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The Problem and Its Background

1.1 Introduction

Basic needs refer to those fundamental requirements that serve as the

foundation for survival. Access to the basic needs of life, including shelter, food, and

clothing is necessary to the development of a strong community and a necessary

precursor to individual self-sufficiency.

What does human being need to physically survive? This list presents basic

physical items that people need to survive; people may need other items to grow, adapt

and thrive. Each of these items represents fundamentals that have kept humans alive

from the dawn of time to today. While each of these has changed and been adapted

over the million years humans thrived, the principle remains the same.

Oxygen is our most basic human need. People can begin to experience brain

damage after as few as five minutes without oxygen. There are several things that might

prevent you from getting the oxygen you need. Environmental risks such as high

amounts of smoke, high altitudes or carbon monoxide.

Other than the air we breathe, water is the most essential component for human

survival. It is estimated that a person cannot survive for more than 3-4 days without

water. If you have a good water supply the next essential need is that of sustenance. A

body does not have food can survive a long time by subsisting on the fat reserves In the

body and eventually the glycogen reserves in the liver and proteins in the muscle.

A shelter that helps to keep your body at constant temperature is also a

necessity. This could also include appropriate clothing. When a person is exposed to

elements, water loss is increased. Cold temperature and high winds can strip away

valuable moisture as quickly as high temperature can cause sweat related loss.

A shelter should consist of a place to make fire to create heat as well as

protection from wind and rain. It is needed for warmth privacy, resting and sleeping,

implementation of hygiene, preparing and eating food, storing basic personal items,

excretion etc. Without shelter and food were ineffective and we cant develop further


For a long time, sleep was not considered a basic human need. Studies on

sleep deprivation helped to change this on 20th century. In terms of human need, sleep

is one of the most important elements. Sleep deprivation can cause a myriad of

problems ranging from deceased body temperature to cognitive impairment and


There are other things you could add to this like sex, emotional connections,

sense of belonging, safety needs, love and belonging, and esteem. Many modern lists

emphasize the minimum level of consumption of basic needs of not just food, water,

clothing and shelter but also sanitation, education, healthcare and work.

Stated above are the basic needs that human seek and should experience to

survive. It means that a sustainable place where people can breathe fresh air, eat, live,

work and shop through modernity is needed. Thus, creating a sustainable mixed-use

development that blends residential and commercial uses connecting the environment,

where those functions are physically and functionally integrated will be the focus of the

research study.

1.2 Background of the Study

According to the Philippine Constitution, individuals and private groups, including

corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to

own, establish, and operate economic enterprises to promote distributive justice and to

intervene when the common good so demands. The State shall promote the preferential

use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and locally produced goods, and adopt

measures that help make them competitive.

There was a rapid increase in population and urbanization patterns in most

town and cities during the 20th century. The population and urbanization growth rate

was more than the rate of infrastructural development. This led to severe urban issues

such as vehicular and human congestion, urban sprawl, slums, pollution and pressure

on the available infrastructure and services. Considerable amount of time could be

spent in commuting to and from work. There were environmental and sanitation issues

because towns and cities developed without the necessary infrastructural and services


Large amount of fuel was needed by commuters for their vehicles hence,

considerable portions of their incomes was spent on transportation. The health of

individuals was also affected since due to the stress involved in commuting to and

from work. Carbon emissions from vehicles also polluted the environment. In order to

alleviate these urban issues and it their associated problems, people started

looking for employment close to where they live.

Also, large residential neighborhoods served as a source of market for

commercial activities. Hence, residential activity gravitated towards commercial activity

and vice versa. Also, the advent of information and telecommunication technology

made it possible for people to live and work from the same location. The mixed-

use building type is not only aggressively reappearing in our cities throughout the

world as high-density, urban in-fill mixed-use developments but is also beginning to

emerge as a critical component of large commercial developments.

Right now, 1 of 2 Filipinos live in cities. This is marked by exponential growth in

only few decades. By 2030, the number will have increased to 3 out of 4 or

approximately 80 million Filipinos. But The Unemployment rate in Central Luzon is 2.4

percent higher than the national rate of 6.5 percent, despite a double digit growth in the

manufacturing sector in the region. Records of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)

indicated that regions manufacturing sector posted a significant growth from negative 1.3

percent to 19.1, but noted the unemployment rate was 8.8%. Unemployment rate in the

country is reported by the National Statistics Office (NSO) of the Philippines.

In Metro Manila alone, there are 3.1 informal settlers; 23% stay in government

land, 22% in private properties, 15% in danger zones (which include the streets, bridges,

riversides, and along train tracks) and 40% on infrastructure sites ( There

still exists a huge problem on housing in the Philippines.

Given our countrys fast economic growth, sustainability of needs becomes a

concern. With Metro Manila growing at unplanned pace of 5 million people in 1975 to 24

million at present, the socio economic changes and the population growth concentrated

in cities in the Philippines have resulted in increasing interest in urban life that combines

living, shopping and work in one centralized location. This type of area, called a mixed-

use development meets the needs of changing Filipino lifestyles.

Located in Central Luzon, Clark Green City (CGC) is at a confluence of industry

and agriculture with existing infrastructure and connectivity to Manila and rest of the

Philippines. With favorable location in the region and appropriate distance from Metro

Manila, CGC is poised to become the next big Metropolis. This will be a twin

Metropolitan area 100 kilometers away from Metro Manila. The location of the city is also

a response to the susceptibility of urban communities to climate change and natural

disasters. CGC is protected by mountain ranges that shield the area from most


These are the Sierra Madre mountain range and the Zambales mountain range.

The regions elevation also makes it resilient against flooding, rising sea level, and storm

surges. Since its lowest elevation is 56 meters above sea level. No fault lines exist

beneath the CGC, the area is well outside the permanent danger zone of Mt. Pinatubo.

This city also embodies governments vision for a more resilient Philippines. This

economic zone will cover 9450 hectares and its development will cost around P607

billion, most of which will be covered by partners from the private sector. By the time of

its completion, it is envisioned to be a city in every sense of the world. It will be home to

companies, retail outlets, schools, government offices, residential communities, parks

and even urban farms, eventually accommodating an estimated 1.12 million residents

and 800, 000 workers. Former President Benigno Simeon S. Aquino III.

1.3 Significance of the Study

The key objective of this study is to come up with the design solutions for the

construction of a mixed-use sustainable building. This study is of vital importance and

provides general significance to the following:

To the public as the main benefactor of the study, this will give them surety that

providing shelter and work for the Filipinos are one of the precedence of public and

private sectors and future developers.

To the people of Central Luzon, this study will give them perception towards the

standard development of the changing Filipino lifestyle to infrastructure.

To the Clark Green City community, this study will give them a chance to

experience quality and efficient services with modern technologies.

To the administrative officials of CGC, this will help them to gain information and

will serve as basis for the continuing improvements of Clark and a guide for future


To the Government and BCDA the state-owned in charge of building CGC, this

study will serve them as a background for other ongoing and future mixed-use

developments in the country.

To the students and faculty of CEAFA, this will provide them basis or reference

for further studies, architectural designs and engineering concepts regarding sustainable

and smart mixed-use developments and similar structures.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

1.4.1 Project Objectives

The project aims to develop and boost economic growth and

generates job in region by proposing a business hub located inside Clark

Special Economic Zone. It plans to establish facilities to cope up with

emerging technologies.

It envisions that OPTIMA will contribute to lessen the needs of

Employment and shelter in the region with quality services.

1.4.2 Design Objectives

The study aims to provide a refined approach in designing a

sustainable structure resulting to an efficient mixed-use development.

Specific Objectives To provide establishments that will serve the necessities of

its residents. To contribute to the growing economy of Clark Green City. To produce more job opportunities. To promote tourism, arts and culture of the region. To provide efficient spaces for the future occupants of the


1.5 Statement of the Problem

This study aims to plan and design a sustainable building connecting the global

environment and incorporating CGC. Specifically, this proposed mixed-use sustainable

building sought answers to the following questions:

1.5.1 Major Problem

1. What is the best approach to cater the primary needs of the

migrants moving to CGC while maximizing the use of spaces

through minimum horizontal development?

1.5.2 Minor Problems

1. What design concept will be applied in this project?

2. What is the best possible way to design a protect that integrates

the core spaces- residential, commercial and recreational into

one seamless development without impeding circulation flow and

productivity from one another?

3. What are the amenities needed to ensure the populace a more

comfortable and better living?

1.6 Theoretical Framework

It is not man and nature. Because man is nature.

- Ar. Royal Pineda

Everything should be made as simple as possible but not simpler

- Albert Einstein

Man is nature. The design of your masterpiece must clearly define and analyzes

an effective way to incorporate nature with man. With respect to modernity and the

sense of place, architectural design and solution shall have a seamless blend with the

environment that is sustainable enough and execute as simple as possible but not


This study is committed to come up with a design solution in line with this

working proposition. It guarantees that the research will take its part on the vision that

Clark Green City will showcase the countrys capability to build a sustainable and

modern city.

1.8 Conceptual Framework

Problems Encountered
by the User:

Major Concern:
Sustainable Architecture
1. Architectural
approach Creating and responsibly sustaining a healthy built
Minor Concern: environment, responding to the ecological needs and
making optimal use of energy without over-exploitation of
1. Design Concept natural resources
2. Integration of
core spaces
3. Amenities Design Concept: Proposed Residential-
Malatarlak- Talahib Mixed-use development in
grass CGC

Input Process Output

Figure 1 Design Paradigm

The paradigm in figure 1 shows dependent and independent variables in

conceptualizing the design of the proposed mixed-use building. The dependent variables

are the Design Concept as process and OPTIMA the Proposed Residential-

Commercial- Recreational Mixed Use Development in CGC. The independent variables

are Sustainable architecture and the Major and Minor Concerns for the project on which

the design and plans of the proposed mixed-use development will be based.

1.9 Scope and Delimitation

This study will focus on the appropriate architectural planning and design

of a mixed-use development. Related and useful data and information are included in

this study.

- Site Plan / Master Plan

- Architectural and Planning Design of the structures within the proposal

- Landscaping

- Economic Feasibility

The scope and limitations of this study is only up to above mentioned. This will

not cover design and detailed drawing presentation regarding the engineering field of

study such as structural, electrical, mechanical and sanitary or other utilities except for

vital facts that would support the concept of planning and design.

1.9 Definition of Terms

The following terms are conceptually or operationally defined to enhance the

understanding of the readers of this study.

Metropolis. As used in the study, a city regarded as the center of a specified activity, a

large important city. (Merriam-Webster, 2015)

Metropolitan. The primate of an ecclesiastical province. (Merriam-Webster, 2015)

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Mixed-use. Used or suitable for several different functions. (Merriam-Webster, 2015)

Sustainable. Involving methods that do not completely used up or destroy natural

resources, able to last or continue for a long time (Merriam-Webster, 2015)

Sustenance. Something that keeps something alive, something that gives support, help

or strength. (Merriam-Webster, 2015)

1.10 Acronyms

BCDA- Bases Conversion and Development Authority

CGC- Clark Green City

CEAFA College of Engineering, Architecture and Fine Arts

NSO National Statistics Office

PSA- Philippine Statistics Authority

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