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Part 1: Specifications & Assumptions

Table 1 Specifications and Assumptions of concrete mix.


Specifications Assumptions (Safety and Durability)
Safety: 1. W/C is determined to satisfy both
f'c = 28MPa safety and durability requirements.
fc = 30x(C/W) 28 2. Air content of AE concrete is 5%.
Durability: 3. In case with W < 180kg/m3 and C <
*Resistance to salt attack: W/C = 0.50 or less 400kg/m3 the drying shrinkage and
*Resistance to frost attack: W/C = 0.55 or less thermal stress are reduced so that the
& AE Concrete with air content 5%. risk on the formation of cracks are
* Crack Resistance: To reduce the drying neglected.
shrinkage the unit water content is limited. 4. In case with W > 180kg/m3 explain the
In addition to reduce the thermal stress the countermeasure against the drying
unit cement content is limited. shrinkage.
Execution:
Workability: Slump 15cm
Materials:
Cement: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC),
c = 3.16g/cm3
Sand: F.M. 2.8, s = 2.60 g/cm3
Gravel: Crushed stone with Gmax = 20mm,
g = 2.65g/cm3
Chemical Admixture: Air entraining water
reducing agent

Part 2: Water Content and s/a Determination

a. Safety:
Specified Strength (fc): 28MPa
fc = 30x(C/W) 28
Assumption:
a. Coefficient of variation (V) = 0%
1 1
b. Overdesign Factor, = 1.645 = 1.645(1) =1
(1 ) (1 )
100 100
c. Required strength, fcr = fc

28 = 30x(C/W) 28
C/W = 1.87
W/C = 0.54

b. Durability Requirement: W/C = 0.50

At this stage, the durability requirement of W/C = 0.50 governs.

c. Correction for Water Content


Table C4.5.2 of the JSCE Guidelines for Concrete No. 16 has the following reference values:
Air-entrained concrete
Unit bulk With air-entraining water-
Maximum With air-entraining agent
volume of reducing agent
size of coarse
coarse Air Content Sand Water Sand Water
aggregate
aggregate Percentage Content percentage content
s/a W s/a W
(mm) (mm3/mm3) (%) (%) (kg) (%) (kg)
15 0.58 7.0 47 180 48 170
20 0.62 6.0 44 175 45 165
25 0.67 5.0 42 170 43 160
40 0.72 4.5 39 165 40 155
The values shown above are average values determined with reference to the standard mix proportions adopted by ready-mixed
concrete industrial associations in Japan and are for concrete made by using sand of an ordinary particle size distribution (fineness
modulus: about 2.80) and crushed stone.

Based on the above table for the maximum size of coarse aggregate of 20mm, Table 2 below shows the
comparison between the standard and actual values used:

Table 2 Standard and Actual values used in mix design


Standard Actual Values
F.M. = 2.80 F.M. = 2.80
Slump = 80mm Target Slump = 150mm (15cm)
Air Content = 6% Air Content = 5%
W/C = 0.55 W/C = 0.50
s/a = 45% s/a = 45% (per Table C4.5.2)

Form Table C.4.5.2, the standard amount of water per cubic meter of concrete is 165kg, and s/a value of 45%,
both values are to be corrected because of the discrepancy between the standard and actual values as shown
in Table 2. The correction for these values are reflected in Table 3 below.

Table 3 Corrections for s/a and W (based on Table C.4.5.3 of JSCE Guidelines for Concrete No. 16)
Correction of s/a (%) Correction for W
Category
Description Value Description Value
For every 0.1 Increase (decrease) by 0%, no correction, same as No correction 0kg, no correction
fineness 0.5. reference value
modulus of
sand greater
(smaller than
reference value
For every 1cm No correction 0%, no correction Increase (decrease) 15 8
( ) (0.012)(165)
in slump greater by 1.2%. 1
(smaller) than = +13.86
reference value
For every 1% in Decrease (increase) by 65 Decrease (increase) 65
( ) (0.5%) = +0.5% ( ) (0.03)(165)
air content 0.5 to 1. 1 by 3%. 1
higher (lower) = +4.95
than reference
value
For every 0.05 Increase (decrease) by 0.5 55 No Correction 0kg, no correction
( ) (1%) = 1.0%
in 1. 0.05
water/cement
ratio higher
(lower) than
reference value
For every 1% in - 0%, no correction, same as Increase (decrease) 0kg, no correction, same as
s/a higher reference value by 1.5kg. reference value
(lower) than
reference value
When river Decrease by 3 to 5. 0%, no correction, crushed Decrease by 9 to 0kg, crushed gravel is
gravel is used gravel is specified 15kg. specified
Total -0.5% +18.81kg

Corrected Values of s/a and W:

W = 165kg + 18.81kg
= 183.81kg
s/a = 45% - 0.5%
= 44.5%

Per Section 4.5 of the JSCE Guidelines for Concrete No. 16, Commentary (1), the water content can still be
reduced by about 6 to 10% for air-entraining agent conforming to JIS A 6204, Chemical Admixture for
concrete, for this particular exercise, a conservative value of 10% is used, thus the above water content is
further corrected to the following amount:

W = 183.81kg (0.90)
= 165.43, say 165kg/m3

Part 3: Mix proportions

a. Water: 165kg/m3, form Part 2

165 165
Volume of water, Vw =
= 1000/3 = 0.165m3

b. Cement
On the basis of W/C = 0.50, the amount of cement is:

W/C = 0.5
165kg/C = 0.5
C = 330kg/m3

Note that the per Table 4.5.1 (Recommended ranges of the water content of concrete) of the same
JSCE Guidelines for Concrete, and Section 4.5.1 (2), which states that the upper limit of the water content of
concrete should be 175kg/m3 as a standard, is met using 165kg of water per cubic meter of concrete.
The assumption 3 of Table 1 above for drying shrinkage and thermal stress is also satisfied with the
values of W = 165kg/m3 (<180kg/m3) and C = 330kg/m3 (<400kg/m3).

330 330
Volume of Cement, Vc =
= 3160/3 = 0.104m3

c. Air Content

5%
Volume of Air, Va = 100% (13 ) = 0.05m3

d. Aggregate Content:

The volume of aggregate (Vs+g), per cubic meter of concrete:

Vs+g = 1m3 Vw Vc Va
= 1m3 0.165m3 0.104m3 0.05m3
= 0.681m3

Using s/a with the following relation:


s/a (%) = +
(100%) (where: Vs = Volume of sand; Vg = Volume of gravel; Vs + Vg = Vs+g)

s/a (%) = +
(100%)

44.5% = 0.6813
(100%)
Vs = 0.303m3, consequently
Vg = 0.681m3 0.303m3
= 0.378m3

Mass of Sand = (0.303m3) = (2600kg/m3)(0.303m3) = 787.8kg, say 788kg/m3.


Mass of Gravel = (0.303m3) = (2650kg/m3)(0.378m3) = 1001.7kg, say 1002kg/m3.

e. Chemical Admixture

The specification for the admixture is not explicitly defined, so the mass of admixture could not be
clearly identified. Some literature, use about 0.5g per kg of cement, however the JSCE Guideline Section 4.5.5
commentary, suggests that it should be determined with care taking into considerations the performance
under realistic conditions or consulting literature or experience. For the purpose of this exercise, it is
assumed to be about 0.5g of air-entraining water reducing agent is required per kilogram of cement, thus:

Mass of Admixture = 0.5g/kg (330kg)


= 165g

Figure 1 Proportion of each constituent material

f. Mix Proportions of constituent materials (Section 4.7 of the JSCE guideline)

Maximum Slump Air Water/ Sand Content (kg/m3)


size of content Cement percentage Water Cement Mineral Fine Coarse Chemical
coarse ratio s/a admixture aggregate aggregate Admixture
aggregate W/C (g/m3)

(mm) (cm) (%) (%) (%) W C F S CA A


20 15 5 0.5 44.5 165 330 none 788 1002 165