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Anda di halaman 1dari 200

by

Björn Palm,

Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

Course Contents,

based on Holman’s book Heat Transfer

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Steady-State Conduction - One Dimension

Chapter 3: Steady-State Conduction - Multiple Dimensions

Chapter 4: Unsteady-State Conduction

Chapter 5: Principles of Convection

Chapter 6: Empirical and Practical Relations for Forced-Convection

Heat Transfer

Chapter 7: Natural Convection Systems

Chapter 8: Radiation Heat Transfer

Chapter 9: Condensation and Boiling Heat Transfer

Chapter 10: Heat Exchangers

(Chapter 11: Mass Transfer)

2

Part 1

Introduction

3

Introduction

What is heat?

Heat is energy transfer caused by temperature difference!

4

The four laws of thermodynamics:

• Zeroth law:

If two bodies both are in thermal equilibrium with a third

body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other,

and they then are said to have the same temperature.

5

• First law: (Energy principle)

Energy cannot be generated or destroyed, only converted to

different forms.

thermal energy in the surrounding)

6

• Second law:

Heat cannot by itself pass from one body to another body

with higher temperature.

Shows the direction of time.)

7

•

8

Third law:

The entropy of a pure, crystalline material takes its lowest

value at absolute zero temperature, where it is 0.

World record: 0.00000017 K = 170 nanokelvin)

9

Three modes of heat transfer:

• Conduction

Through solid bodies and ”still” fluids hot cold

• Convection

Through moving fluids

(also boiling and condensation)

• Radiation

Between surfaces, through gas or vacuum

hot cold

10

What do we know about conduction?

11

Conduction, thermal conductivity, Fourier´s law:

Fourier’s law:

q = -k⋅A⋅δT/δx

where, q = heat flow (W)

A = area perpendicular to heat flow (m2)

δT/δx = temperature gradient in the direction

of heat flow(°C/m)

k = thermal conductivity (W/(m °C))

conductivity.

12

Conduction, thermal conductivity, Fourier´s law:

constant thermal conductivity, Fourier´s law is simplified to

q = k⋅A⋅ΔT/δ

where ΔT = temperature difference (°C)

δ = distance or thickness (m).

13

fig. 1

Temp

δT/δx<0

x

Hot q>0 Cold

14

Fig. 2 Heat transfer through a plane wall

T1

ΔT

T2

15

Table 1

Material Thermal conductivity (20°), (W/m⋅°C)

Diamond, type IIa 2600

Copper 386

Iron, wrought, 0.5% C 60

Stainless steel, 18/8 16.3

Brick 0.69

Water 0.6

Pine wood, 0.15/0.33 (cross/along fibres)

Cork 0.045

Glass wool 0.038

Mineral wool 0.04

Polyurethane 0.02

Air 0.026

Argon gas 0.018

16

Example to solve:

Conduction:

Calculate the heat flow per square meter (heat flux) through a

mineral wool insulation, 5 cm thick, if the temperatures on the

two surfaces are 30 and 200°C, respectively.

17

Heat transfer by convection, Newton’s law of cooling

moving fluid.

18

Fig 3, Different types of convection heat transfer

Forced Boiling

convection

Diffusion,

mass

transfer

Condensation

19

What do we know about convection?

20

All types of convection are governed by Newton’s law of

cooling:

q = h⋅A⋅ΔT

where A = surface area where convection takes place

2

(m )

ΔT = temperature difference (°C)

h = heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2⋅°C))

transfer coefficient h.

21

Table 2

coefficient (W/(m2⋅°C))

Turbulent flow in tubes,

(diameter ≈ 50 - 25 mm)

Water (0.5 - 5 m/s) 1500 - 20000

Air (1 - 10 m/s) 10 - 50

Laminar flow in tubes, (diameter

≈ 50 - 10 mm)

Water 50 - 250

Air 2 - 15

Air flow past plates (1 - 10 m/s) 10 - 50

22

Type of flow Approximate heat transfer

coefficient (W/(m2⋅°C))

Natural convection

Water 200 - 1000

Air 2 - 10

Condensation

Water 5000 - 15000

Refrigerants 1000 - 5000

Boiling

Water 1000 - 40000

Refrigerants 200 - 5000

23

Example to solve:

Convection:

What is the approximate temperature difference between a hot

plate and the surrounding air if the heat flux from the plate is

800 W/m2 ? Assume that the air is flowing past the surface

with a velocity of 5 m/s giving a heat transfer coefficient of

20 W/(m2K).

24

Radiation

radiation.

temperature of the surface.

through air.

25

• fig. 4, Heat transfer by radiation

•

Δ T r = T1 - T 2

T2

T3

T1

26

Heat transfer by radiation between a small body and an

isothermal environment may be calculated by Newton’s law

of cooling, if we define a radiation heat transfer coefficient:

qr = hr⋅A⋅ΔTr

where qr = heat flow due to radiation (W)

hr = radiation heat transfer coefficient

(W/(m2⋅°C))

A = surface area of the small body (m2)

ΔTr = temp. difference between surfaces (°C).

27

• hr is a function of the geometry, the emissivity of the

surfaces and on the temperatures of the surfaces.

with temperatures between 0 and 100°C, the radiation heat

transfer coefficient is usually between 4.5 and 12 W/(m2 °C)

(≈5 at room temperature, ≈25 at 200°C)

28

Summing convection and radiation modes of heat transfer

are equal then the h-values may be added to a total heat

transfer coefficient.

hc + hr = h tot

modes have to be treated separately.

29

Example to solve:

Convection + radiation:

A cold bottle of beer (+5°C) is placed in a room where the

temperature of the air and of the walls is 25°C. Calculate the

approximate heat flux caused by radiation and by natural

convection

30

Overall heat transfer coefficient

q = U⋅A⋅ΔTtot

where U = the overall heat transfer coefficient (W/(m ⋅°C))

2

2

A = surface area on either side of the wall (m )

ΔTtot = difference between the fluid temperatures

sufficiently far from the wall.

31

Relation between U, h and k

the wall through the temperature differences:

Newton’s law of cooling as, respectively:

ΔT1 = q/(h1⋅A1)

ΔT2 = q/(h2⋅A2)

ΔTW = q⋅δ/(k⋅AW)

32

• The total temperature difference is

ΔTTot = q/(U⋅A)

• But

ΔTtot = ΔT1 + ΔT2 + ΔTW

and in the wall, thus

• 1/(U⋅A)= 1/(h1⋅A1)+ δ/(k⋅AW)+ 1/(h2⋅A2)

33

• For the case of a plane wall, the areas are also equal, and the

relation is even simpler.

additional terms of [δ/(k⋅AW)] have to be added.

• For a curved surface, the surfaces are not the same. The

overall heat transfer coefficient may be referred to any of the

surfaces, but when specifying the U-value, it must always be

stated to which area it is connected.

34

Fig. 5

ΔT1

q = U⋅A⋅ΔTtot q

ΔTtot ΔTw

T

k

δ ΔT2

35

Heat transfer resistance

resistances.

thermal resistance has to be defined:

Thermal analogy gives: ΔT = q ⋅ Rth

36

• Thermal resistance in the fluid

R = 1/(h⋅A1)

R = δ/(k⋅A)

Rtot =1/(U⋅A)

Rtot = R1 + RW + R2

37

Example to solve:

The heat flux through a plane wall is 5000 W/m2 and the

overall heat transfer coefficient is 1000 W/(m2⋅°C). Calculate

the temperature difference!

38

Part 2

More about convection

39

Definition of dimensionless parameters

transfer.

of dimensionless similarity parameters.

transfer coefficients may be calculated.

40

Reynolds number

Re = u⋅x/ν

where u = velocity of fluid (m/s)

x = characteristic length (m). (For a tube, x = d).

ν = kinematic viscosity of fluid (m /s)

2

laminar or turbulent.

• Reynolds number determines the ratio of the inertia and

viscous forces in the flow.

41

Reynolds number

Glasrör

Bläckstråle

Laminärt strömningssätt

Turbulent strömningssätt

42

Nusselt number

Nu = h⋅x/k

where h = surface heat transfer coefficient (W/(m ⋅°C))

2

k = thermal conductivity (W/(m⋅°C))

at the surface.

• From Nu, the heat transfer coefficient can easily be

calculated.

43

Example to solve:

inner diameter 15 mm. The Nusselt number is found to be 70.

What is the heat transfer coefficient?

44

Prandtl number

Pr = ν/α = cp⋅μ/k

where ν = kinematic viscosity of fluid (m /s)

2

cp = specific heat (J/kg⋅°C)

μ = dynamic viscosity (N⋅s/m2)

k = thermal conductivity (W/(m⋅°C))

fluid.

45

Grashof number

Gr = g⋅β⋅ΔT⋅x3/ν2

where g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

β = volumetric thermal expansion coeff. (1/°C)

For (ideal) gases, (β = 1/Tabs).

ΔT = temperature difference between surface and

fluid (°C)

x = characteristic length (m).

ν = kinematic viscosity of fluid (m2/s)

• The Grashof number indicates, in free convection, whether

the flow is laminar or turbulent.

• It is the ratio between buoyancy and viscous forces.

46

Graetz number

Gz = Re ⋅ Pr ⋅ d/x

where d = (hydraulic) diameter of channel (m)

x = distance from entrance of channel (m)

flow.

Can be interpreted as a dimensionless, inverted length

(distance from entrance).

47

Rayleigh number

Ra = Gr ⋅ Pr

convection.

48

Laminar and turbulent flow, velocity boundary layer

Fig. 6

49

• The part of the flow where the velocity is influenced by the

surface is called the boundary layer.

boundary layer is thin and it then grows successively thicker.

between layers at different distances from the plate. The

flow is then said to be laminar.

will become unstable, and eddies will develop, mixing the

different layers. The flow is then becoming turbulent.

50

• Because of the mixing, the difference in velocity between

layers is much smaller in turbulent flow than in laminar, and

the velocity profile thus much flatter.

closest to the surface. In this sub-layer, the temperature

profile is nearly linear.

from the Reynolds number calculated with the distance from

the leading edge as the characteristic length. Transition will

occur at Re ≈ 5⋅105.

51

Fig. 7

52

• In tube flow, at some distance from the entrance, the

boundary layers from opposite sides will meet. At this point

the flow is fully developed.

as the characteristic length. Transition takes place at

approximately Re ≈ 2300.

turbulent than in laminar flow.

53

Example to solve:

diameter 12 mm at a velocity of 2 m/s. Determine if the flow

is laminar or turbulent!

54

Thermal boundary layer

will form in which the temperature change from the wall

temperature to the temperature of the undisturbed fluid.

• In laminar flow the velocity- and the thermal boundary

layers will be similar, but the thicknesses will not

necessarily be the same.

• The relative thickness of the thermal and velocity boundary

layers is in laminar flow related to the Prandtl number by

δv /δth ≈ Prn where n is a positive exponent (≈1/3).

55

• For gases, the Prandtl number is usually between 0.7 and 1,

and in laminar flow the thermal and velocity boundary layer

thicknesses are thus approximately equal.

• For liquid metals, the Pr<<1 and the thermal boundary layer

(in laminar flow) is considerably thicker than the velocity

boundary layer, while for oils, Pr>>1 and the velocity

boundary layer is the thickest. (For water, Pr range from

13.4 at 0°C to 1.75 at 100°C).

will result in more or less equal thicknesses of the velocity

and turbulent layers.

56

Forced and free convection

>force (by a fan or a pump or any other means external to

the fluid itself).

>free convection (the movement is caused by temperature

induced density differences in the fluid).

is determined from the Reynolds number

Grashof number

57

• The dimensionless equations are different for the two cases:

58

Methods for calculating heat transfer

coefficients (in one phase flow)

Forced convection

59

Turbulent flow in tubes and channels

logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) defined as:

ΔT2 − ΔT1

ΔT2

= ln

ΔT1

end of the heated section (inlet and outlet)

60

Turbulent flow in tubes and channels

the Dittus - Boelter equation:

Nu = 0.023⋅Re0.8 ⋅ Prn

where n = 0.4 for heating of the fluid

n = 0.3 for cooling of the fluid

0.6 < Pr < 100.

Fluid properties at bulk temperature (≈average of inlet and outlet temperatures).

May, for fluids with low viscosity (μ < 2⋅μH2O ), be used when Re> 2300, that is for the

whole turbulent region.

61

Entrance region, turbulent flow

where d = diameter of tube (m)

L = length of tube (m)

62

Non-circular cross-sections, hydraulic diameter

as

DH = 4⋅A/P

where A = cross sectional area of the flow (m2)

P = wetted perimeter (m)

Example:

P = 4 + 4 +8 + 8 = 24 cm 4 cm

section

⇒ DH = 4 ⋅ 32 / 24 = 5.33 cm

8 cm

63

Laminar flow in tubes and channels

number is constant!

and on the shape of the cross section

Gz <10.

64

Nu number in fully developed laminar flow in tubes and

channels:

Geometry of cross Nu Nu

section (Constant wall temp) (Constant heat flux)

Triangular (equilat.) 2.47 1.89

Square 2.98 3.09

Circular 3.66 4.36

Two infinite plates 7.54 8.24

65

Entrance region in laminar flow

(average Nusselt number)

Nu = 1.86⋅Gz1/3 ⋅ (μ / μw)0.14

where μ = the dynamic viscosity of the fluid

at the mean bulk temperature

μw = the dynamic viscosity of the fluid

at the wall temperature

66

Fig. 9 (Fig. 6-5 in Holman)

67

Flow across a plate, laminar and turbulent flow

laminar flow (Rex < 5⋅105 , 0.6<Pr<60, isothermal surface):

1/2 1/3

Average Nu number for

distance 0 to L from edge.

wall and free stream temperatures).

68

Turbulent flow across plates

Nux = 0.0296 ⋅Rex0.8 ⋅Pr1/3 Local Nusselt number at x

closest to the edge and the turbulent part (5⋅105 < Re < 107)

NuL = (0.037⋅ReL0.8 - 871) ⋅ Pr1/3

69

Forced convection across single cylinders

Nu = C⋅ Ren ⋅ Pr1/3

0.4 - 4 0.989 0.330

4 - 40 0.911 0.385

40 - 4000 0.683 0.466

4000 - 40’000 0.193 0.618

40’000 - 400’000 0.0266 0.805

70

Forced convection across tube banks

Nu = C⋅ Ren ⋅ Pr1/3

the tube spacings (normal and perpendicular to flow) and the

tube diameter

maximum velocity occurring in the tube bank.

71

Example to solve:

plate at 0.5 m/s. For the air, ν =15.7 ⋅ 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.72.

72

Free convection

• In free convection the fluid flow is induced by density

differences caused by temperature differences.

gravitation to appear.

are quite different from those in forced convection.

73

• The critical Grashof number, where the transition occurs

from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the geometry.

74

Free convection boundary layer

on a vertical flat plate

75

General correlation for free convection

may be calculated by as

Nu = C⋅(Gr⋅ Pr)m

and on the size of (Gr⋅Pr).

76

Constant C and exponent m in general corr. for free conv.

Geometry Gr⋅ Pr C m

Vertical plates 104 - 109 0.59 1/4

and cylinders 109 - 1013 0.10 1/3

Horizontal cylinders 104 - 109 0.53 1/4

9 12

10 - 10 0.13 1/3

Upper surface of heated 2⋅104 - 8⋅106 0.54 1/4

plates, or

lower surface of cooled plate 8⋅106 - 1011 0.15 1/3

Lower surface of heated 105 - 1011 0.27 1/4

plates, or

upper surface of cooled plates

77

Free convection - Gr⋅Pr/(ΔT⋅L3) tabulated

• The group

Gr⋅Pr/(ΔT⋅L3) = g⋅β/ν2

the Collection of formulas and tables for different fluids.

78

Free convection - The exponent m

flow).

equation:

Nu = C⋅(Gr ⋅ Pr)1/3

h⋅L/k = C ⋅[(g⋅β⋅ΔT⋅L3/ν2) ⋅ Pr]1/3

⇒ h independent of L

79

Free convection - Vertical plates, vertical cylinders

D/L ≥ 35/Gr1/4

80

Free convection, simplified correlations for air

rewritten to give the heat transfer coefficient directly.

Two cases have to be discerned, laminar and turbulent:

h = Kl ⋅ (ΔT/H)¼ for 104 < Gr⋅Pr < 108

For turbulent flow

h = Kt ⋅ ΔT1/3 for 108 < Gr⋅Pr < 1012

81

Free convection, simplified correlations for air

Table 3: Constants Kl and Kt for air

Tfilm (Gr⋅Pr)/(ΔT⋅H3) Kl Kt

-50 34.8⋅107 1.57 1.88

0 14.5⋅107 1.49 1.66

50 6.75⋅107 1.41 1.48

100 3.47⋅107 1.35 1.33

7

200 1.18⋅10 1.27 1.14

300 5.1⋅106 1.21 1.01

400 2.54⋅106 1.15 0.91

600 0.85⋅106 1.06 0.76

82

Vertical

Isothermal

Plates,

Nu vs Gr*Pr

83

Free convection from horizontal cylinders

84

Free convection from horizontal surfaces

Two cases:

1. Top side of a heated plate and bottom side of a cooled

plate. (Gravitation will force fluid away from surface)

2. Bottom side of a heated surface and top side of a cooled

plate. (A stable layer of fluid will form, decreasing the heat

transfer).

where A is the area and P the perimeter of the surface.

85

Free convection in between vertical plates

−1/ 2

⎡ C1 C2 ⎤

Nuas = ⎢ 2 + 1/ 2 ⎥

⎣ ( Ra s ⋅ s / L) ( Ra s ⋅ s / L) ⎦

where s = distance between plates (m)

L = plate height (m)

Ras = (Gr ⋅ Pr), with s as characteristic length.

Nua,s = average Nusselt no, with s as the

characteristic length.

• ΔT in Gr is the temperature difference between the fin

surface and the undisturbed air.

86

Free convection in between vertical plates

Constants C1 and C2

Boundary condition C1 C2

Symmetric isothermal plates 576 2.87

Symmetric isoflux plates 48 2.51

Isothermal/adiabatic plates 144 2.87

Isoflux/adiabatic plates 24 2.51

87

Free convection in between vertical isothermal plates

7

5

Plate s = 15 mm

s = 10 mm

4

h (W/(m2 K))

s = 8 mm

s = 6 mm

2

s = 5 mm

1

s = 4 mm

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Dt/H

Dt/H

(air @ 60°C)

88

Free convection in between vertical plates, different

boundary conditions, (plate distance 8 mm, air @ 60°C)

7

5

(W/(m2 K))

3

h

2

h, Isothermal

h, Isoflux

1

h, Isothermal/adiabatic

h, Isoflux/adiabatic

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Dt/H

89

Flow in an enclosed space

90

Free convection in enclosed spaces (fig 15)

temperatures between which heat is transferred:

h = q/(A⋅(T1 - T2))

length

apparent, or effective thermal conductivity ke and the normal

conductivity k.

Nu = ke / k

91

We get:

q/A = h ⋅ (T1 - T2) = (Nu ⋅ k/δ )⋅ (T1 - T2) = ke /δ ⋅ (T1 - T2)

with Nu ⋅ k = ke

92

For vertical enclosures and constant heat flux

1 < Pr < 20000

10 < L/δ < 40

L = the height of the enclosure (m)

93

Vertical enclosures - Larger values of Gr⋅Pr

1 < Pr < 20

1 < L/δ < 40

ΔT = difference between the surfaces.

94

Vertical enclosures - Low Gr ⋅ Pr

transferred by conduction only (Nu = 1).

95

Vertical enclosures, comparison of eqs. 41 and 42.

100

Nu eq38

Nu eq. 41

Nu

Nu eq.

eq3942

Conduction

Nu

10

Nu=1

1

1.E+02 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 1.E+09 1.E+10

Gr Pr

96

Horizontal enclosures

Two cases:

1.If the top plate is the hotter, a stable situation will occur and

heat is transferred by pure conduction, and thus Nu = 1 (or

ke /k =1).

2.If the bottom plate is the hotter, pure conduction will occur

at Gr < 1700, while at higher values, convection cells will

occur, increasing heat transfer. See table 7-3 in Holman.

97

Combined free and forced convection

following inequality may be used.

Gr / Re2 > 10

98

Example to solve:

no is known to be 1⋅108 and Pr is 1.

99

Part 3

Radiation

100

Radiation

Thermal radiation.:

”That electromagnetic radiation emitted by a body as a result

of its temperature”.

electromagnetic spectrum.

101

Radiation

<>

102

103

Blackbody radiation

Three characteristics:

• It radiates more energy than any real surface at the same

temperature

• The emitted radiation is independent of direction

Also:

Blackbody radiation obey certain simple laws

104

Stefan-Boltzmann’s law

Stefan-Boltzmann´s law:

Eb = σ⋅T4

a blackbody (W/m2)

σ = 5.669 ⋅ 10 W/(m ⋅K ). (Stefan-Boltzmann

-8 2 4

constant)

T = absolute temperature (K)

105

Planck distribution law

determined from the Planck distribution law (fig. 19):

C1

E λ ,b ( λ , T ) = 5

λ ⋅ [exp( C2 / ( λ ⋅ T )) − 1]

C2 = (h⋅co / k) =1.439 ⋅ 104 μm K

λ = wavelength (μm)

T = absolute temperature (T)

h = Planck constant

106

k = Boltzmann constant

c0 = speed of light in vacuum

107

Result of increasing temperature on radiation

• Higher intensity

• Shorter wavelength Ù higher frequency

108

Wien’s displacement law

by Wien’s displacement law:

λmax ⋅ T = C3 = 2897.8 μm K

109

Radiation from real surfaces

Real surfaces:

• emit and absorb less than blackbodies

• reflect radiation

• emit and absorb differently depending on angle and

wavelength

• do not obey the simple laws

110

Blackbody and real surface emissions

111

Spectral emissivity and total emissivity

spectral emissivity, defined by

E = ε ⋅ Eb = ε ⋅ σ ⋅ T4

(ε = integrated average)

112

Gray diffuse body

be independent on wavelength and direction. Such a surface is

called a gray diffuse body, for which

113

Absorptivity, reflectivity, transmittivity

We define

Absorptivity α: Fraction of incident radiation absorbed

Reflectivity ρ: Fraction of incident radiation reflected

Transmittivity τ: Fraction of incident radiation transmitted

thus α+ρ+τ=1

α

114 τ

Kirchhoff’s identity

are equal at equal temperatures (wavelengths):

ε=α

115

Radiation exchange between blackbodies

• surface areas

• surface geometries

• position in relation to each other

This is done by the shape factor, F12

F12 = fraction of radiation leaving surface 1 intercepted

by surface 2.

2

1

116

Net exchange of radiation, law of reciprocity

Law of reciprocity

F12 ⋅ A1 ⋅ = F21 ⋅ A2

117

Shape factors

See diagrams and formulas in

Holman, Figs 8.12-8.16 and

CFT pp. 45-47

Small (convex) surface (1) surrounded by other surface (2):

ÖF12 = 1.

118

Radiation exchange between real surfaces, simple case

q1-2 = ε1 ⋅ A1 ⋅ (Eb1 -Eb2) = ε1 ⋅ A1 ⋅ σ ⋅ (T14 - T24)

q = hr ⋅ A1 ⋅ (T1 -T2)

Öhr, black = f(T1, T2), from table!

F12 = 1

A1

119

Table 8 (p.30 in CFT)

120

Total emissivities of selected materials

Aluminum, commercial sheet 100 0.09

Copper, polished 100 0.052

Iron, dark-gray surface 100 0.31

Glass, smooth 22 0.94

Snow-white enamel varnish 23 0.906

Black shiny lacquer 24 0.875

Roofing paper 21 0.91

Porcelain, glazed 22 0.92

Red brick 23 0.93

Al-paints 100 0.27-0.67

121

Radiation exchange calculated by resistance networks

potential

space resistances

Rrad = Rsurface1 + Rspace + Rsurface2

J1 J2

Eb1 Eb2

Rsurface1 Rspace Rsurface2

122

Radiation exchange by resistance networks, assumptions

Assume:

• All surfaces are gray,

• All surfaces are uniform in temperature.

• Reflective and emissive properties are constant over the

surfaces.

Define:

• Irradiation, G = total radiation / (unit time, unit area)

• Radiosity, J = total radiation leaving /(unit time, unit area)

(including reflected radiation)

Assume these properties are uniform over each surface.

123

Surface resistance:

J = ε ⋅ Eb + ρ ⋅ G

where ε = emissivity

ρ = reflectivity of surface

Assume surfaces opaque (τ=0)

=> ρ = 1 - α = 1 - ε

(as α = ε).

=> J = ε⋅ Eb + (1 - ε) ⋅ G

or G = (J - ε ⋅ Eb) / (1 - ε)

124

The net energy leaving the surface per unit area:

q / A = J - G = ε⋅ Eb + (1 - ε) ⋅ G - G =

=ε ⋅ Eb - ε ⋅ G = ε ⋅ (Eb -G)

ε⋅A ( Eb − J )

q= ⋅ ( Eb − J ) =

=> 1− ε (1 − ε ) / (ε ⋅ A)

125

Space resistance:

Radiation from 2 to 1 (per unit time): J2⋅A2⋅F21.

Net exchange of radiation:

q12 = J1⋅A1⋅F12 - J2⋅A2⋅F21 = (J1 -J2)⋅A1⋅F12 = (J1 -J2)⋅A2⋅F21

(as A1⋅F12 = A2⋅F21 ).

=> Rspace = 1/(A1⋅F12)

126

Heat exchange due to radiation, two bodies

E b1 − E b 2 E b1 − E b 2 σ ⋅ (T14 − T2 4 )

q= = =

Rrad Rsurface1 + Rspace + Rsurface 2 1 − ε1 1 1 − ε2

+ +

ε1 ⋅ A1 A1 ⋅ F12 ε 2 ⋅ A2

127

Special case, two parallel infinite plates

q σ ⋅ (T14 − T24 )

=

A 1 1

F12 = 1 and A1 = A2 + −1

ε1 ε2

q σ ⋅ (T14 − T24 )

=

A1 1 A1 1

F12 = 1 + ⋅ ( − 1)

ε1 A2 ε2

If A1 <<A2 q /A1 = ε1 ⋅ σ ⋅ (T14 - T24)

128

Three body problem

• For the nodes J1, J2 and J3, the sum of the energy flows into

each of the nodes must be zero.

Example, node J1

J1 Rspace12J2

E b1 − J1 J 2 − J1 J 3 − J1 Eb Eb

+ + =0

⎛ 1 − ε1 ⎞ A1 ⋅ F12 A1 ⋅ F13 Rsurface Rsurface

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ε1⋅ ⋅ A1 ⎠ Rspace13 Rspace23

• Solve J1 -J3 !

• Calculate the heat exchanges! J3

Rsurface

Eb

129

Radiation shields (q/A)13 (q/A)32

q σ ⋅ (T14 − T24 )

= 1 2 1 3 2

A 1 / ε1 + 1 / ε2 − 1 No shield With shield

= =

A 1 / ε1 + 1 / ε 3 − 1 1 / ε 3 + 1 / ε 2 − 1

130

Simplest case, all emissivities equal:

2 ⋅ σ ⋅ (T − T )

1 4 4

q

= 1 2

=> A 1 / ε3 + 1 / ε2 − 1

131

Multiple shields of equal emissivities

be reduced to

1

(q / A) with shields = ⋅ (q / A) without shields

n +1

132

Different emissivities

One shield of different emissivity ε2:

ε1 − 1

2

1

(q / A) with shields = ⋅ 1 1 (q / A) without shields

2 ε1 + ε2 − 1

ε2 << ε1 => largest decrease in heat flux

Assume ε1 = 1. =>

1 2 −1 1

(q / A) with shields = ⋅ (q / A) without shields = ⋅ ε2 ⋅ (q / A) without shields

2 1 + ε2 − 1

1

2

thus factor equal to one half times the emissivity of the shield.

133

Part 4

Conduction,

Boiling, Condensation

and Diffusion

134

Conduction

Introduction

Fourier’s law:

q = -k⋅A⋅δT/δx

q = k⋅A⋅ΔT/δ

135

Conduction in cylindrical shells

temperature gradient will no longer be constant through the

wall.

q = -k⋅A⋅δT/δx

Assume k constant

⇒ (A⋅δT/δx) = constant.

Thus, if the area A changes with x, as it will for a curved

surface, the temperature gradient must also change.

136

Conduction in cylindrical shells

we use an average area (or average diameter)

mean of the inside and outside surface.

π ⋅ L ⋅ dln = π ⋅ L ⋅ (d2 - d1 ) / ln(d2 / d1 )

137

Conduction in cylindrical shells

138

Conduction in fins

Flänsarnas area=Af

t t1 tf

ϑmf ϑrot

tf

t2

Fig 11.5 i termo

139

Conduction in fins

Because of the lower ΔT, lower heat flux from fin

heat transferred and the heat which would be transferred if

the whole fin had the base temperature.

(Assuming equal h on fin and base)

140

Conduction in fins

ηf ≡ tanh(m ⋅ L) / (m ⋅ L)

m = [(h ⋅ P)/(k ⋅ A)]1/2

where P = perimeter of the fin (m)

A = cross section area perpendicular

to heat flow (m2)

For many types of fins, the fin efficiency may be estimated

from the following diagram.

141

142

Overall heat transfer coefficient

For a finned surface, the area is calculated as

Atot = Abase + ηf ⋅ Afin

The U-value of a finned tube is calculated as:

1/(U⋅A) = 1/(h1⋅A1) + δ/(k⋅Aln) + 1/[h2⋅(Abase + ηf⋅Afin )]

where A1 = inside surface area (m2)

Abase = outside surface area in between fins (m2)

Aln = logarithmic mean area of tube (m2)

Afin = fin area (m2)

143

Electric analogy for solving 2-d conduction problems

• Electrolyte tray

• Thin conducting foil

• Resistance mesh

Inside of wall, T1

Line of symmetry

Line of symmetry Line of symmetry

potential

Electric analogy models…

Resistance mesh: discreet model

surrounding nodes

ÖMeasurements not

necessary!

Calculate! R = 50 Ohm

145

Excel model of wall with rail, horizontal cut

A B C D E F G H I J K L

1 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200

2 188.7026 188.6737 188.5876 188.447 188.2564 188.0241 187.7626 187.49 187.2305 187.013 186.8668 186.8151

3 177.463 177.4044 177.2299 176.9438 176.5547 176.0775 175.5362 174.9668 174.419 173.9545 173.6391 173.5268

4 166.3407 166.2511 165.9838 165.5437 164.941 164.1949 163.3379 162.4221 161.5243 160.747 160.2085 160.0137

5 155.3975 155.2755 154.9105 154.3061 153.4708 152.4232 151.1985 149.8595 148.5091 147.3007 146.434 146.1111

6 144.6982 144.5429 144.0767 143.2993 142.2131 =(D5+E6+C6+D7)/4

140.8286 139.1733 137.3082 135.3518 133.5128 132.1159 131.5626

7 134.3096 134.1213 133.5542 132.6013 131.2538 129.5046 127.3581 124.8484 122.077 119.283 116.9541 115.9075

8 124.2975 124.0787 123.4173 122.298 120.6961 118.578 115.906 112.6502 108.8248 104.5881 100.51 98.15913

9 114.723 114.4787 113.7382 112.4775 110.6545 108.2053 105.0376 101.0218 95.98379 89.73458 82.33865 75.70911

10 105.637 105.375 104.5793 103.2192 101.2393 98.55121 95.01738 90.41565 84.35401 76.02783 63.40091 40

11 97.07489 96.8051 95.98494 94.58083 92.53218 89.74285 86.06506 81.26942 74.98878 66.6218 55.23719 40

12 89.05243 88.78556 87.97451 86.58699 84.56579 81.82295 78.2306 73.60818 67.7099 60.23341 50.92604 40

13 81.56375 81.31023 80.54056 79.22686 77.32104 74.75256 71.42625 67.22281 62.00923 55.67591 48.23357 40

14 74.58213 74.35108

=(A13+B14+B14+A15)/4

73.65065 72.45886 70.73898 68.44003 65.49901 61.84761 57.42829 52.22745 46.33231 40

15 68.06261 67.86134 67.25212 66.21895 64.736 62.76959 60.28217 57.24033 53.62889 49.47328 44.86824 40

16 61.94566 61.77957 61.27757 60.42882 59.21651 57.62016 55.61977 53.20265 50.37367 47.16856 43.66736 40

17 56.1609 56.03372 55.64977 55.00226 54.08106 52.87477 51.3741 49.57686 47.49456 45.15991 42.63266 40

18 50.63054 50.54463 50.28553 49.84939 49.23071 48.42378 47.42502 46.23611 44.86782 43.34387 41.70337 40

19 45.27201 45.22874 45.09834 44.87908 44.5686 44.16462 43.66609 43.07473 42.39673 41.64439 40.83694 40

20 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

146

Tools/Alternatives/Calculate/Iteration

147

Transient heat transfer - Lumped capacitance method

Bi = h⋅L / k

where h = heat transfer coefficient

k = thermal conductivity of solid

L = characteristic length of solid body

= V/A =volume of body /exterior surface area

148

Transient heat transfer - Lumped capacitance method…

After a sudden change in ambient temperature:

where ΔT = temperature difference at time τ.

ΔT0= temperature difference at τ =0.

Fo = k⋅τ/(ρ⋅cp⋅L2) = Fourier number (dim. less time)

τ = time after step-change in ambient temperature

k = thermal conductivity of solid body

ρ = density of solid body

cp = specific heat of solid body

149

Transient heat transfer - Lumped capacitance method…

h ⋅ (V / A) k ⋅τ h⋅ A

Bi ⋅ Fo = ⋅ 2 = ⋅τ

k ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ (V / A) ρ ⋅ c p ⋅V

Denominator: Cth Heat capacity of the solid

=> Bi ⋅ Fo = τ /(R⋅C)th

150

Transient heat transfer - Lumped capacitance method…

τ

ΔT −

Rth ⋅Cth

⋅

=e

=> ΔT0

resistor!

151

Transient heat transfer - Heisler charts

Diagrams are found in:

• Collection of formulas and tables, pp. 42-43,

• book by Holman, fig. 4-7 - 4-13.

Note that the definition of the characteristic length used in Bi

and Fo in the charts are not the same as used above!

152

Two- or three dimensional problems: multiply the solutions

for the corresponding one-dimensional cases.

Examples:

The temperature in the center of a short cylinder:

⋅(ΔT/ΔT0)center, infinite wall

153

Boiling

154

Pool Boiling

155

Pool Boiling

C = 1.7 for horizontal copper cylinders

pr = p/pcritical = reduced pressure

Rp = Surface roughness (μm) (about 1 for many

technically smooth surfaces)

M = molecular weight of the fluid (kg/kmol)

q/A = heat flux (W/m2)

156

Flow boiling

157

Flow boiling

where Re = 4 ⋅ m’ /(π⋅d⋅μl)

where m’ = mass flow (kg/s)

d = tube diameter (m)

μl = dynamic viscosity of liquid (Ns/m2)

158

Kf = Δi/(L ⋅ g)

where Δi = specific enthalpy difference across

tube (J/kg)

L = tube length (m)

g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

159

Condensation

Film condensation (when the liquid wets the surface)

Drop condensation (opposite)

film condensation!

conduction of heat through the liquid.

160

Condensation

thickness as

h = k /δ

where k = thermal resistance of liquid (W/(m⋅°C))

δ = film thickness (m)

where μ = dynamic viscosity of liquid (Ns/m2)

161

x = distance from top of surface (m)

ΔT = temperature difference between surface

and vapour (°C)

g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)

hfg = heat of vaporisation (J/kg)

ρ = density of liquid (kg/m3)

ρv = density of vapour (kg/m3)

162

Condensation

hav =4/3⋅hL =

= 4/3⋅{g⋅hfg ⋅ρ⋅(ρ - ρv)⋅ k / [4⋅ μ ⋅L⋅ ΔT ]} =

3 1/4

Fluid properties at film temperature.

163

Condensation

exchange L for d,

and the constant 0.943 is changed to 0.725.

(For n horizontal tubes placed on top of each other, the

diameter d should be multiplied by n).

164

For condensation inside horizontal tubes,

It has been suggested that could be used in this case too, but

with the constant changed from 0.943 to 0.555.

refrigerants (not NH3) is about 2000 W/(m2⋅K).

165

Condensation

where Nu = h ⋅ L / k

G = g ⋅ L 3 /ν2

Cv = g⋅ρ⋅L /( k⋅ν ⋅ΔT)

3

Re = 4⋅m’/(P⋅μ)

where m’ = mass flow (kg/s)

P = wetted perimeter (= width for plane

wall, = π⋅d for vertical tube)

166

Diffusion m& d m& d

Luft

air

Våtsurface

Wet yta

på påv′′ på påv′′ på på

and

wet surfaces dry up:

convection to or from the surface.

167

Diffusion

qd = m´d ⋅ hfg

q d = hd ⋅ A ⋅ Δ T

2

where A = wet area (m )

ΔT = temp diff between wet surface and air

168

Diffusion

and the convection heat transfer coefficient hc may be

calculated by the equation

hd / hc ≈ C ⋅ Δp/ΔT

C = 1750 above a frozen surface

169

ΔT = T”vw -Tv , temperature difference between

wet (frozen) surface and air (°C)

Δp = p”vw - pv = difference in partial pressure of

water vapour between the surface and

the free air (in bar)

p”vw = saturation pressure of water at the

temperature of the surface

(from steam table).

pv = ϕ ⋅ p”v

ϕ = relative humidity (%)

p”v = saturation pressure of water at the

temperature of the free air (from steam table).

170

Diffusion

flow in opposite directions.

(fig 28)

convection heat transfer coefficient according to Lesson 2,

then calculate the ratio hd / hc.

Then we can calculate qd and qtot as htot = hc + hd = hc (1 +

hd/hc)

171

t, på - diagram för

fuktig luft

Diffusion

på på x

t

h

(α d / αkw )frost (α d / αkw )

t

ϕ

h

t

h

172 t

Part 5

Heat exchangers

173

Heat exchangers

In recuperative heat exchangers, the heat is transferred from

one fluid to the other through a dividing wall.

moving solid part, (a rotating wheel with a large number of

narrow channels).

evaporating the water.

174

Heat exchangers

Regenerativ

värmeväxlare

fyllnings-

material i

en rotor som

långsamt roterar

Evaporativ

värmeväxlare

(kyltorn)

Rekuperativ

kyltorns-

värmeväxlare

fyllning

späd-

vatten luft

kylt vatten

pump för varmt vatten

cirkulation av

vatten genom

kyltornsfyllningen

Fig 29 (Fig. 11.18 i termo)

175

Heat exchangers

Counterflow and parallel flow (fig 30).

Motströms 2 Medströms

1 1

2

t

t1 t1

Δ1

ϑ2 Δ1 ϑ2 = θ

t2 θ ϑ1

Δ2 ϑ1 t2 Δ2

Area Area

0 A 0 A

a) b)

Counterflow Parallel flow

176

Heat exchangers

c = heat capacity (J/(kg⋅°C))

index h and c refers to the hot and cold fluid

index 1 and 2 refers to the two ends.

The product (m⋅c) is called the heat capacity rate and is often

written as C.

177

Heat exchangers

q = U⋅A⋅ϑln

(For parallel flow and counter flow heat exchangers)

178

Heat exchangers

The temperatures of both fluids at the outlets are different

from one side to the other of the flow channel.

counterflow or crossflow, but rather a mixture of these types.

used, if corrected by factor F.:

q = U⋅A⋅F⋅ϑln

179

Heat exchangers

1. Δ1

θ Δ2

2.

180

Heat exchangers

the temperature of one fluid is constant

correction (F=1)

181

Heat exchangers

temperature of the fluid with the lowest heat capacity rate (C

=m⋅c) at the outlet of the heat exchanger reach the inlet

temperature of the other fluid.

182

Heat exchangers

= the fluid with largest temperature change).

ΔTmax = the difference between the

inlet temperatures.

183

Heat exchangers

variables: UA/Cmin and Cmin / Cmax

ε = f(Cmin/Cmax , UA/Cmin )

Equations for f are found in table 10-3 i Holman.

184

Heat exchangers

MOTSTRÖMSVÄRMEVÄXLARE

1,0 η2

7

10

=

η1 3

5

0 ,9

ε

0,8 2 0 ,8

kA

1 ,5 0 ,7

1

Δ1

& 1 = 1,0

W θ

0 ,6

0,6

Δ2 2

0,75

UA/Cmin 0 ,5

A

0,4 0,50 0,4

Δ1 Δ2

0, 3 η1 = ; η2 =

θ θ

0,25 0,2 & = m& ⋅ c

W

0,2 1 1 p1

W 2

0,05

0 (η2 = η1 ⋅ W

& /W

1

& )

2

&

W 1

&

W2

Cmin/Cmax fig. 11.25 i Termo

185

Lesson 6

Methods of enhancing heat

transfer

186

Enhanced heat transfer

”An enhanced heat transfer surface has a special surface

geometry that provides a higher h⋅A value per unit base

surface area than does a plain surface.”

187

When should enhanced heat transfer be applied?

transfer resistance lies.

temperature difference.

Example:

Heat exchanger with surface areas equal on both sides (1m2).

Total heat transfer resistance (wall is neglected):

188

Assume h1 = 50 W/(m2⋅⋅°C) (forced flow air)

and h2 = 1000 W/(m2⋅⋅°C) (forced flow water)

from 1000 to 2000 we would get

1/(UA)=1/(50⋅1)+1/(2000⋅1)=0.02 + 0.0005=0.0205°C/W

No improvement!

189

If we double the heat transfer coefficient on the air side, we

would get

resistance.

190

Other aspects of enhanced heat transfer:

The costs of enhanced surfaces are usually higher than for the

plain surfaces.

fouling, which may be important in some applications.

191

What is enhanced heat transfer good for?

1. To reduce the temperature difference between the fluids at

a given heat exchanger size and capacity.

and temperature difference.

temperature difference.

192

Enhanced heat transfer in gas flow on finned surfaces

Louvered fins

Offset strip fins

direction.

193

Single-phase flow inside tubes

(”dimples”, grooves or minute fins).

194

Enhancement of boiling heat transfer

Pool boiling

Enhanced surfaces act by facilitating the nucleation of vapour

bubbles.

Nucleation is facilitated by porous surface structure.

195

Flow boiling

heat transfer.

196

Star shaped aluminium insert: divides the tube into several

channels. Area is increased,

Hydraulic diameter is decreased,

197

Enhanced heat transfer in condensation

resistance in the liquid film.

of this film.

liquid at certain locations while keeping other areas free of

liquid.

drags liquid from tips to ”valleys” in between fins.

198

Enhanced heat transfer in condensation inside tubes

coefficients by a factor of 2 to 3.

199

Home assignments:

Exercise 1: e Exercise 13 : a, b

Exercise 2: e Exercise 14 : b, d

Exercise 3: c Exercise 15 : a, c

Exercise 4 : d

Exercise 5 : c

Exercise 6 : c

Exercise 7 : a, b

Exercise 8 : c, d

Exercise 9 : a, b

Exercise 10 : d

Exercise 11 : c, d

Exercise 12 : a, b

200

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