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Title:The Compound Microscope

Introduction:Microscope is a tool to magnify image of an object so that those

image cannot seen by human bared eyes such as microorganism, cells, tissue, and
virus.Other than that, microscope also help us to determined and contribute in study
of structure, organelle and non-organelle with functions of each parts of a
cell.Although there are various type of microscope such as light microscope, electron
microscope ,fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscope but usually electron
microscope will be used in our lab works despite electron microscope was
disadvantages compare to others.

The compound of microscope consist an essentially optical system which compose

by a series of lens such as objective lens, ocular lens, and condenser lens.The
objective lens always facing several such as light transmitted though a lens generates
color aberration, which has different refractive index according to the wavelength.To
prevent this, the following lens have been developed such as Achromatic lens which
design to make the refractive indexes of two wavelengths the light to same,
Semi-apochromatic lens which design to make the refractive indexes of three
wavelengths to same and Apochromatic lens which design to make the refractive
indexes three wavelengths to same, as with a Semi-apochromatic lens.To prevent
field stop of ocular lens Huygens lens used for low magnification and is characterized
by the field stop lacated in lens tube, Ramsden lens which is characterized by the
field stop lacated outside the lens tube, periplan lens which correct chromatic
abberation of magnification and other properties, compensation lens, wide-field lens
which ensure a wide field-of-view and is primarily used to observe organisms and
minerals and super-field lens which support an even wider field -of -view and is
mainly use with stereoscopic microscopes.The ocular lens for the optical system
obtained 10x magnification power and the total magnification of the image is
multiply of power of objective lens and the power of ocular lens.Since the power of
objective lens may be various such as scanning objective lens(4x), low power
objective lens(10x), high power objective lens(40x), and oil immersion objective
lens(100x).Thus, minimum power of magnification is 40x and the maximum of power
of magnification is 1000x.

The electron microscope is a microscope that uses beam of accelerated electrons as

a source of illumination.The reasons that electron microscope uses beam of electron
instead of light and series of magnetic field instead of glass lenses is because of
wavelength of an electron can be 1000000x than that light photons and the electron
microscopes have higher resolving power than light microscopes which allow
electron microscopes to obtained clearer and better image compare to light
microscopes.There are four types of electron microscope such as transmission
electron microscopes(TEM), scanning electron microscopes(SEM) reflection electron
microscopes(REM), scanning transmission electron microscopes(STEM).

The first electromagnetic lens was developing 1926 by Hans Busch.In 1937, Manfred
von Ardenee invent scanning electron microscope.However every inventor were
contribute a lot for evolution of science nowadays but the main contributor was
Hans Busch and Zacharias Jansen.

1)To learn structure of microscope
2)To learn ways to protect and carry microscope
3)To understand function of every part of microscope
4)Make and use a wet mount
5)To learn how to adjust ocular lens to prevent dizziness of using microscope for a
long period of time
6)To learn correctly use a compound light microscope
7)To learn how to calculate the power of magnification
8)To learn how to control the light intensity when changing power of objective lens
9)To learn how to make image clearer by adjust x-axis and y-axis of the object
10)To learn the procedure before starting an experiment

Material:Microscope, toothpick, slider and cover slips, forceps, alcohol

disposable jar,Scissor,methylene blue,newspaper with a small pieces ,slides of onion
bulb, animal cells (human cheek cell),distilled water

Microscope preparation
When preparing microscope slides for observation, its essential to having those
important material such as slides, cover slides, dropper ,methylene blue ,distilled
water and so on which is required for this experiment.Materials are advise to
examine carefully as one of the prominent for preparation.There are two type of
preparation which is temporary mount and permanent mount.Temporary mount, in
other ward called wet mount which means the specimen is placed in a drop of water
held between the slide and cover slip by surface tension.However,permanent mount
or generally called as prepared mount which remove all the water and replace it to
paraffin.The preparation must be short enough so that able to prepare temporary
mount.other than that,Microscope should be treated with care; put one hand on the
arm and the other under the base of the microscope when carrying it.Thus,carry one
microscope carefully and properly from the microscope storage area to the working
area.So,Examine the microscope and give the function of each of the parts is the
examination which everyone should envisage it.

A)Part of the compound microscope

B)Plant cells
Make a wet mount of a colourless scale of an onion bulb
a)Cut the onion bulb into multiple pieces
b)Cut the onion scale bulbs
c)Separate the scale bulb backward to form a epidermis layer
d)Place your cover slip on it carefully
e)Test the microscope and put some water on cover slip if it is seem too dry by eye
f)Determine the result of the experiment with scanning power of objective lens
C)Animal cells
Make a wet mount of human cheek cells
a)By using the broad end of toothpick, rack inside your cheek carefully
b)Mix the toothpick which rake your cheek cells with dilute water which on the
microscope slide and put on the cover slip on it
c)Then drop 2-3 drops of methylene blue to stain the cheek cells so that much visible
compare with non stained cheek cells
d)Firstly drop a drop of methylene blue to one of the end of the cover slip after that
use tissue to assimilate the stain under the cover slip

1)Determined function of every part of the microscope:
-Condensor=Focus the light pass through specimen to form a clearer image
-Coarse-adjustment knob=Moves the tube and lens closer and farther away from the
-Stage controls=Used for the precise translational movement in either the x- or y-axis
-Fine-adjustment knob=Used to fine-tune the focus of your specimen after using the
coarse adjustment knob.
-Eyepiece=Allow you look through to see the image of your specimen
-Objective lenses=Used to magnify image of object to different magnification
because of vary of power magnification.

2)Calculate the total power magnification of the image of object:

Power of magnification= power of ocular lens X power of objective lens

Total power of magnification for maximum power of magnification for objective

lens=10 X 100= 1000

3)Summarize the procedure for preparing the experiment:

Firstly preparing materials that needed such as paper towel, a piece of slide, cover
slip, methylene blue, dropper, a square piece of newspaper , a toothpick, onion and
so on which stated at the materials.On a clean slide place one drop of distill water
and put the square piece of newspaper on it then cover it with cover slip.Then
transfer it to microscope to study it.These step continue with plant cell.For plant
cells, place a drop of distill water on slide and the cut a piece of onion place on it
follow up by placing the cover slip on it.After that, transfer to the microscope and
study it.For cheek cells,place a drop of distill water on the slide and use the toothpick
to obtain it on your teeth and place the check cells immediately and stir it in the
drop of water following up cover it with cover slip.Lastly transfer it to microscope to
study all of it under the magnification of microscope.

4)Reason that why should we scan a specimen under scanning power before using
high magnification power of objective lens:
The reason that why should we do that is because scanning power for objective lens
is to initialy find specimen before moving to high magnification.After using scanning
power, we are able to increase the magnification power in order to focus it and
provide a better and clearer image.

5)Briefly discuss how the correct ways to keep and carry the microscope:
Firstly, remove the slide which used for the experiment from the microscope and
dispose or clean it.Then turn off the light and the power and following up remove
the plug to allow the microscope to cool down under room temperature.After that,
adjust the stage all the way down by stage control.Moreover, cleaned the objective
lens with lens paper.
6)Describe different structure between animal cells(human cheek cells) and plant
cells(onion cell):

Animal cells(human cheek Structure Plant cells(onion cell)


Absent Cells wall Present

Round(Irregular shape) Shape Rectangular(Fixed shape)

Present Centriol Only present in low plant


Present Cillia Mostly does present

Absent Chloroplast Present

Absent Plastid Present

One or more small vacuole Vacuole Large,taking most of the

cell volume in order to
supply support to the

7)Describe the different between Eukaryotic Cell and Prokaryotic Cell.

Eukaryotic Cell Structure Prokaryotic Cell

Present Nucleus Absent

More than one Number of chromosomes One but not true


Usually multicellular Cell types Usually unicellular

Present Mitochondria Absent

Present Golgi Apparatus Absent

Present True membrane bound Absent