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Jun 26, 2017

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Math Review

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4 tayangan

Math Review

© All Rights Reserved

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Any quantity can be expressed using a power of ten. As you move the decimal point, you

multiply by 10 as many times as necessary to make the numbers equal. Consider the

following examples:

325 = 3.25 x 10 x 10 = 3.25 x 102

325 = 0.325 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 3.25 x 103

A number in scientific notation has two parts. The number in front of the x 10 is called

the coefficient. The power to which 10 is raised is called the exponent.

3.25 x 103

Exponent

Coefficient

The coefficient must have one and only one digit in front of the decimal point. The

exponent will always be a whole number in chemistry, although the exponent can be

fractional number in other disciplines.

Rule 1: To express a number in scientific notation, you move the decimal point to

the position such that there is one nonzero digit to the left of the decimal point.

Rule 2: If the decimal point is moved to the left, the exponent is positive.

Rule 3: If the decimal point is moved to the right, the exponent is negative.

A mnemonic that my help you remember how to keep the signs straight is Registered

Nurses Love Patients, or RN, LP, which stands for right --- negative, left --- positive. If

you move the decimal point to the right, the exponent is negative. If you move the decimal

point to the left, the exponent is positive.

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Scientific Notation Example 1:

Solution:

The decimal point was moved to the right four spaces. If the decimal point moves

to the right, the exponent is negative. Since it moved four spaces, the exponent is a

4. Notice that the decimal point was moved until one and only one nonzero digit

was in front of the decimal point.

Solution:

5.6873 x 104

The decimal point was moved to the left four spaces. If the decimal point moves to

the left, the exponent is positive. Since it moved four spaces, the exponent is a +4.

Notice that the decimal point was moved until one and only one nonzero digit was in

front of the decimal point.

Sometimes it is necessary to change a number from one power of ten to another power of

ten. When changing to a new power of ten, we must consider the sizes of both the

coefficient and the power of ten. In the number 3.2 x 105, the coefficient is 3.2 and the

power of ten is 5. If we wish to express this as another power of 10 that is equal in value

to 3.2 x 105, we must increase the power of ten if the coefficient decreases, and decrease

the power of ten if the coefficient increases. This is shown in the illustration below.

Solution:

The exponent has gotten larger. This means that we have multiplied the coefficient

by 10 two more times. Because the exponent has gotten larger by 2 places, the

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coefficient must get smaller by two places. We must change the 6.79 to 0.0679,

which is the value that goes in the blank.

Although you will probably use your calculator to perform arithmetic operations on

numbers written in scientific notation, you should know the rules that govern these

processes. The rules are presented below.

1. Express the numbers as the same power of 10.

2. Perform the mathematical operation on the coefficients (add or subtract).

3. Bring down the power of 10 unchanged.

4. Express the answer in proper scientific notation.

Solution:

Make the exponents equal before we subtract the numbers. We can make both of

the exponents 102 or we can make them both 103. The result will be the same no

matter which common exponent we choose. Well make them both 102. Therefore

5.32 x 103 = 53.2 x 1024. Now we can subtract the two numbers. Since the final

answer has more than one nonzero digit in the coefficient, we need to rewrite the

number in proper scientific notation.

53.20 x 102

- 4.72 x 102

48.48 x 102 or 4.848 x 103

To multiply two numbers expressed in scientific notation, multiply the coefficients and add

the exponents on the powers of 10.

To divide two numbers expressed in scientific notation, divide the coefficients and subtract

the exponents on the powers of 10.

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Scientific Notation Example 5:

Solution:

Multiply 5.1 by 3.2 to get 16. Add the exponents to get 6. The answer is 16 x 10-6.

Change this number to proper scientific notation. The answer is 1.6 x 10-5.

Not every calculation requires scientific notation, but it is a very convenient system for

handling the very large and very small numbers commonly encountered in chemistry.

Scientific notation shows up very frequently in chemistry, so mastering it now will pay off in

the future.

Yes. You will need to find out how to input scientific notation numbers into your calculator.

Check your calculator manual for directions. The most common mistake in this chapter

is entering a number in scientific notation incorrectly into a calculator!

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Rounding

necessary when the calculated answer has more significant figures than are allowed. The

rules for rounding numbers are presented below.

1. If the last digit to be kept is followed by a number less than 5, round by dropping

all digits to the right of it.

2. If the last digit to be kept is followed by a number equal to or greater than five,

round up by adding 1 to the last digit to be kept and drop the rest.

Rounding Example 1:

0.8765 rounded to two digits

5.875 rounded to three digits

Solution:

number less than five, so drop all of the digits after the seven in blue. The answer

is 54.67.

The last digit to be kept in 0.8765 is a seven. The seven is followed by a number

greater than or equal to 5, so round up. The answer is 0.88.

The last digit to be kept in 5.875 is a seven. The seven is followed by a number

greater than or equal to 5, so round up. The answer is 5.88.

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Conversion Factors

Conversion factors are ratios of one object to another object. A ratio is a way of comparing

two quantities. The quantities can be compared in three different ways: a to b, a:b, or a/b.

At the local grocery store, a case of soda contains 24 cans. We can express the ratio in

three forms:

(a:b) 24 cans of soda: 1 case of soda

(a/b) 24 cans of soda/1 case of soda

This chapter uses conversion factors frequently to solve problems. Conversion factors are

ratios written in the fraction form (a/b).

Some of the conversion factors you will see in this chapter include metric-to-metric

conversion factors such as:

The most common way that chemists represent ratios like these is in a fraction form. The

conversion factors would look like this in the fraction form:

1 gram silver

1000 mg silver

1 liter water

1 x 106 L water

Each of these conversion factors can be written in the inverse form. The first ratio we

examined involved cans of soda. We expressed that ratio as 24 cans of soda in 1 case of

soda. The inverse form of this ratio is 1 case of soda contains 24 cans of soda. The key

idea here is that either the original ratio or its inverse form is true. It is true that one

case of soda contains 24 cans and it is true that there are 24 cans of soda in one case.

Conversion factors in chemistry can be written as shown above or in the inverse form.

Regardless of which form is used, the comparison the conversion factor makes is true.

For example, one gram of silver weigh 1000 mg and 1000 mg of silver weighs one gram.

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Here are the conversion factors written in the inverse form:

1000 mg silver

1 gram silver

1 x 106 L water

1 liter water

The obvious question at this point is: Which form of the conversion factor should you use

in a problem? You use the form that allows the units to cancel. Units cancel when the

unit that appears on the top also appears on the bottom of a fraction somewhere in the

solution. This style of problem solving, where you arrange the conversion factors so that

the units cancel, is called unit analysis.

Which is the correct solution for the question: How many cases of soda can be made from

1200 cans of soda?

1 case of soda

24 cans of soda

Solution:

In which solution do the units cancel? In the second solution, the unit cans of

soda cancels. The correct solution will use conversion factors in a way that units

will cancel. Blue lines are drawn through units that cancel.

Solution:

This question uses the metric-to-metric conversion factor: 1 gram = 1000 mg. Set

up the solution so that the units cancel. Blue lines are drawn through units that

cancel.

1 gram silver

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Conversion Factor Example 3

If 8.35 x 109 L of water was collected in a flask, how many liters of water was collected?

Solution:

You dont need to concern yourself with whether the conversion factor is inverted or

not. Just make sure that the units cancel. Blue lines are drawn through units that

cancel.

1 x 106 L

How do you know what quantity to start with when solving problems?

Start with the quantity given in the problem and not with the conversion factor. In general,

the first quantity in your unit analysis will not have a denominator. In the last example, we

started with the number of microliters of water:

1 x 106 L

Notice that the first quantity is a whole number and not a fraction. If you start with the

conversion factor, it is much harder to decide whether to use the original or inverse form of

the conversion factor.

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Should I enter all of the numerator numbers into the calculator before I enter the

denominator numbers, or should I enter each conversion factor into the calculator

before I move on to the next conversion factor?

Either style of entering the numerical quantities will work. You should make a decision to

always use one style of entering numbers into a calculator. This helps you avoid skipping

a number when you are calculating an answer.

In the example calculation below, you could enter the numbers in either of these orders

and obtain the same answer.

16 x 2.54 x 50 = 75.2

3 9

16 x 2.54 3 x 50 9 =

or

16 x 2.54 x 50 3 9 =

You dont need to press the ENTER key after each mathematical.

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Fractions, Decimals and Percents

Fractions, decimals, and percentages are all related to each other. Each is used to

indicate some part of a whole quantity. For example, 3/4, 0.75, and 75% are all used to

express a quantity representing three parts out of four. The fraction represents the

number of parts of the whole (3 parts of the whole, which is divided into 4 equal sized

parts).

The decimal represents the part of one whole (0.75 of the whole).

The percentage represents the number of parts of a whole that has been divided into 100

parts (75 parts of the whole which has been divided into 100 equal parts).

100 segments

The fraction, 3/4, is converted to a decimal by dividing the numerator (the number on top of

the fraction) by the denominator (the number on bottom of the fraction). Three divided by

four is 0.75.

The decimal is converted to the percentage by moving the decimal point two places to the

right. This is equivalent to multiplying the decimal by 100% in order to convert it to the

percentage. In this conversion, 0.75 becomes 75%

To convert a percent to a decimal, we move the decimal point two places to the left. The

decimal point in 75% is understood to be after the five in the percentage. In this

conversion, 75% becomes 0.75.

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In this chapter, we use percentages more often than decimals or fractions. The term

percent means per cent or per 100. When we say that 10% of people prefer Brand A,

we mean that 10 people out of 100 people prefer Brand A. When someone has 71% of

the votes in an election, it means that 71 people out of 100 people voted for that person. A

chemist might say that a substance is 64% nitrogen. The chemist means that 64 atoms

out of every 100 atoms are nitrogen.

problem solving (also called unit analysis). Here are the examples of percentages we

used above written as conversion factors.

100 people expressed an opinion

100 people voted

64 atoms of nitrogen

100 atoms present

The secret to using percentages correctly is to write the units correctly. It is very

important that the units for the per 100 part indicate what substance is being measured or

counted. The numerator or top of the fraction should clearly indicate what small portion of

the whole quantity is being measured or counted. In other words, a percentage should be

written as:

The Part

The Whole

Percentage Example 1:

15% of atoms were sulfur

Solution:

100 total applicants (the Whole)

100 atoms total (the Whole)

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Sometimes we are asked to calculate percentages from actual measurements. In this type

of problem, a percent is not given in the problem.

Percentage Example 2:

What percent of people in the class are women if 30 of the 50 students are female?

Solution:

Remember to divide the part by the whole. What is the whole class number? 50.

We divide the part (which is 30 female students) by the whole (which is 50 male

and female students). Then, we multiply by 100 to create the percentage.

50 students

include units in your calculations to avoid mistakes.

Percentage Example 3:

A total of 476 people were surveyed. When asked to choose the best tasting pizza, 34.2%

of them chose Brand B. How many people selected Brand B as the tastiest pizza?

Solution:

First, convert the percentage into a conversion factor. Remember that the

denominator is always 100 (from the per cent part of the question).

100 people surveyed

The total number of people we surveyed was MORE than 100. It was 476. How do

we include this information in our calculations?

100 people surveyed

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Notice how the units cancel! We can check the answer to see if it is reasonable. If 476

people were surveyed, is it reasonable that less than 476 chose Brand B? Yes. The

percentage of people selecting Brand B was less than 50%. Is 163 less than half of 476?

Yes.

Percentage Example 4:

If 54% of the mass of a mixture of iron and copper is iron, how much iron is there in a

sample that has a mass of 25 grams?

Solution:

54 grams of iron

100 grams mixture

How did we choose the units grams? The unit in which the measurement was

done was given in the problem. Now, lets use the conversion factor that we

obtained from the percentage in the solution.

100 gram mixture

Again, check to see if the answer is reasonable. If about half of the mixture was

iron and the mixture weighed 25 grams, we would expect an answer of about 12.5

grams. Our estimate of the answer agrees with the calculated answer.

Percentage Example 5:

If a mixture of iron and copper was 54% iron, how much of the mixture would you need to

use to have 200. grams of iron (plus the copper impurity in the mixture)?

Solution:

This question uses the same conversion factor as the previous example. But how

should you arrange the conversion factor so that the units cancel?

54 grams iron

Notice that we used the inverse form of the percentage. We know to do this so that

the units cancel. If you set up the problem so that the units cancel, you will be on

the right track to get the correct answer!

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Hints for using percentages:

What units do you choose when turning the percentage into a conversion factor?

Look at the question to see what unit of measurement is being used or what substance

was being counted. If the question describes centimeters of metal tubing, then both

numerator and the denominator will be in centimeters. If the question involved milliliters of

solution, then both the numerator and the denominator will be in milliliters. Add other

words to the units to help you distinguish The Part from The Whole.

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