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Sedra/Smith

Microelectronic Circuits 5/e

2004 Oxford University Press.


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ISBN 0195172671

Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in the United States of America

2
Introduction to Electronics

3
I segnali

Figure 1.1 Two alternative representations of a signal source: (a) the Thvenin form, and (b) the Norton form.

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Figure 1.2 An arbitrary voltage signal vs(t).

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Spettro di frequenza dei segnali

va(t)=Va sin t

Figure 1.3 Sine-wave voltage signal of amplitude Va and frequency f = 1/T Hz. The angular frequency v = 2pf rad/s.

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v(t)=4V/(sin ot+1/3 sin3ot+1/5 sin5ot +)
Figure 1.4 A symmetrical square-wave signal of amplitude V.

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Figure 1.5 The frequency spectrum (also known as the line spectrum) of the periodic square wave of Fig. 1.4.

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Figure 1.6 The frequency spectrum of an arbitrary waveform such as that in Fig. 1.2.

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I segnali analogici e digitali

Figure 1.7 Sampling the continuous-time analog signal in (a) results in the discrete-time signal in (b).

D=bo20+b121+b222++bN-12N-1
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Figure 1.8 Variation of a particular binary digital signal with time.

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Figure 1.9 Block-diagram representation of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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Amplificatori

vo(t)=Avi(t)

Figure 1.10 (a) Circuit symbol for amplifier. (b) An amplifier with a common terminal (ground) between the input and output ports.

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Av=vo/vi or Guadagno di tensione
in dB=20log|Av|
Ai =io/ii or 20 log|Ai|
Ap=Po/Pi or 10 log |Ap|

Figure 1.11 (a) A voltage amplifier fed with a signal vI(t) and connected to a load resistance RL. (b) Transfer characteristic of a linear voltage amplifier
with voltage gain Av.

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Le alimentazioni dellamplificatore

Figure 1.12 An amplifier that requires two dc supplies (shown as batteries) for operation.

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Saturazione dellamplificatore

Figure 1.13 An amplifier transfer characteristic that is linear except for output saturation.
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Caratteristiche di trasferimento non
lineari e polarizzazione

Figure 1.14 (a) An amplifier transfer characteristic that shows considerable nonlinearity. (b) To obtain linear operation the amplifier is biased as shown,
and the signal amplitude is kept small. Observe that this amplifier is operated from a single power supply, VDD.

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Esempio 1.2
Un amplificatore caratterizzato dalla
seguente caratteristica
vo=10-10-11e40vi
valida per vi0V e vo 0.3V.
Si determinino il limite L- e L+ ed i
corrispettivi valori di vi. Inoltre si
determini il valore della tensione di
polarizzazione dc Vi che comporta
Vo=5V ed il guadagno di tensione nel
corrispondente punto di
funzionamento.
Soluzione
L-=0.3V, Vi=0.690V; per vi=0 si ha
L+=10V
Per Vo=5V, vi=0.673 e Av=-200 (V/V)
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Simboli e convenzioni in questo
testo

Figure 1.16 Symbol convention employed throughout the book.

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Amplificatori di tensione

Figure 1.17 (a) Circuit model for the voltage amplifier. (b) The voltage amplifier with input signal source and load.

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Amplificatori in cascata

Figure 1.18 Three-stage amplifier for Example 1.3.

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Esempio: il transistore bipolare a
giunzione

Figure 1.19 (a) Small-signal circuit model for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). (b) The BJT connected as an amplifier with the emitter as a common
terminal between input and output (called a common-emitter amplifier). (c) An alternative small-signal circuit model for the BJT.

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Figure E1.20

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La risposta in frequenza degli
amplificatori

Figure 1.20 Measuring the frequency response of a linear amplifier. At the test frequency v, the amplifier gain is characterized by its magnitude (Vo/Vi)
and phase f.

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Banda passante dellamplificatore

Figure 1.21 Typical magnitude response of an amplifier. |T(v)| is the magnitude of the amplifier transfer functionthat is, the ratio of the output Vo(v)
to the input Vi(v).

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Reti a singola costante di tempo

Figure 1.22 Two examples of STC networks: (a) a low-pass network and (b) a high-pass network.

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Figure 1.23 (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the low-pass type.

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Figure 1.24 (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the high-pass type.

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Esempio 1.5 Calcolo della funzione
di trasferimento del circuito

Figure 1.25 Circuit for Example 1.5.

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Classificazione degli amplificatori
in base alla risposta in frequenza

Figure 1.26 Frequency response for (a) a capacitively coupled amplifier, (b) a direct-coupled amplifier, and (c) a tuned or bandpass amplifier.

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Figure 1.27 Use of a capacitor to couple amplifier stages.

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Figure E1.23

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Invertitori logici digitali

Figure 1.28 A logic inverter operating from a dc supply VDD.

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Figure 1.29 Voltage transfer characteristic of an inverter. The VTC is approximated by three straightline segments. Note the four parameters of the VTC
(VOH, VOL, VIL, and VIH) and their use in determining the noise margins (NMH and NML).

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Figure 1.30 The VTC of an ideal inverter.

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Figure 1.31 (a) The simplest implementation of a logic inverter using a voltage-controlled switch; (b) equivalent circuit when vI is low; and (c)
equivalent circuit when vI is high. Note that the switch is assumed to close when vI is high.

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Figure 1.32 A more elaborate implementation of the logic inverter utilizing two complementary switches. This is the basis of the CMOS inverter studied
in Section 4.10.

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Figure 1.33 Another inverter implementation utilizing a double-throw switch to steer the constant current IEE to RC1 (when vI is high) or RC2 (when vI is
low). This is the basis of the emitter-coupled logic (ECL) studied in Chapters 7 and 11.

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Figure 1.34 Example 1.6: (a) The inverter circuit after the switch opens (i.e., for t 0). (b) Waveforms of vI and vO. Observe that the switch is assumed
to operate instantaneously. vO rises exponentially, starting at VOL and heading toward VOH .

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Figure 1.35 Definitions of propagation delays and transition times of the logic inverter.

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Figure P1.6

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Figure P1.10

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Figure P1.14

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Figure P1.15

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