kvgmy`i PeZx AvnZ nq GmwQjb| evsjvq wec-ei ewwkLv RvwMq Zzjevi Pv Ki| GB mgq _K P`bbMi e
wK gqi Awbfvji wb`k Abyhvqx wmcvnxiv Rvi Ki mfv `Lj Ki Ges wec-ex AvmZ i Ki| ejv hZ cvi P`bbMi wec-ex`i Zx_fw~ g nZ i Ki
mfvi KvR e Ki `q| dj z nq IV ZiYiv| Zviv wmv bq jvwV, mowK GB mgq _K|24
I e`yK msMn Ki gqii evwo AvgY Kie| hyMvi `ji m`miv Zv`i 1908 mvji wVK gvSvgvwS mgq hyMvicx PviRbi Mvcb mfv nq
wbi Ki Ges Rvbvq GB welq Zviv h_vmgq eev beb| GB wekl NUbv PzuPzov kbi KvQ GKwU evMvb| GB PviRb njb kxkP` Nvl,gwZjvj ivq,
ciivi djkwZZ P`bbMi kni i wec-ei c_g weviY NUwQj|20 Dicvovi Agi` bv_ Pvcvavq I mLvivg MYk `Dii fvM eveyivg civKi|
1908 mvji 4Vv Gwcj P`bbMi Avn~Z GK mfvq gqi Awbfvji GB mfvq wi nqwQj kxkP` Nvl mk msMvgi aviv euvwPq ivLeb wewfb c`c
MnY Ki Ges Agi` Pvcvavq wec-ex`i msnwZ cybMVb Kie| eveyivg
wb`k Abyhvqx cywjk Ki e Ki `Iqvi KviY Zv`i ga vf weklfve
civgk`vZv wnmve KvR Kie Avi mewKQyi `vwqZ b _vKe gwZjvj ivqi
cyxf~Z nqwQj| 11 Gwcj Awbfvj hLb bk fvR evcZ wQjb ZLb Rvbjvi
Dci|25
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cPv i nq| Zv ay P`bbMii ga mxgve _vKwb| P`bbMii wec-ex ZiYiv
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KvbvBjvjg Dc`bv_, kxkP` Nvl, ivmwenvix emy, ccwZ wmsn,B`yf~lY ivq
Quy owQjb|21 cgyLiv mviv evsjvevcx KvhKjvc Rwoq coZ _vKb| mviv evsjv Ryo h
guwkq Awbfvji evwoZ evgv wbci ci _K gyLZ hyMvi `ji mwgwZi gvag wec-ex Z_v mvmev`x KvhKjvc PjwQj P`bbMii hyeKiv ZvZ
wec-e gvbm Abymvix P`bbMii ZiYiv mk ivRbwZK cwZev` gyLi nq IV| Rwoq cob|
Kvh ZLb aygv P`bbMii ga mxgve wQj bv| KvbvBjvj `, Dc`bv_ wbi RvZxqZvev`x msMvgi Ab _K mk RvZxqZvev`x msMvg DbxZ
e`vcvavq, kxkP` Nvl, ivmwenvix emy cgy Liv mviv evsjvevcx Kvh Rwoq nIqvi eQiwU 1907 mvj| GB mgqKvj hyMvi `ji f~wgKv wQj iZc~Y|
coZ _vKb|22 PviP` ivqI wec-e msMVb KiZ wMq GK wewP AwfZvi myLxb nqwQjb|
hyMvi `j P`bbMi AwZ mwq nq Ges KvbvBjvj g wec-ex Kvhi mB mgqKvj hyMvi `j hgb gawe wkwZ hyeK`i wbq wec-ex msMVb Mo
m wbRK Rwoq djb| Zuvi gb ZLb RvMZ nq hfveB nvK Action ZzjZ wekl Drmvnx wQj ZgbB Zviv AwfRvZ I^`kcx abx`i wbR`i msMVb
KiZ ne| Zvi GB eva ZuvK evix`Kzgvi Nvli m Nwb nZ mvnvh KiwQj| AvbZ cqvmx wQjb| wK cv_wgKfve mB Pv e_ nqwQj ej gb nq| KviY
evix`Kzgvi ZvK Avkvm w`qwQj h wec-ex Kvhi m `Z ZuvK wbqvwRZ Kie| gwZjvj ivqi jLv _K Rvbv hvq PviP` ivq c_gB P`bbMii abKzei
ci Zuvi wec-ei PviP` ivqK bv Rvwbq gyivixcyKz ii Mvcb wec-ex hyMvi fki kxgvbxK `jfy Kivi cqvm KiwQjb| wKy wZwb GB _K gyL
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kxkP` Nvli gvidZ gwZjvj ivq RvbZ cvib h KvbvBjvj DcwZ PviP` ivq KiwQjb| ay ZvB bq cywjk I KvZvqvjK GB `ji Afy Kiv
ngP` `vmi KvQ evgv evbvbvi wkv MnY KiZ MQ| ZviRb Zuviv gvwbKZjv nqwQj| wK GB wec-ex `ji Af y Kivi PviP`i cPv mBfve mvdjgwZ
81 82
nqwb|26 cv - 215 - 216|
mekYxi gvbylK nqZ GB wec-ex Av`vjbi m hy Kiv me nqwb Z_vwc 12) J.C.Nixon,op.cit, chapter v,vide A.K. Samanta, op.cit,
PviP` ivq I gwZjvj ivqi bZZ wec-ex Av`vjb GK bZzb gvv jvf KiwQj| vol.ii, p - 548.
Zv`i bZZ P`bbMi hgb divmx AaxbZvfy nqI wewUk kvmbi wei 13) Wt wekbv_ e`vcvavq, P`bbMii msw BwZnvm P`bbMi ci wbMg,
cwZev` gyLi nqQ| e wec-exK vb w`qQ| e ZiY hyMvi `ji m hy cv - 45|
nevi myhvM cqQ| ay myhvMB cvqwb wewfb wec-ex KgKvi m Zviv hy 14) Confidential Report, Home (political), file no. (234 of
nqQ| fviZi wewfb cvi mwgwZi m Zviv hy nqQ| mBm Zviv 1911), entitled ....... return of Arabindo Ghosh.
KviveiY KiQ GgbwK duvwmKvV cvY w`ZI Zviv waveva Kiwb| ewUk AaxbZvi 15) c~ev
evBi _K civaxb fviZi gvbyli Rb Zviv Suvwcq coQ| AvR fviZel ^vaxb, 16) c~ev, cv - 51
GLvbKvi gvbyl gy Zv meB GmKj gvbyli Kgdj me nqQ| P`bbMii wfZi 17) Confidential Record, POLL (poll) department, file no.
iqQ AbK ARvbv BwZnvm| AbK ARvbv gvbyli iZc~Y f~wgKv ZviB wKQyUv (No file no. / 1909), page - 1-6 Note on Jugantar Gang.
wb`kb GLvb cwZdwjZ nqQ| 18) bi`bv_ e`vcvavq, iv wec-ei GK Aavq (c_g msiY), 1361
mvj, cKvkbv Rvbv bB, cv - 19.
Z_m~ t 19) c~ev, cv - 20
1) binwi KweivR, ^vaxbZv msMvg evsjv (cwigvwRZ I cwigvwaZ ZZxq msiY, 20) gwZjvj ivq, wec-ex knx` KvbvBjvj (ZZxq cKvk, deqvix 1967),
RyjvB 1961), cv - 228| cKvkbv, ceZK, cv - 34-35.
2) nwini kV, msw P`bbMi cwiPq, cKvkbv, ceZK, cv - 70| 21) F.C.Daly, Note on the Growth of the Revolutionary Move
3) Wt wekbv_ e`vcvavq, P`bbMii wec-e gvbmi MwZc_ (1882 - 1916) ment in Bengal, op.cit., vol.i. p - 20.
ce, MYcMwZ, ^vaxbZvi myeYRqx msLv, 1997| 22) c~ev
4) c~ev 23) c~ev
5) J.C.Nixon,op.cit, chapter v,vide A.K. Samanta, op.cit, 24) Confidential Report, Home (political) department, file
vol.ii, p - 548 no. (194A of 1910),page (14 - 16) entitled Maniktalla
6) gwZjvj ivq, Avgvi `Lv wec-e I wec-ex, ceZK cvewjkvm, KjKvZv 1957, Bomb Case.
cv - 19| 25) c~ev
7) Bipalabi Sahayogi Chandannagar part ii by Amal kumar 26) c~ev, cv - 50 - 51
Mitra in Smaranika published by Bipalabtirtha Chattagram
Smriti Samstha on the occation of the in anguration of Sahid
Surya Sen Bhavan, january 18, 1987, p - 41.
8) c~ev, cv - 22
9) Wt AwRZ wbqvMx wjwLZ ce wesk kZKi c_g P`bbMii ivRbwZK
cwiwwZ, KvbvBjvj RbkZevwlKx viK M KvbvBjvj kZeli cYvg 1888
- 1988, cv - 78|
10) C.A. Tegart, Note on the Sitnation in Chandannagar, dated
March 10,1917,vide A.K. Samanta, op.cit, vol.iii, p - 282.
11) mycK
vk ivq, fviZi ec-exK msMvgi BwZnvm(1955), cKvkbv, KjKvZv,
83 84
GLvb Zzj aiv `iKvi Avevi KweZvK ev G Kvei KweK wbRb ev wbRbZg
Rxebvb` `vk - KveexY - 2 evLv `Iqv nqQ, KD ejQb G KweZv cavbZ cKwZi ev cavbZ BwZnvm I
weKvk g mgvRmPZbvi, AbgZ wbZbvi, KviI gxgvsmvq G Kve GKv cZxKx; m~Y
AePZbvi,mywiqvwj, Aviv bvbviKg AvLv PvL coQ| cvq meB AvswkKfve
Rxebvb`i Kve msMni GKUv msKjb Aviwe cKvkbx 2001 RvbyqvwiZ I Zvi mZ - Kvbv Kvbv KweZv ev Kvei Kvbv Kvbv Aavq m^ LvU, mgM
c~Y g~`b 2004 Gwcj cKvk KiQ| G ch hZ eB cKvwkZ nqQ gvUvgywUfve Kvei evLv wnmve bq, wK KweZv mw I KvecvV `yB-B kl ch ew gbi
h_vh_ cKvk ejB gb nq| GB eBwUK K` Ki Avwg Kve AvjvPbvq wbRK evcvi; KvRB cvVK I mgvjvPK`i Dcjw I gxgvsmvq GZ ZviZg| GKUv
hy ivLZ PvB| `Lv hvQ gvU evsjvq jLv Kve I KweZv KiQb (G ch hv mxgviLv AvQ G ZviZgi mUv Qvwoq Mj eov mgvjvPKK AewnZ nZ nq|
cKvwkZ nqQ Ges GLbI AbK jLv evew` nq AvQ - bwQ) 658 wU Ges Bsjvi wcivdvjvBU Ges ivgBUK Kwe`i gZv Rxebvb`i Kve
BsivwR KweZvi msLv 10wU| KweZvjv wbwjwLZfve KveM MwZ nqQ Bw`qvbyfw~ ZZ MfxiZv evw GbQb| ki eenvi kvbyfw~ Zi mshvRbv KiQb
Siv cvjK 1927 cKvk (Avwkb 1334) gvU KweZv 35 Zvi Bw`qvbyf~wZ m~YZB hy KiQb| ey`e emy Rxebvb`i GB w`KwUK
a~mi cvywjwc 1936 (AMnvqY 1343) gvU KweZv 17 mwVKfveB wek-lY KiQb| wZwb ejQb, Avgv`i Kwe`i ga Rxebvb` mePq
icmx evsjv 1957 (Avwkb 1364) gvU KweZv 61 Kg AvavwZK, mePq ewk kvixwiK; Zuvi iPbv mePq Kg eywMZ, mePq ewk
ebjZv mb 1942 (cl 1349) gvU KweZv 12 Bw`q wbfi| Zuvi GB weklZB KxUm& I wcivdvjvBUi K_v gb Kwiq `q|
ebjZv mb (Gici mshvRb Ki cKvk) Rxebvb`i KweZv mK iex`bv_ ejQb wP^ic| Rxebvb`K
1952 (kveY 1359) gvU KweZv 21 ejv nq evsjv Kvei RMZ Bgckwb ; Avmj Bgckwbiv hyweywi Dci
gnvcw_ex 1944 (kveY 1351) gvU KweZv 25 wbfi bv Ki gvbwmK AbylK ewk iZ `q| Subjective Naturalism
mvZwU Zvivi wZwgi 1948 (AMnvqY 1355) gvU KweZv 40 KB cavb gb Kiv nq G | evsjv mvwnZ Rxebvb` cieZxKvji Kwe`i
k KweZv 1954 (ekvL 1361) gvU KweZv 51 KweZvi h cwieZbi aviv ZvZI wK Subjective Naturalism Gi
AMwZ KweZv 396 cvavb cqQ| GgbwK GKwesk kZKi KweZvi H GKwU avivevwnK
BsivwR KweZv 10wU cevn j Kwi|
KveiPbv Qvov 11wU Dcbvm 100wU M,38wU ce (evsjvq)| GQvov ebjZv mb KveMw U GK cqmvq GKwU bvg KweZv feb 202 ivmwenvix
9wU BsivwRZ jLv ce cKvwkZ nqQ| Aviv wKQy jLv _vKe ejB gb nq GwfwbD KjKvZv _K cKvwkZ nq wWm^i 1942 (cl 1349)| `vg Pvi Avbv|
Ze Zv fwelZi Dci Qo `Iqv Qvov Avi Dcvq bB| QvUv M Rji bvq eBwU Kwei RxweZKvjB cKvwkZ| c_g msiY gvU 12wU KweZv| Gi ci
Kib Zvi jLv KweZvi Av`jB iLQb| bvgKiY Avi KweZvq eeZ ki 1952 (kveY 1359) Aviv KweZv mshvRb Ki eBwU cKvwkZ nq| ZLb ZvZ
..... AmvaviY| AvKvLv - Kvgbvi wejvm,m - wbtm, igvsmnxb, wbvg mv, 21wU KweZv mshvRb Kiv nq| c_g h 12wU KweZv msKjb _vK mwj nj
gq gvbyl, gq gvbyl`i NvY, gq gvbyl`i igvsm BZvw` Dj-LhvM| 1| ebjZv mb - cl 1342, 2| Kzwo eQi ci - cl 1342,3| nvIqvi ivZ -
Rxebvb` `vk Zuvi RxweZKvj KweZvi eBZjvK wbwjwLZ wewk P 1342, 4| Avwg hw` nZvg - P 1342, 5| Nvm - H 6| nq wPj - H, 7|
ewi bvg DrmM Kib| Avi Gi ga w`q Kwei Ai RMZi wKQy cwiPq AekB eybvnuvm - Avlvp 1343, 8| kLgvjv - H 9| bM wbRb nvZ - Avwkb 1343, 10|
cvIqv hvq| wkKvi - H, 11| nwiYiv - cl 1343, 12| eovj - P 1343
SivcvjK -Kjvbxqvg, a~mi cvywjwc - ey`e emy, icmx evsjv - Gici Aviv 21wU KweZv mshvRb Ki ebjZv mb bvg w`q 1952
Avengvb evsjv, evOvjx; ebjZv mb - GK RvqMvq GKwU KweZvfeb cKvwkZ nq| mvj mshvwRZ msiY cKvwkZ nq| A_vr AvMi 12wU I cii 21wU gvU 33wU
gnvcw_ex cg` wg, mq fvPvh wcqeily, mvZwU Zvivi wZwgi gvqyb KweZvi msKjb ebjZv mb KveMw U hv GLb cvIqv hvq| cii 21wU KweZvwj
Kwei ezeily| nj 1| my`kbv - 1358 Avlvp, 2| AKvi - 1356 P, 3| Kgjvjey - 1344
Rxebvb` `vki KweZvcvVi AvjvPbvi ^v_ Kwei wbR^ wKQy ee cl 4| kvgjx - 1356 (kvi`xqv `k - G cKvwkZ) 5| `yRb - 1357 ekvL, 6|
85 86
Aekl - 1348 ekvL, 7| ^ci awbiv - 1344 cl 8| AvgvK Zzwg - 1358 AvRKi Rxebi UzKiv UzKiv mvai GB e_Zv I AKvi| ebjZv mb bvgi
Avlvp, 9| avb KvUv nq MQ - 1358 Avwkb, 10| wkixli Wvjcvjv - 1358 KweZvwU hw` nq ivgvi Kzqvkv Ze Avwg hw` nZvg KweZvwU eveZvi `pZv
Avlvp 11| nvRvi eQi ay Ljv Ki - 1343 Avwkb 12| myibv - 1354 kvi`xq wbq Rxebi Mvb| ebjZv mb Gi KweZvq Rxeb mgy`mgvb -wK GB KweZvq Kwe
(hyMvi) 13| wgZfvlY - 1355 kvi`xq (Avb`evRvi) 14| mweZv - 1354, 15| AvKvki icvjx kmi fZi Mv fvmvbv A_ev wji k,m_vq wcbi Dj-vm
mPZbv - 16| ANvb cvi - 1358 Avwkb, 17| c_ nuvUv - , 18| Avengvb - - Kwei K nvRvi Mvb|
1958 mshvRb Aviv KweZv, 19| wfwLwi - 1347 cl (wbi), 20| ZvgvK Ze ck RvM, ebjZv mb KweZvwU Kx cgi KweZv bq? wKsev Acgi
- 1348 ekvL (cwiPq)| KweZv ? KweZvwU cojB evSv hvq cg GB KweZvi g~j welq bq wK Kwei
KweZvwji iPbvKvj A_ev cKvkKvj ai wePvi Kij `Lv hvQ c_g AwiZv Rxeb cgi Avkqi AvKvLv AvQ| cKwZ BwZnvm cyivbi QQvqvq
cKvki mv_ mshvwRZ msiYi ga wei dvivK AvQ| c_g cKvki KweZvwji cgi kvw weivRgvb| mB cgi KvQB GB KweZvi kl `ywU Q
iPbvKvj / cKvkKvj 1342 G QqwU KweZv evwK 5wU KweZv 1343 Gi mgqKvj| me cvwL Ni Avq, me b`x dzivq G Rxebi me jb `b,
wK 1952 mvj mshvwRZ KweZvwj jLv nqQ 1344 _K 1358 Gi ga| _vK ay AKvi, gyLvgywL ewmevi ebjZv mb|
ebjZv mb KweZvwU jLv nqQ 1342-1358 mvji jLv / cKvwkZ KweZvI evsjv Kvei BwZnvm ebjZv mb bvgK KweZvwUi GKUv wekl vb
GB KveMi AMZ| hnZz GwU GKwU KveM - myZivs GB KweZvjvi ga AvQ - wekl vbwU wbw`KiY KiQ Kvj ev mgq| evsjv Kvei KweZvi BwZnvm
Kvb gvayh AvQ wKbv mUvI AvjvPbvi ga Avmv DwPZ ejB gb Kwi| KviY wbQK Kg bq| ARm Kwei cwZfvi weQyiY evsjv KweZvi avivK Aviv Mievj
1342 I 1358 Gi ga mgqi eeavb wei| nq Kvb AvwK wKsev welqi KiQ, m`n bvB| wK GmeK Qvwoq Rxebvb`i ebjZv mb -Gi `xNZg Pjv
weePbv Gi ga mvRv m`q cvVKi ga ^vfvweK ejB gb nq| gvbyli gb I gbbK Qvwoq hvQ| AwZv mgq KweZvwUK Aviv cj KiQ
ebjZv mb cgi Avkq| Ze m Avkq kLwjZ bq - gy| Lye mvcb m`n bvB| wK Kx AvQ GZ? KbB ev AvaywbK gbK Avwe Ki ivLQ GB
Abyfe AvQ ZvZ - GKv wbR^| Qvqv cQvqv AvQ wK Kvb wavq we`xb bq KweZv| Avwg cPwjZ h mg AvjvPbv Mw_Zhkv mgvjvPK AavcKMY KiQb
mB cg| mB A_ Agi cgI bq Zv| KweZvq kixix M Ub GbQb eU Ze mmei cwZ kv iLB KweZvwUi wbwe cvVK wnmveB welqwUK `LwQ| Wt
wK Zv kixix nqI kixix M gLI Zv wbRjv| Akixix cg Zv bqB| Rxebvb` mykxjKzgvi evsjv KveexY M Rxebvb`i ebjZv mb mK wjLQb
iex` cgi gvayh LuvRv wbj| wbivc AvuPnxb cg - mKj Rxebi Avkq wK - ebjZv mbK Acg ev cgnxbZvi KweZv ejv mZ bq, Kbbv Gi wfZi
mLvb BwZnvm cyivbi evZvm Nviv Avmw wbq DcwZ| cgi kixix M _vKjI cgi ^xKwZ I cig cvwi wbweo I Dj BwZ eZgvb| AvcvZ weini Mfxi
Zvi `~iZ wbq _vKv| bv nj ebjZv mb Avcwb m^vab `~iZ iv KiQb| cwZkZ I cvw_Z wgjb Ges wemb I Awbevh `~iZi Aivj wbwZ I Awbw`Z
ebjZv mb hyM mgxvi KweZv - cgi eb GB KweZvi AvjvP welq bq| hw`I mvwba ebjZv mbi BwZevPK cgi ewk| ebjZv mb KweZvq cgi ^xKwZ
cgi ivgvwUK Aven KweZvwUK GKUv Ab gvvq eis Ab gvayh wbq MQ| AvQ wK cig cvwi wbweo Dj BwZi Aevb Kv_vq ? mUv `Ljvg bv|
Zzjbvq Kwei PZz_ KweZvwU Avwg hw` nZvg, - G dvybi ivZ AvKvk icvjx cKwZ - cg - mgq - BwZnvm - cyivb Avi mme Qvwoq gZz Avevi gZyi Aevb K
kmi wfZi Mv fvmvj ebnsmx ic cwgKv I ebnsm ic Kwe ^qs cwgKi Qvwoq RxebPZbv Rxebeva - wbq Rxebvb`| Rxebvb`i ebjZv mb I Abvb
K nvIqvi Mvb AbK ewk Rxebi AbK ewk eveevai mv_ aiv co| AbK KweZvZ hLvb cgi AwZi BwZ eZgvb - mwjK Avwg wbwjwLZ
cgi kw wcbi Dj-vm - Gi Dcjw KweZvi DcRxe welq| cg aiv Quvqvi fve mvwRq `Iqvi Pv KiwQ|
Avkq nq DVQ Kwe hLb ejb, Zvgvi cvLvq Avevi cvjK / Avevi cvLvq 1| cg AvQ Ze cg wwZ bB| Kv_vI cg `uvwoq _vKwb|
Zvgvi ii `b| Zzwg - Avwg, ebnsm - ebnsmx, dvybi ivZ, AvKvki icvjx 2| cg AZv AvQ| AbKUvB Svcmv aymiZv|
kmi wfZi Mv fvmv - Rxebi ^v` Kwei eve cgi Av^v` Gi k jM AvQ| 3| we`yrjZvi gZb PgK IVvi gZb cgi DcwwZ PgwKZ Ki wK
Rxeb GLvb mePq mRxe, mPj| gZzi Kvb kB GB c_g Kvbv KweZvq Avevi Zvi wewjbZv AvQ| wewjb nq hvq|
Rxebvb`i ga cvB bvB| cvkvcvwk - bB eis cwZmgqi gZzK wZwb AwZg 4| cg wbweZv bB| eve _K `~i - A AvjvZ Luy R cZ nq|
KiQb - cgi k Rxebi GB UzKiv UzKiv gZz Avi _vKZ bv| _vKZ bv ek LvwbKUv `~iZ AvQ|
87 88
5| eveZvi gvwUZ cgi Aevb ivLb wb| Ges AZxZi jy Kvb
Mwigvq - welv` - gZzi cvLvZ ZvK Aevb iLQb| iex`bv_i ivRbwZK gZv`k I wkvwPv
6| h Kvb KweZvi gZb cg cKwZi mnvevb Rxebvb`i Kvei msMxZv PeZx
mvaviY ewki ga j Kiv hvq|
7| cg gZz Lye KvQvKvwQ Aevb| !yy y!y
8| cg BwZnvm cyivb Lye KvQ cvq nvZ aivawi Ki _vK| iex`bv_ VvKzii ivRbwZK `kb AZ RwUj| mvgvRev` I DM RvZxqZvev`i
9| BwZnvm cyivb cg A~Z ivgvi mw KiQ| weivwaZv KijI wZwb fviZi ^vaxbZv Av`vjb RvZxqZvev`x bZeMK mg_b
10| cg igvsmi gvbyli h_ PZbvi viv Avv bq - Avevi cg RvwbqwQjb| 1890 mvj cKvwkZ gvbmx KveMi KqKwU KweZvq iex`bv_i
BDUvwcqvq bq| cgi Aevb kl ch `y ` v kvw cvwLi c_g Rxebi ivRbwZK I mvgvwRK wPvfvebvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| wn`y - Rvgvb
bxoi Avkqi kvw - ckvwZ| loh gvgjvi Z_ cgvY Ges cieZxKvj cKvwkZ Z_ _K Rvbv hvq, iex`bv_
cw_exi me is gyQ hvIqv - AKvi (bvg Avmj LvwbKUv Aemi Avm)| M`i lohi K_v ay RvbZbB bv, eis D loh Rvcvbx cavbgxi mvnvhI
Aemii Avkq cg| cgi wwZZ Kvb cwiYwZ AZ ebjZv mbi Kwei cv_bv KiwQjb| Avevi 1925 mvj cKvwkZ GKwU ce ^`kx Av`vjbK
bB| me cvwLi, me b`xi cwiYwZi mv_ Kwei cwiYwZ H GKB Avme| PiKv mswZ ej we`c Ki iex`bv_ KVvi fvlvq Zvi weivwaZv Kib| wewUk
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ewmevi ebjZv mb AbycwZv - igvsmi bvix bB - cyilI bB| GKgv GKUv weK eev wnmve eni RbmvaviYi ^wbfiZv I ewK DbwZi Dci AwaK
Aemii ckvw _vK Kwei myL| iZ Avivc Kib wZwb| fviZevmxK A wec-ei cv ZvM Ki `p I cMwZkxj
avb KvUv nq MQ - AvU cswwUi KweZvi c_g eK Pvi csw) wkvi cvwUK MnY Kivi Avnvb Rvbvb iex`bv_|
AwZv mgqi msKZ| NygvZQ KqKwU cwiwPZ jvK AvR hgb wbweo| iex`bv_i GB aiYi gZv`k AbKKB wez Ki Zvj| 1916 mvji
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Dci vwcZ eMvKvi cQ`i gw`i| gw`iwU cvq lvUdzU DuPz| Diw`K ev` 1| mg fvPvh, Gwkqvi eng wkewj eZgvb cwKv KjKvZv 11/10/2009|
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NUvi j^Q`i gZ weij| gw`ii cuvPwU cekwLjvb I MfMni wZbwU cek 1999,(1405 ev)|
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111 112
into commodities, selling themselves to the buyers who of-
eZgvb wkveevi msKU t GKwU g~jvqY fer the maximum prize.4
AjvK wekvm GB wkvcwZvbwj wkveevK aygv cY icvwiZ KiB v nqwb| The
y!hs% private education section converts education into a com-
modity and takes all creativity out of it.5
GKwU mgvRi DbqYi GKwU wbw` chvq wbqYg~jK A_bwZK eev wfw 1947 - G gZv nvii c~e wkv eev hiKg wQj GLbI g~jZ
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cvi bv| enr cyuwRev`x kwY D`vixKiY, emiKvixKiY, wekvqb BZvw`i bvg wevii nvi LyeB Kg| DP wkvi GKPwUqv AwaKvi cKZ c DPkwY I RvwZi
A_bxwZK eua iLQ| AwaKvi iqQ| DP wkv eqej I DPwkv cwZvbwjZ cwZhvwMZvg~jK
The Human Development Report 2002 fwZi Zzjbvq DPkwYi Qj-gqiv AwaK myweav cvq| AavcK bvi wgiWvj
(UNDP) -G ejv nqQ, eq wkvi nvi, cv_wgK I gvawgK wkvi eZgvb wkv eev mK wjLQb, conformed closely to the old
fviZ cw_exi 173wU `ki ga 141Zg vb iqQ| ^vaxbvi fviZel colonial pattern of building up a highly educated elite with
wkv chv A_ ewqZ nqwb| AavcK cfvZ cbvqKi gZ, Infact an attached lower rank subalterns,while leaving the popu-
the proportional GDP that the white supermaclist South Af- lation at large in a state of ignorance.6
rica State spent on the education,of the black majority even wevfb kwYi ga wekl Ki abx I Mixe, wkwZ I AwkwZ kwYi
during the apartheid period,notwithstanding the massive ga mvgvwRK `~iZ eoB PjQ| hnZz mvaviY RbMYi HwZni g~j wkv
drain on its excuequer that the maintennance of the highly cvw_Z bq, ZvB wkwZ mgvR Zvi mswZ _K wewQb nq hvQ| eZgvb
Oppressive Police Military and intelligence apparatus en- wkveevq wewfb Kvm GKNqgx jKPvi evei msk _K AbK `~i|
tailed at the time, was higher than what the Indian State has APj gyL we`v, cvkdj c_v Ges wekwe`vjqwji bwZK Aeq AvR wkv
even done throughout its entire post independence history.1 eevi AbZg ewk| Kgmsvbi xY cZvkv we`v_x`i MvUv wkveev
mvcwZKKvj wkveevi emiKvwiKiYi nvi ew cqQ| dj mK nZvk Ki ZzjQ|7
wkv GKwU cY icvwiZ nqQ| myKv Payixi gZ, Education itself
becomes a consumer industry, starting from kindergarten.2 M c x:
G cm Agj ni ge cwYavbhvM| Zuvi gZ, But we should keep in
mind that education is not a hpmogenous good, like steel 1. Prof.Prabhat patnaik : convocation address, seventh
or cement. It is rather fundamentally heterogeneous.3 convocation, Nov.14,2003,University of Kalyani, in Amal
eZgvb Avgv`i mgvR wkv mvc`vwqK I iYkxj kwi cfve Guha : Types of allienation towards Marxs Perception,
ew cqQ hv cKZ evwbK Abymwrmvi gvivZK wZKviK| Gi dj Readers service,Kolkata, first published 2016, p - 224.
DP wkvi Aeg~jvqb NUQ hv cKZc mvgvRev`x gZv`ki AvgYi wei
`kK ewKfve wbi Ki ZzjQ| 2. Sukanta Chaudhury : Education and equality, The Tele-
eZgvb emiKvwi wkvcwZvbwj evOi QvZvi gZv MwRq DVQ| graph, 17 june & 18 june, 2013. In Amal Guha : Types of
GB wkv cwZvbwji GKgv j gybvdv ARb| They charge exorbi- allienation towards Marxs Perception, Readers
tant fees,which often force students to take education loan service,Kolkata, first published 2016, p - 224.
and to pay back these loans they have to turn themselves

113 114
3. Amal Guha : Types of allienation towards Marxs Per- msZ bvU mvwnZ bvixPwi wbgvY wj
ception, Readers service,Kolkata, first published 2016, p -
224. elg t GKwU AvjvPbv
4. Prof.Prabhat patnaik : Learning as commodity. The Tele-
gvnb Kzgvi gj
graph, 17th April, 2014. , !y yyy
5. Prof.Prabhat patnaik : Learning as commodity. The Tele- bvUmvwnZ bvixK fvMe I cY`e wnmve cyilK mvnm hywMqQ c~eeZx
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wji Ae`vb mevM| g~jZt gnvKvweK HwZnK AbymiY Ki bvUmvwnZ bvixK
6. Gunnar Myrdal, Asian Drama, vol. iii, p - 1669 fvMZ I cYZB ekx Rvi `Iqv nqQ| gnvKve ivgP` mxZvK cZvLvb
Kievi mgq ejQb, cinMZv bvixK wZwb fvM KiZ cvieb bv| ^fveZB ck
7. Amal Guha : Types of allienation towards Marxs Per- RvM, Zvnj cvPxb fviZ bvixcyili mKi g~j imvqbUv Kx? Kb axi axi
ception, Readers service,Kolkata, first published 2016, p - bvixi ewZ m~Y Aejy nq eZ cwiYZ nj| v`kx bvUKvi`i jLbxZ
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117 118
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gb Kwiq `q|
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jvB bvixi f~lY| ZvB Kvgbvi cKvk I bvixK nZ nqQ webqevwiZewt 1| HZiq evY (6/3/7/13) 2| gvqYx mswnZv (1/10/11/3/6/3) 3|
g`bt|(kKzjv 2/11)|23 Kvwj`vm ZvB ejQb bvwqKv gyLvgywL njI gQKwUKg& (1/50) 4| ^cevme`g& (4/8) 5| ^cevme`g& / c_gv 6|
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bvixi ^vaxbZv Le Kiv nqQ| bvixcyili cgwbe`bI elg j Kiv hvq| 9| DiivgPwiZ (1/5) 10| DiivgPwiZ (1/12) 11| DiivgPwiZ (1/13)
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fve Ki AKviYB wKQyY `uvwoq iBjv| MvQi Wvj cwiaq ej Rwoq bv 15| DiivgPwiZ /mgv 16| AwfvbkKzjg& (4/18) 17| AwfvbkKzjg&
MjI Zv Lvjvi fvb Ki Avgvi w`K gyL Nywiq wQj|24 GUvB wK bvixi ^vaxb (4/19) 18| gbyieYvkgag| nxi`bv_ ` 19| AwfvbkKzjg& c_gv 20|
mv ? evrmvqb Zvi Kvgm~ c_g hebv gy bvwqKvi h jY w`qQb Kv_vI AwfvbkKzjg& cgv 21| AwfvbkKzjg& (5/20) 22| AwfvbkKzjg&
hb GKmyZvq euvav ej gb nq| cw_eRbvr civevwc`kYg&| Kvgm~| ev Ys (5/21) 23| AwfvbkKzjg& (2/11) 24| AwfvbkKzjg& c_gv 25|
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119 120
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GLvb ck Avm KcvnZv KvK ej? GB cki Di ejv hvq - KcvnZv gvbyli _vKv DPZ| GQvov gvbyli wbRi Rxebi Dci c~Y AwaKvi _vK| m BQv
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121 122
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AbwZK nZ cvi bv| euvPvi BQv KLbI KLbI nqZv `yej nq hvq| Avgiv hLb ivMM nB, hYvq
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bq| b`vijvm&-G KcvnZvK Abvq ej MY Kiv nq bv| mLvb cwZ eQi cvq KcvnZv bwZK w`K _K gvUB Kvg bq|
2,300 gvbyl KcvnZvq cvY ZvM KiQ| hw`I ekxifvM `kB KcvnZvK bwZK QvU eo mKj cvYxiB euP _vKvi c~Y AwaKvi AvQ| KviviB Kviv
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KcvgZzKvgx ewwU Avi wKQyw`b euP _vKj m nqZv AbK gnr KvR KiZ 1| ZMZ bxwZwe`v I eenvwiK bxwZwe`v Wt mgi` fvPvh
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wQj, ivMwU Avmj AbvivM bq| Avevi GgbI nZ cvi h, fyj wPwKrmvi Rb 5| gaym~`b iPbvejx mvwnZ msm`, KvjKvZv- 9
hYvi Dckg nqwb - mwVK Jla cqvM Kiv Mj hYv gy nZ| wPwKrmv wevbi 6| fviZxq `kb Wt mgi` fvPvh
123 124
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bxj`y wekvm GK RvwZ wnmve wPwZ KiB hveZxq MelYv Kg cwiPvwjZ nq GmQ| Gi KviY
wnmve ejv hvq Avw`evmx mgvRi hveZxq AvPvi eenvi I wqvKjvc cPwjZ mf
y# xy z!y !y ~ ~ ! mgvRi wbKUnxb I bxP wnmeB cwiwPwZ jvf KiQ| g~jmvZi wecixZ Avw`evmx
^vaxbvi cwge mvZ `kK AwKv nZ PjQ, AvR Avw`evmx bvix`i Aevi mgvRi Rxeb hvcb cwZ cPwjZ mgvRi PvL GK Ab gvv cq GmQ| ZvB
cwieZb nqwb| AiY wbfi Avw`evmx mgvR AvaywbK mfmgvRi jvjmvi wkKvi Avw`evmx mgvRi bvix`i ghv`vi ck wbq AvjvPbv Kij AbK cmB AvjvwPZ
nq AKvii Mfxi Mnb nvwiq hvQ| cUi Uvb Zv`i wfbivR cwihvqxi nevi mvebv `Lv `q| wK h welq Avgv`i `w Avw`evmx bvix`i cwZ ewk
Rxebhvcb KiZ nQ| KvR `evi bvg Ki e Avw`evmx bvix nvwiq hvQ| hv`i AvKwlZ nq Zv nj Avw`evmx`i hbZv Ges WvBbx c_v| Giga hbZv ejZ
Kvb mwVK cwimsLvb cvIqv hvq bv| Dci Avw`evmx mgvRi wbR^ mswZKI Avw`evmx bvix`i hb Rxebhvcb cwZi K_v evSvbv nq| Avgiv Rvwb h Avw`evmx
bvix`i Aev Lye myLKi bq& SvoMvg _K euvKzov, cyiwjqv _K exif~g, `ygKv bvix hb Rxebi hiKg ^vaxbZv jvf Ki, Zv mf mgvRi wbKU Kvg Zv
_K eagvb, Kvjbv, KvUvqvZ GBfve e Avw`evmx bvix cwZwbqZ hb wbhvZbi bqB eis evwfPvii bvgvi| wKy Avw`evmx bvix`i hb Rxeb cwZ mK
wkKvi nQ| A_P gZvnxb I cwZivanxb Avw`evmx bvixi Dci hb wnsmvi h_v_ wPv fvebvi Afvei dj G welq miKg MelYv nqwb, njI Zv m~Y
mgmvwU ivRbxwZ, MYgvag I mgvRwevbi KvQ DcwZ _K MQ| cwZKvii wfb `wfwi AvjvK Kiv nqQ| ZvB Avw`evmx bvix`i hbZv wbq miKg wP
Dcvq bB Rb bvixi wbtk mg AZvPvi mn Ki hvq| mvgvwRK Acev`i v fvebv bv nIqvq mf mgvRi wbKU Zv Dcbxq nq _KQ| Avw`evmx bvixK
fq Zviv GgbwK cywjki KvQI AwfhvM RvbvZ cvi bv| Avevi DbqYi bvg ZvB `Lv nqQ wfb PvL, h PvL bvixK nxb Ges hbZvi bvg evwfPvi ej
miKvix ZrciZv Avw`evmx`i RxebK Ki ZzjQ AviI `ywemn| miKvix DbqYi cwZcb KiQ| wK Avw`evmx bvix Zv`i ewebvm, weevn, weevnc~e hb mK
Rb eiv A_ ev cKwj Avw`evlx AaywlZ GjvKvq cuQZ cvi bv| ZvB vcb, weevn weQ` wKsev msRbb hfve ^Q` MwZZ AMmi nqQ, hv mf
Avw`evmx bvixK cwZwbqZ jovB KiZ nQ Zv`i AwZ ivq| mgvRi wbKU ghv`v cvqwb| A_P G welq Avgv`i cqvRb Avw`evmx bvix`i
Avw`evmx bvixi Av_-mvgvwRK cvcU wek-lY ^vfvweKfveB AiYi hb Rxeb mK h_v_ I mvweK mgxv wbfi vb|
m Zv`i mKi K_v DV Avm| AiYwbfi A_bxwZK Avw`evmxiv wKfve
Zv`i DbqYi gvag wnmve MnY Ki, mK_v wek-lYi cvkvcvwk `LZ ne hb Rxeb mK Avw`evmx`i aviYv t gvbyli `n I gbi ga mymvgm
miKvix DbqYg~jK Kgm~Px Zv`i Rxebhvvq Kvb cwieZb AvbZ cviQ wKbv| eRvq ivLvi ^vQ`gq hbRxebi cqvRb AekB AvQ| Rxe wekl
eni ivxq DbqY Kgm~Pxi myhvM Avw`evmx`i Dci Av` Kvb cfve djQ cwZwU cvYxi B GK_v chvR| gvbyl hnZz cvYxKzji ga mevwaK vb I
wKbv ev Kx Kx mgmv G `Lv w`Q Zv chvjvPbv Kiv `iKvi| Avevi Avw`evmx PZbv mb nIqvq m Abvb cvYxi Pq kZ ARb KiQ| wKy gvbe mgvR
bvixi mvgvwRK ghv`vi ck Zv`i hbZvK hfve AvaywbK mf mgvR Dcvcb hbZvi mK cvYx mgvRi bvq ^vaxb I meRbxb bq| mvgvwRK wewawbla,
Kiv nQ Zv Avmj AvaywbKZvi weKZ icwUB cwZdwjZ KiQ| nqZv GB KviYB wbqgbxwZ I AvBbKvbyb ZvK gb PjZ nq| ZvB hbZvi bvg h_QvPvi ev
Avw`evmx bvix AwZgvvq hb wbhvZbi wkKvi nQ| Avw`evmx bvix`i GB wewP ^QvPviK mLvb evwfPvii bvgvi ej gb Kiv nq| weevnc~e hb mK
A_bwZK I mvgvwRK mgmv Zv`i AwZi c_ Aivqi mw KiQ, hv `~i Kiv vcbK ZvB KLbB mybRi `Lv nq bv| weevnc~e hb mK vcbnxb bvixKB
bv Mj fviZi Avw`g RbMvxi AwZB wejy nq hve| mfmvgR cwe ej gb Kiv nq| wK Avw`evmx mgvR hbZvi aviYv mf
mvgvwRK Avw`evmx bvixi vb ev ghv`v wbq MelYv nqwb Ggb bq, mgvRi Pq c_K|
weevn c_v, ii mK, wkv, AvPvi Abyvb, agxq wekvm, DivwaKvi BZvw` Avw`evmx bvixi hbZvi mK wek-lYi ck h mg welqi Dci
welq Avw`evmx`i wbq h mg MelYv Kg nqQ Zv _K Avw`evmx bvix`i `w c`kb KiZ nq Zvi ga GKwU iZc~Y welq nQ NvUzj ev Dormi-
mvgvwRK ghv`vi K_v Dcjw Kiv hvq| wK mgvR Avw`evmx bvix`i ghv`v ejZ tory club | NvUzj ejZ evSvq Avw`evmx mgvRi Ggb GKwU hb mK
wVK wK evSvbv nq Zv wbq weZK AekB AvQ| GKw`K Avw`evmx bvix`i ghv`v g~jK cwZvb,hLvb Avw`evmx hyeK hyeZxiv weevni c~e GK emevm KiZ
125 126
cvi| weevni c~e hyeK hyeZx`i ga hb mK vcbi cqvRb GB NvUzj- wbwl bv nIqvq Avw`evmx bvix Zvi wbRi BQv I cQ`gZv Rxebmx wbevPb
Gi AvqvRb Kiv nq| RvwZ wekl Avw`evmx mgvR NvUzj wfb bvg cwiwPZ| KiZ cvi| Rxebmx wbevPbi Ggb cwe mK eRvq _vK h wKQy wKQy
IivIu`i NvUzjK ejv nq aygKzwiqv, gyv`i NvUzjK ejv nq wMwUIiv| Avw`evmx hyeK hyeZx`i ga weevn ev eevwnK mK vwcZ bv njI
NvUzj-G wKfve Avw`evmx hyeZx`i hb mK vwcZ nq m cm `Lv hvq, Zv`i Ai mK vcb Kvb evav _vK bv| eZ NvUzj Rxeb Avw`evmx mgvR
gyv`i Mvg GKwU Uvjv ev evmvb wbw` Kiv _vK hLvb gyv hyeK GZB Rbwcq h A eqm _KB D`vniY I eenvwiK wkvi cwkYi gvag
hyeZxiv GK wgwjZ nq| GB Uvjv ev wbw` Kiv evmvb Kvb ev ev weaev Qj gq`i hb wqvi Kkj kLvbv nq| Kvb Kvb Drmei w`b
gwnjvi MnI nZ cvi| mvi Lvevi ci GK GKwU Uvjvq gyv hyeK hyeZxiv Avb`, bvP Mvbi gvag cYq wqvi m~cvZ NU Ges Zvici Kvb wbRb ev Mfxi
wgwjZ nq| mLvb Zv`i wewfb jvKKvwnbx kvbvb nq Ges Zvici hyeK hyeZxiv AiY Zvi wgwjZ nq| A_vr weevnc~e hb msmMK Avw`evmx mgvR KzbRi `Lv
hbwqvq wj nq| GBfve NvUzjB gyv hyeK hyeZx`i hb wkv nq| IivIu`i nq bv| muvIZvj`i gaI `Lv hvq kvnivB I mij Drmei w`b hyeK hyeZxiv
`Lv hvq IivIu gqiv mvaviYZ NvUzjB ivx hvcb Ki| Avi mRb ^vaxbfveB hb msmM wj nq| GB hb msmMi dj muvIZvj gqwU Atmv
hyeZx`i NvUzji Dci KVvi bRi`vwii eev Kiv nq| eZ Avw`evmx hyeK nq coj ZeB weevni cqvRb nq| mswk- hyeK weevn mwZ bv w`j Aci
hyeZx`i weevni c~e wZb eQi wbw` Kiv _vK| GB wZb eQii ga NvUzjB Kvb cyili m gqwUi weevn `Iqv nq|
Zv`i hbwkv mb KiZ nq| AvaywbK mgvR hb mK vcbi NUbvK weevn cieZx Aavq wnmve
NvUzj-G Avw`evmx hyeK hyeZx`i hb wkv mK fwiqvi GjDBb wPwZ Kiv njI Avw`evmx mgvR Gi wfbZi cwqv cwijwZ nq| mLvb weevn
iZcY~ Z_ iL MQb| gywiqv RvwZi ga NvUzj Rxeb mK GjDBb ejQb, ev hyeK-hyeZx`i mvsmvwiK Rxebi mvcvb ^ic Kvb agxq Abyvb nqbv| GwU
The Murias had a simple,innocent and natural sex.In Ghotul nj GKcKvi Pzw, agxq wbqg Kvbyb mLvb chvR bq| weevni e cvB Avw`evmx
this was strengthened by the absence of any sence of guilt mgvR cPwjZ AvQ| ciii mwZg, cvwjq wMq, wewbgqi gvag, ew`bx
and general freedom from external interference .... this be- Ki, GgbwK q KiI weevn Kiv nq _vK| Gmei cvkvcvwk wcZvgvZvi viv
lief in sex as something good and normal gave the Murias AvqvwRZ weevni cPjbI AvQ| hyeK hyeZx Dfqi mwZg wcZv gvZv weevni
as light touch .... Sex was great fun; it was the best of Ghotul AvqvRb Ki| wK G KbvcYi GKwU iZc~Y f~wgKv AvQ| nv mgvR
games, it was the dance of enraptured bodies; it was an hw`I `Lv hvq h ^vgxi Zzjbvq xi eqm AbK ewk nq| nv mgvR gvNx cie
ecstatic swinging in the armes of the beloved. It ought not Dcj hyeK hyeZxiv Aeva hb wgjb NUvq Ges G AbK weevni NUbvI
to be too intense; it must not be degrated by possessive- NU| Ze nv mgvRi GKwU weklZ AvQ, bvix cyili `xNKvjxb cYq mKK
ness or defiled by jealousy. It was belief that the best and wUwKq ivLvi Kvb evaevaKZv c_v GLvb bB| wK A_ DcvRbi Rb Ab
most successfull sex relations were to be had in the mod- hZ nj `xNKvjxb mK Mo IV| A_vr bvix cyili ga wbqwgZ hb msmM
ern Ghotul where partners often changed ....we may also NUj ZeB Zv`i ^vgx x ej MY Kiv nq|
consider how the Ghotul boys and girls were almost com- Avw`evmx bvix`i GB hb ^vaxbZvi aviYvwU hw`I Abvw`evmx mgvRi
pletely freedom those furtive and unpleasant vices that so PvL wfbZi A_ enb Ki| AvaywbK mf mgvR Avw`evmx bvix`i MwYKv wnmveB
mar our modern civilization. There was unknown, unthink- MY Ki| hKviY `Lv hvq Kvb Avw`evmx bvix Kgi Rb Ab Mgb Kij
able. No motiary would ever give her body for money. Abvw`evmx cyil KZK alYi wkKvi nq| GgbwK KbUvi ev KgiZ kwgKivI
hb mK vcb Avw`evmx hyeK hyeZx`i NvUzj eZxZ AviI wKQy ejc~eK Avw`evmx bvixK alY Ki _vK| GB hb mK ev alYi dj Avw`evmx
cv cPwjZ wQj| wKQy agxq DrmeI (evnv I kvnivB) Aeva hb mK vcbi bvixwU Atmv ev MfeZx nq coj Avw`evmx mgvR ZvK gb bq bv Ges m
ixwZ cPwjZ wQj| Avevi AvLivi Mvb I bvPwjZ ivgvwUK hb Avfvl cvIqv Avw`evmx mgvR _K ewnKZ nq| Avw`evmx cyil Kvb Abvw`evmx cyil KZK
hvq| G miKvwi k cKvk Kiv bv njI Avfvl BwZi gvag hb Kvgbv eeZ bvixK weevn KiZ ivwR nq bv| hw` mB bvixi wbR^ Rwg _vK Ges cPzi
cKvk Kiv nq| ZvB `Lv hvq weevnc~e hb mK vcbi NUbv Avw`evmx mgvR A_ c`vb Ki, ZeB ZvK Avw`evmx mgvR MnY Kiv nq|
127 128
weevn weQ` Ges cybweevn c_vi cPjb Avw`evmx mgvR cPwjZ AvQ| Kej cyil`i mwZ cwiYZ Kiv nqQ| GB fve wblavv Rvwi Ki mvgvwRK
weevn weQ`i cvZ ek wKQy KviY _vKZ cvi| mvaviY KviYwji ga mK wji f~wgKvK evLv Ki Ges hbZvi m ^vaxbZv I wbfiZvi mKi
mvsmvwiK Akvw, AmyZ v,wekvmNvZKZv,hb msmM AgZv, mvb aviY AgZv mZZvK cgvY Ki|
BZvw`| Ze weevn weQ`i viv Avw`evmx mgvR bvixiv Zv`i c~eZ
b ghv`v nvivq| bvixi hbZvK Avw`evmx cyil AbfveI wbqY Ki _vK| Kvb
mgvR Zv`i wbPz PvL `Lv nq| cyil`i cybweevn mnR njI bvixi Avw`evmx bvixi weevn ewnf~Z mK _vKj Zv Zvi ^vgxi wbKU wekvmNvZKZvi
gvUB mnR wQj bv| mvaviYZ weevn wewQbv Avw`evmx bvixK Kvb cyil cwiPq enb Ki| IivIu mgvR Kvb bvix Zvi ^vgxK cwiZvM Ki Aci Kvb
weevn KiZ ivwR nq bv| mgvRi PvL cwiZv Kvb Avw`evmx bvixK Kvb cyili m mK vcb ev weevn Kij mB bvixi wcZvgvZvK KbvcY cwikva
Avw`evmx cyil weevn KiZ ivwR nj ZvK h_ `yfvM cvnvZ nq| Kbbv, KiZ nq| Avevi gvj cvnvwoqv Avw`evmx mgvR x hw` ewfPvii AwehvM cwiZ
weevn wewQbv Avw`evmx bvixK mgvR AbwZK wec` wnmve MY Kiv nq| ZvQvov nq Zvnj mB wZxq cyilK KbvcYi mKj A_ mswk- bvixi ^vgxi nvZ
Avw`evmx mgvR A wekvm I Kzmsvii cPjb _vKvq Lye mnRB Kvb weevn cZvcb KiZ nq| A_vr Avw`evmx mgvR bvixi weevn ewnf~Z mKK m iKg
wewQbv bviwK WvBbx AvLv w`q mgvR _K ewnvi ev nZv Kiv nq| m Aciva ej MY Kiv nq bv| Avw_K wZ c~iY Ki w`jB mgmvi mgvavb nq
mB bvixK weevn KiZ ivwR nIqv cyilKI invB `Iqv nq bv| Avw`evmx _vK| Avw`evmx hb Rxebi Avi GKwU weklZ GB h Avw`evmx bvix cyili
mgvR Gi e `v cvIqv MQ| hvBnvK nv, muvIZvjiv GK weevn wekvmx GKvwaK weevn| Kvb Avw`evmx cyil hb Rxeb AZw eva Kij Aci Kvb
njI f~wZqv, bvMviv RvwZ e weevn Ki _vK| bvixi m hb mK Ave nZ cvi| G weevn nZI cvi, bvI cvi|
c_g xK Avw_K wZc~iY w`q w`jB nq, mgvRi ZvZ Kvb Avcw _vK bv|
Avw`evmx bvixi Dci cy i li hb kvlY I wbcxoY t hb mK nv mgvR nv cyili `ywU weevn nq _vK| c_g x ^vgxK KwlKvR mvnvh Ki
vcbi Avw`evmx bvix mf RMZi bvix`i Zzjbvq ewk gZv I ghv`vi Ges wZxq x msmvii `vwqZ cvjb Ki|
AwaKvix njI bvbv fveB bvixi hbZvi Dci cyil`i wbqY vcb Kiv nq| myZivs A^xKvi Kivi Dcvq bB h Avw`evmx bvixi hbZvK cyil wji
GB wbqY _K Avw`evmx mgvR bvix`i ghv`vi ^ic Dcjw Kiv hvq| mvaviYZt ewnivKwZi viv wbqY Kivi Pv Ki| wbRi `n Ges hbZvi Dci Avw`evmx
ek wKQy Avw`evmx bvixiv cyil KZK wbqwZ nq _vK| iRt^jv, Atmv bvixi AwaKvinxbZvK cyil kvmbi eni w`Ki cwZB Aywj wb`k Ki| bvixK
I wk Rbvbvi mgq Avw`evmx bvixi Dci wewawbla Avivc Kiv nq| Avevi `gb Kiv cyili AbZg nvwZqviB nj hbZv| ZvB Avw`evmx mgvR Ges cyili
KwlRwgZ jvOj Pvjvbvi I bvix`i Dci wblavv Pvcvbv nqQ| GB wbKU hbZv I wji aviYv Avjv`v wKQyB bq| ZvB Kv_vwib gvKwKbb ejZ
wblavv Aek Avw`evmx mgvR wekl wfb aiYi nq _vK| hgb - gvZZvwK ciwQjb, Sexuality ..... is a form of power. gender as so-
mgvR iRt^jv _vKvKvjxb wblavv gvb Kiv nq bv| Avevi muvIZvj, IivIu, cially of constructed embodies it. not reverse. Women and
Lvwiqv gq`i jvOj Pvjvbvi Kvb evav bB| Abw`K A Pvjbv, Mni are devided by gender. made in to the sexs. as we know
QvDwb Zix Kivi evav _vKjI h me cwievi Kvb cyil m`m bB, them. by social requirements of heterosexually. which insti-
mLvb gqivB me aiYi KvR Ki| Lvwiqv gq`i iRt^jv _vKvKvjxb Kvb tutionalize male sexual dominance and female sexual sub-
Drme hvM w`Z `Iqv nq bv Ges AwZw_ meb KiZI evav `Iqv nq| mission. if this is true. sexuality in the linchpin of gender
GB aiYi wblavvi KviY wnmve `ebv_b I Mvwe` KjKvi KqKwU equality. [Feminism, Marxism, Method and state : An
welqi cwZ `w wbc KiQb| Zv`i gZ jvOj Pvjbv,QvDwb Zixi gZ Kg Agenda Theory - Catherine Mac Kinon.]
cyiliv AvbylwK wnmve bvixK eenvi Ki _vK| bvix mnhvwMZv bv Kij GBfve Avw`evmx mgvR `Lvbv nq Avw`evmx bvixi hbZvi Dci cyili
cyili KvR mb nq bv| wK Gmei viv cyil cgvY Kivi Pv Ki h bvix KZZ Pig| GB KZZ vcbi RvwZ wekl wKQy wekl ixwZbxwZ cPwjZ
kl ch cyili Dci wbfikxj nq| Avevi Drmei w`b bvixK Drme AskMnY AvQ| IivIu`i ga GKwU ixwZi Pj AvQ| MxKvj IivIu cyiliv wkKvi
KiZ bv `Iqvi gvag Avmj ejx `Iqv ci Dci bvixi AwaKviK A^xKvi Mj IivIu gq`i hb AvKvLv mseiY KiZ nq| cyili AbycwwZZ Mvg
Kiv nq| A eenvi wblavv ev wewawbla Avivc Ki A eenvii AwaKvi AewZ gqivB cyili gZ cvkvK ci, cyil`i gZ AvPvi eenvi eRvq ivL|
129 130
GB ixwZi cvZ GKwU KviY nZ cvi, Mvgi evBi hvZ cKvk bv cvq h
Avw`evmx Mvg cyiliv bB| ZvB k AvgY cwZnZ KiZ GB cvi Avkq
gbvkjx : mvwnZvjvKi
bIqv nq| AviKwU gZ nj Mvgi Rxebhvv ^vfvweK _vKj c wkKviI mvdj GKwU ZvwK cvb
Avme| wK muvIZvj`i `Lv hvq cyili AbycwwZZ Aci Kvb cyili
m hb mK wj nj Zv GK Af jY ic weewPZ nq| gb Kiv nq xi v kvgjP` `vm
ewfPvii KviY Zuvi ^vgxK wnsm c Lq djQ| ZvB hbZvK wbqYi y# xy yy !y y !!y
A_B nj cK ek Avbv| bvix wbRi hb AvKvLvK wbqY iL ^vgxi mfvM
Ges mvdji c_ cwivi Ki `e| ew iqQ ^Z Kbvkxj gb| GB gbi iwj nj mPZb (conscious),
hb mK vcb ev weevni Avw`evmx bvix ^vaxbZvi AwaKvix AePZb (Subconscious), wbvb (Unconscious)| wbvbi Avevi wZbwU
njI ZvK e B cyili Aaxb _vKZ nq| wj elgi wkKvi Avw`evmx i Ans (ego), A`m (id) I Awakvv(superego)| dqWxq gbi aviYv
bvix`i RxebKI eva KiQ cyili KZ Z _vKZ| Avw`evmx mgvR wbR^ gwLK Aek PZbvcevn ch weZZ| hvBnvK, wewP ewgbi bvbv w`K mvwnZi
AvBb AvQ, hv Agvb Kij bvixK kvw cZ nq| wK GB AvBbi viv Avmj evPbi m weRwoZ| ew`w (world view)I| Pwi, mv cvVKi GB
cyili ccvwZZi myhvM Ki `Iqv nq| bKkvj Av`vjb, jvjMo Av`vjb gbi iwj fvlvq DV Avm mvwnZi evPbi m RwoZ nq| Gi GKwU
bvixi evcK AskMnYi Lei evi eviB msev`ci wkivbvg _KQ| mgvR, GLvb msK|mc wek-wlZ ne|
iv Ges cyili KvQ Zv`i GKUvB `vex - ghv`v| wewfb DbqYg~jK Kgm~Pxi viv
Avgv`i `k AMmi njI Avw`evmx bvix`i DbqYi welqwU Av` wK Kvbw`b gbvkjx t msv I weeZb
mywePvi cve ? cwifvlvwUi mRb Kib 1977 Lxt Roger Fowler,Zuvi Linguis-
tics and the Novel M&| Gi evsjv cwifvlv Kiv hvq gbvkjx| AvjvPK
Z_m~ t dvIjvi Gi msv w`qQb Gfve - Cumulatively, consistent struc-
1| muvIZvj ^vaxbZv msMvgi BwZnvm eyki UzW,y vbcxV cvewjkvm , KvjKvZv tural options, agreeing in cutting the presented world to one
-07, 2015| pattern to(an) other, give rise to an impression of a world-
2| c~e fviZi Avw`evmx bvix ev `ekx `, mZz cKvkbx, KvjKvZv-26, view,what I shall call a mind style| evsjvq ZRgv Kij `uvovq -
2015| wbevPwbi MVbg~jK mZ cmg~n, wQuo KU GK ev Ab Av`j DcvwcZ RMr,
3| gvbf~gi ^vaxbZv Av`vjb w`jxc Kzgvi Mv^vgx, cvwiRvZ cKvkbx, GwKZ Kij DV Avm ew `wi GK GKwU ^Z Aeqe, hvK Avwg ejev
we`vmvMi cj-x, cyiwjqv, 2012| gbvkjx| GB BsiRx cwifvlvwUi msv I msw AvjvPbv cvwi Pvi eQi ci
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139 140
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141 142
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143 144
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145 146
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* mZx_, f~Zbv_ (Abyev`K), gbywZi gavwZw_ fvl (evbyev`)| mvgvwRK cwZKjZv| wK axi axi gq`i ga wkvi cmvi, mgvR I cvwicvwkK
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1894 Lxt wcvov Mvgi GK evY cwievi fviZxcvYvi Rb nq| wcZv ivR`bv_
wkwUi bvg ivLb cvij| cvij _K mijv nq kl ch mvi`vgVi c_g
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149 150
17 bs evmcvov jb| QvU _KB cviji zji cwZ GK AgvN Uvb Rb fwelrevYx KiwQjb, GB gqwU AbiKg, fvj Avavi, GK w`q AbK KvR
wMqwQj| Zuvi wbRi K_vq, Avgiv ZLb wKQyB RvbZzg bv ev eySZzg bv, Zey wmvi`i ne| kxgv mvi`v`ex, fwMbx wbew`Zv, ^vgx cvb` cgy Li Drmvn mijv mK
m Nviv, gviKvQ hvIqv Gme Lye fvj jvMZ| eo nevi mv_ mv_ zji cwZ myaxivi AvZwekvm eMyY ew cj| wZwb mevb&tKiY mijvK gvbyl Ki ZzjZ
Uvb hb Aviv evoZ jvMj| fwMbx myaxivi zj hvM`vb cviji Rxeb Ab GK eZx njb| fviZxcvYv wZK_v _K Rvbv hvq h, myaxivK ixwZgZv jovB
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Zuvi fvjevmvi AvKlY wQj A~Z| .... Zuvi ZvMi Av`k, fvjevmv, Drmvn I `i` KgKvi Kvvix wnmve|
Avgv`i RxebK cv w`j| mB mgq myaxiv cvwievwiK KviY Ab Pj MjB mvi`v`ex ^qs GwMq
mgvRi ZrKvjxb wbqg cviji Lye A eqmB weevn nq hvq| wK Gjb mijvi `vwqZ wbZ| mijvK wZwb ejwQjb, Zzwg Avi KZw`b GLvb-
msmvi Kvbw`bB ZuvK UvbZ cviwb| ZvB evwoi jvKRb hLb ZuvK Rvi Ki mLvb Nyi KvUve? Avgvi KvQ Gm _vKv| A_vr mvi`v`exI hb mijvK
kievwo cvVvevi eev Kij ZLb w`knviv nq kl ch myaxivK me wKQy Lyj wbRi KvQ iL h_vh_fve mywkwZ Ki ZzjZ PqwQjb fwelZi K_v fe|
ejjb| AwbevhfveB fwMbx myaxivi KvQ _K cjb AvwiK mnvbyfw~ Z I mg_b| mB mgq Kvkxi ivRv gnvivR myaxivK ejwQjb, GLvb mevkg gq`i mev
myaxiv cvijK ekx Rei`w nj evox _K cvwjq Avmvi BwZ w`jb| kl Qjiv Ki, Zzwg GKUv gq w`Z cvi bv| gnvivRi GB K_vq myaxiv mijvK
ch 1911 mvj mi^Zx c~Rvi fvmvbi w`b ivZ evivUvi mgq evwoi mKji Wvdwib nvmcvZvj iL avx we`v kLvevi K_v wPv KiZ i Kib| wmvi
Aj mZi eQii cvij wPiKvji gZv MnZvM Ki wbew`Zv zj Gm wwbI PqwQjb hvZ mijv wbRi cvq `uvovevi gZv KvbI A_Kix we`v
cuQvjb| BwZga myaxiv cyiv welqwU fwMbx wbew`ZvK RvbvjI wbew`Zv cviji ARb KiZ cvi| GKB mgq Mfbi KvigvBKji xI jWx Wvdwib nvmcvZvj
GB wmvK mg_b Kibwb| wZwb ejwQjb, mxZv mvwexi `k G Av`k wK wVK bvwms kLvi Rb wZbRb wn`y gqK PvBwQjb| NUbvP wZwb wmvi wwbi
ne? eZ Avengvb Kvj ai fviZel mxZv mvwex `gqxi YMvb Ki AvmQ ez wQjb| ZvB AwbevhfveB mijvi mvgb bvwms wkvi GKUv Afvebxq myhvM
Ges bvix RvwZi Av`k wnmve Gu`iKB gb AvmQ| A_vr bvixi Mvn Gm Mj| wK mgmvgwqKKvj evY Kbvi c avx we`v wkv wQj KbvZxZ|
agKB mevP vb `Iqv nqQ, mvwbZ Kiv nqQ Zuvi Rbbx icK| dj dj myaxiv hLb GB Lei Dvab Gm mvi`v`exK Rvbvjb,Mvjvc gv Lye ivM
fviZxq bvixi cwiYwZ bv nq, Z_vKw_Z bvixRbvwPZ Rxebi cwieZ GKK I Ki ejjb, myaxiv G wK Kv! evYi gqK nvmcvZvji KvR KiZ w`Q!
m~Y ^Z Rxebhvcbi Av`kK ZvB ^vgx weeKvb`i Av`k Dy wbew`Zv m Avevi wK Mv! hZ Abvmw! Ii nvZ Avi K Lve? GLvb Avgiv mvi`v`exK
gb wbZ cvibwb| GgbwK wmvi wwbI cviji GB wmv Abygv`b Kibwb| GK vwKvixi f~wgKvq `LZ cvB| wZwb wbR evYi weaev nqI Ges mgmvgwqK
wK `pPZv myaxiv mevtKiY cviji cvk `uvwoqwQjb| mB ivZB myaxiv `kvPvi Ges jvKvPvi mK m~Y IqvwKenvj nIqv mI Lye kvfve
cvijK wbq DcwZ njb nvwZevMvbi KvQ Zuvi wcmZzZv evbi evoxZ| Avi ejwQjb, m wK Mvjvc, wkL Gm I Avgv`iB mev Kie| A_vr mgmvgwqK
cwiPqi MvcbxqZvi KviY Zvi bvg e`j ivLjb mijv| i nj cviji hveZxq wewa wbla Z_v QuyrgvMi D DV mvi`v`ex gvbemevKB mevwaK iZ
Rxebi bZzb Aavq| Gici myaxiv mijvK nwicvji RRyo Mvg wbRi cZK w`jb| h gvbecg Z_v gvbemev nj ivgKv`vjbi g~j PvwjKv kw| dj
evoxZ AvZMvcb Ki _vKZ mvnvh KiwQjb| ivgK fvev`vjbi GK bZzb w`M DbvwPZ nj| mvi`v`exi GB fwelr evYx
cviji GB MnZvMi Lei kxgv mvi`v`exi KvQ cuQZ wZwbI wKwr e_ nqwb| mvi`v`exi kl AmyLi mgq mijv AKvfve Zuvi mev KiwQjb
AbyhvMi myi ejwQjb, ZvB Zv myaxiv, GKwU gqi mviv Rxebi `vwqZ, Ges mvi`v`exi QuvP wbRi RxebK Mo Zvjvi GK `yjf myhvM cqwQjb|
KvRUv wK fvj Kij? myaxiv Zvi Di ejwQjb, gv ,Ki Zv djwQ, wK GK_v Ab^xKvh h mijvi Rxeb mvi`v`exi GK Amxg cfve wQj| GB
Avi Kiv hvq| GB Qv NUbvwUi ga w`qB be hyMi GK mebvgq BwZ hb mv_ AwbevhfveB Avi hvi cfve wQj wZwb njb fwMbx myaxiv| GB cfvei K_v
mvi`v`ex cjb| dj mijvi Dci mvi`v`exi GK wekl mnvbyf~wZ co Mj| mijv`ex evi evi wbRi Rxebi wewfb mgq ^xKvi KiwQjb| hLb KvQ _vKZb
fwMbx wbew`ZvI myaxivi GB KvR wewZ nq ejwQjb, myaxiv GKUv `ytmvnwmK ZLb Zv eUB, `~i _KI myaxiv wbqwgZ wPwVi gvag mijvK Abycv wYZ KiZb|
KvR KiQ| myaxivi wbRi `v`v `eeZ emy (^vgx cvb`) mijvi Qwe `L myaxivi HKvwK evmbv wQj mijv hb kxivgK fvev`k wbRi Rxeb mv_K Ki
151 152
ZzjZ cvi| mijvi bvwms wkvi mgq ZvB myaxiv wjLjb, ... Avi GB KUv gvm 1954 mvji 8B RyjvB ejyogV KZc i mv_ xgV mK mijv`exi bvbvwea
ILvb AvQ Zvici K RMZ evwni nBe| KvRB Av`kUv bvovPvov Ki bevi iZc~Y AvjvPbv mvw`Z nq| 10B RyjvB ^vgx kivb` mijv`exi Dci
wekl `iKvi| GZw`b Avgvi gb nQ GKRb wVK wkL KvRi Dchy nq ePvwibx`i Zveavbi `vwqZ AcY Kib Ges ZvK AvbyvwbK fve kxfviZx
ewiq AvmQ| Avi Zv mevB GLbI wkvi Aaxb| .... Zzwg wbRB Rvb bv Pvwiw`KKZ bvg `b Ges MwiK e eenvii AbygwZ `b| Aegl 1954 mvji 2iv wWm^i
KvR Zvgvi Rb Acv KiQ| hv wkLQ Zv hw` 4 RbK kLvZ cvi Zvgvi `wYki xgVi Dvab nq, ^vgxwRi AvRb jvwjZ ^ci evevqb NU| xgVi
kLv mv_K ne| myaxivi GB Dc`k mijv mviv Rxeb gb PjwQjb| mvi`v bvgKiY nq mvi`v gV Ges Gi c_g Aav njb kxfviZx| 1959 mvji 1jv
`exi kl AmyLi mgq mijv AKv cwikg Ki w`bivZ RM mvi`v`exi mev Rvbyqvix mvi`v`exi RbwZw_Z ^vgx kivb` gV I wgkbi Uvw I cexY mbvmx`i
klv KiwQjb| ZvB 1920 mvj Ryb gvm mvi`v`exi gZz Zuvi KvQ GKUv eo mvgb kxfviZx I mvZRb ePvwibxK weiRv nvg c~eK mbvm eZ `xwZ Kib|
gvbwmK AvNvZ ^ic wQj| mvi`v `exi gZzi A KqKgvm ci mijvi cvYi kxfviZxi mbvm bvg nj cevwRKv fviZxcvYv|
myaxivw`I BnjvK ZvM Kib (24 bf^i, 1920 Lxt)| cici GB `ywU gZz 1959 Lxt ch kxmvi`vgV ejyo gVi GKwU kvLv K` icB cwiMwYZ
mijv`exK wbevK Ki w`qwQj| Zuvi wbRi K_vq, g GKUv kK& jMwQj| nZ| 1959 mvji AvM gvm ejyo gV KZc gVi mbvwmbx`i wgVi Uvw
mB mgq Zuvi gvbwmK Avkqj wQjb ^vgx mvi`vb` (kir gnvivR) Ges Mvjvc Ki Zuv`i Dci ^vaxb mvi`vgVi fvi AcY Kib Ges cevwRKv fviZxcvYvB
gv I hvMxb gv| wK Kvji Awbevh wbqg 1924 mvj ci ci hvMxb gv Ges Aav c` Avmxb nb| GK_v Ab^xKvh h mvi`vgVi Dk, Av`k I Kgm~Px
Mvjvc gv kl wbtkvm ZvM Kib| 1927 mvj kir gnvivRI BnjvK ZvM ivgKgVi mv_ Awfb njI Dfqi KvhcwiPvjbvi wU m~YB ^Z| A_vr
Kib| gvbwmK fve kv mijv ^vgx mvi`vb`i c~e Av`kvbymvi Kvkxhvv Kib| kxmvi`vgV ivgK fvev`k m~Y ^vaxbfve cwiPvwjZ GKwU msv icB AvZcKvk
Gici `xN 27 eQi wZwb KvkxZB mvab fRb Aixb nq iBjb - hb wbRK Ki| GBfve ^vgx weeKvb`i e KvwLZ xgV cwiKbvi mv_K ic NU
cZ KiwQjb GK weivU Kghi bx wnmve| cevwRKv fviZxcvYvi bZZ| GBfve cevwRKv fviZxcvYvi Rxebi GK m~Y
1954 mvji Gwcj gvm mvi`v `exi RbkZevwlKxi mgq mijv`ex bZzb Aavqi m~Pbv nj - m~Pbv nj GK be hyMi|
Kvkx _K RqivgevUxZ Avmb| mB mgq ^vgx kivb` mijv`exK WK 1960 mvji g gvm ejyo gV KZci civgk Abyhvqx kxmvi`vgVi
ejwQjb, gq`i gV nj ZvgvK hZ ne| mijv`ex ZrYvr A^xKvi U v wMY RbwnZKi Kvh Avi Kib| GB Dk ivgK mvi`vwgkb
Kij gnvivR cybivq ejbb, Avgvi viv hw` me nq _vK, Zvgvi vivI Avmvwmqkb cwZv Kiv nq Ges Zv h_vwewa bw_fy Kiv nq| GBfve be
ne| kx kxgvi Dci wbfi Ki _vKe| Zzwg h iKg kxgvi KvQ wQj kxgvi mB cwZwZ kxmvi`vgV I ivgK mvi`v wgkb ivgK gV I wgkbi mgghv`v
UwbsUv Zzwg GB gq`i `e| ^vgx kivb`i GB K_v cKZ c jvf Ki| GB msvi c_g kvLvK` nj GKwU wWwM KjR, hv `g`g Aj
ivgKv`vjbi GK weqKi w`Mi DbvPb Kij, i nj mijvi Rxebi gq`i DPwkvi Rb Mo DVwQj| wZxq kvLv vwcZ nq 1962 Lxt
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eZt ^vgx weeKvb` cwiKwZ x gV mK ivgK gV KZci mUvi I Rywbqi ewmK zj cwZvi Rb Rwg wKb evwo wbgvYi KvR i Kiv
fvebvwPv i nqwQj 1951 Lxt _KB| mB Dk 1951 Lxt `wYkii nq| BwZga ivgK wgkbi AMZ wZbwU cwZvb nvwiZ nq ivgK mvi`v
Kvjx gw`ii KvQ Mvi Zxi myiaybx Kvbb bvgK evMvbevwo mgZ Rwg Kbv nq wgkbi AMZ nq, 1961 Lxt gvP gvm GUvjx Avkg, bf^i gvm gvZfeb Ges
Ges Zv emevmi Dchy Kivi Rb cwieZb I cwieabi KvRI i nq| 1952 1963 Lxt AvM gvm wbew`Zv we`vjq| GQvov c_g _KB mvi`vgV KZci
Lxt mvay mjb cve MnxZ nq h, mvi`v`exi RbkZevwlKx A_vr 1953-54 BQv wQj KjKvZvi evBii gwnjv fMY hvZ `y-Pviw`b gV evm KiZ cvib
Lxt xgVi cwZv KvhwU mymb ne| GB wmv Abyhvqx ivgK wgkbi wewfb Zvi Rb GKwU c_K AwZw_ feb wbgvY Kiv| 1964 Lxt H AwZw_ febi wfw
cwZvb h me ZvMeZx gwnjviv bvbv KvR wbhy wQjb Zv`i ePh `xv w`q ci vcb Kib cev wRKv fviZxcvYv| GBfveB cev wRKv fviZxcvYvi Zveavb
beMwVZ xgVi `vwqZfvi c`vbi welqwUI wi nq| Gici, 1953 mvji 27 k kxmvi`vgV I ivgK mvi`v wgkbi gmcmviY NU|
wWm^i mvi`v`exi Rb wZw_Z ejyo gVi Z`vwbb Aa ^vgx kivb` mvZRb Dvab mvi`v`exi msk _vKvi KviY fviZxcvYvi Rxeb GK bZzb
eZavwibxK ePh `xwZ Kib| G`i ga AbZg wQjb mijv`ex| Gici I DbZ `wfw jvf KiwQj| hvi cwZdjb `Lv hZ mvi`vgVi cZKwU KvR|
153 154
fviZxcvYvi my Rxebv`k, AvZZvM, KVvi KgRxeb ay h gVi Abvb mbvwmbx Rxeb Zvi m~PbvZB GK gnvc~YZvi w`K je nqwQj| .....
ev ePvwibx`iB AbycvwYZ KiZ, Zv bq,ivgK mvi`v fvev`ki mKjKB Zv evivYmx e`veb GKjv KvwUqQb wfvSzwj wbq gvayKix Ki| .....
bZzbfve c_ `LvZ, Zv`i gy KiZ| mvi`v`ex hgb mKjK wbq cig fvjevmvq
GK _vKZb| gVi cwZwU Aski cwZ Zuvi AKwg fvjevmv mKjK iY 78 eQi AvM GK Dvi_i w`b, mw`b wQj 21 RyjvB| Avwef~Zv nb
Kwiq w`Z mvi`v`ex~i ccvZnxb Abvwej ni K_v| mvi`v`exi hLb hgb GB gnvmvwaKv| `xv w`q, mbvm w`q, n, evYx Dc`k avivq kZkZ bibvixK
ZLb Zgb, hLvb hgb mLvb Zgb - GB K_vwji h_v_ fviZxcvYvi Rxeb AwfwmwZ Ki cqvZ njb 1973 mvji 30 Rvbyqvix|
cwZdwjZ nZ| h Kvb cwiek, h Kvb cwZKjZvi ga wZwb AwePwjZ _vKZb,
kvfve mg cwieki mv_ gvwbq wbZb Ges Zuvi D`vi I msvigy gvbwmKZv fviZxcvYvi gZzZ cevwRKv gvcvYv gvZvRx h_v_B wjLwQjb -
w`q ZzQvwZZzQ Kzmsvi wjK AwZg Ki GKwU mnR mij, hywc~Y gxgvsmvq Avgiv ~j RMZ kx kx gvqi Rxeb hvcb `Lvi mfvM jvf Kwiwb, wK Zuvi
DcbxZ nZb| GBfve mvi`v`exi gZ wZwbI gVevwmbx`i mvgb GKwU h_v_ GB KbvwUi Rxeb Avgv`i myL AvVviv eQi ai Rvjgvb wQj|
Av`kwb Rxebi `v vcb Ki Zvjb|
Ze ay gVevmxB bq, mg f gq`i `ytLKK wZwb Dcjw KiZb m~wb`k t
Ges bvbvfve mnvbyf~wZi mv_ civgk w`q bZzb c_i mvb w`Zb| wZwb wbR
gv Ag kYx ch covkybv KijI bvix wkvi mc wQjb| wZwb AvwiK 1| wbf q c v Yv c e v wRKv (mv) fviZxc v Yv w ZK_v, k x mvi`vgV,
fve PvBZb, gqiv hb jLvcov wkL wbRi cvq `uvovZ cvi| ZvQvov wZwb `wYki,KwjKvZv, 1988, ct 25|
cYc_viI Zxe weivax wQjb| KD cY w`q gqi weqi eev KiQ bj 2| Z`e ct 24
wZwb AZ Am nZb| gq`i Dci Kvb AZvPvi ev Aegvbbv NUj wZwb 3| Z`e ct 26
GKeviB mn KiZ cvi bv| e ^vgx cwiZv wKsev wbhvwZZv gq`i wZwb 4| Abbv myaxiv, ct 69
A_ w`q I bvbvfve mvnvh KiZb| gq`i cwZ GZ mnvbyf~wZkxj njI wZwb 5| Z`e
KvbiKg wg_v K_v ev JZc~Y AvPiY Kvb gZB ei`v KiZb bv| Gfve 6| Z`e
`Lv hvQ, mvi`v`exi AiZv I wkv meZvfve fviZxcvYvK mywkwZ Ki 7| fviZxcvYv wZK_vct 27 I fwMbx myaxiv - kZel kvjx, ct 185|
ZzjwQj, h wkvi cwZdjb Zuvi mg RxebB `Lv hvq| ZvB ^vgx gvaevb` 8| fviZxcvYv wZK_v, ct 39
gVevwmbx`i KvQ fviZxcvYv gvZvRx mK h_v_B ejwQjb, gv VvKiYi A 9| Z`e ct 40
i mweKv! GwK Kg K_v! Zvgiv KLbB ZuvK mvgvb gb Kie bv| Zuvi KvQ 10| Z`e ct 40
_K me Rb wkL be| eZ mvi`v`exi AvwiK mvnPh fviZxcvYvi RxebI 11| Z`e
mvi`v`exiB gZ Abvo^i, wbinvix, bxwZwb nq IV hv 1954 Lxt _K 1973 12| Abbv myaxiv, ct 76
Lxt ch my`xN AvVviv eQi kxmvi`vgVK AveZ Ki iLwQj, iv KiwQj GB 13| fviZxcvYv wZK_v, ct 52
bevziK cv_wgK So SvcUvi nvZ _K Avi GBfveB fviZxcvYvi RxebwU 14| Z`e ct 65
wbt^v_ ni `v wnmve wbew`Zv wwb myaxiv ei m~YZv mvab Kij| 15| Z`e
1911 mvj mi^Zx c~Rvi fvmvbi w`b MnZvMi ga w`q h Rxebi 16| Z`e ct 77
bZzb m~Pbv nqwQj 1973 mvji 30k Rvbyqvix Zvi cwimgvw NU| kl nq 17| e`vcv Yv cev wRKv (mvw`Z), cev wRKv gvcvYv, kxmvi`vgV, `wYki,
ivgKv`vjbi BwZnvmi GKwU iZc~Y Aavq| G cm Avb`evRvi cwKvi KjKvZv, 1408 ev, ct 33
31 k Rvbyqvix 1973 mvji wicvU jLv nqwQj, mB Ke G Rxeb GmwQjb
evMevRvii mijv bvg GKwU mijv evwjKv| .... Dvab kx kx mvi`v gvqi KvQ
iBjb Zuvi wklv nq, mweKv nq|
155 156
KuvPvgvj
cvov Muv-i Ljv t eZgvb cvmwKZv AvMWyg evMWyg NvovWyg mvR
mvgbv_ `vm XvK g`s SuvSi evR|
evRZ evRZ Pjj Wywj
cvov Muvq wk`i Ljvi f~eb GK ARvbv Avb` DRbvq ficyi| Zv`i Ljvq Wywj Mj mB Kgjv cyix| ....
gvwU AvQ, iO bB| Ljbv AvQ, DcKiY bB| DcKiYnxb Ljvi f~eb wkiv Wyg A_vr Wvg `b`j| DZ Ljvi QovwU weMZ w`bi Rbmbvevwnbxi
Awff~Z nq ARvbv Avb`| AwZ mvgvb LjvB wki gbvRMZK cuQ `q RvKRgKwUKB Zzj aiQ|
icK_vi mvbvi cixi `k| Avb`i mxgvnxb RMZ ay c_Pjv| G c_ Pjvi
Avb` wPiKvji| c_i cuvPvwji Acy-`yMvi bvUvdj, iovi wewP Kzovbv, euvki Ab GKwU Ljvi Qovq cvIqv hvq mvneevey`i m BsiR I
abyK I cvUKvwVi Zxi w`q hy hy Ljv, `kjvB Gi Lvc w`q Zvm evwbq Pviv cvZywMR`i wgji Avfvm
Ljv gb Kwiq `q Avgv`i Qjejvi w`bwj| hLvb wQj Avb`, Avi eb DcbwU evBvc
gywi AvKvLv| bvBbUb UvBvc
AZxZ evsjvi cvovMuvq Ggb AbK Ljv cPwjZ wQj Zv AvRI evsjvi UzjUvbv weweqvbv
Kvb cvovMuvq Mj `Lv hvq| evsjv fvlv I mvwnZi Avw` wb`kb Phvi MvbwjZ mvneeveyi eVKLvbv
`vev LjvwUi Dj-L cvIqv hvq| evey ejQb hZ
cvwnju ZvwoAv ewoAv gvwoD| cvb mycvwi LZ|
MAeiu ZvwjAv cvRbv NvwjD \ cvov Muvqi Ljvwj AvwfRvZnxb, gyKUz nxb ivRvi gZv| MvgxY mijZv
gwZGu VvKziK cixwbwev| Gi wbR^ ewk| A_bwZKfve wcwQq cov cj-xgvqi mvb`i GB DcKiYnxb
Aek KwiAv feej wRZv \ LjvwjB RywUq w`Q Avb`i LvivK| wk gbi weKvk GB Ljvwji
gyKz` PeZxi Afqvgj Kve wk kxgi kke eYbvq jvKxovi wb`kb cqvRbxqZv Acwimxg| wki Ljvi fvvi MwQZ h Ljvwj AvRI cvovMuvq
cvIqv hvq| PvL ivLjB `Lv hvq, mwj nj KvevwW, Mvj-vQyU, Wvswj, wcUz ev wcUz,
bMiv evjK m m`vB Lo Kov fv KzwgiWvOv, jyKvPzwi, Mv`x, WMvj (Pviv Ljv), wKZwKZ, e emx BZvw`| GB
Lj m`v wUKv Ko fUv Ljvwji De Ke, Kxfve Zv wbwZ Ki ejv me bq| cev` evKi gZvB G
............................................ Ljvwji De cj-xevsjvi gvbm f~wgZ| Kvb my`i~ AZxZ _K Gi aviv AvRI
ZcvAv evNPvwj Lj mvay mvZv aywj engvb|
mvgi meB wZbvZv cvov Muv-i Qj`i GKwU Rbwcq Ljv Mvj-vgvwi ev Mvj-vQyU| GB Ljvq
KvbvKvwb be Ljvq m`vB AvQ QyUvQywU Kivi Avb` Avi gywi Abvwej AvKvLv| `ywU `j fvM Ki GB
bv Rvwb w`em _vK Kv_v| Ljv nq| cwZ `j KZRb _vKe Zvi wbw` Kvb mxgv bB| Qj I gq DfqB
GB Ljvi Askx`vi nq| cwZwU `j GKRb ivRv ev cavb mbvcwZ _vK| GKwU
wk kxgi Ljvq mvZvPvwi, gvQ gvQ, gqbvMywo, WyevevwR, Svwj cfwZ LjviI MvjvKvi `vM KU Zvi ga ivRv ev mbvcwZK emvbv nq| MvjvKvi AskwU
cwiPq cvIqv hvq| _K wKQyUv `~i - mvaviY 30-50 wgUvi `~i GKwU AvqZvKvi Ab Ki
jvKxovwjZ mgM jvKRxebi L wew cwiwPwZ wbwnZ iqQ| `ji ivRvK wNi _vK, hvZ ivRv duvKv cq AvqZvKvi Ni cuQ bv hvq| em
cvov Muv-i DcKiYnxb Ljvwj ZrKvjxb evsjvi mvgvwRK I A_bwZK cvcUwU _vKv ivRvi `ji jvKiv GK GKRb Ki `g wbq gyL Pz-D-D-D AvIqvR
Zzj ai| mvgvwRK Kg I wPvavivi bvbv NvZ cwZNvZ cZ Kiv hvq Ljvwji KiZ KiZ ivRvK wNi _vKv wei `ji m`m`i Zvwoq `q ev Quyq w`q
ga| Mvg Ljvwji ga wbwnZ iqQ HwZnvwmK Z_i Aweb I AMw_Z gvVi evBi ei Ki `q| wei `ji ivRv AvqZvKvi Ni Aevb Ki| ZvKI
157 158
Ni _K ZvovZ nq| GB myhvM ivRv AvqZvKvi Ni Pj Avmj Mg Ifvi| Zvi weqvcb| GB Ljvq bB Kvbv evwnK DcKiY| Lvjv gvV, evMvb,
AbK mgq AbKi `g dzwiq hvq| ZvK hw` cwZc `ji Qjiv Quyq dj, Rj,evwo h Kvb vbB B Ljvi g| GB Ljvi m`m msLvi Kvb mxgviLv
Ze m Ljvi evBi Pj hvq| `g dzivbvi AvMB m hw` ivRvK Quyq djZ bB| LuyR ei Kivi ci h Avb`, inm, Dbv`bv iqQ Zvi c_g nvZ Lwo
cvi ev AvqZvKvi Ni cuQ hvq Ze m Ljvq _K hvq| GB Ljvi Dcv`vb jyKvPzwi Ljvi gaB| GB Ljvq GKRbK Pvi wnmve eP bIqv nq| m`miv
mvgvbB Lvjv gvV, gy AvKvk Avi Amxg Avb`| GKwU wbw` RvqMvi ga h hvi gZv jywKq co| Pvii KvR nj jyKvbv
Wvswj GK A~Z aiYi cvov Muq Ljv| Ljvi DcKiY ejZ Kw mKjK LuyR ei Kiv| mKjK LuyR ei KiZ cvij m Pvi _K gy nq|
w`q Zix GKwU Ask ev jvwV Ges `yB w`K QuyPjv cuvP Bw gvci GKwU wj|GwU hvK c_g LuyR ei Kij m Pvi wnmve weewPZ nq| Gfve Ljv PjZ _vK|
`LZ AbKUv gvKzi gZv| GB LjvwUI `ywU `ji ga nq _vK| GKwU QvUv cvov Muvqi Avi GK gRv`vi Ljv Mv`x| `ywU `j wef nq GB LjvwU
j^vU MZ Ki Zvi ga gvKzi gZv `wUK ivLv nq| Wvs-wUi mvnvh `wU nq| gvVi ga j^vjw^fve cici 6,7,8,9wU KvU KvUv nq| GKwU `j KvUi
hZ`~i hvq ZZ`~i djv nq| wei `j MZ _K wKQyUv `~i mvwiefve `uvwoq ga wbw` RvqMvq cici `uvwoq hvq| cwZc `ji Qjiv wbw` GKwU Ni
hvq| AbKUv AvaywbK wKU Ljvi wdws Gi gZv| Wvs w`q `wU Quvovi mgq c_g cek Ki| NiwUK `yw`K _K wNi djv nq| `ji m`miv Ni _K
hw` k~b ai djv hvq Ze m AvDU ej MY nq| ` ev wjwU hLvb wMq eivbvi Pv Ki| `ji h Kvb GKRb m`m cwZc `ji Kvb m`mi
coj mLvb _K `wUK Avevi Wvs w`q QuyPjv Ask AvNvZ Ki k~b fvmgvb k bv cq me Niwj k Ki hw` cybivq vwUs cqU - G wdi AvmZ cvi
Aevq Rvi AvNvZ Kiv nq| hZ`~i `wU wMq coe mLvb _K Wvs w`q MZwU Ze Rqx ej NvlYv Kiv nq| GB Ljvi bB Kvb RvZxq ev AvRvwZK ^xKwZ|
ch gvcv nq| Wvs-Gi AvqZb hZevi gvcv nj mB `ji ZZ cqU| GBfve Zey Mv`x Ljvi RbwcqZv evsjvi h Kvb Muvq Mj eySZ cviv hvq|
`ji cwZwU m`m AvDU bv nIqv ch Ab`j Wvswj eenvi ev Ljvi myhvM Kvb Ljvi DcKiY Avevi Uvwji UzKiv Avi MvQi cvZv ev dj
cve bv| LjvwU AbKUv AvaywbK wKU Ljvi gZ| AbKi gZ, Wvswj Ljv `Iqv `kjvB ev wmMviUi Lvj| cvov Muv-i Qjiv Zv w`qB evwbq bq UvKv
_KB bvwK AvaywbK wKUi Rb| ev Zvm| Uvwji Zix QvU Pviv w`q Lvjv gvV, Wvev ev cyKzi cvo Xvjy mgZj
wk`i Ljvi f~eb AviKwU Rbwcq Ljv wcUz ev wcUz| Ljvi DcKiY RvqMvq Ljv nq| QvUv GKwU eMvKvi Ni gvwUZ Ab Kiv nq| ZvZ cv iL
Qwoq AvQ Mvgi c_-NvU-nvU-gvV| cyivbv UvwjfvOv MvjvKvi ev PKv Ki GKRb PviwU gvc gZv RvqMvq Quyo dj Ges cwigvY gZv bKj UvKv ev Zvm
fO wbjB nj| Kv_vI mvZ ev Kv_vI bqwU UvwjfvOv cici mvwRq wbq GKwU gywVe Ki aiv nq| AbRb GKBfve eMvKvi NiwUZ cv iL c~ei PvivwUK
wbw` RvqMvq ivLv _vK| Zv _K cqvRb gZv wKQyUv `~i GKUv iLv Ab Kiv LvIqvi Pv Ki| hw` Dchy gvc gZv PvivwUK Lq djZ cvi Ze gywe
nq| iLvi Icvi _K QvU ej w`q mvRvbv PvivwjK AvNvZ Ki fO `Iqv Zvm ev UvKvwj Zvi| Avi hw` bv cvi Ze gywZ hZwj Zvm AvQ ZZwj b
nq| `ji cwZ m`m wZbevi Ki myhvM cve| co _vKv Pvivwj cici Avevi w`Z nq| ZvQvov PvivwUK bv LqI Ni wdi Avmvi myhvM AvQ| NUvi ci NUv
mvwRq wbjB cqU wbR`i cKU| Pvivwj mvRvbvi AvM wei `j Ab GeveB mgq KvwUq `q Zviv|
`ji Kvb m`mi Mvq ejwU jvwMq `q Ze Ljvi `Lj Zv`i nvZ Pj hvq| cvov Muvq GKwU Ljvi bvg wKZwKZ| GB LjvwU gq gnj ewk Rbwcq|
Kvb Kvb Ljvq bB Kvb DcKiYi evjvB| Ljvi Kvb DcKiY bv cvkvcvwk `yw`K wgwjq gvc gZv QqwU Ni gvwUZ `vM KU Ab Kiv nq| GKwU
cqB wkiv wbRivB Ljv Zwi Ki bq| Ggb GKwU Ljv KzwgiWvOv| h Kvb Mvj QvU AvKvii gvwUi nuvwo fvOv w`q Zwi Pviv GB Ljvi DcKiY| cZKwU
RvqMvq GwU Ljv nq| KqKRb wgj GUv Ljv nq| wkiv wbR`i ga GKRbK Ni PvivwU dj w`q Pz wKZwKZ eywjZ GK `g GK cvq jvwdq QqUv Ni cvi
Kzwgi wnmve eQ bq| Kzwgi Rj Avi evwKiv WvOvq Aevb Ki| WvOv _K KiZ nq|
KD Rj bvgjB (Kwg Rjvkq) Kzwgi ZvK aivi Pv Ki| I Kywgi Zvgvi Gwj QvovI KvbvgvwQ, `vwoqvevv, wQeywo, mxZvPzwi, jvj jvwV, wj
Rj bgwQ ej wkiv Avevi WvOvq DV co| mvaviY GKUv gbMov Ljv A_P Ljv, mvbvcywZ, igvjPzwi, evNQvMj, wPwbwezU, ivbvevwU, MvQv i MvQv, e
Gi ga AvQ KZ Avb`, AvQ KZ cvYvj Dbv`bv| wkgbi mijZv AwZ emx KZ Kx Ljvi fvvi jyKvbv iqQ cj-xi AvbvP KvbvP|
mvgvbi gaB LuyR cvB cig Avb`| AvRKi MwZgvb hyM AvaywbK mfZvi nvZQvwbZ `Z nvwiq hvQ cj-xi
wki jyKvbvi Avb` wPiKvji| gv wki jyKvPzwi wk gbK Ki Ljvwj| wKU, dzUej, Uwbm, fwjej BZvw` ^xKZ Ljvwji `jZ cj-xi
159 160
Ljvwj PPvi Afve nvwiq hvQ| KwDUvi BUvibUi hyM wfwWI Mgi G mZ Mvcb Kb t m~h Nvi cw_ex bq
gvag DcfvM Kiv hvq Ljvi Avb`| wkvi cwZhvwMZvi Bu`yi `o Avgiv
fyjZ emwQ cvovMuq Ljvwj| AvaywbK hyM hvwKZvi hyM, KwgZvi hyM| A_P ivvK gj
cvPxbKvj KVvi cwikg Ki RxweKv wbevn KiZ nZ| wK GLb Rxebi meB
hi AvwacZ| QvU QvU Qjgqiv KwDUvi em Mg Lj wK gvV Ljva~jv kvkxj iRb I wcq fvBevbiv| RwUj GK mgmvi Dci nvZ evwoqwQ| G
Ki b v| dj kvixwiK cwikgi Afve Zv`i gvbwmK MVb myPvi nq bv| Ljvi mgmv ay Avgvi bq, mgM weki wPvkxj ew`i iZi mgmv| kZvxi ci
gvV cviwiK mnhvwMZv, D`vi gbvfve, bZZ, kLjv, wbqgvbyewZZv cfwZ kZvx ai h mgmv Pj AvmQ Ges h mgmv mgvavbi Rb e evwbK wP
Yvejx RvMZ nIqvi AeKvk cvq| wki gvbwmK weKvk cvov Muv-i Ljvwji vwe` AvZwbqvM KiQb, m mgmvi mgvavb Avgvi gZv GKRb AwZ bMb ewi
iZ hvwK Zvi hyMI Acwimxg I cvmwK| Kiv `yin| ZeyI GKUz bv wjL _vKZ cviwQ bv, Kbbv QvUejv _KB Avgvi
Afvm mZi c_ Pjv Ges mZK AvuKo aiv|
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west ay
ZvB bq, GUvK Universal Truth ev wPimZ ej wkv `Iqv nq| Kv_vI
Kvb cyK jLv bB - The earth rises in the east sets in the
west . m~h cw_exi Pvwiw`K Nvi cvPxbKvj _K gvbe RvwZ GB wekvm
AwePj wQj| m`k kZvxZ MvwjwjI m~h I cw_ex m^ h gZev` w`qQb
mUv gvZK| mwKZv Avgv`iK aygv cw_exZ cvwVqB v nbwb| wZwb
Avgv`iK w`qQb wek evi bvbvwea Z_| hjvi Dci fi KiB AvR
wevbi AMMwZ NU PjQ| cwe agM - KviAvb, nvw`g, evBej, e`, R`-
Avev Ges cvkvcvwk- wevbI cwivifve mv `q h cw_ex wi, m~h cw_exi
Pvwiw`K Nvi|

KviAvbi cgvY t 1) wbq Avj-vn AvKvk mg~n I cw_exK Ggbfve aviY


KiQb hb Iiv ^ ^ vb nZ bovPov KiZ bv cvi| [ Para - 22, SURA
- FATER ]
2) Ges Avwg GB Rb cw_exZ ceZgvjv vcb KwiqvwQ hb Dnv (cw_ex) Zrmn
AvwjZ bv nq| [ Para - 17, SURA - AMBIA ]
3) P` I m~h Mbbvq wbqwZ iwnqvQ A_vr m~h, P` Ggbfve NyiQ hvi dj
w`ev ivw nQ Ges GB cwieZbK j Ki w`b, gvm I eQii Mbbv Kiv nQ| [
Para - 27, SURA - RAHMAIN ]

nw`mi cgvY t nRiZ gn` (mvt) ejQb hLb Avj-vnZvqvjv cw_ex mw


Kwijb ZLb Zvnv _i_i Kwiqv KuvwcZ jvwMj| AZci Avj-vn cvnvi ceZ mw
Kwijb Ges Dnvi Dci kjvKv ^ic gvwijb, ZLb cw_ex wi nBj|
[gkKv` I nvw`m imyj]

161 162
evBeji cgvY t 1) m~h IV Avevi A hvq; Ges mZi ^vb hvq hLvb ei Dci NUvq 1 nvRvi gvBj eM Nyij jfvMi Kvb AwZB _vKZ bv|
wMqv IV [evBej heyi Dc`kK 1/5] GQvov cw_ex hw` cwg nZ c~e NyiZ Zvnj mvgyw`K mvZK wewfb w`K cevwnZ
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Ges AvRI nQ| Ze hLb Kvb gZev` cPwjZ nq hvq ZLb mwUK Dvbv m~Pbv t m~Pbvq ejv hvq bvix _K RvwZi Rb| bvix Zuvi wkv `xv, AvZwekvm,
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165 166
Z_i eveZv| 5) we`vjqwjZ gq`i Rb cwiKvVvgvMZ bvbv Amyweav, c_K kPvjqi
Literacy Rate in the India : 1951 - 2011 Afve cfwZ gq`i we`vjq hvIqvi cwZeKZv mw KiQ| hvi dj
Census year Person(%) Male Female m/f gap in literacy rate
cv_wgK ii ci gq`i zjQyUi msLv ew cvQ|
1951 16.7 24.9 7.3 17.6
1961 24.0 34.4 13.0 21.4 6) DP wkvi Rb gq`i KjR me bB|
1971 29.5 39.5 18.7 20.8 7) cwievii Avw_K AbUb bvixwkvi weKvk evav c`vb KiQ|
1981 36.2 46.9 24.8 22.1 8) mvgvwRK iYkxjZv I Kzmsvi bvixwkvi c_ evav|
1991 52.2 63.9 39.2 24.7 9) mevcwi cyilZvwK mgvRi elgg~jK gbvfve bvixwkvi AMMwZi cavb
2001 65.38 76.0 54.0 22.0
Aivq|
2011 74.04 82.14 65.46 16.68
Dcmsnvi t eZgvb gvbyl GUzKz eySQ AZ cwieviK myzfve Pvjbv KiZ nj
Source Census of India, GOI (2011) cwievii Qj gq`i jLvcovi `Lvbv KiZ nj Mnea~KI wkwZ nZ
2011 mvm wicvU Abymvi fviZel mvgwMK mviZvi nvi 74.04%| bvixwkvi ne| ZvB bvixwkvK AbycvwYZ KiZ eZgvb zj, KjR, wekwe`vjqi msLv
nvi 65.46% Ges cyil wkvi nvi 82.14%| GB wicvU _K h, ^vaxbZv evoQ, ZvZ QvQvxi mgvbycvZ Avmbi msLvI evovbv nQ| hgb AeZwbK
cieZxKvj bvix cyil DfqB wkv geagvb nvi DbwZ KiQ| A_vr wkveev gq`i c_K we`vjqi eev, c_K kPvjq vcb, wewfb cKvi
^vaxbZv cieZxKvj wkvi nvi ew cqQ| 1951 mvj hLvb gvU mviZvi fvZv cfw Z| GQvovI cvwievwiK wkv I AwffveKi wkvi Ici iZ c`vb Kiv
nvi 16.7% wQj, mLvb 2011 mvj gvU mviZvi nvi ew cqQ 57.7%| nQ|
1951 mvji Zzjbvq 2011 mvj cyyil wkvi nvi cvq wZbY ew cqQ, h_v cvPxbKvj _KB cyilZvwK mgvRi ivKZviv eySwQjb h, bvixiv
- 24.9% (1951 mvj) Ges 82.14% (2011 mvj)| GBw`K _K Avhfve, wkwZ nj bvix Zvi AwaKvi, mvb ARb Ki ^wbfi nq DVe Ges cyilZvwK
bvixwkvi nvi ew cqQ 1951 mvji Zzjbvq 2011 mvj cvq bqY A_vr mgvRi eovRvj fO hve| GB gbvfveK e_ KiZ nj gq`i wbR`iB
7.3% (1951 mvj) Ges 65.46% (2011 mvj)| myZivs GB welqwU mgxv AbK ewk mvej^x Z_v kvixwiK I gvbwmK w`K _K my I k mg_ nq DVZ
_K h, ^vaxbZv cieZxKvj cyil`i Zzjbvq bvix wkvi ewi nvi `ZZi| ne| wkwZ bvix mgvR mvmev`, Kzmsvi `~i Ki GKwU my`i, kvwc~Y DbZ
wK GLbI wkv bvixiv cvrc`| 35% bvix AvRI wkvi AvwObv _K mgvRi evZveiY Zwi KiZ cvi| ZvB gvjvjv BDmydRvB Gi fvlvq ejv hvq
`~i| fviZel Mvgvj GLbI bvixwkvi AMMwZi nvi axi MwZ mb| Extremists have shown what frightens them most : a girl
fviZel bvix wkvi mgmv t fviZel bvixwkvi cvrc` nIqvi KviY with a book.
ek wKQy cwZeKZv, hv AvRI eZgvb, mwj nj t Mm~Px t
1) AwffveK`i wkv I mPZbvi Afve| Mvgvj GLbI 70% KbvmvbK 1. Aggarwal, J.C (2004).Development and planning of modern
wkv eev _K `~i mwiq iL MnKg wbhy Kiv nq| education Delhi, Vikas publishing house pvt. ltd.
2. Gupta, N.L (2000) Woman education : Thrpugh the ages :
2) AZxZi wewfb c_v - Kzmsvi fO ewiq AvmZ cvijI AvRI fviZi
New Delhi : Concept publishing company.
wewfb ivR (gac`k, wenvi, Dic`k, SvoL cfwZ) evjweevn c_v bvix 3. Kumar, J & Sangeeta (2013) Status of women education in
mviZvi c_ cwZeKZv mw KiQ| India.
3) cyil`i Ici bvix`i A_bwZK wbfikxjZv Zv`i `yejZvi Aviv GKUv 4. gyLvcvavq, iyMvcvj : wkvi AwaKvi AwaKvii wkv|
KviY| ZvB wkvi mv_ A_bwZK ^vejw^ Ki Zvjvi Rb bvix`i ewg~jK 5. P. Mukherjee, R.Dev & G. Upadhyaya (2016), Womens edu-
wkvq AbycvwYZ Kiv cqvRb| cation in India - post predicaments and Future Possibilities.
4) AvwjK `~iZ wePvi Ki gq`i Rb c_K we`vjq vcb Kiv me me Reports :
nqwb| weklZt Mvgvj evwjKv we`vjqi Afve Kbvmvbi wkvi 1. Census od India (2011) : Office of registrer General, India.
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167 168
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cqwQj wVKB, wK gvqi Kvj Avi diZ hZ cviwb| nvZ cvq ewo co `vkwbK Jean Jaques Roussean-i Institution politiques. eix
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171 172
kxivgK ejQb - CkijvfB gbylRxebi Dk| GB gnr DkKB
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173 174
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GB mKj avwgKYi viv fMevbK cmb KiZ cvi gbyl| MxZvfvl Z`ns fzcr gkvwg cqZvZbt| 10 BwZ ||
kivPvh ejQb h ag `yB cKvi cewgvM wbewgvM| cewgvMi viv msmvi e`bg& t-
ce nq| wbewgvMi viv Ckicvw gvcvw nq| AwZkq kvfw hy bgviK e`bv ejv nq| e`bvi Pig dj nj
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keYs KxZbs wevt iYs cv`mebs| `vmg& t-
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175 176
mLfve nj gayi fve| fMevb Rxei `vlwjK bv `L mLfvei viv gj 9) kxgMeZMxZv - 8.6
mvab Kib| wez mnmbvgv ejv AvQ h - AweZv mnmvsweavZv 10) kxgMeZMxZv - 9.26
KZjYt|12 BwZ| wefxlY my`vg ARyb cfwZ mLfvei D`vniY| 11) kxgMeZMxZv - 12.2
AvZwbe`bg& t- 12) fvMeZcyivYg& - 3.13.27
`nvw`mg~ni w ch wbRK meZfve fMevbi KvQ AcY nj 13) kxgMeZMxZv - 12.8
AvZwbe`b| MxZvZ fMevb ejQb
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ejv nj| GB `ywU gvM wbRi Ckijvfi Rb AZ iZcY~ | Avi e`cyivYvw`kvi cwge, Avfv cm|
viv GB `ywU KZeic wewnZ nqQ| GB `ywU gvM AvavwZK Rxeb i_i PvKv ejv 2) ivRMvcvj Pvcvavq, (gvP 2005), kxivgKi Dc`k Drm I De,
hZ cvi| ZvB GB `ywU gvMK Aej^b Ki Avgv`i kixiic i_K wbRi M KwjKvZv - 700059, cwge, Rqkx cm|
ej wbq hZ ne| fviZxq mswZ cwicyv Zvi KviY nj fviZxq mswZ 3) ^vgx MxZvb`, (1998) fvMeZK_v, KwjKvZv - 700003, cwge, Dvab
agvavwiZv fw AvavwiZv| ZvB mKj gvbylK wbRi DbwZi Rb GB `ywU gvMK Kvhvjq|
Avkq KiZB ne| ag I fwK Avavi Ki Rxeb AvQ ejB Rxebi GZ gnZ 4) gby (1397), gbymswnZv, cvbb ZKiZ,KwjKvZv - 700006, cwge, msZ
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hw`I agi viv fw , fwi viv ag GBiKg cii wewbgq `Lv hvq| ZeyI 7) kxgvMeZg& (2067), MviLcyi,w`j-x, MxZv cm|
AvaywbK hyM agi Acv fwB k| GB KviI viv KwZ bq ev wbYq bq| wK
Avgv`i AbyfeB GLvb cgvY| Jg ZZ& mr|

A wUKv t-
1) gbywZ - 7.12
2) fMeMxZv - 6.35
3) cZwjhvMm~g - 1
4) gyKvZcwblZ - 3.1
5) fvMeZcyivYg& - 7.5.26
6) fvMeZcyivYg& - 12.3.5
7) wezcyivYg& - 3.2.12
8) kxgMeZMxZv - 8.5

177 178
Avgiv hLb wn`yi `k AvwQ, ZLb Zvnv`i AvPvi wbqgi cwZ mvb c`kb
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cvPxb fviZ GB ew wb`bxq Zv wQjB bv eis Zviv wekl mvb I ghv`vi evwm`v njI AbKB wK wkwZv wQj| bvUKvw`Z Awfbq Ki Zviv LvwZ ARb
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bvixiv mgvR wekl mvbi AwaKvix wQj| wK GB MwYKv ew avwibxi AwaKvsk gbve`bv, myL `ytLi Kvwnbx ejQ, hgb webvw`bxi - Avgvi K_v Z `wL
kl eqm AbykvPbv KiQ - AbyZ nqQ| mgvRi wbziZvq icvRxwebxiv bvix Rxebi mv_KZv jvf KiZ cviwb| gvby`v
gahyM GB ewi cwiewZZ ic `Lv hvq| mgvR evivbviv Avi mvbi `exi wkwZv cwZZvi AvZPwiZ cwZZv`i c wbq AbK jLv myjLv nqywQj
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cyili cjvfbi djB bvix`i MwYKv nZ nqQ| wek kZK D`M evmbv, `n RvwZgqx `exi wPiKvwjbx-i huyB, bi`bv_ wgi RvgvB-i eKzj kixiK
me^Zv - g~jevanxbZv I Av`kPzwZi dj b~Zb aiYi MwYKvZi De nqQ cY Ki AbKB `ytmvnmxi gZv Rxeb aviY KiZ PqQ| MY`eZvi `yMvi gZ
(1)| bMi ekv`i gZ gvVekv`i mw nqQ| gvV ekv nj mvgvwRK evsjv mvwnZ MwYKv Pwi `Lv hvq, A_bwZK evaevaKZvq Zviv GB c_ bgQ|
ekv| GBme bvix`i gvV cvIqv hvq| gawei mKj g~jevai evBi Ni AcZv gq`i mgvR wdwiq bqwb - euP _vKvi ZvwM` Zvi KvQ Avi Kvb
fvOv ev Ni cvjvbv ev Ni Lv`vbv wKsev ZvjvKx A_ev ZvjvK K bvix`i GUv ew wQj bv| bi`bv_ wgi gnvbMi - Gi Pcjv, cevaKzgvi mvbvji Kv
Dby ekvjq| Giv cdkbvj nq gvwmi QvDbxZ Pvjvb nIqvi AvM GLvb -Gi kvfbv, Qvow` I Zvi gq, RM`xk -i jNyi-i UzKx, wegj Kii
_vK| bvixi cY RxebaviYB bq - cfyZ m` DcvRbI AvRKi MwYKv`i AvOyijZv-i AvOyijZv GiKg AbK D`vniY - mgvRi evavq Rxeb my`i fve
j| wesk kZvxi c_gw`K MwYKv`i myf ve euvPvi `yev i AvKvLv Zv`i cggqx mv_K Ki ZzjZ cviwb eU, Zey Giv nviwb| mgik emyi myavivbx (Ziv b^ii
ic BZvw`Z cvq me jLK`i mnvbyf~wZ cKvk cqQ| bvixi g~j, bvixZ, myavivbx), P`vejx Pvievjv (gyv ebxi DRvb) -i ga `Lv w`j GK bZzb
mZxZ BZvw` bvbv e_vI Zuviv w`Z jvMjb Ges Gi m~Pbv `Lv wMqwQj iex`bv_i AvZeva, Luy R wbZ PvBj wbR`i cwiPq| klhvv-i (cdj z - ivq) Kfvwgbx
wePviK MB| iex`bv_i PvL ngkkx Iid cwZZv gv`v ^Ygqx `ex I Zvi mvw_iv mgvRK Dcv KiZ ciQ| `pZvi m msMvgi ga cwZv
cwZgvi gZv D`&fvwmZ nq DVwQj| P eQii weaevi AivKvk `~iw`M KiQ wbR`iK|
_K h heb mgxiY DQwmZ nqwQj ZvK evav `evi Dcvq Zvi wQj bv| eaei kirP`i nvZB Avgiv MwYKv Pwii weZZ cwiPq cvB| `e`vmi
eb - Zwnxb AvKvLvK wbe Kivi Dcvq h AZ KwVb Zv mw`bi P`gyLx, Avavi Avjvi weRwj h iKg AvwZK kw I gnZi cwiPq w`qQ Zv
mgvRkvxiv evSbwb| gymjgvb gjev`xivI eySZ Pvbwb eMg ivKqvi mZ `yjf | icvRxwebxiv GfveB mvwnZ Gj| Kj-vj Kvji jLKiv cvvZ wkvi
NUbv Aej^b iwPZ ewjMZ M hv ejQb| Luv evnv`yi wn`yqvbx c_vK NYvi AvjvK wbicvq bvix`i e`bv Zzj aiZ jvMj - axi axi cwieZb Gj GB
PvL `L wK wbRi Zi eQii fwMbxi weqi cve GB ej Avcw Zvj, MwYKv Pwi| ebdzji Avjvi wccvmv-i mylgv mvgvwRK eevi wei we`vn
179 180
KiQ| Avevi Kvb Kvb MwYKv Rxebi BwZnvm gyQ w`q wbRK cwZwZ KiZ mZxZ, bvixZ, g~jeva Gme ZPbP nq MQ| RbAiYi (1973)
PqQ, m`c ejQ Avwg Kvb `vmxi gq bB| .... Avwg gvbyl Avwg gq bUei ejQ UvKv w`q gvqi KvQ _K gq, fvBqi KvQ _K evbK, ^vgxi
(wbwkc gyvgvjv)| G GK AvZ A^lY| KvQ _K eDK, evci KvQ _K eUxK KZevi wbqwQ UvKvi AvgvDU Qvov
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ewg mvwnZ KzjUv Pwi _vKjI wVK evivbv ejZ hv evSvq m RvZxq Pwi bvix, h wbRi `y gqK - igv I SzgvK `n eemvq jvwMqQ| RbAiY AviK
cvIqv hvq bv| A_P fevbxPiY e`vcvavq wKsev Zvgi bKkvq Zv myweZZfve gqK `wL h mKvj zj covq| wbw` GKUv mvRvbv dvU evwo, Ab mgq
`Iqv nqQ| wK Mfxifve mnvbyf~wZi mv_ wePvi Ki MwYKv`i wbq kirP` Kvgvi`i m _vK| gqwU jxjv mvgZvwb - wmw|
mv_K Dcbvm iPbv Kib| P`gyLx _K Zvi hvv i (`e`vm 1915) Avuavi Mn Ni AbK gqB GB wec_ bgQ KD AbUb wbicvq nq,
Avjv(1916), weRjx wKsev kxKvi ivRjx Giv cvq cZKB wQj kvwlZv, KD Aviv eojvK Ges Aviv fvM myLi Avkvq| `v`vi wPwKrmvi UvKv RvMvo
Aevi wkKvi ZeyI G`i ewZ, AvwZK kw Avgv`iK wewZ Ki| mvi KiZ bv ci Kbv bvg fvwiq wkDwj nq GB eemvq GmQ| wewfb eemv
AvbyKj Giv gwngvgq Pwi ic wPwZ nqQ| AvaywbK A_bxwZi GB cwZvbi KvQ _K KvR cvIqvi Rb gvwjK ev cfy`i Lywk Kivi Rb Gfve
ckvwU bvbvfve Ges bvbv ic Qwoq coQ| gq`i cvVvZ nq| wesk kZvxi c_gv_ ch evivbv Pwi wbicvq fveUvB
KvjKvZv wk bMix nevi ci _KB bvix`i wbq h GKUv eemv Mo dzU DVQ| Zviv AZvPvwiZv Avw_K KviYB Zviv `nK cY KiQ| Zey wKQy wKQy
IV Kj-vji jLKiv Zv `wLqQb| cg` wgi (cuvK), RM`xk , kjRv Pwi Kv_vI gv_v bxPz Kiwb mgvR Giv ^Q`B wePiY KiQ MY`eZvi
b` cgyL cZKB `Lvjb bvixiv wKfve kvwlZ nq, A_bwZK AbUb wbicvq `yMv | fvjem myf ve euvPvi Avkvq AbK NY RxweKv Qo Avmvi Pv KiwQj,
nq `nK Zzj `q KbvePvi RMZ| G wbq AbK QvU M jLv nqQ (myeva wK cviwb|
Nvl - eviea~, gvbv, cg` wgi - weKZ zavi duv`, gnvbMi, RM`xk - Dbwesk kZvxi K_vmvwnwZKMY MwYKvi Pwi AvuKZ wMq `Lvjb
jNyi, wegj wgi ebvimx, ceva Kzgvi mvbvji Avi, bi` wgi RvgvB, mgvR Rxeb Aeevi Ges Aevi wkKvi nqB Zviv GB ewZ GmQ| Guiv Aviv
wegj Kii jejZv) GBme `n eemvwqbx`i ga KD KD msmvi cZ my `Lvjb GBme MwYKv`i `qi Hkh gnr| cwgKi KjvYi Rb Giv mZZB
Rxeb hvcb KiZ Pq e_ nqQ| GLvbI mB AmnvqZv| wK mvZi `kK AvZZvM DbyL| wbRK wecb Ki Abi wekl Ki cwgKi KjvY Giv PvBZ|
_K MwYKv ewavwibxiv wbR`i Abfve cwZwZ KiZ PvBj - cwZev` Rvbvevi MwYKv`i GB gnZi w`KUv AbKUvB hb gWj ev Av`k nq `uvwoqwQj|
fvlv ARb Kij Pwii GB weeZb myfve `Lv Mj Zvivkii MY`eZv, kirP` _K iex`bv_ (wePviK M) GB icwUB Zzj aiQb| Avuavi Avjvi
Kwe s wwbkc Dcbvm| weRjx wKsev `e`vmi P`gyLx GgbwK kxKvi ivRjxi AvZZvM Avgv`i
MwYKv Kbv gyvgvjv wkv `xv ARb Ki c_g bvm ci bZMxZ wkx wewZ Ki| mB m ck RvM cwgKi wbzi Acgvb mn KiI Kvb AvwZK
nq wbRK cwZwZ Ki| GB ^vaxbZv ARbi c_wU Zvivki c_g `Lvjb kwZ Giv ewj ewZi cwiPq w`qwQj| MwYKv Rxebi K`hgq w`KwU G`i
Kwe Dcbvm| Kwe-i emb hLb fvMi weo^bvq Kcvji bKbej fO iPbvq wK DcwZ nqwb? Kj-vji jLKiv MwYKv Rxebi K`hgq w`KwU
cowQj, wKy gyvgvjv m` ejQ - Kviv cwiPq KvR bB Avwg gvbyl Avwg DbvPb Ki `Lvjb, KD KD `Lvjb GB NwYZ ew _K gyw jvfi Pv
gq| GB AvZevai ^ic Aviv AbK jLKi M cKvk cj| wegj Kii wK mvgvwRK KVviZvq Zvi KiY cwiYwZ NUQ| GB wbicvq Aev, AZvPvi
AvOyijZvI ejwQj AvOyi gie bv Avi Kuv`e bv|GB AvZ cwZv `Lv Mj AwePvi _K invB cZ myeva Nvli eviea~ Ges wegj wgi ebvimx
mgik gRyg`vii MI Ziv b^ii myavivYx mvbvMvwQi MwYKv Av Dj-LhvM M| mi Avwki `kK _K MwYKviv AvZcwZwZ nZ _vK - evivbv,
RvwZK MwYKv mjb hvM w`q ew ^vZgqx bvixZ DbxZ nj| MwYKv, ekv BZvw` kwj Zv`i hfve wPwZ KiZ Zv _K hbKgx AvLv
wgmm Mvyjx RbyBb dzj Mi - ^vgx Kcvikbi KvK - g`i bkv wbq Zviv AvZcKvk Kij| (Zi b^ii myavivYx - mgik emy)| mgik emyi
AvQ| gvBbi UvKvq PvjvZ cvi bv ej mI `n eemv Ki| Ze GKUz wfbfve| myavivYx mvbvMvwQi Zi b^i Ni _K MwYKv`i AvRvwZK mjb hvM w`q
Zvi gZ, cU GKUz we` bv _vKj Gme jvBb bvg Kiv hvq bv| Li`i wbRi AvZcwZv `Lvj| RvwZgqx `ex gi Aiv(1987) Z MwYKv`i
`ywv fywjq `Iqv, Av`i AvcvqY Ki `y` kvw `Iqv - ivZ `kUvi ga Mfxi Rxeb`kb cvq| myeva emyi bUx (1937) AvkvjZvi gwbKv evBRxZ icvi
nvUj wKsev Ab _K Giv wdi Avm| Rb b ^vgx GfveB eDK eemvq Dj-LhvM| AvZvl gyLvcvavqi cZcv -Z Kvb `n eemv _K gyw
bvgvq| gyKz`i Kve h Rvqv Rxei K_v Avgiv RbwQ, GI mB Rvqv Rxe K_v| cZ Pvq| cdj z - ivqi klhvv (1995) Z MwYKv`i ewj AvZcZqi Qwe
181 182
`Lv hvq| GLvb Avgiv bvixi fvM Rq Kivi kw `LZ cvB| gbvR emy wbwkKzUz ^ Kwe Dcbvmi embi gyL w`q Zvivki Ggb ` fvlv DPviY KiZ cvibwb|
(1963) Z iceZx I ivavivbx `vq co nxbewZ bg GmQ| GQvovI KvjxNvU mLvb emb fMevbi AwePvii wei cwZev` KiQ - wK w`qQ fMevb AvgvK?
ewi cwZZv myavgyLxi MwYKv ew Z mewKQy Rb eyS GB ew MnY h_ mvnmi ^vgx cy Ni msmvi w`qQ? ZvK gv_v bZ KiZ nqQ wbRi fvMi KvQ|
cwiPq| Kweqvj, GB Avgv`i Kcvji bKb| gygvjv nvi gvbwb| euvPevi, cwZv vcb
MwYKv PwiI axi axi cwieZb Gj (Kwe Dcbvmi emb,eviea~-i Kivi `p msK wbqQ| kl ch m ejQ, cwZv wbq AvwQ m` wbq
jZv) Zviv AvZcwZv PvBj| wbwePvi me AZvPvi gv_vq cZ wbZ Zviv ivRx AvwQ Avi AvwQ Qji Rb|
bq| MY`eZvi `yMv Z Zvivki GUvB `Lvjb| wK ewjfve wbwkc Dcbvm
Zvivki `Lvjb bvixi Avcb fvM Rq Ki bevi AwaKvi wKfve cwZv Ki Kj-vji Kvj cwZZv Pwi wbq Lye ekx gvvZB M Dcbvm jLv
wKfve mvbRbK DcvRbi c_, euvPvi c_ eQ wbZ nq| nqQ Avi ZLb _K GB RvZxq Pwii ga ew ^vZev` cwZv jvfi Pv
egvbi Kvbgvjv `n eemvwqbx _K nqwQj Kxb MvwqKv| c_g `Lv hvq| `xNw`b aiB MwYKviv mgvR kvwlZ nq GmQ| mvgvwRK Drcxob Zv
Rxeb m `LQ weq mv`x, Abcv lb evY Rwg`vi evoxZ Drme Abyvb Zvi gv wQjB| bvix`i Gi _K gyw jvfi cqvmi Pv PjwQj kirP`i P`gyLxi
LgUv bvPZ Kxb MvBZ| mUvB wQj Zv`i RxweKv| Xc KxbI nZ ivm, `e`vmi m Ni Kivi cve `evi mvnm wQj bv| wK ey`e emyi mvov
`vj , Szjb| ZLb bvPMvb wQj wbkYxi bvix`i| wK wek kZKi wZxq `kK (1930) Dcbvmi wbgjv cyiZ WK weq Ki Ni euvaZ PqQ| RM`xk
_K GB bvP Mvbi PnvivUv cv hvq| f` Nii gqiv bvPMvb wkLZ jvMj| (1886 - 1950) -i jNi (1931) Dcbvm `wLqQb gq`i wK KviY
wmbgv w_qUvi Awfbq KiZ jvMj| Kvbgvjvi Kbv RvbZ bv Zvi gv GK mgq Mn ewZv nq ZvK cwZZv nZ nq| wecZxK cwiZvli x UzKx hLb Rvbj, m
`n eemvwqbx wQj| KvbgvjvI `ytL Ki gq gyvgvjvi KvQ ejQ, gv cwiZvli iwZv Ges ZvK w`q m `n eemv Kivi Rb jU KvgyK AwP
Avgvi evY Nii gq weqi GKeQi hZ bv hZB weaev nqwQj| Zvici eveyK GbQ| m ZLb AwPeveyK NYvq wel ej, G KvR hw` KiZ nq, Ze
Kcvj jLb Avi cvovMuvqi mgvR ..... Kji `vM coj eva nq KjKvZvq AvcbvK `e `n, Avcwb AvgvK `eb UvKv| gvSLvb Iiv K? ZviI AvM Gi
Gj nj Kmex LvbKx(4)| gq`i MwYKvewZ AvmZ eva nevi GUvI wQj PqI ewjfve ekv PwiK Zzj aiQb bikP` mb (1882 - 1964)
GKUv eo KviY| Kvbgvjv kl ch gnr Avkq cq NY Rxeb _K cwivY fv (1327 mb) Dcbvm RxebK mv_K Kievi Rb fv ejQ, ekv ewZ
cqQ| gygvjvK fvjfve gvbyl KiQ, bZ Kjvq LvwZ jvf KiQ| wcZvi GZ fqi K_v Kx? Ab Dcvq hw` RxweKv ARb bv nq Ze kixi ewPqv LvBj
KvbI c`ex MnY bv Ki gvqi Dcvwa `vmxK eRb Ki `vm Ki wbqQ| wK Ggb wK Aciva| Ni _vwKjI kixi ewPqv euvwPqv _vwKZ nBe evwniI bv nq
gygvjvi msMvgi BwZnvm i nqQ gvqi gZz i ci| c_g bvwms Kvm - G gvU ZvnvB nBe, wK ^vaxbZv PvB, gyw PvB, RxebUvK mv_K Kwievi GKUv Aemi
Pvi eQi Uwbs wbq nvmcvZvj PvKix wbqwQjb| hyi Rb ZLb bvmi AbK PvB| jywkLvi (bikP` mb) gvjZxKI biKi KxU nZ nqwQj| kixi
Pvwn`vI wQj| gygvjv fewQj GB bZzb RMZ Zvi Rb BwZnvm KD Rvbe bv| weqK h NYv KiZ mB gvjZxK nZ nj jy wkLv| Aek G KvRI Lye mnR
ci NUbvP bZcwUqmx nq LvwZjvf KiQ| wK GB cwZvi AvM m gvK nqwb| KviY mgvR h cyil kvwmZ| cgvzi AvZ_x (1890 - 1964) Pvlvi gq
fvlvq h K_vwj ejwQj ZvZ Zvi ewj gbi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| (1924) Dcbvm `wLqQb mifK ekv ew wbZ nqQ hv ivMvv
gy t Zvgvi H agK Avwg Nbv Kwi| ... Avgvi cwiPq wK ejZ cviv gv? ^vgxK euvPvbvi Rb (5)| `vwi`B ZvK GB AKvi RMZ Vj w`qQ| GBme
Kvb KxZbIqvjxi gq GK evm evey DwKji GK ; ej gv ej, Zzwg Zvi K Pwii ga evivbv bvix gywi BwZnvm LuyR cvIqv hve| eve Rxebi ~j
wK ? w`Kjv GLvb ev` ciwQj| GKUv cgveM I Av`k mLvb gyL| MwYKv`i
Kvb t Avwg Zuvi `vmx| wZwb cfy| Avwg fvjem Zvi PiY wewKqwQjvg Avwg wbq m~Y eve wP Zzj aiQb 1937 G jLv myeva emy Zuvi bUx Dcbvm
Zvi `vmx bikP` mbi jy wkLvZI evevbyM Qwe cvIqv hvq| Ze GB kYxi mvwnZ
gy t Avwg m cwiPq Avgvi cwiPq _K gyQ `e| Avwg `vmxi gq bB| wbR m~Y wbgvnfve eve bZzb wP Zzj aiQb igkP` mb (1894 - 1962)
Kvii `vmx ne bv| Zvgvi cfyi gqi cwiPqI Avgvi KvR bB| Avwg gvbyl| KvRj (?) Dcbvm| cwgKi cZviYvi ciI KvRj me nvivZ Pvq wb| kixix
Avwg gq (c: `: Zvivki iPbvejx, cg L, ct 378)| Rb cwiPqi GB eemvI Zvi Kvg wQj bv| wK AwfZvq m `Lj ngeZx Aejv Avkg-i
Acgvbi M-vwb _K gyw cZ `p msK wbq m bvwms Gi ew wbqwQj| gygvjvB KzrwmZ wqv Kjvc| `yt gwnjv`i AmnvqZvi myhvM wbq mLvb hbZvK DcfvM
eva nq c_g bvix h AvZ A^lY Ki ejZ ciQ| Avwg gvbyl Avwg gq| Ki| KvRj cwZZv ew wbZ eva njI - mefvMv Rbc` ea~ nZ Pvqwb, PqwQj
183 184
GKRb m`vkq ewi Avkq _K Rxeb aviY KiZ| i_xbi gZv gvbyli Avkq
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AvkgKZv jvKiv ekvK eenvi Ki mKjB| A_bwZKfve Amnvqv KvRj f~wgKv t mycvPxbKvj _KB gvbyli GKvb _K Abvb hvZvqvZ ev cY
Rxeb Avw_K mvdj nqZ cqQ wK AbK g~j| bej AvZeva wbq MwYKv`i cwienbi GKgv gvag j bKv| jc_ hLb weZZ wQj bv ZLb _KB
ew, I`i cwiPq, Iiv wbRivB LuyR wbqQ AvR| wegj Kii AvOyijZv m`c Rj ewZ kvc` mzj jf~wg Acv gvbyl Rjc_KB PjvPji GKgv mnvqK
ej, bv AvOyi gie bv Ggb K_v AvM KD ejwb| gy ebxi DRvb wnmve eenvi Ki| b` b`x ewZ evsjvq b`x Avgv`i KvQ gvqi gZv| z`
(1980) mgik emy `wLqQb MwYKv`i mngwgZv| Zviv AvR GB Kg GK m~ wki gvZe hgb fq _vK bv| Zgwb GLvbKvi jvKRbI wbfq b`x cvwo
euvav| Pvievjv Ki ej, Ime fi gBj UBj evjwb evev, Avgiv hv `q| wbZ cqvRbxq KvRKg, nvUevRvi _K cYi mvi wbq `~i `k evwYR
Avgiv ZvB| GB AvZ cwiPq iqQ AvKz cKvk| Kvb mge`bvi cZvkx Zviv hvq| gbmvgj I Pxgj Kve Zvi mv enb Ki|
bb| AvZwekvm wbq MwYKviv hbKgx msMVb Zix KiQ| AvRvwZK mjb gvbyli cqvRbi wbwiLB bKvi AvKvi AvqZb Zwi nq| Mn evwoi
Zviv hvM `q| mgik gRyg`vi Ziv b^ii myavivbx Mi bvwqKv myavivbx `n KvRKg I gvQ aivi bKv GKiKgi Avi fveenbKvix bKv AbiKgi| Avevi
eemvi cj-x mvbvMvwQ _K cvwim MQ MwYKv`i cwZwbwa nq| GB cwZg~wZ, b evBP cwZhvwMZvi bKvi MVb AbaiYi| kwLb abx kYxi eeZ bKv
Zv`i AvZwPv `L gb nq MwYKv ew AvRKi mgvR GK bZzb ic wbq `Lv ev evwYR bKvi MVb Avjv`v nq _vK| eZgvb ce cvb`xZ `bw`b KvR
w`qQ| AvR MwYKv ewi cmvi eoB PjQ bvbv ic| A_ DcvRbB GLb AbK eeZ gvQ aiv Rj bKv I cY cwievnx evwYR bKv mK AvjvPbv Kiv
B gyL nq MQ| iex`bv_ cwZZv KweZvq bvixi h bvixZi K_v ejQb nj|
ZvI hb Aejywi c_ -
bvwnK Kig, jv kig, cvb`xZ eeZ bKv t
Rxeb Rbg mZxi c_v - cvb`x msjM wewfb Aj mgxv Pvwjq h mg Z_ cvIqv hvq
Zv ej bvixi bvixZ UzKz Zvi wfwZ cv ZxieZx bKvK Avgiv `yB kYxZ fvM KiZ cvwi| gvQ aivi
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Avi cek KiZ cvi bv| mgM bKvK gReyZ I UKmB Kivi Rb AvjKvZiv
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189 190
Kvlvi (Rj bKv) MVb t 16 nvZ bKv wbgvYi weeiY t
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nvZ/24- UvKv
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mvRv euvk ev KvV w`q Zix nq| Gi mvnvh cvj LvwUq bKvK webvkg `Z nvZ, eenvi mn|
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KwR I gvbyli eenvi Kvhi Dci| b`xc_ I mgy`c_ eeZ bKv GKiKg nq bv|
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191 192
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Tsunami - A Killer Wave
Kkj AbKLvwb wbfi Ki| Ze eZgvb ce bKvi MVb Kkj wbq hv
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Mcw t
1| Hornell James, The Origins and Ethonological Signifi-
mvgv gvBwZ
cance of Indian Boat Designs. Memoirs of the Asiatic !yy y!y
Society of Bengal, Vol. VIII, no. 3.
2| H.H. Risley, The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, Vol. I & II, gvbe mfZvi AMMwZi mvcvb ceZkxl DbxZ njI cKwZi LjvZ GKevi
calcutta 1981. cv``k AewZ| ZvB cvPxb hyM nZ AvR ch gvbyl cKwZi `yhvMK Ckii
Awfkvc ^ic ej gb wbq cKwZi wb`viY ivli KvQ AvZmgcY Ki AvQ|
Z_`vZv t mB cvPxb BwZnvmi w`K gyL divjB Zvi exfrm ic `Lv hvq| hgb wmz b`xi
1| cdjz - Kzgvi nvj`vi, `qvivgcyi, Rjx, gywk`vev`, eqm 51 eQi, RvwZ bgk~`, Zxi AewZ niv - gnv`voi _K gmvcUwgqv, gniMo cvq mg
wn`y| mfZvwji AebwZi cQb `uvwoq cvKwZK `yhvMi Kivj Mvm| G cm Dj-L
2| myej P` evjv, m~hbMi Kjvbx, Rjx, gywk`vev`, eqm 40 eQi, RvwZ bgk~`, Kiv hvq, gnvv`vov GjvKvq Rbwevb welqK MelYvi ci AbKB ejQb
wn`y| h, `~i AZxZ GB bMii KvQ fqven f~wgKi Drmvb wQj| Ges Gi djB
3| mybxj nvj`vi, `vmi PK WvgKj, gywk`vev`, eqm 60 eQi, RvwZ bgk~`, wn`y| GB bMix asm nqwQj| Avevi AbK wekl GB bMixi cZbi KviY wnmve
4| mgi kgv, `qvivgcyi, Rjx, gywk`vev`, eqm 56 eQi, RvwZ m~ai, wn`y| evisevi ebvKB `vqx KiQb| hvBnvK gbyl Rxeb cvq cuvP nvRvi eQi AvM
5| Avvg gj,`qvivgcyi, Rjx, gywk`vev`, eqm 55 eQi, RvwZ gymwjg| mfZvi AvjvK cuQvjI cKwZ wbfiZvK bv ciQ cyivcywi wbg~j KiZ, bv
ciQ cKwZi Acvi ewPgq MfxiZvK m~Y fve eySZ| ZvB gvS gvSB
KZZv ^xKvi t fqi ebv, Liv, f~wgK, AMyrcvZ I mybvgxi hZ gviY Zi gvbeRxebK Pig
GB ce iPbvq e gvbyli viv bvbvfve DcKZ nqwQ| Zv`i ga hv`i bvg `y`kvM I wech Ki w`q hvQ|
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193 194
AvwiUji fvebv mZ bq Zvnj mZUv wK? Ebwesk kZKi gvSvgvwS _K UvwKI _K 373 Km. `~i mgy` DcKjeZx kni mvBq mgy`i 17 gvBj
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kni Rvcvb| nqQ ckv gnvmvMii Zj`k| IB Ask iqQ mvwi mvwi AvMqwMwi, cwifvlvq
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ivRb Kivji gZ ckv gnvmvMii h Ask Gw`b mybvgx msNwUZ nqwQj mLvb
mgy`i bxP cvkvcvwk wQj `ywU cvZ Ges Rvcvb LvZ bvg GKwU LvZ IB ckv
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ga ckv gnvmvMixq cvZwU BDiwkqvb cvZi Zjvq AZ 10-15 wg: XyK cvZvkq asmKvix Zi|
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195 196
evwoNi, `kjvB evi gZ fvmZ _vK Rj| LimvZv Rj BQgZ `vwcq eovq AvKvi| IB dvUj gk evoZ _vKjv| Zv vqx f~cwieZb NUvZ mg ne|
knii c_, wegvb e`i| h RwgZ Rj cuQZ cviwb mLvbI f~wgK Avi GQvov cvKwZK wechq hgb GKw`K Awfkvc ^ic Zgwb Avkxev`I eU, KviY
mybvwg RwbZ dvUj AbK ivv I evwoi Pnviv nq ewjiLvgq ei ZKi gZ| cvKwZK wechqi dj f~MvVwbK cwieZb NUj Avgiv g~jevb m`I Avwevi
Zj kvabvMvi Avb jM Zv Qwoq co Pvwiw`K| wegvbe`i, iie`i me KiZ cvwi| asmi gaB my _vK mwi exRg ZvB cvKwZK wechq RvbZ
e| GKBm 40 j evwo we`yrnxb nq co| asmi ga w`qB RM DVyK bexbi Dbl, hv gbylRbRvwZK AMMwZi c_
Rvcvbi GB mybvgxi cfve aygv c_ NvU evwoZB Ave wQj bv| Zivw^Z Kie| gvbyl GKw`b mZmZB cKw Zi LqvjxcbvK m~Yi c wbqYvaxb
wekA_bxwZKI evcKfve Uwjq w`qwQj| weki ZZxq eng A_bxwZ Rvcvbi Ave ivLe| gk GwMq AvmQ mBw`b, mw`b gvbyl cKZ B Rq Kie cKw ZK|
Gw`bi wechq wVK KZUv wech nqwQj Zvi GKwU evLv `Iqv hvq| mybvgxi
GB w`b 6wU KviLvbv e Ki w`qwQj sony, 3wU KviLvbv e Kivi K_v Z_m~ t
RvwbqwQj| weki AbZg enr Mvwo wbgvZv TOYOTA, HONDA MOTOR & NISAN 1) Ananda Bajar Patrika
GKB c_ nuUQ| KviLvbv ei wmv wbqwQj FUJI HEAVY INDUSTRIES 2) cvKwZK `yhvM kvi`v gj
mn ek wKQy ms v | e wQj J.X,NIPPON OIL AND ENERJY-i wZbwU 3) f~wgKwe`v Gm.Avi. emy I Avi. gvBwZ
ZjkvabvMvi| Avb ai wMqwQj Cosmo Oil Company-i wPev kvabvMvi| 4) cvPxb fviZi BwZnvm - mybxj Pvcvavq
myBWbi Mvwo eRvwZK fjfv, myBm msv, bmj, wmUe ev Gqvi evM wbgvY
eng msv AUvwjf I wiUj eRvwZK UmKv|
wek A_bxwZ QvovI GB mybvgxi ivl cowQj kqvi evRvii IciI|
Gw`b f~wgKi mgq _i_i Ki KuvcwQj Rvcvbi kqvi evRvi wbB| w`bi
kl hv cowQj 1.7%| GB wechqi ik Gw`b Qwoq coQ weki Abvb
`ki kqvi evRviI| wjweqv I mw` Avie Zji `vg wbq Avkvq iqQ
kqvi evRvi|
UvwKI _K wgqvwM knii _K Rvcvbi Dt c~t kniwj mybvgxi
cej mvZ fm MjI wmMwbwcevm, ZvBIqvb, qvb, nvIqvB, cvcyqv,
wbDwMwb,wPwj, Gjmvjfv`vi mn ckv gnvmvMixq AvMq ejq msjM xcivwjK
f~K I mybvgx ceY wecbK Aj ej NvlYv Kiv nqQ|
hw`I mybvgx cvKwZK Dcvq m GKwU weasmx Awi I AwbwZ cKw Zi
gviY Zi hvi Kvbv c~evfvm `Iqv Ame ejjB Pj, ZeyI 1946 mvj Av
RvwZK mybvgx wkqvix eev Pvjy nevi ci _K gvbyli gZzi msLv AvMi
_K KgQ| GQvov Rvcvbi wbKUeZx AvMqwMwijvi Pvicvk jvMvbv nqQ
AmsL mi| h mijv AvMvg c~evfvm `e AMyrcvZ I f~wgKi| dj
miwj _K evZv ZivKvi mKi ga gvbyli KvQ cuQ hve I gvbylRb
wbivc` Avkq MnY KiY| mi Qvov wKQy ejybi Avwevi Kiv nqQ hvi ga
gvbyl Rji ga fm _vKZ cvie `xNY, dj fvmgvb gZzi nvZ _K iv
cve AmsL gvbyl| Rvcvbi GB mybvgx fwelZi fMvwjK cwieZb NUvZ mg
nZ cvi| KviY f~wevbx`i GKvski `vwe h, Rvcvbi mgy`i wbPi f~i `ywU
cvZi Aevb kl ch wK `uvovq Zvi Ici wbfi Kie mgy`i wbP dvUji
197 198
Abykxjbi Dci Rvi `Iqv nq| Gi cieZx mgq MvwRx GB Awnsmv bxwZi viv
fviZxq `kb e Rb Ges Mfxifve cfvweZ nb Ges GB Awnsm bxwZi viv wZwb fviZi mKj kYxi gvbylK
MvwRxi Awnsmv Z AvwjKZvi Mw gy Ki RvZxqZv eva Dy KiZ mg nb| ZvB bZvwR
myfvlP` emy ZuvK RvwZi RbK AvLvq f~wlZ Kib| iex`bv_i fvlvq wZwb
Zzdvb Avwj mL njb gnvZv| Avi GB RvwZi RbK gnvZv Mvw fviZK wewUk kvmb gy KiZ
x!! xy !x !yy y!y A wnmve aviY KiwQjb cvPxb fviZi g~jg Awnsm bxwZK| MvwRx DvweZ
GB Awnsm A wQj MvUv cw_exi gvbyli KvQ m~Y Awfbe| MvwRxi ^-
Awnsmvi cxVvb nj fviZel| `ytL I wnsmv RRwiZ cw_exZ Awnsmv nj DvweZ GB Awnsm bxwZ Ges Av`k ZuvK weki `ievi Gb nvwRi Ki|
fviZeli g~j g| fviZxq Dcwbl`, gbymswnZv, wZ BZvw`Z mB AwZ cvPxbKvj Dk t (Objectives)
_K awbZ nq AvmQ Awnsmvi evYx| Lxtc~e l kZvxZ GB Awnsm awbi 1. egZ Awnsmv aviYvi evLv c`vb|
cwZawb cwZdwjZ nq e Ges Rb `kb| e agi ceZK, bxwZ `vkwbK 2. RbgZ Awnsmv aviYvi evLv c`vb|
MZgey RvMwZK gvbyli `ytL K `L Mfxifve wePwjZ nb Ges GB RvMwZK 3. MvwRxi Awnsmv Zi evLv c`vb|
`ytL K RRwiZ Rxei gywi Dcvq Abymvb wbRK wbqvwRZ Kib, hvi AbZg 4. Awnsmv aviYvwUi eZgvb cvmwKZv|
dmj nj AvwK gvM| Rxei gywi Dcvq ev c_ wnmve ey h AvwK gvMi
K_v ejQb Zvi AbZg GKwU Ask nj kxj ev m`vMi| e`kb GB kxji egZ Awnsmvi aviYv t
GKwU iZcY~ A nj cvYvwZcwZ weiwZ ev Awnsmv| e gZ, Rxei AvwZK fviZxq `vkwbK mc`vqwji ga AbZg GKwU mc`vq nj e
`ytL wbew ev wbevY jvfi GB Awnsmv cvjb AZ Riix| egZ, h mc`vq| bvwK GB `kb mc`vqi cwZvZv MZg ey RvMwZK gvbyli `ytL,
Kvb cvYx nZv Kiv h AKZe ZvB bq, cvYx nZvq civPbv ev mnhvwMZv I K, `y`k v `L Mfxifve wePwjZ nb| ZvB wZwb ZvwK AvjvPbv Acv RvMwZK
Abygv`b hvM bq| AwnsmK m~ ey`e KvwqK evwPK Ges gvbwmK GB wwea gvbyli `ytL `y`kv gywi Dcvq wbYq eZx nb|
wnsmv _K weiwZi K_v ejQb| Aek wekl e `kb wnsmv Abygvw`Z ey`e Dcjw KiwQjb h RvMwZK gvbyli `ytL `y`kvi g~j KviY nj
nqQ| Avevi Rb`kb gvjvfi Dcvq wnmve AwnsmvK cig eZ ej MY Awe`v| Avi GB Awe`v _K gywjvf me| wZwb Awe`v _K Rxei gyw jvfi
Kiv nqQ| Rb Zx_i`i gZ, wiZi AMZ mgK Pwi jvfi Awnsmv Dcvq wnmve AvUwU c_ ev gvMi Dj-L Kib| Gwj GK AvwK gvM bvg
eZ KVvifve cvjb KiZ ne| RbgZ, KvwqK, evwPK Ges gvbwmKfve Kvb cwiwPZ| GB AvwK gvMi AvUwU gvM nj mgK `kb, mgK msK, mgK
Rxei wZ bv Kiv, wZi wPv bv Kiv Ges wZi K_v bv ejv-B Awnsmv| Ze evK&, mgK Kgv, mgK AvRxe, mgK evqvg, mgK wZ Ges mgK mgvwa|
fviZi ^vaxbZv msMvgi AbZg mwbK gvnb`vm KigPuv` Mvw Awnsm bxwZK AvwK gvMi AMZ mgK evK&, mgK Kg Ges mgK AvRxeK ejv nq kxj|
MnY KijI wZwb ejQb, Rb `vkwbK `i gZv KVvifve Awnsm bxwZ cvjb e `kb kxj ki A_ nj m`vPvi| kxj nq weiwZ ^ic| A_vr mg kxj
Kiv eve Rxeb me bq| ZvB wZwb eenvwiK Rxebi Kvb Kvb Awnsmv Kvb bv Kvb cvc Kg _K weiwZ _vKvi K_vi ejv nqQ|
bxwZi cwieZ wnsmv-K DwPZ Kg ejQb| AvwK gvM wZbwU kxji Dj-L _vKjI ey`e gVevmx kgY`i Rb
g~j k t (Key Words) `k cKvi Ges Mn`i Rb wbv cuvP cKvi kxj cvjbi wb`k w`qQb hv
ww, wiZ, Awnsmv, kgY, mev`q, ivgivR| ckxj bvg cwiwPZ| GB ckxj nj
f~wgKv t (Introduction) 1. cvYvwZcvZ weiwZ
cvPxb fviZi `kbi GK AbZg g~j g nj Awnsmv| fviZxq Dcwbl` gbymswnZv 2. A`v`vb weiwZ
BZvw` M Awnsmvi evYx awbZ nqQ| GB Awnsmv gB fviZelK MvUv wek 3. ePh weiwZ
GK ^Z ghv`v c`vb Ki| Lxtc~e l kZK e Ges Rb `kb RvMwZK 4. gylvev` weiwZ
gvbyli cvigvw_K gyw ev gvjvfi c_ ev Dcvq wnmve GB Awnsm bxwZ Ges 5. g`gv`Kv_ weiwZ
199 200
e `kb Dwj-wLZ wewfb kxji ga AbZg cavb A nj - cvYvwZcvZ weiwZ, fviZxq bvwK `kb mc`vqwji ga AbZg nj Rb `kb| Ze, bvwK mc`vq
hvi Aci bvg nj Awnsmv| egZ hKvb cvYx nZv kyay AKZe ZvB bq, cvYx njI Rb `kb gv jvfKB Rxei cig cyilv_ ic MY Kiv nqQ| Avi
nZvq civPbv ev mnhvwMZvI Abygv`b hvM bq| ZvQvov h Kvb cvYxK AvNvZ GB gvjvfi Dcvq nj bwZK Dcvq| mgK `kb, mgK vb Ges mgK Pwi
Kiv ev cvYxi Kki KviY nZ cvi Ggb Kvb KvRI wnsmv| Avi GB mKj Kg GB wZbwU bxwZK Rb `kb ejv nqQ wiZ ev iZq| Avi GB wiZK
_K weiwZ _vKvB nj Awnsmv| AwnsmK m~ ey`e ejQb, h ew KvwqK, Rb `kb ejv nq gvgvM ev gvjvfi Dcvq| h me Kg AvZvi ebi KviY
evwPK Ges gvbwmK GB wwea wnsmv _K weiwZ _vKb wZwbB cKZ Awnsmv ew| nq mBme Kg cwiZvM Ges kvevb I vbevb cyili c gvjvfi mnvqK
egZ, Awnsmv aygv wfz ev mbvmxi cvjbxq bq; Awnsmv MniI cvjbxq| Kgi AbykxjbK ejv nq mgM& Pwi| Avi GB mgK Pwii weeZb Awnsmv nj
wnsmv gvbyli RxebK KjywlZ Ki| hw` Kvb kgb fyjekZ wnsmv Ki cavb ag| Rb bxwZkv mgM& Pwi jvfi Rb cuvPwU eZi Dc`k `Iqv
_vKb, Ze m ZvK agwewa Abyhvqx cvqw KiZ nq| egZ, ccvwL nqQ| GB eZ cuvPwU nj Awnsmv, mZ, Aq, ePh Ges cwiMn| GwjK
GgbwK AwZ z` e, j webvk ev cvYevb eK AvNvZ ev wbnZ Kij Zvi GK ejv nq ceZ| GB ceZK Avevi `yBfvM fvM Kiv nq AbyeZ Ges
cvqw Kiv AvekK| Awnsmvi mg_b hyw c`kb e `kb ejv nqQ - gnveZ| gVevmx mbvmx`i KVvifve H cuvPwU eZ cvjb KiZ nq ej ZLb GK
mKj cvYxi KvQ Zvi wbR AvZv mevwaK wcq| cwZwU cvYxi wbR AvZv hnZz ejv nq cgnveZ Ges mvaviY Mni GB eZ cvjbK ejv nq AbyeZ|
wcqZg mnZz Kvb ewi c KLbB AciK wnsmv Kiv DwPr bq| mKji Rb bxwZ `kb mgM& Pwii weeZb AwnsmvB cavbZg eZ| KviY, Ab
AvZvB mgvb| GKwU cvYxi hgb gZz fq AvQ, Abvb mKj cvYxiI Zgwb gZz fq PviwU eZ civfve Awnsmv eZKB AbymiY Ki| Rb gZ, KvwqK ev `wnKfve
AvQ| myZivs Kvb cvYxi cB AbK AvNvZ Kiv ev Abi cvYbvk Kiv DwPr evwPK ev ePbi(K_vi) viv Ges gvbwmKfve Kvb Rxei wZ bv Kiv, wZi wP
bq| v bv Kiv Ges wZi K_v bv ejAB nj Awnsmv| GB wZb cKvi wnsmvK GK ejv
MZg ey cewZZ mevZK Awnsmv bxwZi wei Avcw DvwcZ nq h, nq ww| AciK wnsmv Kiv,wnsmvq civwPZ Kiv, Acii wnsmvZK KgK
Awnsmev`x nIqv mI ey`e Kvb Kvb gvQ, gvsm fYK Abygv`b mg_b Kiv G meB wnsmvi AMZ| Rb `kb h ceZi K_v ejv nqQ
KiwQjb| GgbwK wZwb ^qs gvsm fvRb Ki wbgY iv KiwQjb| Awnsmv eZxZ Aci PviwU eZ Awnsmv eZ-i AMZ| D`vniY ^ic ejv hvq -
D Avcwi wbimb e `kb ejv nqQ Kvb ew hw` weklfve ceZi wZxq eZ mZ cKvivi Awnsmv eZ| Kbbv, Kvb ewi wei wg_v
Kvivi Rb gvsm cZ Ki Zvnj H gvsm fvRb Kiv AbywPZ| GKRb ew gvQ K_v ejv mB ewi gvbwmK wechqi KviY nq| GKRb ew hw` Aci Kvb
ev gvsm fvRb KiZ cvi hw` Zv H ewi RbB weklfve cZ Kiv nqQ - G ewi wei AmZ K_v ej Zv evPwbK wnsmv Qvov Ab wKQy bq| Avevi, Aq,
K_v H ew hw` bv Rvbb A_ev Kvivi KvQ bv kvbb A_ev Ggb Kvb Avkvi ePh Ges AcwiMn GB evwK wZbwU eZI Awnsmv eZi AMZ| GB KviY Rb
KviY bv _vK| GQvov MZg ey ejQb - Kvb wekl ivM _K cwivbi Rb `kb AwnsmvKB cavb eZ ejv nqQ|
hw` Kvb ew gvsm fvRb Ki _vK Zvnj m cqvRbi ^v_ cvYxea G cm Dj-L, Awnsmvi g~Z cZxK MZg ey KqKwU gvsm
Kiv AbywPZ bq| Kvb Amy ew ivM wbivgqi Rb hw` Avg - gvsm A_vr KuvPv fvRbK Awnsmv ej Abygv`b KiQb| hgb - Kvb Amy ew Kvb ivM
gvsm fvRb Ki Zvnj mB fvRbK gvsm fvRb A_vr wnsmv ejv nq bv| _K AvivMi Rb hw` gvsm fvRb Ki Zvnj m cqvRbi ^v_ cvYx
MZg ey Zuvi c_g agcPvi ev ag Dc`ki gM`ve ev AfqviY ea AbywPZ bq| wK, Rb `vkwbKMY GB gZi m~Y weivax| Rb gZ, RxenZv
w`qwQjb| hvZ Kvb cvYxea bv nq| Gi _K e `kb Awnsmvi iZ gvB wnsmvi AMZ | AmZKfve Rxe nZvI wnsmv| evZvm fvmgvb AwZ my RxevYy
Dcjw Kiv hvq| Awnsmv mK ey AwZ KVvi gbvfve cvlb KiwQjb, hvi kvm ckv m wqvi dj wbnZ nj mUvI wnsmv| A_vr Rb `kb Awnsmv eZ LyeB
dj gvbwmK wnsmvKI wZwb cwiZR ic MY KiwQjb| ZeyI wekl KVvifve cvjb Kiv nq| RbgZ, gVevmx mbvmx ev kgY`i AvPiY m~Yfve
ewZgi ^xKvi Ki wZwb eenvwiK Rxeb I D`vi gbvfvei cwiPq `b| Awnsm nZ ne| GB KviY Rb wfzK cuvPwU gnveZ cvjb QvovI cuvPwU mwgwZ ev
AbybxwZ cvjb KiZ nq| Gwj nj
RbgZ Awnsmvi aviYv t 1. Clv mwgwZ A_vr GKRb mbvmx w`bi ejvq AvjvwKZ c_ nuvUeb hvZ
Pjvi mgq Kvb cvYxi AvNvZ bv jvM A_ev Kvb cvYxi hb Rxebbvk bv nq|
201 202
2. fvlv mwgwZ mbvmx ciwb`v, AvZcksmv BZvw` _K weiZ _vKeb| weiZ _vKvB nj Awnsmv| g~jZ MvwRx Rb `kb h KVvi Awnsmv eZ cvjbi
3. Glbv mwgwZ Lv` MnYi GKRb mbvmx mRtPZb _vKeb h H K_v ejv nqQ Zv _K Mfxifve cfvweZ nb| Rb `kb Awnsmv eZ KVvifve
Lv` ay Zvi RbB cZ bv Kiv nq Ges wZwb mg `vlgy Lv`MnY _K weiZ cvjbxq ag| GB gZ, Kvqgc evR A_vr KvwqK , gvbwmK Ges evwPKfve Kvb
_vKeb| Awb bv Kiv GgbwK Awbi wPv bv KivB nj Awnsmv| AciK wnsmv Kiv,
4. Av`vb mwgwZ GKRb Rb wfz cqvRbxq `e MnY h_vvb vcb Ges AbK wnsmvq civwPZ Kiv, Acii wnsmvZK KgK mg_b Kiv - G meB wnsmvi
eenvii mZK _vKeb hvZ Kvbfve Aci Kvb Rxei wZ bv nq| AMZ| Kej Acii wZ bv KivUvB Awnsmv bq, meRxe cg weZiY Ges
1. cwi_vcvwbKv ev DrmM mwgwZ mbvmx AcqvRbxq e hgb - Kd, wnZKi Kg AbyvbI Awnsmvi AMZ | Ze MvwRx ejQb h, eve Rxeb Rb`i
gj, g~ ZvM BZvw` Rxek~b vb Kieb hvZ Gi viv Aci Kvb Rxei cvYbvk gZv KVvifve Awnsmv eZ cvjb Kiv me bq| wZwb ejQb, eenvwiK Rxeb
bv NU| Kvb Kvb hgb - Lv`MnY, Rjcvb Kiv, nuvUv Pjvi , kvm ckvm MnY
D cuvPwU mwgwZ GKRb mbvmxK Awnsmv eZ cvjb mvnvh Ki| D BZvw` Abi `nK AvNvZ bv Ki wbR `nK iv Kiv Ame| ZvB
cuvPwU mwgwZi Abykxjb AwZ KVvi| Ze Mnxi c mKj cKvi wnsmv eRb Kiv wekl Awnsmv eZx MvwRx RxenZvKI DwPr Kg ejQb| hgb - AbvivM
me nq bv ej Rb bxwZkv MnxK c AbyeZ cvjbi wb`k `Iqv nqQ| evwaZ Avv Rxe hw` Amn e_v e`bvq RRwiZ nq, hYv Dckgi Kvb
c AbyeZ cvjb MnxK mvsmvwiK eb _K gy Ki| GB cvK& cwZce mb mvebv bv _vK mB Awnsmv eZxi DwPZ KvR ne Zvi cvYbvk Kiv| MvwRx
nj Mnx Mn_vM Ki cKwZi Kvj Avkq bq| Rb `kb, Mn wbgvY, cvK, gY Zuvi Avkg GgbB GKwU AbvivM evwa RwbZ Mv kveKi gZzK wel cqvM
cfwZ wqvKvjxb wnsmv AvKwK wnsmv; hy kci mwbK`i wnsmv; Zivw^Z KiwQjb Ges Zuvi gZ GB KvR nj Awnsm|
AvZivg~jK wnsmv Ges BQvKZ wnsmv - GB PZzwae wnsmvi ga BQvKZ wnsmv cvPxb fviZi h Awnsmv Av`ki K_v ejv nqQ Zvi m MvwRxi
Mnxi m~Y ic eRbxq Ges Aci wZbU hvZ Rxeb nvwb bv nq m Awnsm aviYvi g~j cv_K nj - cvPxb e I Rb `kb Awnsmv bxwZK Rxei
MnxK h_vme hZ I mZKevb nZ ne| gv ev gywjvfi Dcvq wnmve MnxZ nqQ A_vr GLvb AwnsmvK ew gvbyli
gv ev gywjvfi gvM wnmve Dj-L Kiv nqQ| wK MvwRx Awnsmv bxwZK
MvwRxi Awnsmv aviYv - ew gvbyli gv ev gywjvfi Dcvq MnxZ nqwb| MvwRx mgvR mKj gvbyli
1869 Lxt 2iv Avei RivUi cvie`i GK ee cwievi mvweK KjvY mvabi Rb wbR Awnsmv g `xwZ nqQb Ges Aci mKj ewK
MvwRxi Rb nq| Zuvi wcZv KigPuv` Mvw ev Kvev Mvw wQjb AZ eveev`x D Awnsm bxwZ cvjb Avnvb RvwbqwQjb| GK K_vq ejv hvq, MvwRx `ytL,
KgceY gvbyl Ges Zuvi gv cyZjxevC wQjb AZ mvax agcivqbv igbx| wZwb `vwi`gy RvwZ,ag, eY wbwekl h mev`q mgvR ev ivg ivRi K_v ejQb
wbZ, bwgwK c~Rv APbv KiZb| MvwRx h cvwievwiK cwiPvwiKvi KvQ eov mB mev`q mgvR cwZvi g~j gB nj Awnsmv bxwZ|
nqQb wZwbI wQjb AZ agcivqYv ew| myZivs cvwievwiK DivwaKvi m~ MvwRxi gZ, Awnsmv ejZ Kvb wbwq cwZiva evSvq bv, Awnsmv
MvwRx agwekvmi cvkvcvwk Awnsmv I AvZmshgx MyYi AwaKvix nb| cieZx nj GK mwq kw| Awnsmv Kvb Kvcyil, fxZz, Pwinxb ewi mk c_ bq;
mgq wZwb e`, cyivY, gbymswnZv, e Ges Rb `kbi Awnsm bxwZi viv Mfxifve GB Awnsmvi c_ nj wbfxK, Pwievbi wbi c_| MvwRx ejQb, wnsmvi viv
cfvweZ ni Ges ew Rxebi mKj B GB Awnsm bxwZi cqvM NUvb| Ze Kvb mgmvi vqx mgvavb me bq, wnsmv viv kxN kK `gb Kiv MjI Zv
MvwRx G cm ejQb, G cm Avgvi RMrK Kvb bZzb wKQy wkv `Iqvi mvgwqK cwiYvg kZv evo| mgvR weivaxK Kviv` w`j A_ev Lybx ewK
bB| mZ I Awnsmv cvnvoi gZB cvPxb| duvwm w`j mgvR weivwaZv ev Lybi NUbv nvm cvq bv, eis ew cvq| `gb cxobi
Awnsmv kwUi mvaviY A_ nj - wnsmv bv Kiv A_ev wnsmv _K weiZ viv `yi `gb mKj `kB e_ nqQ BwZnvm Zvi cgvY `q| MvwRx GB mgmvi
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Rv cwZv Kib GwkqvwUK mvmvBwU hv Aaybv fviZi mswZi Ici h_ 1910 mvj Director of State Library Gi c` wbhy Kib| eWbi I MvBIKvii
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KvRbi cPvq fviZ 1902 mvj Bwiqvj Av cvk nq Ges 1903 mvj mwj nj -
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cwiwPZ cvq| G welq fviZi wKQy Dj-LhvM Mv Mvii bvg mviYx-1 G c`wkZ inter ested in the movement was held a Beswada,
nj| Andhra in 1914.

249 250
* The first All Indian Library Conference of Librarians was held in wewfb ivRi c~e cwZwZ cvewjK jvBeix AvBbi f~wgKvI iZcY~ | ivRwfwK
1918 at Lahore.
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1933.
* The first All Indian Public Library Conference of Librarians was mviYx - 2
held at Madras in 1934. ivRwfwK cvewjK jvBeix AvBbi m~Pbvi mgqKvj
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1950 mvj fviZi cvPxbZg MvMviwji ga AbZg Kvbgviv
jvBeix gv`vRi State Central Library Z cwiYZ nq| 1951 mvj UNESCO 7 Kivjv 1989
Zveavb c_g cvBjU cR jvBeix wnmve cwZwZ nq w`wj- mvaviY Mv Mvi| 8 nwiqvbv 1989
1954 mvj Delivery of Books Act cvk Kiv nq hLvb msev`cK mshvwRZ
9 wgRvivg 1993
Kiv nq| GB AvBb Abymvi cZK cKvkK Zv`i cKvwkZ cy Ki GKwU cwZwjwc
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jvBeix Ges w`wj- cvewjK jvBeixZ Rgv KiZ eva _vKe| 11 RivU 2000/01
1957 mvj K.wc. wmbnvi bZZ Advisory Committee for Librar-
ies MwVZ nq| GB KwgwU 1959 mvj Model Library Bill ck Kib| 1964
12 Dwolv 2001
mvj c-vwbs Kwgkb MVb Ki Working Group of Public Libraries hviv 1965 13 Dic`k 2005/06
mvj Model Public Library Act Gi GKwU wicvU ck Kib| 1972 mvj
14 DivL 2005
ivRv ivggvnb ivqi Rb w kZevwlKx Dcj UNESCO -i mnvqZvq Depart-
ment of Culture, Ministry of Education-i Aaxb ^Z mv wnmve cwZwZ 15 ivRvb 2005/06
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on Library and Information System| GB KwgwU 1986 mvji g gvm GKwU
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251 252
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National Knowledge Commission wevb, c h y w , K w l,wki vbi
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| Ze kl iex`bv_i bvUK GB `yB gvbwmKZvi gjebI NwUqQb `Lv
* B. Sengupta, B.C.(1981). Library Science and Librarianship, Calcutta:
World Press. hvq|
* Public Library Acts in the States: a study. (1991), ILA Bulletin , 26 (4),
187-197. g~j k : HwZn, weiZv, AvaywbKZv, gyw|
* Pvcvavq, c.(1982). MYvcb, KjKvZv; cwge ivR cyK cl`|
* wbgjP` Payix, A. f. (1990). welq : mvaviYi Mv Mvi, KjKvZv; mvwnZjvK| g~j jLv :
* cxh~lKvw gnvcv, f.P. (1986). MvMvi wevb cwiPq, KjKvZv: Iqv cm| HwZn ejZ mvaviYfve my`xNKvj ai esk ciivq eq Pjv msvi,
* gyLvcvavq, e. (1956). MvMvi I jvKwkv, KjKvZv: KwjKvZv exq MvMvi AvPvi wePvi, wbqg Kvbyb, ixwZbxwZ I AbykvmbK, g~jeva, agxq AveM Z_v
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257 258
wK Dknxb Kg gvbylK mv_KZv w`Z cvi bv| kvb cvsiv mB KviY
m~YZvv jvf KiZ cvi bv| KviY Zviv Rvb bv h MwZi m wwZiI cqvRb cwZx
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GLvbI vb Kg I fwi wgjb NUwb| gnvivbx wK Wye gvijb bv wK AvR!? myPZbvi gRvRUv ZZv nq Mj nVvr| GB
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..... mw`b Avi mnR nZ cviwb myPZbv| Clv KiZ i KiwQj bw`ZvK|
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259 260
euk nq eU, wK evwo divi ivv wPbZ g`bi fyj nqbv GKUzI| Kvb Kvb Ni. Mwiex,gvZvj - wbzi ^vgx, AcywZ fvMv Qj, muvZmZ Kjcvo, mewKQy
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261 262
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cveZx ejwQj, g`b Ii cv Rwoq ai wki gZ Kuv` Avi Agwb cveZx
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263 264
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gbi e KcvU k Ki Lyj Mj| eiY evSvi Pv Ki| i`wRZi K_vjv hvevi RbB Avm| evievi Avm| hZ evi Avm, ZZ evi Pj hvq| _vK k~b gvV|
evS bv| Ze gbvhvMx nq Aviv ekx| i`wRr Avcb gb weoweo Ki hw` Luv Luv `ycyi| evZvm jy| gvwUZ dvUj| cwiq Ri nvdeqj|
265 266
A_P eiY Zvi K_v iLQ| `kUv wWwRU cyiv`i mvgjZv GLb i`wRZi - mUv Zv mvgjZvKB ejZ PqwQjvg|
dvbew`| dvbi mUUvI hb RvZ DVj| myZivs KZZv dvb hvq eiYi - bv, Avcbvi wKQy ejevi bB| ejebI bv| Avcbvi Kvbv K_v mvgv bZ Pvq
dvb| bv|
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dvb euvav AvQ mvgjZv| i`wRr K_v eje| ZvwjKv Zix Ki gb gb| K_vgvjvi Ici gNjv AvKvk| gN XvKv Zviv| evZvmI fvix Lye| eyK Pvcv e_v| wZiwZi
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QjUv `yzwg KiQ Rvbjvi avi Kvj em Avi gvS gvS eKzwb LvQ Rvbjvi
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evmUvq ZvB hvxi wfo nq Lye| mB mKvj wbqggZv mgqB evmUv QoQ bev`q Zvi zjevMUv AbK RvqMvq Quov, Zvw gviv| K Rvb KZ nvZ Nyi Zvici Zvi
nvmcvZvji cvki evmv _K| GLbv evm Zgb wfo nqwb Ze mvgbi wcV RvqMv cqQ evMUv| PbUvI KvUv Avi Zvi duvK w`q hb DuwK w`Q gb
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Zvi PvL| iv`i ZR GLbv Zgb evowb, wK evoe GKUz ciB| KviUvi Avi Zvi Nywoi myZvq gvv `Iqv `yevcviB mgvb cUz wQj m| Nywo Iovbvi
Mjvi ZR wK GLbB ek evSv hvQ| mvgb GKUv fvb wiv ivvi wVK gvSLvb evcvi Zvi h cvovq mybvg wQj ek| Zvi AbKUvB evanq cz Avi Zvi nvZi
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evmNi| wK bv, GeviI weavZv eva mvajb| mvb cme KiZ wMq gviv Mj m| Rbg`ytwLbx
wVK Zvi gvqi gZv| nqZv m mwZB Acqv| evev Zv Zey `vlvivc Kivi Rb
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Avevi m wbRi AwbQvKZfve `ywU gZzi Rb `vqx nj| Ke h GB cvjv kl
ne| nqZv Zvi wbRi gZzi ga w`q| Avgv`i GKvbeZx cwievi| KvRi jvK ejZ wZwb| wZwbK Avgiv Avgv`i
Avi Iv` _vgvI Mvwo| Soi gZv PjQv Kv_vq ? - KviUvi K_v gqi gZB `LZvg| wekl Ki Avwg| Avgvi Kvb mvb bv _vKvi KviY ev Ii
Kvb Avmvq _gK Mj m| MvwoUvKI _gK `uvo Kivjv m| mwZB Zv, evm `ytLi KviY nvK| bwQ Ii gv bvwK weqi ci kievwo _K Kvb KviY
GLb cyiv duvKv| ay m Avi Kvi| Avi KviUv GLvbB bg hve| Gici evci evox Pj Avm| ci Ii gv Mvgi Kvb GK weevwnZ Qji m cg Ki
gnvgvqvZjvq Mvwo MviR Kivi ivvUzKz Zv m GKv| WevB em ej KviUv Ges Zvi Aea dmj nj wZwb| gv Avi gyL `LvZ cviZ bv| wZwbi evev wZwb Avi
jvwdq bvgjv evm _K| Ii w`K ZvwKq _vKZ _vKZ gbUv fvix welb nq Zvi gvK wbRi evoxZI ivLZ cviQ bv| KviY Ii evevi AvMi x I Qjgq
DVjv Zvi| fvix WvKveyKv Qj| wVK hgb wQj cgv`| mywgvi gZzi ci Zvi AvQ| ZvB wZwbi gv wZwbK wbq evci evoxZB _vKZ| evci evox Avi Kw`b ?
eevi BQ nqQ myBmvBW Kivi| KiZ cviwb cgv`i Rb| mywgv gviv hvevi ew``i gyL SvgUvI mn Ki _vKZ nZ| evPv gqK evci evox iL Ii gv
ci cZK mvq m Zvi evwoZ AvmZv| ivZ ch PjZv ZvmLjv| hLbB m jvKi evox evox KvR KiZ hZ| ci Kvb KviY Ii gv AvZnZv Ki| wZwb
givi K_v ZzjQ, ZvK `vewoq kv KiQ cgv`| mB cgv` wKbv kl ch ZLb Lye Qv| ZvB KviYUvI fvj RvbZ bv|
............| bv, RMZ Zvi gZv kYxi jvK hviv, Zv`i mvnmx nIqv gvbvq bv| Zviv Zv hvB nvK, wZwbi RxebUv Avwg Avi wKQyZB b nZ `e bv| IK hLb
RbQB Abi jvw_ SuvUv Lq ivZ weQvbvq KzuKo q _K gZzKvgbv Kivi Avwg Avgvi gqi gZ `wL ZLb I evoxZ KvR KijI Ii RxebUv Avwg Mo
Rb| mLvb cgv` wKbv ..... ? Icvovi lvj eQii wKkvixUvK Kviv hb alb `e| eqm KZB ev ne eo Rvi P _K cbi| Avgiv wZb e wgj h IK
Ki Mjvi bwj KU dj MwQj gvV| cywjk Gj, gx Gj, wUwf Pvbj Gj| fvj evmZvg mUv wZwbi gvgvevoxZI RvbZ| Ii gvgviv fveZ wZwbK wbq Avgv`i
cywjk ck Kij, LvZvq bvU Kij, Pj Mj| gx fvlY w`j, UvKv wejvjv, Pj Avi Kvb wPv bB| IivB wZwbi me eev Ki `e weqi|
Mj| wUwf Pvbj mvvrKvi wbj, wU.Avi.wc evovjv, Pj Mj| KD Pv Kij Avgvi QvU Rv BwZga Kv_v _K GK m^i K_v ZzjQ| Ze Avwg
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GKw`b fviejv Zvi gyny xb ao Avwevi nj| IK AbK eywSqwQj m| eywSqwQj wZwbK fvjevmv Avgiv wK evwmbv| hLvb fvj gb Kie mLvbB Avwg Ii weq
AZ mvnmx, WvKveyKv bv nZ| kvbwb cgv`| Zvi Acqv fvMi `vl Zvi KvQi `e| QvUK ejjvg fvj Zv Ze GKUz `L b|
me jvKB `~i Pj hvq| cgv`I Mj| Aviv GKUv gZz| Aviv GKUv `vwqZ| wZwbi AvR bvwK weq| Kw`b nj I KvRI AvmQ bv| Avwg wKQyB Rvwb bv,
nVvr Dvw`K _K Avmv Mvwoi nWjvBU PvL cojv Zvi| NviUv wK Ki Kv_v _K G weq wVK nj| b QyU Mjvg| wZwbK WK wRvmv
hb KvUjv Zvi| m~h A MQ cvq| Pviw`KUv cvq AKvi nq GmQ| hw`I Kijvg| ZzB wK QjK `LwQm? K GbQ GB m^? Zvi gvgviv KD? wZwb
GLbv Zgb Mvp bq| mvgb Svjvbv Avqbvq wbRi gyLUv `Lj m| AveQv AbKY Pzc _vKvi ci Di w`j QvU gv| QvU gv| KB AvgvK ejj bv Zv
AvjvZI Zvi Kcvji ewjiLvjv `Lv hvq| AvRK e Kv jvMQ GKeviI| eje wK Ki Kgb hb Mvcb inmi M cvwQ|
Zvi| GLbv wKQyUv ivv evwK Mvwo MvivR KiZ| GB ivvUzKz m GKv| KZ jvK wZwbi weq nq MQ| A gjvq GmQ| m GmQ Ii ki, hw`I ev
mvivw`b evm DVjv, bg Mj| w`bi kl m mB GKv| wVK Zvi Rxebi gZv| KviYUv ci eySjvg| wZwbi ki Avgvq ejj - Avwg KLbv PvBwb Qji weq
eo Kv jvMQ GLb| GB kl ivvUzKz GBfveB KvUe, fvejv Rxebcyii evm nvK| gv wZb w`bi Rb Zx_ MwQ, Gm `wL Qji gv QjK weq w`q wbq
WvBfvi| wZi fvi AvR eoB Kv m| GmQ| evi evi ejwQ GB cvMj QjK hb weq bv `q| Ze wK wZwbi KcvjUv
Avevi cyojv| wZwbi kvox fewQj Qji weq w`j bvwK Qji cvMjvwg e
nq hve| Gfve gvm QqK KU Mj| Kvb wKQyB wK nj bv| Ilya Lj wYKi
my, hgb weqi w`b weq KiZ Gm weq nq hvIqv gvB Pj hvIqv GUvB bvwK
273 274
I`i wbqg wQj| KviYUv hw`I GLb | wZwbK GLb evci evox ejZ gvgvi GKvKx GKv
evoxZ AvmZI `Lv hvq bv| Ii Rb Avgvi fxlY K nq| Ze Avgvi evbi
ki evox cvki Mvg| evb hLb Avgvi evox eovZ AvmZv ZLb wZwb `LQ b``yjvj KgKvi
evbK KqKevi| evbK dvb ewj wZwbi LuvR wbZ| hZ ewj wZwbi kievox
Ges evb hvq Avi wZwbi mv_ K_vI nq| Abbv ZLbI gvawgK cixv `qwb, cvki cvovi gbvKi mv_ cvBfU gvvi
wZwbK Ii ^vgx I kvox gviai Ki I Amn nq DVQ| I wbRi gnvkqi evwoZ coZ hZ hZ ezZ Mo DVQ| Abbvi Kvbw`b hZ wej^
AbK K_v Rvbvq| evbi KvQ _K dvb me wb| Avwg GLbI gqUvK `wLwb nj gbvK ivvi gvo `uvwoq Acv Ki, Abbv gbvKK ivvq `uvwoq _vKZ
IB Agjvq Qvov| Ii gyLi w`K bvwK Avi ZvKvbv hvq bv| Avi Ke IK `L ej wK evcvi GLvb wK KiQv ? gbvK ej bv wKQy bq Pjv Avgv`i
`Lev ZvI Rvwb bv| Ii Rb gbUv e_vq fvivv nq IV| GLb Avwg fvejvg evanq AvR `wiB nq Mj| GBfve jLvcov PjZ jvMj| MoZ _vKj `yRbi
Rxebi GLbv AbK wKQy evwK wKQyB kl nq hvq bv| IK Avwg evBi Kv_vI ezZI| gvawgK cixv kl nj `yRbi `Lv`wL AvMi gZb cwZw`b Avi nq
wbq Pj hve| Avgvi gvwmiv Zv w`wj- _vK| ILvbB hw` IK wbq wMq fvjv bv| Abbv evwoZB _vK| gbvK AbbvK bv `L ewkw`b _vKZ cvi bv| gvS
cwievi `L weq w`B| wZwbi ki GZ ivRxB neb Dwb Lye fvjv gvbyl| Avwg me gvS Abbv`i cvovq Avm, Qj ez`i mv_ M Ki KLbv Abbvi mv_ `Lv
eev Ki `ywU wUwKwU KvUjvg w`wj-i| evbK ejjvg meUv Ges IK `vwqZ nq Kvb K_v nq bv, PvLvPvwL nj Kej gyPwK nvwm wewbgq nq|
w`jvg wZwbK Avgvi KvQ Gb w`Z GKwU RvqMvq| wZwb Avgvi K_v bj bv gvawgK cixvi dj cKvwkZ nj `Lv Mj Abbv c_g wefvM DxY
Kie bv| GKQyU w`q Pj Avme| evb IK Pzwc Pzwc AvbZ MQ| wZwbi ki nqQ, wK gbvK wZxq wefvM DxY nqQ| DPgvawgK GK z jB fwZ nqQ,
evoxi KvQ cuQvZB `Lj| Ii kievox GZ jvKRb Kb ? Rvbjvg wZwb Qj I gq`i GKmv_B Kvm Pj| GLb cwZw`bB `yRbi `Lv I K_vevZv Pj|
Mjvq `wo w`q AvZnZv KiQ| evb Avgvq dvb Ki ejj wZwb AvZnZv KiQ Abbvi ZZUv Uvb gbvKi cwZ bv _vKjI gbvK Abbvi Aviv KvQ AvmZ
meUv b Avgvi ga Avwg Avi bB| wZwbK Avwg cvijvg bv kl iv KiZ| ay Pvq| gbvK GKw`b ej Abbbv Avgvi mv_ Pjv GKUv fvjv RvqMvq| Abbv
QvUK WK ejjvg Rb b wZwbK ZzB GiKg .......................... ? GUvB wK AevK nq ej Zvgvi mv_ fvjv RvqMvq m Avevi Kv_vq Kb? fvjv jvMe
Zvi wZwbi cwZ fvjevmv ! Avi mLvb AviI AbK jvK _vKe, h Kvb GKw`b zj KvgvB ne| zj _K
evwo divi mgqB Avgiv wdi Avmev| Zv wK Ki ne KD hw` Avgv`i `yRbvK
GKmv_ `L evwoZ ej `q ZLb wK ne? KD `Le bv Avgiv GB g`bcyi
_K AbK `~i _vKe, KD `Le bv, KD Rvbe bv| Zzwg evwo _K mvgvb wKQy
Lq Gmv Avgiv nvUj Lvev| gbvK Zvgvi K_vq Avgvi fxlY fq KiQ| Avi
bv Kvb fq bB Zzwg `L wbI KD Rvbe bv| wVK nq cii w`b `yRbvq zj
cvwjq eovZ hve| Abbvi gb wKQyUv fq Ges wKQyUv wPPvj KvR KiQ|
zj _K evwoZ Gm Kgb hb AbgbZv KvR KiQ Abbvi gb| UqjU
XyKI Abgb AbKY `uvwoq AvQ gv WvKQb Abbv UqjU njv wK KiwQm
fvZ wbq em AvwQ| gvqi WvK b PZbv di Abbvi| GB AvmwQ gv ej evBi
Gm fvZ LZ emI GKB Aev mvgvb Lq DV hvq| gv ejb Zvi wK nqQ
ejZv fvZ Lwj bv Kb? gv AvR Zgb wL` bB z ji GKwU gq jywP Avi Avjyi
`g LvBqQ| ivZI Nyg Avm bv Abbvi, fvi ivZ Nywgq co ^c `LQ
Abbv, weKU AvKvi wekvj eov Kvjv APbv GKwU c nv Ki Abbvi w`K
AvmQ, Abbvi `o cvjvbvi gZvI bB| mg kixi Aek nq wMqQ, fq
wPrKvi KiZI cviQ bv, Mjv w`q No No k ei nQ mg kixi Nvg fRv,
275 276
gvqi WvK Nyg fvO| PvL gj gvqi w`K ZvwKq _vK| gv ejb wK ^c b^i cq cvk KiQ, BsivRxZ cyiv b^i cqQ Abvb welqjvZI fvj
`LwQwj, b Gevi DV ci| Abbv AvR jLvcovq Lye gbvhvM w`qQ, gv Gm dj KiQ| KjR fwZ nqQ BsivRxZ Abvm cqQ KuvPivcvov KjR wK
ejb wKi zj hvwe bv| NwoZ KUv evR `Lb, GB Zv gv GLywb DVwQ AviI gbvK Lye fvj dj KiZ cviwb ZvB KjR fwZ nevi Pv bv Ki KgLvwj
AbK mgq AwZevwnZ nevi ci Abbv vb Ki Gm fvZ LZ em| mvgvb GKUz cwKv `LZ Ges wewfb KjKviLvbvq Kgjvfi Rb Ave`b KiZ jvMj, Ges
LqB DV hvq, gv ejb wK i fvZ h coB _vKj| nuv gv mgq bB Avgvi KvQ miKvix Kgmsvb K` bvg jLvj| GBfve Pv KiZ KiZ GKwU emiKvix
UvKv AvQ zji wUwdbi mgq wKQy Lq be Lb| gv Avi K_v bv evwoq wbRi KviLvbvq wkvbweki myhvM cq Mj wZb ermi wkLZ ne| GB wZb ermi nvZ
KvR Pj hvq| Abbv zji evM wbq evwo _K ei nq ivvi gvo AUv LiPv eve` wKQy A_ cve wkv kl m~Y eZb cve| Abbv BsivRxZ Abvm
v Gm `LQ gbvK AvMB Gm `uvwoq AvQ| gbvK ej GB AUvUvq IV| cq we.G cvk KiQ| AbK RvqMvq PvKwii Rb Ave`bI KiQ| miKvix
Abbv Pvwiw`K GKevi `L bq Kvb Pbv jvK AvQ wKbv, AUvq DV em Kgmsvb K` bvg wjwLqQ| BwZga gbvKi evev, gv I`i `yRbi ga
AUv KjvYxi w`K PjZ _vK| KjvYxZ bg gbvK ej Pjv AvM GLvb fvjevmvi mKi K_v RbQb Ges gbI wbqQb| c_g Abbvi gv mijv`ex
fvjv nvUj AvQ, `yRb GKUv nvUj wMq `y c-U wewiqvwb I wPKb Klv w`Z gnvkqv GKUz AgZ KiwQj wK ci GKgv gqi Ave`vii KvQ nvi gvbb|
ej| LvIqv nj g~j wgwUq evBi Gm ej Avgiv Mv cvi nq Icvi hve| `yB evwoi mK ek gayi chvq GmQ| `yB evwoi ga Avmv hvIqv Avb` Drme
Abbv ej Kb Icvi Kb ? Icvi nsmkix gw`i AvQ Pjv fvjv jvMe| AskMnY Kiv GBme evcvijv PjZ jvMj|
`Le KZ jvK ILvb hvq| evwo hZ `wi nq hve bv Zv| Abw`bi _K Abbv zj wkwKvi KvR cvevi RbI cixvq emwQj m AbK w`b
AvMB evwo hZ cvie, `yRbvq Mv cvi nq evm Po weYxZ wMq bvg, nqI wMqQ, Abbv fyjI wMqwQj| GK mvgevi Abbv evwoZB AvQ, WvKwcIb
wiKkvq Po nsmkix gw`i hvq| Nyi Nyi `L `exK cYvg Ki gw`ii evBi Gm WvKQ Abbv K AvQb? Abbvi gv mijv`ex `iRv Lyj `b wcIb wRvmv
Avm| gbvK ej Abbv GKwU mwZ K_v ejZ ne, wK K_v? gw`i cYvg Ki Ki Avcwb Abbv P`? mijv `ex ejb bv, Abbv Avgvi gq| evwoZ _vKj
wK PvBj ejv ? wKQy bv, Zv wK nq GB hgb Avwg ei PvBjvg Zvgvi Avgvi hb WvKzb iwRw wPwV AvQ| mijv`ex AbbvK WvKb, Abbv Gm ^vi Ki gyLe
Lye ZvovZvwo Abbv gbvKi gyL Pc ai evwK K_v gbvKK ejZ `q bv| Lvg fiv wPwV bq| Ni Gm wPwVLvbv Lyj `L GB wPwVLvbv z ji wkwKvi KvR
AviI wKQyY Gw`K mw`K Nyi Mvi NvU Gm `yRb Lqv bKvi Rb hvM `evi wbqvMc| Abbvi eyKi wfZi Kgb GKUv Abyf~wZ nZ jvMj|
Acv KiZ _vK| gbvK ej Abbv `L IB w`KUvq bKvUv Kgb cvj Abbvi gb Dvj Zi mgy` ZU hgb XDqi ci XD AvQo co Avevi Rj
LvwUq nvIqvi Uvb Pj hvQ| gvwSi KvR Kej nvjwU ai ivLv| AvKvk KqKwU nq wdi wMq mvMii Rji mv_ wgk hvq| em Kzmgy cvcwo gj w`q cRvcwZ,
MvOwPj DoQ AbK Dci| gbvK Abbvi Kvai Dci nvZ iL ej Avgvi gb gi, ggvwQ`i AvgY Ki Abbvi gbI GB Abyf~wZjv nZ jvMj| BQv
nQ Avgiv `yRbI MvO wPj`i gZb AvKvk Do eovB| Lqv cvi nIqvi Rb KiQ GLbB gbvKK ejZ wK gbvK KvR Ki cvBfU KvvbxZ| mvZw`bi
AviI KqKRb NvU Gm Acv KiQ GZjvKi myL GB K_vjv gbvK ga GKw`b QywU cvq| mB w`bwU Ii KZ KvR _vK Abbvi mv_ `Lv nq mB
Aejxjvq ejwQj| wK Abbvi jvq gyL jvj nq Mj| gbvKK ej Zvgvi mvgevi| Abbvi zji KvR hvM `evi w`bUvI mB mvgeviB ciQ| Avb`
gyL wKQyB AvUKvq bv GZ jvKi ga GBme ejZ Zvgvi jv Ki bv| jv GZUvB Abbv Abyfe KiQ gvK ejZI fyj wMqQ| gv mijv`ex Abbvi Ni
GKUz AvaUz Ki bv Zv bq Ze wK Rvbv jv Kij GLb jvKmvb KviY jvf Gm `L Abbv wPwVLvbv eyKi Ici `yBnvZ w`q Pc ai PvL e Ki,
nq wMqQ ZvB jvUzKz GK cKvi ZvM Kwi Avgiv `yRbvB| gyLLvbv LywkZ Dj nq DVQ| mijv`ex Abbvi gyL `L eySQb wKQy GKUv
GB K_vjv ejZ ejZ GKRb Svjgywo weZv Avm evey Svjgywo Lywki Lei IB wPwVZ AvQ ejb| Abbv Kvi wPwV IiKg PvL e Ki AvwQm
beb, gbvK AbbvK ej be Svjgywo? Zvgvi fvjv jvMj bvI| gbvK Kb? gv gbvKK GKevi Lei cvVvZ ne, gv Avwg zji wkwKvi PvKwii
Svjgywo wbq Abbvi w`K GwMq `q Svjgywo LZ LZ bKv NvU Gm `uvovq| wbqvMc cqwQ| AvMvgx mvgevi KvR hvM w`Z ne| AbKUv `~i nwiYNvUv
`yRbvB bKvq Po Gcvi Gm evwoi w`K iIbv `q| _KI evm e`j Ki AbKUv wfZi, jMiDLiv Rywbqvi nvBzj| gbvKK mv_
GBfve gjvgkv PjZ _vK `yRbvi Ges mv_ mv_ jLvcovI, Abbvi Ki wbq hZ ne| gv ejb ek Zv gbvKK Lei cvVv, Zvi Zv GKRb
gb GKwU Avkv me`v cvlb Ki, wbRi cvq `uvovZ ne| DPgvawgK Lye fvjv WvKniKiv AvQB| gb coQ bv? Agb Av`yi cz fvBwU, GKLvbv gywo Kbvi
277 278
cqmv cj Zv, mZj f` Ki gvwbK Zzj GbQ GZKvj w`w`i Rb| gv Zzwg bB AvgvKI miKvix wb`k cvjb KiZ ne| Avwg Rvwb Avcbviv cZKB
h wK ejv bv| wVK AvQ Zvgvi K_v gZb czK WvKwQ, `wL wK nq| gv Pj wkK -wkwKv c` hvM `evi Dchy| ZeyI Avgvi gZv _vKjI Avwg aygv
Mjb wbRi KvR| Abbv wU wU cvq cvkB KvKvi evwo, cz Abbvi KvKvi GKRbKB GB c` envj KiZ cviZvg| wK GLvb Avcbvi AbKRb, AvcbvKB
Qj, w`w`i Lye eva| Abbv wMq GKevi gv WKQ| cz hb Zix nqB wQj hw` GB c` envj Kwi Ze Zv Avcbvi mnhvviv mKjB nZvk neb| Avgvi
Ni _K `o w`w`i myL| w`w` ejv wK KiZ ne? Zgb wKQy KvR bq Kej wKQy gZvB bB DciIqvjv`i wmvi e`j NUvbvi| Avcwb mKjK eywSq
gbvK `v`vK GKUv wPwV w`we Avi Avmvi mgq gywo Avi `yBLvbv PKjU PzlZ PzlZ ejyb Avwg K_v w`wQ Avcbv`i Rb KLbv hw` wKQy KiZ cvwi Pv Kiev, AvR
Avmwe GBb ej, GKwU cuvPUvKvi g~`v w`j cz UvKv I wPwV wbq ` `o| cii GLvbKvi GB Lei Avcbviv Rvbjb, wK Ki ejZb hw` Kvb evav bv _vK - evav
mvgevi mKvjB gbvK Gm ej Abbv Pjv, Avwg Zix nqB GmwQ| AbbvI AvQ ej Mie I mweZv evBi Gm mKjK K_vwj eywSq ejvZ mKj gb
cvq ZixB wQj| GKUz emv GLwb nq hve, gbvK Pqvi em, GKUz ci Abbv bq, `y-GKRb weivwaZv KijI AwaKvsk Qjgq GB K_vjv gb wbq h
Gm ej Pjv, gvK WK ej gv Avgiv AvmwQ| gv myL Gm ejb Gmv Zvgiv, hvi evwoi w`K cv evovq|
gvK `yRbB cYvg Ki ej gv Avkxev` Kiv hb me kvw gZv nq| gv nvZi mKj Ni _K ei nq Mj AviI wKQy mgq Acv Kivi ci
Afq g~`v `wLq Avkxev` Kijb| Abbv I gbvK mvBKj Po iIbv w`j| AbbvK WK cvVvjb cavb wkK feZvlevey| Abbv I gbvK Avm Ges
mvBKj MviR iL evm aij| h_vmgq zj cuQ `Lj zji mvgb AbK Abbv ej wfZi Avme mvi, Avmyb| gbvKK `L ejb Bwb? Bwb Avgvi mv_
Qj gq Lye ZK KiQ| zji MUi cvnviv`vii KvQ wMq RvbZ cvij, GmQb AvR c_gw`b ZvB wVK AvQ| Avcbvi Kvb wPwV AvQ? AvQ mvi ej
Qjgqiv ejQ Avgiv GB cvovi Qjgq Avgiv PvKwi cve vb Aviv wKbv Abbv Ii wbqvMcLvwb evM _K ei Ki `Lvq| Lvg fiv wPwVLvbv wbq Lyj
evBi _K Gm PvKwi Kie, Avgiv Zv nZ `e bv| Abbv gbvK MU w`q XyKZ `L, gbvKK ejb Avcwb evBi emyb| gbvK evBi Gm eviv`vq cvZv e
bv ci `~i `uvwoq AvQ| GKUz ci GKRb eq wkK Gjb Ges mKjK em| cavb wkK gnvkq AbbvK ejb Rvbb Zv miKvix z ji PvKwii AvcbvK
ejjb Zvgiv GZ nBPB Kb KiQ? mvi Avgiv UUi cixv w`q cvk Ki em wKQy wbqg bxwZ gvbZ ne| GB mvwfmeyK me jLv AvQ co `L ^vi Kib|
AvwQ Avi Avgv`i cvovi z j PvKwi Kie evBi _K Gm Avgiv Zv nZ `e bv| Zvici AvcbvK wbq Kvm hve| Abbv ^vi Ki| cavb wkK feZvl ivq
wkK gnvkq ejb Zvgiv AbK Qjgq Zvgv`i mKji mv_ K_v Zv ejv ejb Pjyb AvcbvK AvR Kvmi Qv`i mv_ cwiPq Kwiq w`B| Rywbqi nvBzj
hve bv? Zvgv`i ga _K `yBRb Zvgv`i cwZwbwa cvVvI Ggb KvDK cvVve Ag kwY ch PjQ Ze fwelZ AviI eov ne zj, feZvl evey AbbvK
Zv`i K_v Zvgiv mKjB gvbe| `k wgwbU mgq w`jvg Gi ga cvVvZ ne, wbq me Kvm Nijvq Mjb Ges me Qj`i ejjb Bwb Zvgv`i bZzb BsivwRi
Ab_vq Zvgiv Avgv`i KvR evav w`j Avwg wK AvBbvbyM eev be| `yBRbv wkwKv| Zvgiv mKj Gbvi K_v be| me Qjiv GKmv_ ej nuv mvi Avgiv
wfZi Avme Avi evwKiv zji mxgvbv _K GKkZ wgUvi `~i _vKe| GB K_v bZzb wkwKvi K_v bev| Bwb Kvj _KB Zvgv`i Kvm Kiveb| feZvl evey
ej wkK gnvkq wfZi Pj Mjb| Abbv gbvK RUjvi wcQb `uvwoq me AbbvK wkK`i Ni wbq Avmb| Abbvi wbqvMc cavb wkKi ^vi
`LQ| Qjgqiv `yRbK wbevwPZ Kij GKRb Qj GKRb gq `yRb MUi Kivi vb ^vi Ki `b| Abbv I gbvK cavb wkK gnvkqi AbygwZ g
wfZi cek Kij evwKiv zji Ljvi gvVi Icvi Pj Mj| Abbv gbvK evwoZ wdi Avm| Abbv cii w`b _K GKvB PvKzixi vb hvIqv Avmv KiZ
Gevi MUi wbivcv KgxK Abbvi wbqvMcLvbv `LvZB I`i ejj Avcbviv jvMj| PvKixZ hvM`vbi GK ermi c~Y ne AvMvgx Rvbyqvixi GK ZvwiL| gbvK
wfZi wMq Wvbw`K wMq `Leb GKRbv eqv gwnjv IbvK Avcbvi GB KvMRLvbv ejQ Abbv ez`i wbq cvwU w`Z ne wK| Abbv b GKUz nvm Ges Zv
`Lveb Dwb ej `eb Avcbvi Kv_vq emeb| Abbv gbvK wfZi wMq Wvbw`K gnvkq GB GK ermi wbRi Zv c`vbwZ nqQ Zvi Rb wK ne? Zvi Rb GKUv
NyiZB `Lj GKRb eqv gwnjv Pqvi em LvZvc `LQb| Abbvi AmvaviY AvqvRb ne hv `L Avgv`i mg eziv ab ab Kie| mUv Ggb wK
wbqvMcLvwb `LvZB ejjb, emyb IB Pqvi| nWmvi GKUz e AvQb ne hv `L mKj ab ab Kie? mUv GLvb ejv hve bv| mUv ejZ ne
Avcbv`i WvKeb| Abbv gbvK Pqvi emj| Iw`K cavb wkK gnvkq `yBRb bxie, wbfZ wbRb GKvKx GKv, mLx Kgb Kwne Mvcb K_v?
cwZwbwaK ejjb Avcbv`i Aev Avwg eySZ cviwQ, Avgvi wKQy Kivi bB| Gevi Abbv hb GKUz jwZ nq, KcU ivM Ki, gbvKK ej Zvgvi
KvRwUi GKwU gv c` wbevPb KiQb cwge miKvi| GLvb Avgvi wKQy Kivi meZB Zvgvkv KiZ BQ Ki| Abbvi PvKwii elcywZ Abyvb `yB evwoi
279 280
AwffveKMY GKwZ njb Ges mKj GKwU wmv GKgZ njb Abbv I
gbvKK GK myZvq euvavi AvqvRb KiZ ne Ges mUv hZ ZvovZvwo nq| cwKvi
GKUv cYvg
gZ w`b avh Kijb gbvKi evev gv| Abbv gv-B Abbvi evevi Afve c~iY wec-e`y wekvm
KiQb| Abbvi Lye A eqm evev GKwU `yNUbvq cvY ZvM KiwQjb| gv AbK
K AbbvK jLvcov wkwLqQb| gv Mvbi wUDkvwb Ki jvKi evwo evwo mcxwZ gi Abyvb mi Ni wdi wewcbK wRm Ki mybxwZ, K? Zvgv`i
mKvj weKvj Mvbi Zvwjg w`qQb Qjgq`i| mB KvwRZ A_ gv - gqi mB mvqbK `LZ cjvg bvZv GB Abyvb| bwQ h H kkai `eivq gvbylwUB
Ab ei eev nqQ Ges Abbvi jLvcov nqQ| gbvKi mv_ Abbvi K_v mvqbi wec`i w`b IK jLvcov wkwLq gvbyl Kivi Rb Zvgvi gvi nvZ Zzj
nqQ gvK GKjv Qo hZ cvie bv Abbv, gbvK evev gvK GB cve ivwR w`qwQjb|
KiZ ciQ| fw`b fjM gbvK Abbvi gvjve`j mgvcb nj| mvbvB evRj nuv wVKB bQv, Di `q wewcb x mybxwZK|
`yB Zidi AvZxq ez wbgwZ AwZw_e` mgeZ nq `yRbvK Avkxev` Ki cxwZfvR mw`b mcxwZ g A_vr PvK`n cimfv KZK
wbwgZ GKwU fvov evwoZ
AskMnY Kijb| gbvK Abbvi Rxeb GK myZvq euvav nj, weevn eb euvav kkai `eivqi kvi fvRi AvqvRb wQj| f`jvKi GKgv cy iRZvf GB
Rxeb eq Pjj b`xi KzjyKzjy k eq Pjvi gZ| g mB AvqvRbi eev KiwQjb|
iRZvf`i m wewcb`i cwievii `xNw`bi mK| wewcbi `v`v
wegvb hLb zj coZv ZLb H kkai evey wegvbK evwoZ Gm cvBfU covZb|
mB ZLb _KB GB `yB cwievii ga GK AvZxK mKi m~cvZ|
GB kkai `eivq ew Rxeb wkKZv KijI GjvKvq AwZ mb
ew wnmve cwiwPZ wQjb| PvK`n kni _K ek KqK wKjvwgUvi `~i weiwn
bvgK Mvgi GK cv_wgK we`vjq wkKZv KiZb| mB we`vjq GK mgqi
Qv wQj GB mvqb| cieZx mgq mvqbi evevi AKvj cqvYi `ib Ii covkvbv
e nq hvIqvi Dcg nq| mB mgq mvqbi gvi cuvP mvbi ga GB mvqbB
wQj mKji eo| ^fveZB msmvii `vwqZ ZLb mvqbi Kuva Pc hvq| mvqbi
evev gviv hvIqvi mgq gv `yB wZb weNv Rwg wQj I`i m^j| mvqb ZLb Ag
kwYZ DVQ|
wVK GB mgq GKw`b iv Avgvi evev Awdm _K hLb evwo wdijb
kkai evey ZLb Avgvi `v`v wegvbK covwQjb| covbv kl nj Pv wezU LZ
LZ kkaievey evevK ejb, webqevey Avcbvi KvQ Avgvi GKwU Abyiva AvQ|
Avcwb hw` AbyivawU ivLb Zvnj GKwU gavex Qvi fxlY DcKvi nq, bBj
Ii fwelZUvB b nZ emQ| Avmj cKZ GKRb wkK wQjb ejB nqZv
Dwb Dbvi `~i`wZ welqwU Dcjw KiZ ciwQjb mw`b|
evev ejjb - LyjB ejyb bv gvvigkvB QjwUi evcvi|
kkai evey ZLb Rvbvjb, QjwUi bvg mvqb| Avwg weiwnZ h we`vjq
wkKZv Kwi mvqb GK mgq GB we`vjqB coZv| fxlY gavex| eZgvb ILvbKviB
nvBzj co| Gevi me Ag kYxZ DVQ| I eiveiB me Kvm c_g nq| wK
Ii evevi wPwKrmv KivZ I`i cvq me^ kl nq hvq Ges kl ch f`jvK
gvivB hvb| GLb Ii covkvbv GKiKg e| GgZvevq, Avcwb hw` QjwUK
281 282
Avkq `b Ze I fwelZ nqZv wbRK cwZwZ KiZ cvie| bZvg| mwZ ejZ wK Avgiv Kvbw`bI mvqbi KvQ Kvb wKQyi Rb hvBwb Avi
Avgvi gv Kzgyw`bx cvk em me K_vjv bwQj| Zvici gv ej, hvIqvi Rb Kvb cqvRbI eva Kwiwb KLbv|
gvvigkvB Avcwb KvjB QjwUK wbq Avmyb| gv mw`b H K_v ejvi ci _K Avgvi weqi A wKQyw`b ci GKw`b ivZ Gm nVvr Ki nvwRi| Gm
evev Avi wgZ Kibwb| gvK ejjv, KvwKgwY Awdmi KvR evBi _K wdi AvmZ ek `wi nq MQ,
ciiw`b zj _K divi mgq mvqbK mv_ Ki Gb gvi KvQ iL ZvB fvejvg ivZUzKz GLvb Zvgv`i KvQ KvwUq Avevi fviejv QyU `ev|
Mjb kkaievey| gv `Ljv, mvqbi cib GKwU gqjv nvdnvZv mvU I cvqRvgv mB c_g mybxwZ A_vr Avgvi x mvqbK `LZ cvq Ges mB ivZ
Ges cvq Lq hvIqv GKRvov nvIqvB PwU| Mvqi is gqjv, wjKwjK Pnvivi mybxwZB ek Av`i hZ Ki LvBq `vBq ivZi kvevi eev Ki `q| hw`I
GKwU Qj PzcPvc `uvwoq| kkaievey hvIqvi mgq ay mvqbK ej Mjb, Zzwg ciw`b fviejvZB Pv wezU LqB Avevi Awdmi KvR ei nq hvq| AvcvZZ
DbvK cYvg Ki| Zzwg GLb _K Dbvi evwoZ, Dbvi KvQ _KB gb w`q covkvbv mB kl wQj Avvg`i evwoZ Avmv|
Kie| Gw`K kkaievey Ges Qj iRZvfi cvq GKiKg wbqwgZ hvZvqvZ wQj
hZ`~i gb co ZLb lvUi `kK| mB mgq zj cwieZbi Zgb Kvb Avgv`i evwoZ| kkaievey gvi m em AbK MRe KiZb Avi mLvb _KB
Svgjv wQj bv| ZvB Avvg`i GjvKvi zj c~ev Pj we`vcxVi cavb wkK gnvkqi gv RvbZ cviZ Ke Ke mvqb I`i evwo Nyi MQ| ZvQvov mvqbi jLv wK me
mwnZ K_v ej kkaievey mvqbK H Ag kYxZB fwZ Kwiq `b| Avgvi `v`v eB UB evRvi Qvwcq eivQ BZvw`| kkaievey wK mvqbi Gnb eenvii
wegvbI ZLb H Kvmi Qv wQj| Iiv `yBRbB GKmv_ z j hvZvqvZ Ki covkvbv Rb `ytL cKvk KiZb gvi KvQ|
KiZ _vK| GKw`b QywUi mKvj iRZvf Gm AvgvK ejjv, Rvbv wewcb`v mvqb`vi
Iiv `yRbB hLb `kg kYxZ IV mB mgq wegvbi GKwU KwVb AmyL jLv GKwU eB co Rvbjvg Zvgv`i evwoZ _vKvi mgq Zvgvi gv bvwK mvqb`vK
nq,dj mB eQi wegvbi zj dvBbvj cixv `Iqv me nq bv| Ges cii eQi w`q evwoi gyUwMwii KvR KivZv| wVKgZv LZ UZ w`Z bv| ZvB ivbxbMii
wegvb h_vixwZ zj dvBbvj cixv w`q cvk Ki hvq| ZvB GK Kvm ZdvZi Mvi avii Z _K QvjvMvQ Pzwi Ki Zzj Gb Ab Kv_vI Zv Avb Sjm
wewbgq Iiv `yRbB bnvwUi Fwl ewgP` KjR _K we.Kg. (Abvm) cvk Ki| wbq cUi zav gUvZv BZvw` BZvw` me weeiY| Gici iRZvf Pj Mj
mvqb Avgv`i evwoZ Avmvi ci c_g wKQyw`b Avgvi gvK KvwKgv Avi wewcb wMq Ii gvK GBme K_vjv ej|
evevK KvKz ej WvKZv| Gi A wKQyw`b hvIqvi ciB gvK KvwKgv k ev` w`q gv K_vjv b wKQyY Pzc Ki _K ej, kvb wewcb ZeyZv
KvwKgwb ej WvKZ i Ki, wK evevK h_vixwZ KvKz ejB WvKZ| GK_v jLvcovUv wkLQ| ZvB Gme wjLZ cviQ| bBj GZw`b Kv_vq nvwiq hZ|
GjvKvq meRbwew`Z| hw`I cyibv jvK`i ga nvZ Mvbv `yBPvi Rb RxweZ Gi ek KqK eQi ci eqmRwbZ KviY Avgv`i gv-I Avgv`i Qo
AvQb GLbv ch| Pj Mjb| hnZz mvqb`v Avgv`i gvK KvwKgwY ej WvKZ ZvB fvB fe `v`v
Gici wegvb KjKvZv wekwe`vjq _K Gg.Kg. ; Gj.Gj. we. cvk Ki gvi gZzi LeiUv w`Z ejvq dvb IK RvbvB Ges Avwg wbR GB gZz msev`
ev Ad Bwqv ev cekbvix Awdmvi cixvq cvk Ki Awdmvi c` wewfb Rvbvbvi mgq H iRZvf Avgv`i evwoZ Avgvi mvgbB DcwZ wQj|
kvLvZ PvKwi KiZ _vK| Aciw`K cvwievwiK cP Avw_K Pvci Rb mvqb Gici h_vmgq gvi cvijwKK KvRKg nq Mj GKw`b mKvj Avwg
c_g GKwU mvaviY PvKwi cq Avgv`i evwo Qo Kgj _vKZ i Ki Ges hLb evRvii c_ ZLb Avgv`i cvoviB GK `v`v gwYgvnb mvnvi m `Lv nq|
GiI KqK eQi ci Wwe-D.we.wm.Gm. cixvq cvk Ki cwge miKvii Aaxb gwYgvnb`vB AvgvK WK ej KqKw`b AvM Dwb KjKvZvq wMqwQjb| mLvb
wewfb `vwqZkxj c` KvR KiZ _vK| GB ch GKiKg gvUvgywU wVKVvKB wQj| nVvr mvqbi m Dbvi `Lv nqwQj Ges K_vq K_vq mvqb Rvbvq h, I bvwK
Gici Avgvi evev GKw`b gviv hvb| Zvici _K Kvb GK AvZ KviY mvqb Avgvi gvqi gZz msev` RvbB bv| ZviciB AvgvK ej, Zv Zvgiv IK LeiUv
Avgv`i mv_ eeavb gkt evovZ _vK| `vI wb|
ZZw`b Avwg wbRI KjvYx wekwe`vjq _K Gg.G. cvk Ki cwge gwYgvnb`vi gyL LeiUv kvbvi ci wewcb ej, Avcwb Zv kkaieveyi
miKvii Aaxb GKwU `i cwi`kK kYxi KgPvixc` KvR KiwQ| Gw`K Qj iRZvfK Pbb, Zv IKB WK wRm Kieb h, mvqbK Rvbvbv nqwQj
jvKgyL mvqbi weqi K_v ev mjK GjvKvq Kvb GK dvU _vKvi K_v wKbv !
283 284
Zvnj mvqb h ejjv, I Gmei wKQyB Rvb bv - ej gwbgvnb`v| Zey ew bvg
_vK Ime cm, GB K_v ej wewcb evRvii c_ GwMq hvq|
iRZvfK ci wewcb K_vjv Rvwbq wQj hv gwbgvnb`vi KvQ _K mygb Pvcvavq
bwQj| ZvB mw`b mcxwZ gi Abyvb mvqbK bv `LZ cq mybxwZ hLb
wewcbK ck KiwQj Zvi Di wewcb ZLb ej, mvqb w`b KqK AvM I`i ZZxq wek cgi M wjLZ bB, hw`I ev djv nq eve _K Zv iL w`Z nq
evwoZ GmwQj| I`i mv_ `Lv Ki MQ| nqZv mKji mvgb Avm wb, wKsev hvRb `~i| cwgKi _vZjvbv gyL _yc w`Z nZ cvi eIqvwim jvmi UvKb|
Avgv`i mv_ hw` GLvb `Lv nq hvq ZvB nqZv mB KviY Avmwb GLvb| cwgKvi Pzj Kivwmb| bBj, hw` cYq VvKzi AbygwZ `b PKPK Avjevg
b mybxwZ AveviI ej, AvQv mvqb GBfve Zvgv`i Gwoq Pj Kb ? gU wmu`yi, bxjvf Mvj| icK_vq Awekvm _vKj cqjv weki KvbI meyR evMvb
nqZv fve hwZ Kvb cwZ`vb w`Z nq, wewcb Rvbvq Ii x mybxwZK| Avcj, eid|
Gici mybxwZ ej, fwelZ hw` H iKg Kvb Qji gvbyl Kivi `vwqZ Zey ZZxq weki APj Rjvi wbfy wbfy cv cg Avm| jvKK_v, msMxZ,
cvI Ze wK Kie ? BwZnvm Pc em, euvk Svoi ... nvIqvq duvKv gvV QuvP NvcwU gi em _vK
wewcb Rvbvq KvwKgwY WvKv mvqbi kixii i nqZv Avjv`v wK cg| KviI PvL,KLbI AKvj em| GK GK ea nZ _vK gvbyl| Avw` `eZv,
Avgv`i kixi mivmwi Avgvi gvqi iB eBQ| cvqZi KvR evo| Ggwb ea nj gvqyb c~Y PjvK|
DiwU cq mybxwZ ej, evsjvq GKwU cev` AvQ h bviv GKeviB gvPv evuav R ZLb Zzdvb ZzjQ wgm wUbv| wbjK m hb wRZ
ejZjvq hvq Avi Zvgiv `LwQ ZviI ewZg| be jx`i, cyili PvL m Kvgbvi `ex| ZvI gvqybi PvL fm eovq|
nvmZ nvmZ wewcb ej, mw`b Avgvi gv wK Kvb cwZ`vbi Avkvq giv KvUvj MwZ ek axi| cvYcb QuyojI wdi Avm| Avmvi c_ bvevj Rwgb
wKQy Kiwb| ZvB gvqi Kvb K ev `ytL KvbUvB wQj bv| KviY gvi Dk wQj _g Mj gwY`xcv|
Amnvq QjwU hvZ wbRi cvq `uvovZ cvi| mgvR GKUz njI cwZv cvq| i nj ZZxq weki GK gvbe - gvbexi Rxeb Pwii| Zv`i cvk
mw`K _K gv wK cyivUvB mdj| ZvB gvqi Av`k nZ nB, Zzwg wK ZvB Avgiv eme bv| Zv`i gbi euvab Lyje bv| I`i eq hZ `e| I`i gvb
PvI! mybxwZ, ck Ki wewcb ? Awfgvb m~aii KvR Kie bv| cw_exi mwKvj _K engvb hvcb avivi kZ
b mybxwZ ay ej Zvgvq GKwU evi cYvg KiZ `e ! AviI GKwU wnme, `L be Zv`i GK Acii Dk jLv wKQy ivRbvgPv, Avgv`i
Abyiva AvgvK GKevi mvqb`vi evmvq wbq hI cvij Kvbw`b| GKgv kZ gbZv| `wkeY Qvov Avgiv Ab Bw`qi QywU NvlYv Kwi Gmv|
Kb ? ILvb Avevi hZ BQ KiQ Kb? wRm Ki mybxwZK wewcb| Avgiv wbgM nB GK cgKvwnbxZ|
- mybxwZ ej, evi! mvqb`vKI Zv GKUv cYvg KiZ ne h ! Avkv mwiqB gvqyb I gwY`xcvi mx nB| nU Pwj wKQyUv c_| cwiwwZ
Lye g`y^i wewcb Rvbvq, mvqb`vi evmvq hZ PI bv| mgqi nvZ muc w`B gb gbb| Avgiv Gm `uvovB AvKvki bxP, gvwUZ cv iL|
Kb wbq hve bv ? mybxwZ RvbZ Pvq wewcbi KvQ| Avgvi gwY,
nqZv wPbe bv ej, GKUz Avbgbv nqB K_vjv Quyo `q wewcb| gw`i evwni KwVb KcvU|
PjBZ kwj cwj evU \
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KvQB wK Ze nvi! AvRI KvbI Lei Gjv bv mvwnj fvBqi Zid _K| ivwRqv
Avcvi Rb K nq| AvQv gwY gvbyli Rxeb wK my`i nZ cvi bv; gvbyl bv
Avgv`i gZv gvbyli! gvm kl nZ PjjI gvBb cjvg bv| Rvbv Kvj ivZ
GKUv mvc XyK cowQj Ni| cwZUv NUbvB hb AwfhvM ZvB bv| Kvi Dk
Kb eywS bv| nqZv wbRK Dk KiB|
AvR `ycyi wU.wfZ `Ljvg weeKvb` Dovjcyj fO coQ| AviI
285 286
KZjv Rxeb wcl Mj `L, cwiRb cwiPq me iL kl| AvRKvj gb nq
gvqyb,
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Ryo Zzwg, Zvgvq Qo Kv_vq cvjvev gvqyb !
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Awfewi Pjgvb aviv _K wePzZ nq _g hvev| Avmvi Rb hvIqv cqvRb !
Zzwg wemRb `LQ KLbI| Dbv` GK wPjZ gRvi kl duvKv fvb wbq Kv
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fm Avm| fyj hvIqv wKQy Pbvi LuvUv w`q nvwiq hvq| Nyg fvOj Avi ^cRvj
bKvjv AvjgvwiZ Zzj ivLjvg cieZx Rxeb fvmZ BQ mL nj KvR
_K eivZ BQ Kibv| AvZMvcbi ivvjvZ cvq am bvgQ| `Lv gvqyb
Avme| GLb fxlY So| Zvgvq gb iL w`jvg|
AvgivI Kgb A^xKvi KiwQ wbR`i| evievi myZvq RU|
gwY`xcv
Avgv`i c~e cyil Avgv`i Drme ag meB wK Avgv`i ! eq Pjv GK
avivi cw_K Avgiv evKevwMmi `j| wmu`yi Lye jvf wQj Rvbv, Kb mvRI Kg
Kvb Avmv PvL fvmv nvRvi gyLivPK Mi MwjZ ivvq nvwiq MQ
bv| hw` kUv b`xZ bv fvwmq `yejv gb ewmq NUbv mvRvB| WRb wmu`yii
gwY`xcv gvqyb| Abygvb, gbi gZv wVK Ki w`Z BQ nqZv nZ cvi Zv`i
cvKU gv_vq Xvwj, KbyB cwiq kuvLv cjv| Zvgvi Rb bv nq jywKq wbjvg me|
fwelr Rxebi| m Abygvb Kbv - cwiKbvi KvVvgv Zix KiK|
Zvgvi eyK gv_v ivLjvg Gevi| Avgvi Nyg Gb `vI|
Avgiv evmi wmU, Ubi MU cwZw`b Zv`i `LwQ| eyK eq Avmv
Zvgvi gwY
avivi AvMvgxKvj wbq wPwZ nwQ| gb gb Zv`i cvwVq w`wQ gM| GKeviI gZ
gwY,
gyL gb AvbwQ bv Aek|
Kvj ivZ AvUeQi AvMi GKw`b Avevi cojvg| gvS gvS
ZeyI cw_exi eyK gvbyl cg gk, fvm, nvivq, KLbv nqZv ev RZ|
gb nq wbii nj wZ wQj bv wekl| wK h ej Pwj fyjfvj ; iex`bv_ wK
GKB evR Leii ga gvbyl Pbv hvq ejwQjb| Mfxi ivZ KZ m myi fm
Avm| Kvbvi Djyawb, hvvi msjvc, my`i wg_ K_vI bZ fvjv jvM|
kvm wbZ K nq `wL GLb| Mw KgZ KgZ PKvV Gm cvnvivq|
wmwjs dvbI gReyZ bq Zgb| Zvgvi Rb wbRb `ycyii cyKzi NvU w`jvg| Pzwc
Pzwc ^cjv fvwmq w`I|
Zvgvi hw`
287 288
Rxeb h iKg wRwbm wK AvMi gZv Mov hvq| GB h Avgiv Aweivg asm Ki PjwQ meyR| eySZ
cviwQ bv wK Gi cwiYwZ|GKmgq AwRb mw e nq hve| cKwZ I AvenvIqv
`xcK fvPvh gkB `~wlZ nq hve| eo fqi w`b gkB GwMq AvmQ Avgiv Zv eySZ cviwQ
bv|
Gevi Rvgm`cyi wMq nVvr Awbevbi m `Lv njv|KqKw`b ay bq, gb nj
GiKg Rj GjB wef~wZf~lY e`vcvavqK Lye gb co| nuv mwZB
hb KZ hyM ci| mB QvUejvUv hb PvLi mvgb fm DVj| AZ ~ fvj jvMvq
wef~wZeveyK fyj _vKv gykwKj GiKg Puv`i Avjvq fiv Rj Gj| Ii jLvi
fi Mj gbUv| mB cvY cvPzh fiv w`bjvi K_v Awbevb evievi M KiZ
ga w`qB IK Pbv Avgvi| cii w`b Rj GjvKvq NyiZ NyiZB GLvb emevmKvix
jvMj| mB QvUejvi w`bi wZjv ivgb KiZ KiZB ek KqKUv w`b
Avw`evmx Ges Rjevmx gvbyli `Lv cjvg| Avgiv wbRivB Zv`i m Avjvc
Kv_v w`q KU Mj eySZB cvijvg bv| GLb wbq eySZ cviQb Awbevb
Kijvg| Zv`i wbKU _KB RvbZ cvijvg wK fqi Ki ga w`q Zv`i
Avgvi QvUejvi Ai ez| wMqwQjvg Rvgm`cyi Ab KvR wbq, wK Awbevbi
Rxeb hvcb| GLvbKviB `yRbi KvQ Rb wQjvg Kvjvnvwi K_v, hw`I GLvb
cvj-vq co hZ njv Dwolvq| hw`I AvgviI AwbevbK cq Aviv KUvw`b Ii
_K Zv AbK `~i| Giv `yRb mLvbKvi fqi `ywf _K euvPvi Rb Pj
m KvUvbvi BQv RvMwQj - myhvM nq Mj| hw`b cuQjvg, Zvi ciw`b wQj
GmwQjb, Ibv`i m x I Qjgqiv mB fqvj `ywfi Kvc Abvnvi I
`vjc~wYgv| GKUv Mvj _vjvi gZv Puv` DVwQj MvQcvjvi duvK w`q| IB c~wYgvi
AcywZ ivvZB gviv hvq| GiKg AbK ILvb _K cvwjq Avmvi c_ - c_B
Puv`K AmvaviY my`i jvMwQj| Avt wK Avb`| Rji M cvwQ bvK, Kvb fi
gZzi Kvj Xj co| ZvB Giv `yRbB cvbyqvbvjv GjvKvq Gm Aekl GKUz
DVQ myLKi me keYvb`| PvZK PvL wdiZ Pvq bv &gb `k _K| nuv, Awbevb
_vKevi RvqMv cvb| KVvi cwikg `ygyVv fvZi Rb Amnvq w`b hvcb KiZ eva
AvgvK Rji ic `LvZ GLvb GbQ| I h GZ Rj fvjevm, Zv Avwg
nq| GB Dwolv miKvi mB `ywfi gvKvwejv KiZ e_ nb| Zvi dj e gvbyl
RvbZvg bv| GB Ac~e cw_exK - A_vr GB cKwZK `LZ `LZ Kv_vq nvwiq
gviv hvb| gvj Avi GKUv RvqMv| G bvgUv cvq mKji KvQB Lye Pbv|
hvwQjvg| Awbevbi K_vq wdi Gjvg| Awbevb ejZ jvMj A_, bvix, mvb-
mLvbI cvqB GKB Aev| miKvi mLvb Rjevmx gvbylK DQ` Ki KcviU
LvwZ, cwZcw m-e GKw`K KiI Rji fvj jvMvi fvjevmvi fvii mgvb
wkcwZ`i KvQ IB GjvKvi A_vr mLvbKvi Rj, cvnvo me wew Ki w`Qb|
niv bv KLbI gbi wbwZ| Avwg Ii K_vq LvwbKUv AevK nq Mjvg| ejjvg
abZvwK eevi G Avi GK wb`kb| MYZi eywj AvDo abZvwK eevK
ZzB h Rj GZv fvjvevwmm RvbZvg bv Zv AvM| AvgviI GB cKwZ cwiek
wRBq ivLv| Ze mLvbKvi gvbyl Gmei wei jovB Pvwjq hvQ| huviv jvMvZvi
fvjv jM Mj| KLbv PgK w`q cvwjq hvIqv `ZMwZ nvIqvK h c_i
Av`vjb mvwgj, GgbB GKwU cwievii m Avjvc nqwQj GB jexZB| I`i
jvjayjv Zvov Ki hvq| Ggb my`i mB c_B wPiw`b nvZQvwb `q| DcZKv _K
KvQB bwQjvg gvji gvbyli Av`vjbi K_v| GK we`kx wkMvx
cvnvo, cvnvo _K DcZKvq, b`x _K mgy` Ggb KiB cKw Zi Avnvb Avgv`i
ILvbKvi cvnvo I Rj _K vbxq gvbyl`i DQ` Ki BvZ wk Mo Zvjvi
bvov `q| Avevi AvgivB GB cKwZK asm Kwi wbR`i z` ^v_i Rb| GB
cwiKbv bq Ges GKvR Avgv`i `ki fvU wbevwPZ MYZvwK miKvi h_
Avgv`i mfZv|
iKg mvnvh Ki Avi cywjk w`q cwZev`x gvbyli Dci AK_ AZvPvi Pvjvq| Gi
Gevi Avgiv KUK _K ewoq AviI AbK RvqMv cvi Ki Avgiv
dj ek wKQy Rjevmxi cvY hvq| wK GZv Kvi ciI Av`vjbKvixiv wcQy
Asj ej GKUv RvqMvq cuQvjvg| Avevi mLvb _K cuQvjvg jex| GK
nUwb| GLbv ch hv Lei AvcvZZ KviLvbvi KvR e _vKjI A`~i fwelZ
bvjvi cvkB, KzKiz bvg Kv| ZviB cvk Awbevbi GK mgqi KwjM ivgmy`ii
KviLvbv Movi KvR Pvjy ne nqZv| Avgiv GK_v cvq AbKB Rvwb I eywS|
evmv| Avgiv cuQj m Avgv`i mv`i MnY Kij| mLvbB ivw hvcb Kijvg|
Dwolvi GB Aji KviLvbv Movi wei mvaviY DQ` nIqv gvbyli Av`vjbi
ciw`b mKvj hLb m~h DU mviv Rj DvwmZ Ki ZzjQ| Rswj Avgi MvQ
K_v Avgvi AvMi jLvq wevwiZ fve cKvk KiwQ|
MvQ evj GmQ GLb| m GK cvYfiv Avb` myav cvb KiZ Rxeb Avgv`i DbyL
GgbB Aviv GKwU NUbvi K_v ejZ nq| GB DwolviB GK kxZi ivZ
nq DVj| A_P GB iKgB GK GKwU ebwZ KqK NUv jvM gv asm KiZ|
cyibvKvUi Rj qvi gviv nQ RvbZ ci GKUv RvqMv `L emjvg| cP
KZ mvgvb mgq jvM me wKQy kl KiZ| cg, mK, fvjvevmv, ggZeva, ezZ
kxZ| Kvji KvQ gvwUi mivq KvVKqjvi Avb| gvSivZ nVvr Mvg GKUv
- A_P Mo ZzjZ nq wZj wZj Ki| me wKQyZB wZjvgv MoviB gZv| wK fvOv
mviMvj bjvg| wK evcvi wRvmv KivZ mi GKRb ejj GKUv gqi evPv
289 290
nj| Gici klivZ nVvr bvixKi GK AvZ wPrKvi wkwki fRv kxZvZ eb
cvnvo PgK DVj| Avgiv I ....... bvB nZPwKZ| Zvici Avevi kviMvj| Zvici cwZhvMxZv
me Pzc| ay GKK bvixKi `xN GKUvbv Kuvcv Kuvcv wejvc| ZvI GKmgq _g ae ZvjyK`vi
Mj| Avevi wRvmv KivZ bjvg gvwUi Nii beRvZKi gv_v , gv_vi wNjy me
QuyPvq Lq MQ| ZvB mvbnviv gvqi Agb AvZ wPrKvi| nvjv UmwUs, nvjv UmwUs Avcbviv mevB fvjv Ki byb, AvR Avcbvi h
Avgv`i `ki wekl Ki Rj Ges Avw`evmx GjvKvq gqiv mvb cwZhvMxZvq AskMnY KiZ PjQb, Zvi bvg nj ah ebvg j| Gi wbqgvejx
nvivj Kuv`vi wejvwmZv KiZ cvi bv ewkY| mvbi Rb njI BsivRx KvMRi nj, GB eo gvVi ga Uweji Dci GKwU mvbvi Zwi gvbyl AvQ hvi IRb
ewMZ Kjvg Zv wevwcZ nq bv| GiKg ARm NUbv cwZwbqZ Avgv`i mgvR cvq GK KwR ne Ges Gi eZgvb g~j nj wZb jvL UvKv| mKvi mvZUvq GB
eevq NUQ| mvbvi gvbyli wk dzU `~i _K Pvwiw`K Mvj Ki NyiZ ne, _g _vKv Pje
gnvb`xi Icvi wUKicvov, GLb hLvb Kzwgi cK nqQ| Zvi KvQB bv, Kvb Lvevi GgbwK Rj ch `Iqv ne bv, `vMi evBi MjB AvDU nq
Avi GK Mvg evNigyv| GB evNigyvZ GKwU jvKi m Avjvc nqwQj| m `~i hveb| iv`-ew hvB nvK bv Kb NyiZB ne| mekl h cwZhvMx _vKeb mB
Mvg _K AvmZ, GLvbKvi evsjvq dvBdigvm KvUZ| AbK nvwZ, evBmb, evN ne weRqx I Zvi nvZB H mvbvi gvbylwU Zzj `Iqv ne| cwZhvMx`i msLv
fiv Rj cwiq cUi ZvwM`| I`i cwiavb ejZ GKwU `yfvR Kiv MvgQv| nj 12 Rb| hv`i bvg nj
Dv I wbv XvKevi Rb| wK fqi `vwi` Zv mUv mnRB Abygq| kxZi ivZ bvg eqm
evQyi QvMj gyiMx I nuvmi m GKB gvwUi Ni Avb Rj Zv cyiv cwievi| 1. bqb miKvi 28
AviI ggvwK hv - c_g ivZ eyK w`q Zv Avbi w`K,Zvici Zvc eyK cyo 2. gNjv Payix 26
hvevi Dcg nj D wcV w`q kvq| Ggwb KiB GwcV IwcV KiZ KiZ 3. jx nvRvix 55
emi iZ `Lv hvq mvci Lvjmi gZv I`i Mvqi LvjmiB GK ciZ 4. mywRZ ivq 35
Pvgov DV hvq| wK Zey Kvb AwfhvM bB GB gvbyl`i| `qv Kiv `xbez AvR, 5. iwdKzj gvj-v 60
`vD f w`b Mvb Mq `xbezi DciB wbR`i BnKvj ciKvji me fvi Pvwcq 6. weKvk AvMiIqvj 44
w`q cig wbw _vK Iiv| G`i K_vB wjL PjwQ me jLvZ| G NUbv ejwQj 7. mwZ miKvi 21
Awbevb| Ii m Dwolv gY weivU AwfZv wbq wdijvg| IiI PZbv wdij 8. kvgj f 38
cKvwkZ Rxeb `LZ `LZ| aygv Dwolvq bq, Gme `vwi` PZbvi Afve 9. K eiv 45
`xNw`b wewfb AZvPvi gb Pjv, mviv `kevcx cwie| GBme mvgvwRKZvi 10. mZwRr Payix 52
weiB jovB KiZ ne| Gme fveZ fveZB Avgvi RvqMvq wdi Gjvg| Awbevb 11. Mvcvj bvqK 39
ejj Kb mvcwZK hv NUQ Die? WvbKvb Mvxi Pv evMvbwjZ hv NUQ! 12. kwai mvg 27
Avwg ejjvg nuv AeYbxq, Pv evMvbi Afvex gqiv AvR kixi wew KiQ| Avgv`i
GB ^vaxb fviZel| K`,ivR Kvb miKviiB Kvb nj`vj bB G evcvi| AZGe AvR ivZ Avcbviv mevB GLvb wekvg Kib| Kvj mKvj 7Uv
Avi KZw`b Pje GB mvaviY gvbyli Ici GB Abvq ? _K cwZhvMxZv i ne| Avi GKUv K_v, Avcbviv cwZhvMxZv i nevi AvM
ch LZ cvieb| wK i nevi ci PvBjI Avi cvieb bv| AvDU bv nIqv
ch| GB ej whwb gvBvdvb ivLjb wZwb nQb mxZvivg Ryqjvm Gi gvwjK
weRq eoqv| GB cwZhvMxZvi K_v Zvi gv_vq c_g Avm Ges GUv Zvi `vKvb I
Kvvbxi wevcbi weivU gvag nq `uvove Zvi Rb| 12 Rb cwZhvMx`i
gvVi cvk nj Ni _vKvi eev nj ivZ| mevB GKB Ni q AvQ Lvevi Lq|
Lvevi eev wQj fvebvi evBi| cwZhvMx`i h hv LZ PqQ mevBK ZvB
291 292
`Iqv nqQ| KD ev cU fwZ fvZ, KD ev iwU Lj,KD Lj fvZ bv wPweq ej bv| mevB wKQy bv wKQy K_v GK Acii mv_ ejwQj Avi Ckii KvQ cv_bv
hvZ AbKY _vK, Avevi KD Rj Kg Lj hvZ ev_ig Kg hZ nq| GKRb KiwQj n fMevb Avwg hb wRZZ cvwi| wK K_v ejwQj bv ay GKRb m Zvi
Zv wifvBUvj Jlya Lj hvZ GbvwR cvq| ivZ KD Kviv mv_ K_v ejjv bv| wbRi gZ wUwdb Lq hvQ| ZvB `L mywRZevey ejjb I Bqs gvb Zzwg wK K_v
KviY mevB mevi weivax c| GK Acii bvg Dv cvv ej hvQ gb gb| ejZ cvi bv ? Kvj _K GB h evKweZv i nqQ GZ AskMnY Kiv bv nj
KD Avevi fMevbi KvQ cv_bv KiQ h, n fMevb, Kvj hb Avwg Qvov mevi cve| mywRZ eveyi K_vZ wdi ZvKvjv bqb miKvi (eqm - 28, Mvqi is
ev_igi cmvi/ eM ekx Ki nq, ZvnjB evwo wMq wZb jvL UvKv _K GK kvgeY, DuPz j^v mywkwZ cwigvwRZ) ejj Avwg evevI bB, KvjvI bB Ze
jvL w`q Zvgvi gw`i evbvev| GK Acii w`K Ggb fve ZvKvQ h myhvM Avcbv`i evKweZvq kixii GbvwR b nq hve, Avi GbvwR b nj ewk
cjB Mjv wUc gvie, Zvnj cwZhvMx Kg hve| iwdKzj gvj-v ejj - n NyiZ cvie bv| mevB GKmv_ AevK PvL ZvKvjv bqbi w`K, nVvr Ki gNjv
Avj-vn mevi hb cvq cv_ii LuvPv jvM, cv gPK hvq, wL` cvq, ev_ig cvq, ejj Avcbvi GbvwRi Rq nvK, ej nv nv Ki nm DVj|
Zvnj Avwg gvRvi Pv`i Povev, Ryvevi wmwb `ev ei mjvg VyKjv| GB K_v Gici mevB cZ nq cwZhvMxZvi vb Avmjv| Avi Gi ga mevi
b eyov gvbyl mZwRr Payixi gv_vq Mj Lyb Pc| m iM wMq ejj, Ii Uvb Uvb DRbv i nq MQ| gvBvdvb nvZ wbq mxZvivg Ryqjvm Gi
nvivgRv`v mevB cv_ii LuvPv Lve, cv gPKve, wL` cve, ev_ig cve Avi gvwjK nvjv UmwUs, nvjv UmwUs GB b gNjv nvZ Pc ej DVj gb nq
Zvi Avgvkv ne| ej gyL Nywiq wbjb| GB K_v kyb mevB nv nv Ki nm Rxeb Kvbw`bI gvBvdvb K_v ejwb| gvBvdvb U KiQ bv wbRi Mjv
DVjv| wK nvwm Avi KZY Avevi mevi mB Mxi gyL| cvij G IK gvi Avi U KiQ mUvB evSv hvQ ej g`y g`y nvwm GB `L mevB nm DVj, aygv
I GK Lyb Ki| GB Ki Ki mevB ivZ `kUvi ga Nywgq coj| bqb ev`| bqbI nvmZ hvwQj ZvK evav w`q gNjv ejj GK`g bv, GK`g
I `v`v DVyb, I gvWvg DV cob| iwW nZ ne ej gvBvdvb nvme bv, ZvnjB GbvwR b nq hve| m m hb nvwmi ivj DVj| GiKg
GKRb WvKjb| mevB Avogvov fO PvL WjZ WjZ DVjv| Avevi f`jvKwU Ki cvq cb 7Uv evR mevBK w`q e ccvi mB Kivbv nj Ges e ccvii
gvBvdvb ejjb Avcbviv GK NUvi ga ev_ig, vb mi gyL ayq djyb| Dw wQj GB cwZhvMxZvq Ask bevi ci hw` Kvb cwZhvMxi kvixwiK, gvbwmK
Avcbv`i wUwdb `Iqv ne| ZviciB cwZqvMxZv i ne| K_vwU kl nZ bv I hKvbfve wZM I `yej, KwVbfve Avv njI KZc KvbfveB `vqx
nZB iwdKzj gvj-v ejj `v`v Mig fvZ cvIqv hve, gvb Zvnj AbKY NyiZ _vKe bv, me `vqfvi I wbR `vwqZ cwZhvMxi wbRi Dci| mevi KvQ _K dvb
cviZvg| jvKwU ejjb AekB cvIqv hve| Avcbv`i MZ ivZi gZb h hv wbq bIqv nj, hB bv bqbi KvQ _K dvb wbZ MQ KZc, Agwb bqb
PvBeb ZvB cveb Ze, wPKb Avi Avv ev`| Gi gaB kvgj f ej DVjb ejj AvQv Avwg Zv NyiZ NyiZ K_v ejZ cvwi GZ Avcbv`i Amyweav Kv_vq
- wWmMvwUs, Avwj gwbs qB ivBm, I MW BD Avi MU, BU BR fwi fwi dvwb| ? Avi GB K_v hB bv ejQ Agwb gNjv ej DVj AmyweavUv Ibv`i bq Avcbvwi
BwZgaB gNjv Payix (eqm - 26, Mvqi is AwZe dmv,gyLi Mob `ex gvqi ne| bqb ejj Kb Avgvi wK Amyweav ne wb gNjv - GbvwR b ne ej Avevi
gZb, m~Pvjv bvK, gv_vq AbK Pzj, GK K_vq ^Mi Dewl) ejj `Lyb kvgjevey mevB wgj nm DVj| byb byb wbqgvejxZ Zv wjL `IqvB AvQ dvb mv_
evsjvq Rb wbq fvZK Aenjv KiQb, Avcbvi Zv jv nIqv DwPZ| Avi ivLv hve bv| wbb Avcbvi mKj cZ nj GB Mvj `vMUv AvQ Zvi cvk w`q
K_vq K_vq Bswjk ejQb, Kgewk mevB BsiwR Rvb AvcbvK Avi RvbvZ ne mvwiefve `uvwoq cib| mKj ZvB Kij| wVK mvZUvq euvwk evwRq Nviv i
bv, Avcwb BsiwR Rvbb| kvgjevey ejj - Aqj BIi Ib gwmb. BU BR fwi nj ci ci evivRb AbeiZ NyiQ| mevi gyLB nvwm, Lywk gb nQ hb mvbvi
evW| GB KiZ KiZ cbiv wgwbU KU Mj| Zvici mevB dm nq vb mi gvbyl cq MQ| c_g iqQ gNjv, Zvici mevB Avi mevi kl bqb coQ|
hLb wUwdb KiZ Gj, mevB wUwdb Kij wK iwdKzj gvj-v cvMvg fvZ LqB Nviv i nevi 6 wgwbU ev` KZc Pj Mj| nVvr Ki gNjv Zvi wcQbi
PjQ| weKvkevey ejjb GB h gNjv gvWvg Bavi AvI, Avc Zv eo eo WvqvjvM kwai mvgK jvs gi dj w`j Ges co Mj kwai evey| Ges co wMq
SviZv nvq, jwKb Avcb fvZ wKD bwn Lvqv ? gNjv ejj cwZhvMxZv kl PuPvZ i KiQ AvgvK dj `Iqv nqQ,AvgvK dj `Iqv ej gq`i
nj Avcbvi fvMi fvZUv Lvq, mvgSv weKvkevey| weKvkevey weiwei Ki wK gZ nvZ bvovZ jvMj, nVvr Ki KZc QyU Gjv wK nqQ GLvb| gNjv `Lyb
ejjb Zvici GKUz Rvi ejjb QvUv jowK qv Zv Kqv qv, evZ Zv eo mvi nuvUZ nuvUZ `yej nq co MQ| Avi ej, AvgvK dj `Iqv nqQ,
eo nvq| Avmj Lye QvUejv _KB gNjv Lye PvjvK I gyLiv KvDK Qo K_v AvgvK dj `Iqv nqQ| Kb Kvj ivZ Avi AvR mKvj wK fvZ, wUwdb wKQyB
293 294
Lvbwb? KZc eji `Lyb Avcwb em coQb Avi Zvi PqI eo K_v Avcwb Mjv wKq GmQ| Kviv Kviv wL` cvQ, mevcwi gv_vi Dci iv`i Zvc, hv
`vMi evBi AvQb AZGe Avcwb AvDU| bv AvgvK GB gqwU dj w`qQ ej AmnKi| Giga gNjv nVvr Ki Zvi cKU _K PvPiv cvZv (wePzwU cvZv)
kwai eveyI gNjvi w`K Aywj wb`k Kij| Gici kwai eveyK Zviv Rvi ei Ki mevi Aj I mveavb, ZeyI bqb Gi bRiK duvwK w`Z cviwb| bqb
Ki ei Ki w`j| GiKg Ki wKQyY Nvivi ci jx nvRvwi (eqm 55) ejj, eo eo PvL Ki GKivk ivM wbq gNjvi w`K ZvKvQ| Avi gNjv wePzwU cvZv
WUvi ZvgvK ejwQ, gNjv ejj AvgvK ejQb ejyb, Avevi jx `ex ejj, `ywU Av Ki mywRZ ivq (35) Gi Rvgvi Kjvii ga w`q wcV XywKq w`j| Avi
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cwZhvMxZv i nevi ci Kvb Lvevi Rj Avcwb cveb bv| GUvB wbqg, Avi hw` Avgvi Lye abev` w`Z gb nQ Kb Rvbb gNjv `ex| gNjv - Kb? bqb -
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301 302
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303 304
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307 308
Avcwb mewKQy Rvbb Zv? Di wZwb ejjb, hvv`ji mvgvb mnAwfbZv _K
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309 310
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311 312
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myej j Ki gxbvi PvLi Kvj eq eo eo dvUv MovZ i KiQ| AvgvK GZ my`i Ki Ke `Lj myej`v| gxbvi K_v b myej cgv` Mvb|
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313 314
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