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Homogenous Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant

Esmundo, Harvy; Franco, Abbey; Gay, Jacqueline; Lalog, Adrian; Lawan, Patrick
Group 2, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas

Homogenous equilibrium is a reaction equilibrium in which the reactants and products are all in
the same phase. Equilibrium constants of a chemical reaction is the value of the reaction quotient
when the reaction has reached equilibrium. In this experiment, seven test times of different
compositions were titrated to get the Moles and Kc of each samples.
Dynamic equilibrium is the state of balance
between continuing processes. It is only
found once the products and reactants ratio
stops to change in a reversible reaction.
Substances would move between the Figure 1. Equilibrium constant
chemicals at an equal rate giving it no net
change [1].
Homogenous Equilibrium is the states of
matter of the products and reactions are all
the same. In most cases, the solvent
Figure 2. Equilibrium reaction
determines the state of matter for the overall
reaction [2]. It haseverything
Rate of Forward reaction = [] []
Equilibrium can be explained by Le
Chateliers Principle. It can be used to predict Rate of Reverse reaction = [] []
the effect of a change in conditions on a In equilibrium, the forward and reverse rates
chemical equilibrium. It states as: When any are equal to each other.
system at equilibrium is subjected to change METHODOLOGY
in concentration, temperature, volume, or Seven test tubes of different components
pressure, then the system readjusts itself to were prepared (see table 1). The test tubes
counteract (partially) the effect of the applied were covered and left to stand for at least two
change and a new equilibrium is established days. The test tubes were occasionally
[3]. shaked. The mixtures were titrated with 1M
Equilibrium constant (Kc) is the ratio of the NaOH using phenolphthalein. The
concentration of the products to the concentration of each mixture was calculated.
concentration of the reactants. This is the The equilibrium constant was determined.
value of the reaction quotient when the The other Kc values were gathered and the
reaction has reached equilibrium. This is mean standard deviation of the equilibrium
independent of the analytical concentrations constant was determined.
of the reactant and product species in a
mixture, but depends on temperature and on
ionic strength [4]. It can be expressed
through these equations:
Equilibrium nEtoAc = nEtoAc initial nAA
= 0.023 mol
cEtoAc = 0.023mol/0.01L
= 2.302 mol/L
For the equilibrium constant, since it is
a forward reaction use:
Table 1. Mixture of the solutions [ ][]
Kc =
After titrating the solutions, we recorded
the NaOH used and used it to calculate for For the computation of test tube 4-7,
the Molarity of each compound and the nNaOH = nAcetic Acid
equilibrium constant of the reaction. = 20.8 x 10-3 x 1 mol/L
= 0.0208 mol
Flask VNaOH Cacetic CEtOH CEtoAc Kc nHCl = vHCl x mHCl
(M) acid (M) (M) = 0.006 mol
(M) nAcetic Acid at eq = nNaOH nHCl
1 23.7 1.77 1.77 2.302 1.36 = 0.0208 mol 0.006 mol
2 23.4 1.74 1.74 1.314 2.30 = 0.0148 mol
cAcetic Acid = 0.0148 mol/0.01L = 1.48mol/L
3 15.5 0.95 0.95 0.068 13.27 41.04

initial nAcetic Acid =
4 20.8 1.48 6.53 0.25 0.026 60

= 0.0173 mol
5 32 2.6 4.22 0.87 0.79
nEtoAc=0.0173mol 0.0148mol=0.0025mol
6 52.05 4.61 6.19 0.595 0.021 cEtoAc = 0.0025mol/0.01L = 0.25mol/L

7 55.40 5.54 0.306 1.39 1.22 nEtOH = nEtoAc

Table 2. Molarity of the compounds and the = 0.065326mol
equilibrium constant of the reaction cEtOH = 0.065326mol/0.01L = 6.53mol/L
For the equilibrium constant, since it is
For the computation of test tube 1 3, a reverse reaction use:
nHCl = vHCl x mHCl []
Kc =
= 0.5 ml x 10-3 x 12 mol/L [ ][]
= 0.006 mol
nNaOH = vNaOH x mNaOH Test tubes 1 3 shows a forward reaction
= 23.7 ml x 10-3 x 1 mol/L because if K>>1, the reaction is product
= 0.0237 mol favored; product predominates at equilibrium
nEtOH = nAceticAcid = nNaOH nHCl while Test tubes 4-6 shows a reverse
= 0.0237 mol 0.006 mol reaction because if K<<1, the reaction is
= 0.0177 mol reactant favored; reactant predominates at
cEtOH = cAceticAcid = 0.0177 mol/0.01L equilibrium. Test tube 7 may have an error in
= 1.77 mol/L mixing the compounds or in the titration
Initial nEtoAc =

= 0.0407 mol
[1] Atkins, P.W.; de Paula, J. (2006). Physical
Chemistry (8th. ed.). Oxford University Press.
[2] Slowinski, E. J., Wolsey, W. C., & Rossi,
R. C. (2012). Chemical principles in the
laboratory. Australia: Brooks/Cole
[3] Kay, J. J. (February 2000) [1999].
"Application of the Second Law of
Thermodynamics and Le Chatelier's
Principle to the Developing Ecosystem". In
Muller, F. Handbook of Ecosystem Theories
and Management. Environmental &
Ecological (Math) Modeling. CRC Press.
[4] Rossotti, F. J. C.; Rossotti, H. (1961). The
Determination of Stability Constants.
McGraw-Hill. p. 5.