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A study of light

Light Truck Frame truck frame joint

Joint Stiffness Study stiffness.

Phase 2 Final Report


Auto/Steel Partnership Members
DaimlerChrysler Corporation
Dofasco Inc.
Ford Motor Company
General Motors Corporation
Ispat Inland Inc.
Nucor Corporation
Severstal North America Inc.
United States Steel Corporation

This report is for general information only. The material contained herein
should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to
its suitability for any given application. This report is not intended as a
representation or warranty on the part of Auto/Steel Partnership or any
other person named herein that the information is suitable for any
general or particular use, or free from infringement of any patent or
patents. Anyone making use of the information assumes all liability arising
from such use.

This report is intended for use by Auto/Steel Partnership members only.


For more information, please contact the Auto/Steel Partnership, 2000
Town Center, Suite 320, Southfield, MI 48075-1123 or phone:
248.945.4777, fax: 248.356.8511, website: www.a-sp.org.
Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

October 1, 2003

Altair Report No.: A/SP-005-2

Prepared For:

Auto/Steel Partnership

Prepared By:

Arun Kumar, Senior Project Engineer


Jeff Hopkins, Project Engineer
Michael White, Engineering Manager
PREFACE
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Light Truck Frame Project Group entrusted Altair Engineering Inc. to conduct the Light Truck Frame
Joint Stiffness Study. This report is a continuation of the Phase 1 Study [1, 2]. It comprises the results of
Phase 2 the study of ten additional joints typically used in light truck frames. The Phase 2 results are
presented in two documents. This document describes the study and its results. The second document,
an Excel Spreadsheet, is an interactive tool that frame designers may use to determine the stiffness for
variations of the five joints in Phase 1 and the ten joints in Phase 2. This tool will help designers reduce
the weight of light truck frames.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study i


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background
Designing a light truck frame joint with the correct stiffness is always a challenging proposition for frame
designers. A survey of current production frames found that most frames used joint styles from a group of
approximately fifteen joints. Frame designers see some merit in using these same joint styles, but the
information regarding these joint styles is either not well documented or is not available to others in a
useful format. The ASP Lightweight SUV Frames Project Team felt that a study to determine the relative
stiffness of the joints, along with a tool to communicate the results of the study to frame designers, would
allow for better decision-making in the concept phase and would facilitate lighter weight frame designs.

This study is divided into two phases, Phase 1 and Phase 2. The Phase 1 study, which has already been
completed, is comprised of five joints. A project report for the Phase 1 study has been published [1] and
is available on the ASP website [5]. An Excel Spreadsheet Toolbox [2] was also developed in Phase 1
and it too is available on the A/SP website. The Phase 2 study is a continuation of the Phase 1 study,
and it is comprised of ten additional joints. This report presents information developed in the Phase 2
study.

Project Goals
The goal of the Phase 2 study was to provide frame designers with the same objective data and tools
used in Phase 1 to facilitate early concept choices for ten additional frame joints.

In order to achieve the goals, the scope of the project involves the following steps:

Perform physical testing on multiple (three) samples of two riveted joints.


Correlate the physical testing and finite element analysis for the two riveted joints.
Evaluate the sensitivity of the joint stiffness to the various joint design parameters for the two riveted
and eight welded joints.
Create the Joint Stiffness Toolbox that incorporates Design Rules and sensitivity analysis for the five
joints of Phase 1 and the ten additional joints of Phase 2.

Project Results
The testing and finite element analysis processes followed to evaluate the stiffness of the ten joints was
similar to the Phase 1 study. An interactive Joint Stiffness Toolbox was developed to document the study
results, and to provide a mechanism for frame designers to use the data in the design process. The
Toolbox is based on an interactive worksheet. The spreadsheet allows the designer or engineer to
modify the geometric and gage properties of the joint members and calculates the joint stiffness and
relative mass based on the new properties.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study ii


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ....................................................................................................................................... i
Executive Summary................................................................................................................. ii
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... iii
List of Tables........................................................................................................................... iv
List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... v
Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................... x
Phase 2 Joints Summary ........................................................................................................ 1
Riveted Joint Testing............................................................................................................... 5
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 5
Test Specimen (Joint) Description ................................................................................. 5
Test Specimen (Joint) Preparation............................................................................... 11
Test Joint Fixturing ....................................................................................................... 12
Test Joint Deflection Measurement.............................................................................. 15
Test Joint Force Application......................................................................................... 15
Joint 6 Testing.............................................................................................................. 16
Joint 7 Testing.............................................................................................................. 19
Repeatability of Riveted Joints..................................................................................... 21
Rivet Diagnostic Testing .............................................................................................. 21
Riveted Joint Correlation ...................................................................................................... 31
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 31
Initial FEA Models ........................................................................................................ 31
Model Changes to Improve Correlation ....................................................................... 33
Final FEA Models......................................................................................................... 34
Final Correlation between FEA and Test Data............................................................. 36
Joint Stiffness Summary....................................................................................................... 38
Sensitivity Study .................................................................................................................... 41
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 41
Study Models ............................................................................................................... 41
Joint Parameters .......................................................................................................... 41
Toolbox ................................................................................................................................... 75
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 75
Bi-linear Stiffness for Riveted Joints 6 and 7 ............................................................... 75
References.............................................................................................................................. 97
Appendix A: Test Data Plots ................................................................................................. 98
Appendix B: Design Variables ............................................................................................ 104
Appendix C: Screening DOE Study.................................................................................... 114
Appendix D: Phase 1 Joint 2A DOE ................................................................................... 120
Appendix E: Material Test Results ..................................................................................... 129
Appendix F: Phase 2 Joints Description ........................................................................... 134

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study iii


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Test Joint Stiffnesses for Joints 6 and 7 .................................................................................................................................30


Table 2: Joint 6 Stiffness Comparison between Initial FEA and Test Data ..........................................................................................33
Table 3: Joint 7 Stiffness Comparison between Initial FEA and Test Data ..........................................................................................33
Table 4: Rivet and Rivet Hole Dimensions for Joints 6 and 7...............................................................................................................34
Table 5: Joint 6 Stiffness Comparison between Final FEA and Test Data ...........................................................................................36
Table 6: Joint 7 Stiffness Comparison between Final FEA and Test Data ...........................................................................................37
Table 7: Stiffness Summary for all Joints..............................................................................................................................................38
Table 8: Design Variables Eliminated / Added from Screening DOE .................................................................................................119

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study iv


LIST OF FIGURES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Figure 1: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section ..................................................................................................................................1


Figure 2: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections.................................................................................................1
Figure 3: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section ............................................................................................2
Figure 4: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section .........................................................................................................2
Figure 5: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section through Rectangular Tube Section.................................................................................2
Figure 6: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section ...........................................................................3
Figure 7: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section .......................................................................................................3
Figure 8: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section .......................................................................................3
Figure 9: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section........................................................................4
Figure 10: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section ....................................................................................................4
Figure 11: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (finite element representation) ...............................................................................5
Figure 12: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (finite element representation)..............................................5
Figure 13: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Physical Representation (isometric view) ..............................................................6
Figure 14: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Physical Representation (rear view) ......................................................................7
Figure 15: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Rivet Attachments ..................................................................................................8
Figure 16: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Physical Representation (front view) ....................................9
Figure 17: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Physical Representation (rear view)...................................10
Figure 18: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Rivet Attachments ..............................................................11
Figure 19: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Specimen Preparation .........................................................................................12
Figure 20: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Fore-Aft Loading Setup ......................................................13
Figure 21: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Torsional Loading Setup.....................................................14
Figure 22: Measurement Fixture used for Joint Testing .......................................................................................................................15
Figure 23: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Data ...................................................................................................................................16
Figure 24: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison .........................................................................................17
Figure 25: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison ..........................................................................................18
Figure 26: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Test Data ....................................................................................................................................19
Figure 27: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison ..........................................................................................20
Figure 28: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison ..........................................................................................21
Figure 29: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Data Repeatability .............................................................................................................22
Figure 30: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Set up to study Rivets........................................................................................................23
Figure 31: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet X-direction Displacement....................................................................................................................24
Figure 32: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet Y-direction Displacement....................................................................................................................25
Figure 33: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet Z-direction Displacement ....................................................................................................................26
Figure 34: Variations in Rivet Expansion inside Rivet Holes ................................................................................................................27
Figure 35: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet X-direction Displacement....................................................................................................................27
Figure 36: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet Y-direction Displacement....................................................................................................................28
Figure 37: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet Z-direction Displacement....................................................................................................................29

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study v


LIST OF FIGURES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Figure 38: Joint 6 Initial Finite Element Model ......................................................................................................................................31
Figure 39: Joint 7 Initial Finite Element Model ......................................................................................................................................32
Figure 40: Example Rivet Representation in the Initial FEA model ......................................................................................................32
Figure 41: Example Rivet Representation in the Final FEA model.......................................................................................................34
Figure 42: Rivet 3D-Solid Elements used in the Final FEA model........................................................................................................35
Figure 43: Rivet 3D Graphical Illustration .............................................................................................................................................36
Figure 44: Example of Original Joint 6 Geometry (left) vs. Modified Joint 6 Geometry for Study (right) ..............................................41
z .........................................................................42
Figure 45: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
x .........................................................................43
Figure 46: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
y .........................................................................44
Figure 47: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
Figure 48: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K z (Design Variables from 1
through 7)....................................................................................................................................................................................45
Figure 49: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K x (Design Variables from 1
through 7)....................................................................................................................................................................................46
Figure 50: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K y (Design Variables from 1
through 7)....................................................................................................................................................................................47
Figure 51: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K z (Design Variables from 8
through 15)..................................................................................................................................................................................48
Figure 52: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K x (Design Variables from 8
through 15)..................................................................................................................................................................................49
Figure 53: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness K y (Design Variables from 8
through 15)..................................................................................................................................................................................50
z ...................................51
Figure 54: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x ...................................52
Figure 55: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y ...................................53
Figure 56: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
z ................................................54
Figure 57: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness K
x ................................................55
Figure 58: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness K
y ................................................56
Figure 59: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness K
z .......................57
Figure 60: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x .......................58
Figure 61: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y .......................59
Figure 62: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
z...................60
Figure 63: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x...................61
Figure 64: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y...................62
Figure 65: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
z ...............................................63
Figure 66: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x ...............................................64
Figure 67: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y...............................................65
Figure 68: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
z ..............................66
Figure 69: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x ..............................67
Figure 70: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y ..............................68
Figure 71: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study vi


LIST OF FIGURES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
z ...............69
Figure 72: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
x ...............70
Figure 73: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
y ...............71
Figure 74: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness K
z .............................................72
Figure 75: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
x .............................................73
Figure 76: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
y .............................................74
Figure 77: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness K
Figure 78: Bi-Linear Joint Stiffness for Rivet Joints 6 and 7 .................................................................................................................76
Figure 79: Joint 6 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ........................................................................77
Figure 80: Joint 6 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules ...........................................................78
Figure 81: Joint 7 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ........................................................................79
Figure 82: Joint 7 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules ...........................................................80
Figure 83: Joint 8 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ........................................................................81
Figure 84: Joint 8 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules ...........................................................82
Figure 85: Joint 9 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ........................................................................83
Figure 86: Joint 9 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules ...........................................................84
Figure 87: Joint 10 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................85
Figure 88: Joint 10 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................86
Figure 89: Joint 11 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................87
Figure 90: Joint 11 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................88
Figure 91: Joint 12 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................89
Figure 92: Joint 12 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................90
Figure 93: Joint 13 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................91
Figure 94: Joint 13 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................92
Figure 95: Joint 14 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................93
Figure 96: Joint 14 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................94
Figure 97: Joint 15 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results ......................................................................95
Figure 98: Joint 15 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules .........................................................96
Figure 99: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-1..........................................................................................................................98
Figure 100: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-2........................................................................................................................98
Figure 101: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-1.........................................................................................................................99
Figure 102: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2.........................................................................................................................99
Figure 103: Joint 6 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-1....................................................................................................................100
Figure 104: Joint 6 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-2....................................................................................................................100
Figure 105: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-1......................................................................................................................101
Figure 106: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-2......................................................................................................................101
Figure 107: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-1.......................................................................................................................102
Figure 108: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2.......................................................................................................................102
Figure 109: Joint 7 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-1....................................................................................................................103
Figure 110: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2.......................................................................................................................103

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study vii


LIST OF FIGURES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Figure 111: Joint 6 Final DOE Design Variables ................................................................................................................................104
Figure 112: Joint 7 Final DOE Design Variables ................................................................................................................................105
Figure 113: Joint 8 Final DOE Design Variables ................................................................................................................................106
Figure 114: Joint 9 Final DOE Design Variables ................................................................................................................................107
Figure 115: Joint 10 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................108
Figure 116: Joint 11 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................109
Figure 117: Joint 12 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................110
Figure 118: Joint 13 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................111
Figure 119: Joint 14 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................112
Figure 120: Joint 15 Final DOE Design Variables ..............................................................................................................................113
Figure 121: Joint 6 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ..........................................................................................................................114
Figure 122: Joint 7 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ..........................................................................................................................114
Figure 123: Joint 8 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ..........................................................................................................................115
Figure 124: Joint 9 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ..........................................................................................................................115
Figure 125: Joint 10 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................116
Figure 126: Joint 11 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................116
Figure 127: Joint 12 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................117
Figure 128: Joint 13 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................117
Figure 129: Joint 14 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................118
Figure 130: Joint 15 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots ........................................................................................................................118
Figure 131: Phase 1 Joint 2 Boxed to Lipped Channel.......................................................................................................................120
Figure 132: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel .............................................................................................................121
Figure 133: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 1)................................................................................................122
Figure 134: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 2)................................................................................................122
Figure 135: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 3)................................................................................................123
Figure 136: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Kz .........................................................124
Figure 137: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Kx .........................................................125
Figure 138: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Ky .........................................................126
Figure 139: Phase 1 Joint 2A Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results....................................................127
Figure 140: Phase 1 Joint 2A Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules.......................................128
Figure 141: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 6 Crossmember......................................................................................................129
Figure 142: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 6 Siderail ................................................................................................................130
Figure 143: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Crossmember......................................................................................................131
Figure 144: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Inner Siderail .......................................................................................................132
Figure 145: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Outer Siderail ......................................................................................................133
Figure 146: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (view 1).............................................................................................................134
Figure 147: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (view 2).............................................................................................................135
Figure 148: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 1) ...........................................................................136
Figure 149: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 2) ...........................................................................137

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study viii


LIST OF FIGURES
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Figure 150: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 3) ...........................................................................138
Figure 151: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1) ......................................................................139
Figure 152: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2) ......................................................................140
Figure 153: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section (view 1) ...................................................................................141
Figure 154: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section (view 2) ...................................................................................142
Figure 155: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section (view 1) ..........................................................143
Figure 156: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section (view 2) ..........................................................144
Figure 157: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)......................................................145
Figure 158: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)......................................................146
Figure 159: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 3)......................................................147
Figure 160: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)..................................................................................148
Figure 161: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)..................................................................................149
Figure 162: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1) .................................................................150
Figure 163: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2) .................................................................151
Figure 164: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1) ..................................................152
Figure 165: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2) ..................................................153
Figure 166: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section (view 1).................................................................................154
Figure 167: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section (view 2).................................................................................155

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study ix


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Altair would like to acknowledge the following members of the A/SP Lightweight SUV Frames Project
Team for their valuable assistance in establishing Phase 2 of study, and guiding it to a successful
conclusion.

Gary Banasiak General Motors Corporation


Ravir Bhatnagar Ispat Inland Inc.
John Caito The Budd Company
Jim Cran Cran Associates Inc.
Ted Diewald Auto/Steel Partnership
Mike Gulas Dofasco Inc.
Tom Hedderly Ford Motor Company
Ed Law DaimlerChrysler Corporation
Marek Marchwica Stelco Inc.
Jim OConnor Vehma International of America
David Ruhno United States Steel Corporation
Michael Shih United States Steel Corporation

Altair would like to make special mention of the following who provided the test joints and CAD data used
in Phase 2:

Gary Banasiak General Motors Corporation

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study x


PHASE 2 JOINTS SUMMARY
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Two riveted joints (Figure 1and Figure 2) and eight welded joints (Figure 3 through Figure 10)
were considered in the Phase 2 Study. The following figures are pictorial illustrations of those
joints. Descriptions of the Joints are given in Appendix F.

Figure 1: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section

Figure 2: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 1


PHASE 2 JOINTS SUMMARY
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Figure 3: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section

Figure 4: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section

Figure 5: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section through Rectangular Tube Section

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 2


PHASE 2 JOINTS SUMMARY
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Figure 6: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section

Figure 7: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section

Figure 8: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 3


PHASE 2 JOINTS SUMMARY
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Figure 9: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section

Figure 10: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 4


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction
Two riveted joints (displayed in Figure 11 and Figure 12) were chosen for testing in Phase 2. The Team
was confident that welded joints would correlate well based on its experience in Phase 1, but wanted
correlation for the two riveted joints. Three samples of each of the two riveted joints were tested to
determine the load versus deflection curve using the procedure developed in Phase 1 and documented in
SAE Paper 2003-01-0241 [3]. The test results are summarized in stiffness Table 1 (see page number
30).

Figure 11: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (finite element representation)

Figure 12: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (finite element representation)

Test Specimen (Joint) Description


The physical representation of the two riveted joints considered for testing are displayed in Figure 13,
Figure 14, Figure 16 and Figure 17. Rivet attachments for the two riveted joints are displayed in Figure
15 and Figure 18.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 5


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Side Rail
Brackets

Crossmember

End Plates (part


of test set up)

Figure 13: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Physical Representation (isometric view)

Figure 13 displays the sub-components of the riveted Joint 6. The main sub-components are the side rail
and crossmember. These two sub-components are joined together using four rivets. The End Plates
displayed are part of the test set-up and are used to hold the joint in place when applying the loads.
Figure 15 displays a close-up view of the rivet attachments between the side rail and crossmember.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 6


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Brackets

Side Rail

End Plates (part


of test set up)

Figure 14: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Physical Representation (rear view)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 7


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Side Rail

Rivets
(attachment
between
crossmember and
side rail)

Crossmember

Figure 15: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Rivet Attachments

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 8


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Welding between
Inner and Outer
Side Rails

Inner Side Rail

Outer Side Rail

Welding between Upper


upper and lower Crossmember
crossmember
Lower
Crossmember

Figure 16: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Physical Representation (front
view)

Figure 16 displays the sub-components of the riveted Joint 7. The main sub-components are the
following: inner side rail, outer side rail, upper crossmember and outer crossmember. The inner and outer
side rails are welded together, as displayed in the figure. This figure also displays the upper welds, but
similar welds are in the bottom too (not seen in the picture). The upper and lower crossmembers are
welded together, as displayed in the figure. The side rails and crossmembers are attached together with
six rivets. Figure 18 displays the rivet attachment scheme employed in attaching the side rails and the
crossmembers. The End Plates displayed are part of the test set-up and are used to hold the joint in
place when applying the loads.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 9


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

End Plates
(part of the test
set up)

Outer Side Rail

Inner Side Rail

Figure 17: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Physical Representation (rear
view)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 10


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Inner Side Rail


Outer Side Rail

Rivets (between
side rails and
crossmember

Upper
Crossmember

Lower
Crossmember

Figure 18: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Rivet Attachments

Test Specimen (Joint) Preparation


The test joints and the surrounding frame material were removed with a plasma cutter from the frames
containing the test joints. Figure 19 displays an area in the frame from which Joint 6 was cut out off.
Rough cuts (shown by dotted white line in the figure) were made at a distance far enough from the joint
area to avoid changing the material properties of the steel from the high heat. Final cuts at the required
distance were performed on a band saw.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 11


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Crossmember

Rough-cut mark

Side Rail

Figure 19: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Specimen Preparation

Test Joint Fixturing


Both the joints were equipped with thick steel plates (3/4-inch thickness) on each end of the side rail and
on the end of the crossmember. These plates were welded to the member ends. During test setup, each
joint was oriented with the side rail positioned parallel to the ground and the crossmember perpendicular.
Longitudinal end plates were bolted to angle brackets that were in turn bolted to a bedplate. This proved
to be a sufficiently stiff fixturing method verified by a dial indicator during testing. A steel tube sandwiched
between two steel plates was bolted to the crossmember end plate. This allowed force application at a
distance away from the joint, increasing deflection to a measurable level while keeping the applied loads
to a reasonable level.

Figure 20 and Figure 21 display the complete test set up for the fore-aft and torsional loadcases. The test
set up for the vertical loadcase was identical to the fore-aft loadcase, except that the load was applied in
a different direction.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 12


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Vertical load
application point
in that loadcase

Fore-Aft load
application point
for that loadcase

Measurement
fixture

LVDTs to measure
displacements

Joint

Figure 20: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Fore-Aft Loading Setup

Figure 20 displays the typical test set up employed for the Fore-Aft loadcase. Also displayed in the
picture is the measurement fixture used for measuring the displacement corresponding to the loadcase.
Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDTs) were used to measure the displacement. The test
set up for the Vertical loadcase is identical to the Fore-Aft loadcase. In the vertical loadcase, however,
the load is applied at a different point in the test fixture as displayed in the above figure. Also, the LVDTs
are located such that vertical displacements are measured.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 13


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Torsional load
(using two
pneumatic
cylinders)

Measurement
fixture

Joint

Figure 21: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Torsional Loading Setup

Figure 21 displays the typical test set up employed for the Torsional loadcase. Also displayed in the
picture is the measurement fixture used for measuring the displacement corresponding to the loadcase.
Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDTs) were used to measure the displacement.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 14


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Bar for measuring
torsional deflections

Torsional load
application
Bar for measuring
fore-aft and vertical
deflections
Vertical load
application
point

Plate bolted to
the joint
Fore-Aft load
application point

Figure 22: Measurement Fixture used for Joint Testing

Figure 22 displays a close up of the measurement fixture used for the joint testing. This measurement
fixture is bolted to the joints along with the load application set up. LVDTs are fastened to this fixture to
measure displacement.

Test Joint Deflection Measurement


Deflections were measured using five Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDTs). The Fore-Aft
and Vertical loadcases used three transducers to measure deflection. The three transducers were placed
parallel to the side rail and were in line with the line of action of the force being applied. The Torsional
loadcase used two transducers to measure deflection. Contact points for all the transducers were on
additional surfaces that were not receiving any of the applied loads. Figure 22 displays the measurement
fixture employed during the testing phase.

Test Joint Force Application


For each load case (Fore-Aft, Vertical and Torsion), the loads were increased to the desired value,
reduced back to zero load, and then repeated in the opposite direction. This process was repeated three
times for each of the three samples. Air cylinders were used to apply the force on all the joints.
Measurements were taken as force was increased to maximum, decreased back to zero, increased to
maximum in the opposite direction and then decreased back to zero to provide a continuous hyterisis
loop. Figure 20 and Figure 21 displays the typical test set up employed during the testing phase.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 15


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Joint 6 Testing
The displacement for each test was measured at increments as the joint was cyclically loaded and
unloaded (see Appendix A for all test data plots). The average slope of the measured displacement was
fit and used to calculate the joints stiffness. An explanation and example of this process is described
below.

The test results were evaluated for repeatability. Figure 23 displays the test data for Joint 6 in the Fore-
Aft loadcase. Three samples of Joint 6 were tested and three tests were conducted on each sample.

Test Data
(3 samples
and 3 tests for
each sample)

Figure 23: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Data

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 16


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
The test data was averaged over the 9 curves (3 samples and 3 tests for each sample). Figure 24
displays the comparison between the average linear fit test data and final FEA model results (see Rivet
Joint Correlation section) for the Fore-Aft loadcase for Joint 6.

Test DataLinear
Average - Average Linear
Fit Test DataFit

Analysis Data

Figure 24: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 17


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
The Vertical and Torsional loadcases were evaluated in the same way as the Fore-Aft loadcase. The
vertical loadcase plots are displayed in Figure 25.

Average Linear Fit Test Data

Test Data (3 samples and 3


tests for each sample)

Analysis Data

Figure 25: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 18


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Joint 7 Testing
The method used to evaluate the stiffness of Joint 6 was also used to evaluate the stiffness of Joint 7
(see Figure 26, Figure 27 and Figure 28). See Appendix A for all test data plots.

Test Data
(3 samples and 3 tests for
each sample)

Figure 26: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Test Data

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 19


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Average Linear Fit Test Data

Analysis Data

Figure 27: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison

Figure 27 displays the comparison between analysis data and average linear fit test data for Joint 7 in the
Vertical loadcase.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 20


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Test Data

Average Linear Fit Test Data

Analysis Data

Figure 28: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Analysis and Test Data Comparison

Figure 28 displays the test data, average linear fit test data and analysis data of the Vertical loadcase for
Joint 7.

Repeatability of Riveted Joints


Each joint sample was tested three times in each of the loading directions. Good repeatability across the
3 tests for each sample was achieved, which indicates that testing was performed in a consistent manner.

Rivet Diagnostic Testing


Though test repetability was achieved across the 3 tests for a given sample, there were differences in the
test data among the 3 samples for a given joint.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 21


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
For instance, Figure 29 shows there was significant difference in the test data between the three samples
for the Joint 6 Fore-Aft loadcase.

Section - A

Section - B

Section - C

Figure 29: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Data Repeatability

In total, there are nine curves (three samples and three tests per sample) displayed in Figure 29.
Although test-to-test variation (per sample) is insignificant, sample-to-sample variation is significant. The
curves in Figure 29 are delineated into three sections, A, B and C. Section A and C correspond to the
extremeties of loading and Section B corresponds to the on-center loading. Moreoever, Section A relates
to the negative loading direction and Section C relates to the positive loading direction.

The following points are noted based on the observation of the test data displayed in Figure 29.

Section A indicates that sample-to-sample variation is significant.

Section B indicates that the slope in the +/- 1000N load range is not consistent with the slopes
beyond that range. The higher slope indicates that the samples are more compliant. Compliant is
defined as the ratio of resultant displacement to the applied force, i.e., high compliance implies that
the joint displaces more for a given amount of force than a less compliant joint. In other words,
compliance is the inverse of stiffness.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 22


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Sections A and C indicate similar and consistent slopes beyond the +/- 1000N load range.

This behavior was identified more in the Fore-Aft loadcase than in the other two loadcases for both joints.

With significant differences as illustrated in Figure 29, it was evident that further diagnostic testing was
requried to better characterize the joint behavior. To understand the underlying phenomenon, one joint
sample was chosen and tested. The joint sample chosen was Sample-3 of Joint 7 and the loadcase
chosen was Fore-Aft.

Five of the six rivets in Joint 7 (sample 3) were instrumented to track the deflection of the rivets in each of
the three directions (X, Y and Z) during the test. Figure 30 shows the five rivets that were tracked during
the test. The test setup used was identical to the previous testing and the Fore-Aft loadcase was
selected because of the significant variations observed in that loadcase. The sixth rivet could not be
observed because of physical constraints.

Figure 30: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Test Set up to study Rivets

Test results were plotted for displacements of the rivet, crossmember and side rail inner at two areas, U
and V, illustrated in Figure 30. Figure 31, Figure 32 and Figure 33, respectively, show the X, Y and Z
direction displacement of the rivets, the crossmember and the side rail inner at area-V. In Figure 33,

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 23


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Figure 34, and Figure 35, the abcissa corresponds to the load applied to the joint (in lbs.) and the ordinate
corresponds to the measured displacement (in mm) of the rivet.

X
C2
C1

C3

RIVET
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL

Figure 31: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet X-direction Displacement

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 24


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Y
C2

C1

RIVET
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL C3

Figure 32: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet Y-direction Displacement

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 25


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

RIVET Z
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL

C2
C3

C1

Figure 33: Joint 7 Area-V Rivet Z-direction Displacement

In Figure 31 throught Figure 33, the curve "C3" (red-colored) represents the displacement of rivet; the
curve "C2" (green-colored) represents the displacement of the crossmember; and, the curve "C1" (blue-
colored) represents the displacement of side rail inner.

Observing the X-direction displacement data, it is clear that the rivet and side rails do not displace as
much as the crossmember. The crossmember not only moves independent of the other two but also has
significantly more displacement than the others. Observing the same behavior in Y-direction
displacement data, it is also clear that the rivet and crossmember move significantly more than the side
rail inner does. It is noted here that the X and Y direction displacements are a direct result of the
compliance that exists between the rivet, crossmember and side rail inner. However, the Z-direction
displacement of all the three components are consistent with each other. Since the Fore-Aft load is
applied via the crossmember, this additional compliance in the crossmember translates into additional
deflection of the joint, resulting in lower joint stiffness values in that direction.

Similar behavior is observed at Area U (see Figure 30) of Joint 7 in the Fore-Aft loadcase. Figure 37
displays the X, Y and Z direction displacement test data of the rivet, crossmember and side rail inner at
area U of the joint. The other rivet areas did not show significant differences in displacement.

The results were shown to an experienced frame engineer, who looked at the test results and explained
that the rivet typically does not expand into the entire hole in all of the riveted joints, due to normal
manufacturing variations. Figure 34 illustrates the variations seen in the rivet expansion inside the rivet
hole in typical riveted joints.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 26


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Two thickness rivet

Three thickness rivet

Figure 34: Variations in Rivet Expansion inside Rivet Holes

RIVET X
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL
C2

C1
C3

Figure 35: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet X-direction Displacement

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 27


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

RIVET Y
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL C2

C3
C1

Figure 36: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet Y-direction Displacement

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 28


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY

Z
C2

C1

C3

RIVET
CROSSMEMBER
SIDE RAIL

Figure 37: Joint 7 Area-U Rivet Z-direction Displacement

Though a real world joint will exhibit this slip behavior, the finite element analysis does not capture this
slip mechanism. The test joint stiffness is lower than the finite element data because of the additional
compliance in the test joints in the +/- 1000N load range. The test data in the area "off-center" does
agree with the finite element data. This behavior was expected by the Team when the riveted joints were
added to the matrix. This test work is the first public riveted joint stiffness test data that the team is aware
of.

Based on this information, the stiffness for some of the loadcases of the two joints were recalculated. As
noted, the slopes of the negative and positive load directions beyond the +/- 1000N range are consistent
with each other. Therefore, this slope was used to compute the stiffness and was compared to the
stiffness from the finite element analysis (see section on Riveted Joint Correlation). The resultant
comparison produced better correlation between the test data and finite element analysis. See A/SP
Phase 1 [1] report to understand the formulae employed to compute the stiffness. Table 1 presents the
initial and final stiffnesses of Joints 6 and 7.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 29


RIVETED JOINT TESTING
CUTIVE SUMMARY
Table 1: Test Joint Stiffnesses for Joints 6 and 7
K x K z K y
JOINT DESCRIPTION (kN-m/deg) (kN-m/deg) (kN-m/deg)

Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final


Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel
Section

14.36 22.06 3.20 3.20 2.85 2.85

Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket)


to Twin Channel Sections

13.81 26.71 3.07 3.96 2.38 2.38

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 30


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Introduction
Finite element analysis (FEA) techniques were used to demonstrate the correlation of each joint.
Correlation was attemped for Joints 6 and 7 between the finite element models and test data. The finite
element model was created using the CAD data that was supplied. The CAD data was checked against
the actual dimensions of the test sample joints to establish dimensional validity of the CAD data. An initial
finite element model was created using 2D shell elements (quad and tria types) and 1D rigid elements.
The 1D rigid elements were used to establish the riveted connection between the crossmember, siderail
and other components. This type of representaion assumes that no relative motion can occur between
the components in the riveted joints. Later, for a more accurate representation of the rivets themselves,
3D solid elements were used in the finite element models.

Initial FEA Models


The initial finite element (FEA) models were created for Joints 6 and 7. These are called "initial" because
these finite element models used 1D rigid elements to establish riveted connections, i.e., the connections
were considered perfect. Figure 38 and Figure 39 show the initial finite element models for Joints 6 and
7.

Crossmember

Side Rail

Bracket

Bracket
Bracket

Figure 38: Joint 6 Initial Finite Element Model

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 31


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Upper Crossmember

Inner Side Rail

Outer Side Rail


Lower Crossmember

Figure 39: Joint 7 Initial Finite Element Model

The initial finite element models developed for the two joints (6 and 7) were in close agreement with the
joint samples established for testing. The rivets were modeled using 1D rigid elements. Figure 40 shows
a close-up view of the rivet modeling technique employed in the initial finite element model for both the
joints.

Component - A
Component - B
(Transparent color)

Rivet attachments
using 1D rigid
elements

Figure 40: Example Rivet Representation in the Initial FEA model

In this figure, components A and B are attached together using a rivet. The circular rivet hole is
approximated as a hexagon, which is valid for finite element analysis. Each perpendicular node on
component-A (shown in green color) is directly connected to the corresponding node on component-B

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 32


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

(shown in transparent color) using 1D rigid elements. This type of modeling technique does not allow for
any slippage to occur between the various components or for slippage to occur between the rivets and
the components. Table 2 and Table 3 display the stiffness results for the finite element analysis and test
samples. The nine curves (three tests for each sample and three samples for each joint) were averaged,
and the slope of this averaged curve was reported as stiffness for each of the joint test samples.

Table 2: Joint 6 Stiffness Comparison between Initial FEA and Test Data
LOADCASE ANALYSIS TEST DEVIATION
Fore-Aft (Kz stiffness, kN-m/deg) 24.18 14.36 41%

Vertical (Kx stiffness, kN-m/deg) 3.53 3.20 9%

Torsion (Ky stiffness, kN-m/deg) 3.53 2.85 19%

Table 3: Joint 7 Stiffness Comparison between Initial FEA and Test Data
LOADCASE ANALYSIS TEST DEVIATION
Fore-Aft (Kz stiffness, kN-m/deg) 34.98 13.81 61%

Vertical (Kx stiffness, kN-m/deg) 4.79 3.07 36%

Torsion (Ky stiffness, kN-m/deg) 2.58 2.38 7%

Model Changes to Improve Correlation


It is evident from Table 2 and Table 3 that the correlation is good in some loadcases but poor in a majority
of the other loadcases for the two joints. Reviewing the FEA animation results indicated that there were
three possible areas of improvement, which are listed below.

Effect of end boundary conditions.

Effect of applying loads at the shear center.

Rivet and its hole modeling accuracy.

Further analysis was performed on both the joints to demonstrate the effects from the boundary
conditions variation or effects from not applying loads at the shear center. All analyses for both the joints
pointed to the fact that there was no significant improvement in correlation between the analysis and test
data. The only possible area remaining for improvement was the rivets themselves, since the rivets were
idealized in the initial FEA model. Therefore, more information was requested on the rivets in order to
improve modeling accuracy and to increase correlation. The rivet and its hole dimensions were obtained
from the rivet manufacturer and the rivet processing techniques were understood. The relevant rivet
dimensions for the Joints 6 and 7 are displayed in Table 4.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 33


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Table 4: Rivet and Rivet Hole Dimensions for Joints 6 and 7

Rivet Diameter 9.6 mm

Rivet Hole Diameter 10.8 mm

Final FEA Models


Changes from the Initial FEA model were incorporated into the Final FEA model. Notably, the rivets were
more accurately modeled using the available rivet information (see Table 4). 3D solid elements were
used to model the rivet of diameter 9.6mm while the rivet hole was maintained at the prescribed test joint
sample diameter of 10.8mm. Apart from the rivet modeling technique, there was no difference between
the Initial and Final FEA models. Figure 41 displays the close-up view of the modified rivet modeling
technique used for the Final FEA model for both the joints.

Rivet (modeled
using 3D solid
elements)

1D rigid element
Component - A for attachment

Component - B

Figure 41: Example Rivet Representation in the Final FEA model

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 34


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Figure 43, below, displays the 3D solid model of the rivet used in the analyses to improve correlation.
This figure shows only the rivet and the rivet holes are in the individual components that make up the
joint. The 3D rivet model fits inside the rivet holes with attachments to the individual components at those
points shown by RBE2 elements. These RBE2 elements establish rigid connection between the 3D rivet
and the individual components of the joint.

Rivet Diameter

Rivet Height

3D solid element 1D rigid elements to


model of the Rivet connect rivet to other
Components

Figure 42: Rivet 3D-Solid Elements used in the Final FEA model

Figure 43 displays the 3D graphical illustration of the rivet.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 35


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Rivet Diameter
Rivet Height

Figure 43: Rivet 3D Graphical Illustration

Final Correlation between FEA and Test Data


The FEA analyses were performed and the analyses results were once again correlated to the test data
as shown in Table 5 and Table 6.

Table 5: Joint 6 Stiffness Comparison between Final FEA and Test Data
LOADCASE ANALYSIS TEST DEVIATION
Fore-Aft (Kz stiffness, kN-m/deg) 22.09 22.06 0.12%

Vertical (Kx stiffness, kN-m/deg) 3.24 3.20 1%

Torsion (Ky stiffness, kN-m/deg) 3.01 2.85 5%

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 36


RIVETED JOINT CORRELATION

Table 6: Joint 7 Stiffness Comparison between Final FEA and Test Data
LOADCASE ANALYSIS TEST DEVIATION
Fore-Aft (Kz stiffness, kN-m/deg) 30.64 26.71 13%

Vertical (Kx stiffness, kN-m/deg) 4.44 3.96 11%

Torsion (Ky stiffness, kN-m/deg) 2.14 2.38 11%

The correlation was good between the final FEA models and the test data. As indicated in the Phase 1
report, deviations of up to thirty percent are acceptable. In the two joints considered here, the percentage
deviation between analysis and test data is well under thirty percent.

It is noted here that the stiffnesses from testing for Joints 6 and 7 were recomputed. The information
presented in the Rivet Diagnostic Testing sub-section (see Riveted Joint Testing section) explains why
the stiffnesses for the test data were recomputed. Referring to Table 2, Table 3, Table 5 and Table 6 (all
four stiffness tables), the Fore-Aft loadcase test stiffnesses were recomputed for both the joints and the
Vertical loadcase test stiffness was recomputed for Joint 7 only. The Torsional loadcase stiffnesses
correlated well with the finite element data, and therefore it was not recomputed for both the joints.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 37


JOINT STIFFNESS SUMMARY

The following section presents the joint stiffness results for all the eleven joints considered in this study.
z), vertical (K
The three stiffness values correspond to the fore-aft (K x) and torsional (K
y) loadcases.

Table 7: Stiffness Summary for all Joints


Vertical Load Fore-Aft Load Torsion Load
JOINT DESCRIPTION x
K z
K y
K
(kN-m/deg) (kN-m/deg) (kN-m/deg)
Analysis:
Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section
K2 = 22.09 K2 = 3.24 K2 = 3.01

K1 = 7.34 K1 = 1.08 K1 = 1.03


Test:

22.06 3.20 2.85

Analysis:
Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin
Channel Sections K2 = 30.64 K2 = 4.44 K2 = 2.14

K1 = 10.22 K1 = 1.48 K1 = 0.72


Test:

26.71 3.96 2.38

Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to


Rectangular Tube Section

0.31 1.40 4.66

Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel


Section

0.32 0.69 13.40

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 38


JOINT STIFFNESS SUMMARY

Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through


Rectangular Tube Section

11.20 1.86 6.69

Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to


Rectangular Tube Section

7.41 0.95 12.15

Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube


Section

2.31 2.65 0.69

Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to


Rectangular Tube Section

0.72 9.36 1.00

Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section


to Rectangular Tube Section

1.57 8.22 7.27

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 39


JOINT STIFFNESS SUMMARY

Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to


Channel Section

0.70 4.98 0.98

Joint 2A: Full Box to Lipped Channel

3.26 4.38 39.46

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 40


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Introduction
An important requirement of the study was to establish a set of frame joint Design Rules. By using FEA,
we were able to establish guidelines for the ten joint types included in Phase 2 of the study. The designer
will be able to use the Design Rules to predict the stiffness of a joint that is similar to one of the ten types
in the study.

Study Models
To normalize the joints for the sensitivity study, the joint models needed to be modified. Geometric factors
of the joints surrounding structure were removed to eliminate its influence on the joint stiffness. These
changes included straightening out the crossmember and side rail. Figure 44 shows the modified joint
geometry compared to the original for Joint 6.

Figure 44: Example of Original Joint 6 Geometry (left) vs. Modified Joint 6 Geometry for Study (right)

The study models for the ten joints in Phase 2 are shown in Appendix B. Joint 2, included in Phase 1 of
the study, was slightly simplified as explained in Appendix D. A study model was prepared for the
simplified joint (Joint 2A). The study model for Joint 2A is shown in Appendix D.

Joint Parameters
The joint parameter variables are component thickness and shape. The thickness of each of the joint
components is allowed to vary within a certain range for each joint. The shape variables include:

Side rail height

Side rail width

Crossmember height

Crossmember width

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 41


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Flange width

Crossmember placement height on side rail

An initial screening study was conducted to determine the key parameters. That is, the ones having the
greatest effect on stiffness (Appendix C). The influence of the key parameters on the stiffness of each
joint for each load case is shown in Figure 45 through Figure 77. For each plot, the Y-axis shows the
relative stiffness. The X-axis, for each component listed, shows how the stiffness varied over the range of
values allowed for each parameter. For example, the point furthest left of a parameters plotted line
would be the minimal allowed value for that parameter, and the point furthest right of the line would be the
stiffness at the upper value for the specified parameter. For the crossmember thickness in Figure 45, the
stiffness is 39 when the crossmember thickness is lowest at 2mm and the stiffness of the joint is 60 when
the crossmember thickness is 5 mm.

Main Effects: Joint 6

z
Stiffness K

Large Influence
on Stiffness

Small Influence on
Stiffness

Figure 45: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 42


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 6

x
Stiffness K

Figure 46: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 43


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 6

y
Stiffness K

Figure 47: Main Effect Plot for Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 44


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

z
Stiffness K

Figure 48: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Kz
(Design Variables from 1 through 7)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 45


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

x
Stiffness K

Figure 49: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Kx
(Design Variables from 1 through 7)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 46


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

y
Stiffness K

Figure 50: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Ky
(Design Variables from 1 through 7)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 47


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

z
Stiffness K

Figure 51: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Kz
(Design Variables from 8 through 15)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 48


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

x
Stiffness K

Figure 52: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Kx
(Design Variables from 8 through 15)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 49


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 7

y
Stiffness K

Figure 53: Main Effect Plot for Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections Stiffness Ky
(Design Variables from 8 through 15)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 50


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 8

z
Stiffness K

Figure 54: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness
Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 51


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 8

x
Stiffness K

Figure 55: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness
Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 52


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 8

y
Stiffness K

Figure 56: Main Effect Plot for Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness
Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 53


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 9

z
Stiffness K

Figure 57: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 54


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 9

x
Stiffness K

Figure 58: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 55


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 9

y
Stiffness K

Figure 59: Main Effect Plot for Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 56


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 10

z
Stiffness K

Figure 60: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 57


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 10

x
Stiffness K

Figure 61: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 58


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 10

y
Stiffness K

Figure 62: Main Effect Plot for Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 59


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 11

y
Stiffness K

Figure 63: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 60


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 11

x
Stiffness K

Figure 64: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 61


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 11

y
Stiffness K

Figure 65: Main Effect Plot for Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 62


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 12

z
Stiffness K

Figure 66: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 63


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 12

x
Stiffness K

Figure 67: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 64


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 12

y
Stiffness K

Figure 68: Main Effect Plot for Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 65


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 13

z
Stiffness K

Figure 69: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 66


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 13

x
Stiffness K

Figure 70: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 67


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 13

y
Stiffness K

Figure 71: Main Effect Plot for Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section
Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 68


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 14

z
Stiffness K

Figure 72: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube
Section Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 69


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 14

x
Stiffness K

Figure 73: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube
Section Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 70


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 14

y
Stiffness K

Figure 74: Main Effect Plot for Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube
Section Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 71


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 15

z
Stiffness K

Figure 75: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 72


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 15

x
Stiffness K

Figure 76: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 73


SENSITIVITY STUDY

Main Effects: Joint 15

y
Stiffness K

Figure 77: Main Effect Plot for Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 74


TOOLBOX

Introduction
A design experiment was run using Altair HyperStudy [4]. The experiment considered the linearity of the
joint parameters and the interactions between them on the joint stiffness. The mathematical response of
each joint was programmed into an Excel spreadsheet. Designers and engineers will be able to enter joint
dimensions, thickness, and any discrete variables simulated in the DOE, and obtain calculated joint
stiffnesses. The Excel spreadsheet allows the user to input any joint definition that is within the DOE
experiment range.

The spreadsheets also contain Design Rules and Observations to be considered when making design
decisions. The Design Rules were created from finite element and sensitivity analysis data to help make
stiffer joints. The Joint Observations contained information regarding joint deflection and welding
information stemming from the analytical results.

The spreadsheet for each of the ten joints in Phase 2 of the study is shown in Figure 79 through Figure
98. The spreadsheet for Joint 2A is shown in Appendix D. There are two figures for each joint. The first
figure shows the input and calculated results for the joint stiffness, and the second figure shows the Joint
Observations, Notes and Design Rules.

Bi-linear Stiffness for Riveted Joints 6 and 7


In Appendix A, it may be observed that the riveted Joints 6 and 7 exhibit different stiffness at different
load ranges. The stiffness between the +/- 1000N load range is consistenly less than that in the load
range beyond +/- 1000N load. It was imperative to capture this behavior in the toolbox since a physical
joint is expected to behave in just the same manner. To account for this bi-linear stiffness in the toolbox,
it was decided to provide two stiffness values. The first stiffness value corresponds to the operation of
the joint in the +/- 1000N load range and the second stiffness value corresponds to the load range beyond
+/- 1000N. The actual stiffness of the joint should fall within the two stiffness values.

Figure 78 displays the general bi-linear nature of the stiffness for the two riveted joints. In the figure, it is
shown that the stiffnesses K1 and K2 represent the stiffness of the joint. K1 is the stiffness of the joint
when it is operated beyond the +/- 1000N load and K2 is the stiffness when it is operated within the +/-
1000N load. It is clear from the figure that stiffness K1 will always be greater than K2. We determined
from joint test data that the ratio of the two stiffness was constant:
K1
= constant
K2

In the above equation, the "constant" is derived from the test data and it is specific to each joint. In the
toolbox, the stiffness K1 is calculated using the DOE results. To determine stiffness K2, the following
equation is used.
K1
K2 =
constant

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 75


TOOLBOX

Figure 78: Bi-Linear Joint Stiffness for Rivet Joints 6 and 7

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 76


TOOLBOX

Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section

Figure 79: Joint 6 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 77


TOOLBOX

The calculated stiffnesses will be

Side Rail thickness

beyond +/- 1000

actual stiffness

Figure 80: Joint 6 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 78


TOOLBOX

Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections

Figure 81: Joint 7 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 79


TOOLBOX

which to input

stiffnesses will be displayed in red.

beyond 1000

actual stiffness of the

Figure 82: Joint 7 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 80


TOOLBOX

Joint 8

Figure 83: Joint 8 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 81


TOOLBOX

in which to input
calculated stiffnesses

Figure 84: Joint 8 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 82


TOOLBOX

Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section

Figure 85: Joint 9 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 83


TOOLBOX

in which
stiffnesses will be

a tubular section.

Figure 86: Joint 9 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 84


TOOLBOX

Joint 10:

Figure 87: Joint 10 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 85


TOOLBOX

in which
stiffnesses will be

because the crossmember is welded to


siderail on both front and back vertical
walls.

back) deflect a lot.

* Taller Siderail will worsen the stiffness


because the vertical walls do not get
support from the top and bottom horizontal
walls.

Figure 88: Joint 10 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 86


TOOLBOX

Joint 11:

Figure 89: Joint 11 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 87


TOOLBOX

in which to input and evaluate data, case


1 and case 2. The calculated stiffnesses
will be displayed in red.

Lower side Rail deflects moderately.

Side Rail front vertical wall deflects a lot.

cap as thick as possible.

Not much side rail or cap deflection is


observed

Figure 90: Joint 11 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 88


TOOLBOX

Joint 12:

Figure 91: Joint 12 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 89


TOOLBOX

in which to input and evaluate data, case 1


and case 2. The calculated stiffnesses will be
displayed in red.

of the joint.

a lot.

Figure 92: Joint 12 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 90


TOOLBOX

Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section

Figure 93: Joint 13 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 91


TOOLBOX

in which to input and evaluate data, case 1


and case 2. The calculated stiffnesses will be
displayed in red.

Figure 94: Joint 13 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 92


TOOLBOX

Joint 14:

Figure 95: Joint 14 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 93


TOOLBOX

in which to input and evaluate data, case 1


and case 2. The calculated stiffnesses will be
displayed in red.

Figure 96: Joint 14 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 94


TOOLBOX

Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section

Figure 97: Joint 15 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 95


TOOLBOX

in which to input and evaluate data, case 1


and case 2. The calculated stiffnesses will be
displayed in red.

* There is a lot of flange deflection.

Figure 98: Joint 15 Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 96


REFERENCES

1. Lewis, Katy; Spencer, Christian; White, Michael: Light Truck Frame Stiffness Study, Auto/Steel
Partnership, Report No. A/SP-005-1, July 25, 2001.

2. Altair Engineering, Inc.: Joint Stiffness Toolbox, Excel Spreadsheet, Auto/Steel Partnership, July
2001.

3. Spencer, Christian; Vartanian, Katy; White, Michael; Law, S.Edward: Light Truck Frame Joint
Stiffness Study, Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 2002-01-0241.

4. Altair Engineering, Inc.: Hyperstudy, 2002.

5. A/SP Website http://www.a-sp.org.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 97


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

The following figures are the plots of all the test data for the two joints (Joint 6 and 7).

Figure 99: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 100: Joint 6 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 98


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

Figure 101: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 102: Joint 6 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 99


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

Figure 103: Joint 6 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 104: Joint 6 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 100


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

Figure 105: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 106: Joint 7 Fore-Aft Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 101


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

Figure 107: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 108: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 102


APPENDIX A: TEST DATA PLOTS

Figure 109: Joint 7 Torsional Loadcase Displacement-1

Figure 110: Joint 7 Vertical Loadcase Displacement-2

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 103


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

The figures in this appendix illustrate the joint design variables that were considered for the final DOE
study. These are the same design variables (shape and thickness) that are included in the joint stiffness
toolbox.

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 111: Joint 6 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 104


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 112: Joint 7 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 105


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(Measured to the bottom of the


Rectangular Tube Section.)

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 113: Joint 8 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 106


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(Measured to the bottom of the


Circular Tube Section.)

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 114: Joint 9 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 107


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(Measured to the bottom of the


Rectangular Tube Section.)

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 115: Joint 10 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 108


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 116: Joint 11 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 109


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 117: Joint 12 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 110


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 118: Joint 13 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 111


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 119: Joint 14 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 112


APPENDIX B: DESIGN VARIABLES

(All dimensions are measured from midplane to midplane.)

Figure 120: Joint 15 Final DOE Design Variables

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 113


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Screening DOE Study


Before performing the final design of experiments (DOE) study, an initial screening DOE study was
performed to study the influence of design parameters on joint stiffness. Screening the design
parameters helped to eliminate those that did not contribute much to the stiffness of the joints. This
section of the report presents the results of the screening DOE and lists those parameters that were
eliminated from or added to the final DOE study.

Figure 121: Joint 6 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Figure 122: Joint 7 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 114


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Figure 123: Joint 8 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Figure 124: Joint 9 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 115


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Figure 125: Joint 10 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Figure 126: Joint 11 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 116


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Figure 127: Joint 12 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Figure 128: Joint 13 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 117


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Figure 129: Joint 14 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Figure 130: Joint 15 Screening DOE Sensitivity Plots

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 118


APPENDIX C: SCREENING DOE STUDY

Based on the sensitivity information from this screening DOE study, the following parameters were either
eliminated from the screening DOE study or added to the final DOE study.

Table 8: Design Variables Eliminated / Added from Screening DOE


JOINT DESIGN PARAMETER ELIMINATED / ADDED

Joint 6 Bottom Rear Patch Gage (eliminated).

Joint 7 None eliminated.

Joint 8 Crossmember Top/Bottom Flange Width (added).

Joint 9 None eliminated.

Joint 10 None eliminated.

Joint 11 Cap Width on Side Rail (eliminated).

Cap Flange Width in Contact with Side Rail (eliminated).

Crossmember Flange Contact Length (eliminated).

Diameter of Hole in the Crossmember (eliminated).

Joint 12 Dimple Height (eliminated).

Dimple Length (eliminated).

Crossmember Lower Flange Width on Side Rail (eliminated).

Crossmember Upper Flange Width on Side Rail (eliminated).

Joint 13 Crossmember Horizontal Weld Flange Width Top/Bottom (added).

Joint 14 Crossmember Horizontal Weld Flange Width Top/Bottom (added).

Joint 15 Crossmember Horizontal Weld Flange Width Top/Bottom (added).

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 119


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Joint 2 from Phase 1 was modified and a new version, hereafter referred to as Joint 2A, was developed.
The same DOE analysis was performed on this joint and this appendix documents the results from that
study. Figure 131 displays the original Joint 2 from the Phase 1 study. Figure 132 displays the new
Joint 2A.

Figure 131: Phase 1 Joint 2 Boxed to Lipped Channel

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 120


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Figure 132: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel

Observe from Figure 132 and Figure 136 that the only modification to the new joint consists of the Side
Rail being closed off by Plate B, thereby creating a box section.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 121


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Side Rail C
Channel

Side Rail Plate

Crossmember

Side Rail End


Square (A)

Indicates Weld

Figure 133: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 1)

Indicates Weld

Figure 134: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 122


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Indicates Weld

Figure 135: Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel (view 3)

Figure 136 through Figure 138 display the main effects on stiffness of the various parameters for
Joint 2A.

Figure 139 and Figure 140 display the Toolbox and Design Rules respectively for Joint 2A.

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 123


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Main Effects: Joint 2A

z
Stiffness K

Figure 136: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Kz

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 124


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Main Effects: Joint 2A

x
Stiffness K

Figure 137: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Kx

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 125


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Main Effects: Joint 2A

y
Stiffness K

Figure 138: Main Effect Plot for Phase 1 Joint 2A Full Boxed to Lipped Channel Stiffness Ky

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 126


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

Joint 2A:

Figure 139: Phase 1 Joint 2A Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Input and Calculated Results

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 127


APPENDIX D: PHASE 1 JOINT 2A DOE

The calculated stiffnesses

Figure 140: Phase 1 Joint 2A Joint Stiffness Toolbox Spreadsheet Joint Observations and
Design Rules

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 128


APPENDIX E: MATERIAL TEST RESULTS

Tension testing was performed on the coupons cut from the joint materials. The tension testing was done
as per the ASTM E8 standard. The results of this testing are presented in the form of Stress versus
Strain curve. Figure 141, Figure 142, Figure 143, Figure 144 and Figure 145 display the Stress versus
Strain data for the coupons cut from Joint 6 crossmember, Joint 6 siderail, Joint 7 crossmember, Joint 7
inner siderail and Joint 7 outer siderail respectively.

Figure 141: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 6 Crossmember

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 129


APPENDIX E: MATERIAL TEST RESULTS

Figure 142: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 6 Siderail

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 130


APPENDIX E: MATERIAL TEST RESULTS

Figure 143: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Crossmember

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 131


APPENDIX E: MATERIAL TEST RESULTS

Figure 144: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Inner Siderail

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 132


APPENDIX E: MATERIAL TEST RESULTS

Figure 145: Stress versus Strain Curve for Joint 7 Outer Siderail

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 133


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION
This appendix describes the 10 joints in greater detail.

Crossmember

Side Rail

Figure 146: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 134


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Crossmember

Rivet

Side Rail Rivet

Rivet
Rivet

Figure 147: Joint 6: Hat Section to Channel Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 135


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Outer Side Rail

Inner Side Rail

Upper Crossmember

Lower Crossmember

Figure 148: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 136


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rivet
Rivet Inner Side Rail
Rivet
Rivet

Upper Crossmember Welding between


Lower and Upper
Crossmembers

Rivet
Rivet Lower Crossmember

Outer Side Rail

Figure 149: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 137


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Welding between
Outer and Inner
Side Rails

Welding between
Outer and Inner
Side Rails

Figure 150: Joint 7: Hat Section (with Bracket) to Twin Channel Sections (view 3)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 138


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Welding between Side


Rail and Crossmember

Rectangular
Tube Section

Figure 151: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 139


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Welding
between Side
Rail and
Crossmember
Rectangular
Tube Section

Rectangular
Tube Section

Figure 152: Joint 8: Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 140


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Welding between
Circular Tube and
Channel Sections

Channel Section Circular Tube

Figure 153: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 141


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Tube Section

Channel
Section

Welding between
Circular Tube and
Channel Sections

Figure 154: Joint 9: Circular Tube Section through Channel Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 142


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section Rectangular
Tube Section

Welding between the two


rectangular sections

Figure 155: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 143


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Rectangular
Tube Section

Welding between the two


rectangular sections

Figure 156: Joint 10: Rectangular Tube Section Through Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 144


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Welding between
the two
rectangular
sections
Rectangular
Tube Section
(Angled)

Figure 157: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 145


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section
Welding between
Cap and Tube
Section
Cap

Rectangular
Tube Section
(Angled)

Figure 158: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 146


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section
Welding between
the two Sections

Rectangular
Tube Section
(Angled)

Figure 159: Joint 11: Rectangular Tube Section (Angled) to Rectangular Tube Section (view 3)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 147


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Welding between
the two Sections

Rectangular
Tube Section
Deep Hat
Section

Figure 160: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 148


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Deep Hat
Section

Welding between
the two Sections

Figure 161: Joint 12: Deep Hat Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 149


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Full Height
Channel Section

Welding
between two
sections

Figure 162: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 150


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Full Height
Channel Section
Rectangular
Tube Section

Welding between two


sections

Figure 163: Joint 13: Full Height Channel Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 151


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Rectangular
Tube Section

Full Height
Rectangular
Tube Section
Welding between
two sections

Figure 164: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 152


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Full Height
Rectangular
Rectangular Tube Section
Tube Section

Welding between
two sections

Figure 165: Joint 14: Full Height Rectangular Tube Section to Rectangular Tube Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 153


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Channel Section

Full Height
Channel Section
Welding between
two sections

Figure 166: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section (view 1)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 154


APPENDIX F: PHASE 2 JOINTS
DESCRIPTION

Channel Section
Full Height
Channel Section

Welding between
two sections

Figure 167: Joint 15: Full Height Channel Section to Channel Section (view 2)

Report: A/SP-005-2 Light Truck Frame Joint Study 155