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Water and its constituents

WATER AND ITS CONSTITUENTS


Water is the most abundant liquid on earth and is essential for the maintenance and continuance of
life. It is present in almost all the natural materials like air, rocks, plants and animals. Water bodies like
oceans, rivers and lakes make three fourth of earths surface. Our body contains more than 70% of
water and even our teeth contain 10% of water.
Different states of water :
Water exists in three states, i.e., solid, liquid and gaseous state at ordinary temperature
Solid State: Water is trapped in form of ice and in glaciers. Only 2% of water exists in the solid
state in form of snow and frost.
Liquid state: In liquid state about 97.6% of water is stored in Oceans. However, a very small
percentage of water occurs on the land in the form of streams, rivers, lakes and ground water.
Gaseous State: In gaseous state water occurs as water vapours present in the atmosphere.
The amount of water vapours present in atmosphere varies depending upon climatic conditions.
Water pollution :
The contamination of water with undissolved solid particles, dissolved salts, sewage and
industrial waste is called water pollution.

Effects of water pollution :l


. Sewage contains organic substances which act as food for bacteria. Hence the presence
of sewage in water causes growth of bacteria. These bacteria consumed oxygen
dissolved in water. The insufficient quantity of dissolved oxygen in water causes the death
of fish and other aquatic animals.
. The industrial waste contains salts of metals like Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd),

Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As) which are highly toxic and cause poisoning in human beings
and animals.

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Water and its constituents
. Fertilizers containing nitrates and phosphates help in the growth of algae in ponds and
lakes. This condition is known as eutrophication. This leads to the depletion of dissolved
oxygen in the water bodies.
PREVENTION OF WATER POLLUTION
.The excessive use of fertilizers should be prevented.
. Sewage water should be treated before throwing into water bodies.
. The industrial waste should be chemically treated to remove harmful material before disposing

them into water bodies.


. Do not spray pesticides when it is likely to rain heavily.
. To check percolation of harmful chemicals into soil use drip irrigation technique.
POTABLE,SALINE AND DISTILLED WATER
Water which is safe for drinking purpose is called potable water. A small amount of salts
Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Zinc (Zn) may also be present. The pleasant
taste of drinking water is due to the presence of dissolved matter, like air and minerals, in it.
Water containing more than 2% of dissolved salts is called saline water. For laboratory
purposes pure water is obtained by distillation of ordinary water which is free from impurities is
called distilled water.
COMPOSITION OF WATER
Water is a stable compound. Its molecular formula is H 2O. The main constituents of water are
hydrogen and oxygen. It can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by following methods.
1) When water is heated strongly up to 20000C
2) By electrolysis of water.
Note: Electrolysis Electrolysis is a process in which a substance is decomposed or broken into
smaller fractions by passing electricity through it.
Water liberates 2 volumes hydrogen and 1 volume oxygen on electrolysis i.e., volumetric
composition of water is 2 : 1 (Hydrogen : Oxygen)
2H2O(liquid) 2H2(gas) + O2(gas).
The ratio in which hydrogen and oxygen combined to form water by weight gives its gravimetric
composition. It is 1 : 8 (Hydrogen : Oxygen).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER
. Pure water is a clear, transparent liquid. It is colourless, odourless and tasteless.
. Water freezes into solid ice at 00C and boils into steam at 1000C. During freezing and
boiling there occurs a change in the inter-molecular distance only. So, water exists as
solid, liquid or gas under different conditions.
. It has maximum density of 1g per cm3 at a temperature of 40C. Ice has lower density than
water and floats on the surface of water. This makes it possible for aquatic and other
marine life to survive in cold countries.
. Pure water is bad conductor of heat and electricity. But water having salts dissolved in it
becomes a good conductor of electricity.
. As water solidifies it expands. Ice is lighter than water. Volume of the water decreases as
we cool it upto 40C, but below this temperature its volume increases and density
decreases.

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Water and its constituents
. Water has high specific heat 4.2J (1 calorie).Due to its high specific heat capacity water is
used as coolant in motor car radiators and the presence of large amount of water is able
to modify the climatic conditions of nearby land areas , making them warmer in winter and
cooler in summer.

Note: Specific heat- The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of
water through 10C.
. Water has a great ability to dissolve many substances; hence it is called universal solvent.
HARD AND SOFT WATER
Water which does not give stable lather readily with soap solution is called hard water. while a
sample of water which gives lather (with soap) easily is known as soft water.
Cause of hardness: Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates, sulphates and
chlorides of calcium and magnesium .Hardness of water is of two types
Temporary Hardness
Temperary hardness of water is due to soluble bicarbonates of Ca & Mg. It can be removed by
boiling or adding calculated quantity of slaked lime.
D
Ca(HCO3 )2 CaCO3 + H2O + CO2

Ca(HCO3 )2 + Ca(OH)2 2CaCO3 + 2H2O [Clarks method]

Permanent Hardness of water


This is due to soluble sulphates and chlorides of Ca & Mg
This type of hardness can not be removed by boiling because these salts are not decomposed
by boiling water.
Disadvantages of Hard water
Hard water, when used in boilers in industries causes formation of scales in the boiler. This eats
away the metal layer and also causes wastage of heat energy. Hence only soft water is used in
industries. Besides, hard water causes wastage of soap.
Degree of hardness of water
The degree of hardness is defined as the number of parts by weight of calcium carbonate
(equivalent to various calcium and magnesium salts) present in a million parts (ppm) by weight
of water. In short, 1 ppm = 1 part of CaCO3 in 106 parts of water
From the above definition, we can say that
1MgSO4 1CaCO3 1MgCl 2 1CaCO3
1CaSO4 1CaCO3 1CaCl 2 1CaCO3

INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER USES OF WATER


Water occurs in nature in abundance. So it is used for innumerable purposes. Water is
principally used for drinking and household purposes and in agriculture. It also finds wide use as
solvent and coolant in industries. The industries where large amount of water is used include
steel, mining, refineries, petroleum, paper manufacturing, sugar industries etc.
HYDRATES
Salts associated with water molecules are called hydrates [hydrated salts].

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Water and its constituents
Examples
Barium chloride dihydrate BaCl2.2H2O
Magnesium chloride hexahydrate MgCl2.6H2O
Calcium chloride hexahydrate CaCl2.6H2O
Washing soda Na2CO3.10H2O

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Water and its constituents
EFFLORESCENCE
The phenomenon of losing water molecules by the hydrates to the surroundings is called
efflorescence (substance as efflorescent)
Examples: Washing soda (Na2CO3.10H2O),Glauber salt (Na2SO4.10H2O)
DELIQUESCENCE
Certain water soluble substances, when exposed to the atmosphere at ordinary temperatures,
absorb moisture from the atmospheric air, become moist, and ultimately dissolve in the
absorbed water, forming a saturated solution. Such a substance is called a deliquescent
substance and the phenomenon is called deliquescence.
Examples: Caustic soda NaOH, caustic potash KOH, magnesium chloride MgCl 2, zinc chloride ZnCl2,
calcium chloride CaCl2 and ferric chloride FeCl3.
HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCES
Certain substances absorb moisture or water vapour from the atmosphere when exposed to it.
Such substances are called hygroscopic substances.
Examples CuO, CaO and conc. H2SO4 have a tendency to take up moisture form the air.

HYDROGEN
Introduction :
The credit for the discovery of hydrogen goes to Henry Cavendish. He prepared hydrogen by
the action of hydrochloric acid on iron metal in 1766. He further established that it was an
element. It was proved by him that when hydrogen is burnt in air, it forms water. In Greek
language water former is called hydrogen. Thus, Cavendish named the gas as hydrogen.
Occurrence :
Hydrogen occurs in nature in the free as well as combined state. The earths crust contains
nearly 1% hydrogen by weight. In free sate (H 2), it occurs only in traces in the atmosphere. It is
mainly found in the combined state. Important sources are water, acids, alkalies, organic matter,
ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, etc. However, in Sun and Stars, free hydrogen is the chief
constituent.
There are three isotopic forms of hydrogen with mass number 1, 2 and 3 and with atomic
number 1.
1 2 3
1H or H 1H or D 1H or T

Hydrogen (protium) Deuterium Tritium

METHODS OF PREPARING HYDROGEN


1) By the action of water on active metals (metals placed above electrochemical series).
a) Active metals like Na, K react with water at room temperature.
2Na + 2H2O(cold) 2NaOH + H2 (violent)
Ca + 2H2O(cold) Ca(OH)2 + H2 (smooth)
b) Less active metals like Zn, Mg, Al, liberate hydrogen only on heating
Mg + 2H2O(hot) Mg(OH)2 + H2
c) Metals like Fe, Co, Ni, Sn can react only by passing steam.
3Fe(red hot) + 4H2O(steam) Fe3O4 + 4H2.

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Water and its constituents
2) By the action of dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 on active metals
Metals like magnesium, zinc and iron react with dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute sulphuric
acid to form their respective salts and hydrogen gas. Metals like potassium, sodium and
calcium also react with acids to form their respective salts and hydrogen gas but the
reaction is explosive in nature.
In laboratory, hydrogen gas is prepared by treating granulated zinc (granulated means
with roughened ends) with dilute sulphuric acid.

Active metal + Dilute acid Metal salt + Hydrogen

Zn + H2SO4 (dil.) ZnSO4 + H2

Zn + 2HCl (dil.) ZnCl2 + H2.
3) By the action of concentrated alkali solution on metals like zinc, aluminium, lead and tin
When the metals like zinc, lead, tin or aluminium in powdered state are boiled with
caustic soda, they displace hydrogen gas.
Metal + Sodium hydroxide Boiling Sodium salt of metal + Hydrogen

Zn + 2NaOH
Boiling Na2ZnO2 + H2.

Industrial methods :
1) By the electrolysis of water
When electric current is passed through acidulated water (water containing sulphuric
acid), it splits into hydrogen and oxygen.
Electric
2H2O(acidulated) Current
2H2 + O2.

2) From water gas (Bosch process)


Water gas is a mixture of equal volumes of CO and H2. It is obtained by passing
superheated steam over heated coke at temperatures varying from 440 600 0C.

C + H2O CO + H2
Water gas is now mixed with steam and passed over a catalyst (Fe 2O3) with suitable
promoter (Cr2O3, ThO2, etc.) kept at 410 5500C, where CO is removed as CO2.
Catalist
CO + H2 + H2O
440 - 5000 C
CO2 + 2H2.

Carbon dioxide is removed by washing the gaseous mixture with water under a pressure
of about 25 30 atmospheres.
3) From natural gas.
Natural gas, which is mainly methane, is mixed with steam and passed over nickel
catalyst heated to 9000C to give a mixture of CO and H2. CO is removed as CO2 by mixing
with steam in presence of catalyst.
CH4 + H2O (steam) Nior Cr
CO + 3H2.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN GAS


1) Hydrogen is colourless, odourless and tasteless gas.
2) It is lightest element and also lightest gas.
3) It is sparingly soluble in water.
4) Hydrogen is diatomic gas.

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Water and its constituents
5) It is adsorbed (occluded) by certain metals like Fe, Au, Pt and Pd.
Note: Adsorption is a process of soaking up only on the surface while absorption is a
process of soaking up through the entire mass.

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Water and its constituents
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN
1) Reducing Property When hydrogen gas is passed over heated metallic oxides, it
removes the oxygen from them and unites with it to form water. This process of removal of
oxygen from a compound is termed reducing while substances like hydrogen which bring
about reduction are called reducing agents.
CuO + H2 heat
Cu + H2O

2) Combination with Elements Under suitable conditions, Hydrogen can be made to unite
with other elements.
For example
a) Hydrogen is a combustible gas and it burns in air or oxygen with nearly invisible pale
blue flame. Water is the only product of combustion when hydrogen burns.

2H2 + O2 2H2O
b) with halogens it combines to give hydrogen halides
H2 + X2 2HX
with chlorine H2 + Cl2 2HCl
c) With nitrogen it combines under high pressure and in the presence of iron as a catalyst
to give ammonia (Habers process).

N2 + 3H2 2NH3

d) It combines with sulphur, selenium to form respective hydrides when heated with them
from 470 K to 670 K.
H2 + S H2S
H2 + Se H2Se
e) It combines with carbon at 1420 K to form methane in small quantities
1420 K
C + 2H2 CH4.
f) With strongly electropositive metals like lithium, sodium and calcium, hydrogen
combines to give hydrides. For example by passing H2 over fused Ca
Ca + H2 CaH2.
3) Action with litmus
Hydrogen gas is neutral towards litmus. It neither turns moist blue litmus paper red nor red
litmus paper blue.
TESTS FOR HYDROGEN
1) A mixture of hydrogen and air burns with a characteristic pop sound
2) Hydrogen burns in air with a very pale blue flame and the only product formed is water.
The water, so formed, can be tested by white anhydrous copper sulphate which turns
blue.
USES OF HYDROGEN
1) For welding and cutting purposes
A flame of hydrogen and oxygen has a temperature of around 2800 0C. This flame is called
oxy-hydrogen flame and is used for cutting and welding purposes.
2) Production of Fuel Gases and Gasoline :
The high heat of combustion of hydrogen makes it a valuable fuel. It is a constituent of
some gaseous fuels like water gas, producer gas, coal gas etc . The composition of these
gases are given below.
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Water and its constituents
i) Water gas:
hydrogen = 48%
carbon monoxide = 44%
other gases = 8%
ii) Producer gas:
hydrogen = 10%
carbon monoxide = 26%
nitrogen = 55%
other gases = 9%
iii) Coal gas:
hydrogen = 45 55%
carbon monoxide = 4 11 %
other gases = 30 40%
Bergius process can be used to produce fuel oil and gasoline. In Bergius process,
hydrogen reacts with powdered charcoal at high pressure. In this reaction a catalyst is
suspended in oil and heated to 4500 C which yields a mixture of hydrocarbons i.e., liquid
fuel as well as hydrocarbon gases.
Carbon + Hydrogen Liquid fuel + Hydrocarbon gas.
1) For hydrogenation of oil (Preparation of dalda or vanaspathi):
Hydrogen is used for hydrogenation of vegetable oil by heating 150 200 0C with
hydrogen at 5 atmospheres pressure in the presence of nickel catalyst.
2) It is used in the manufacture of hydrogen compounds. For example:
a) Ammonia : It is manufactured by the direct union of nitrogen and hydrogen (Habers
process) and is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, nitric acid and explosives.
b) Methanol : It is obtained from hydrogen and carbon monoxide reacting in the presence
of a catalyst.
CO + 2H2 CH3OH.
3) In extraction of metals :
Hydrogen acts as a reducing agent of metallic oxides to metals, e.g., of tungsten oxide to
tungsten.
WO3 + 3H2 W + 3H2O
OXYGEN
Introduction :
Oxygen maintains our body temperature at 37 0C due to slow oxidation of body tissues and the
food we eat. Scheele obtained oxygen by heating KNO 3 and AgO. Lavoiser named it oxygen,
meaning acid former
Occurrence
The Earths atmosphere contains several different gases. Most of it 78% is nitrogen. Almost
all of the rest 21% is oxygen. The rest is made up of very small amounts of Carbondioxide,
argon and other noble gases, and water vapour. In the combined state, it is present in water
(89% by weight), earths crust(about 50%) and in plants and animal tissues (50 70%). In fact
combined oxygen is much more plentiful than free oxygen.

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Water and its constituents
PREPARATION :
1) By heating oxides of Hg, Pb, Ag, Mn and Ba
2HgO 2Hg + O2 2Pb3O4 6PbO + O2
(red lead)
2Ag2O 4Ag + O2 3MnO2 Mn3O4 + O2
2PbO2 2PbO + O2 2BaO2 2BaO + O2
(Barium peroxide)
2) By heating H2O2 and several salts rich in oxygen.
MnO2 (catalyst ) 0
2H2O 2H2O + O2 650 C
2KClO4 2KCl + 4O 2

redhot
2KNO3 2KNO2 + O2 heat
2Pb(NO3 )2 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

heat
2CaOCl2 2CaCl2 + O2 heat
2KMnO 4 K 2MnO 4 + MnO 2 + O 2

MnO2
2KClO3 0
2KCl + 3O 2 (Lab.method)
400 C

heat
4K 2 Cr2O7 4K 2 CrO4 + 2Cr2O3 + 3O2

3) By the action of chemical reagent on compounds rich in oxygen.


2Na2O2 + 2H2O 4NaOH + O2 (Lab. Method)
2MnO2 + 2H2SO4 2MnSO4 + 2H2O + O2
4KMnO4 + 6H2SO4 2K2SO4 + 4MnSO4 + 6H2O + 5O2
2K2Cr2O7 + 8H2SO4 2K2SO4 + 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 8H2O + 3O2.
4) By the electrolysis of either acidified water or alkaline water (commercial method).
2H2O 2H2 + O2
5) From air (commercial method).
From liquid air water vapour and CO 2 are removed by solidification. The remaining
constituents of liquid air i.e., liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen are separated by means of
fractional distillation.
Physical properties :
1) Oxygen is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas.
2) It is slightly heavier than air.
3) Oxygen is a supporter of combustion but it is not inflammable gas like hydrogen.
4) It is slightly soluble in water. Aquatic plants and animals can live in water because of this
property. Oxygen dissolved in water is called dissolved oxygen. It is a important parameter
to measure the purity of water sample.
5) It is neutral to litmus.
6) In nature it exists as mixture of three isotopes of mass numbers 16, 17, 18. In the ratio of
1000 : 1 : 8.
Chemical properties
1) Reaction with metals : Almost all metals burn in air to form oxides most of which are basic
in nature
4Na + O2 2Na2O 2Ca + O2 2CaO
3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
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Water and its constituents
2) Reaction with non-metals : Most of the non-metals also burn in oxygen forming acidic
oxides

S + O2 SO2 C + O2 CO2
Pt
2H2 + O2 2H2O P4 + 5O2 P4O10
3) Reaction with compounds :
Pt asbestose Pt gauze
2SO2 + O2 2SO3 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O
cupric chloride
4HCl + O2 2Cl2 + 2H2O
Oxides :
1) A binary compound of oxygen with another element is called an oxide. On the basis of
chemical behaviour oxides are classified into 4 types
a) Acidic oxides (Acid anhydrides) : These oxides dissolved in water forming acids (turn
blue litmus red) and are therefore, called acid anhydrides.
These are generally the oxides of non metals
S + O2 SO2 C + O2 CO2
sulphur dioxide carbon dioxide

SO2 + H2O H2 SO3 CO2 + H2 O H2CO3


sulphurous acid carbonic acid

b) Basic oxides : These oxides dissolved in water forming alkalies (turn red litmus blue).
These are generally oxides of metals.
2Ca + O2 2CaO 2Mg + O 2 2MgO
calciumoxide magnesium oxide

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 MgO + H2 O Mg(OH) 2


calcium hydroxide magnesium hydroxide

c) Neutral oxides : These give neither acids nor bases with water. Hence these are
neutral towards litmus. Examples are CO, nitrous oxide (N 2O) and nitric oxide (NO).
d) Amphoteric oxides : These behave as acids and also as bases depending upon the
conditions. Thus ZnO behaves as an acidic oxide when treated with conc. NaOH and a
basic oxide when treated with HCl.
2) Oxidation and Reduction:
Oxidation : Addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen to any substance is termed as
oxidation. The original substance (i.e., Na, C) is said to be oxidised. The substance which
oxidises (Oxygen) is known as oxidising agent. In the below examples oxygen is the
oxidising agent.
4Na + O2 2Na2O C + O2 CO2
Reduction: Removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen to any substance is termed as
reduction. The original substance (i.e., CuO, Fe3O4)is said to be reduced. The substance
which reduces (Hydrogen) is known as reducing agent. In the below examples hydrogen
is the reducing agent.
CuO + H2 Cu + H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2 3Fe + 4H2O
TESTS FOR OXYGEN
1) No effect on litmus.
2) It re-kindles a glowing splinter.
3) It turns colourless nitrogen monoxide into brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide.
USES OF OXYGEN
1) Oxygen mixed with CO2 or helium is used for artificial respiration.

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Water and its constituents
2) Oxy-hydrogen and oxy-acetylene flames are used for cutting and welding purposes.
3) Liquid oxygen is an important constituent of fuels used in rockets.
4) Oxygen is used as an oxidising agent in several preparations.

WORKED EXAMPLES
1 On earth, there is plenty of liquid water but none of the other planets in the solar system
have liquid water on their surfaces Explain?
Ans: Water is liquid only over a very narrow temperature range between 0 0C and 1000C. If the earth
was just a little closer to the sun, most of the water would turn to water vapour. If it was just a
little further away, most of it would turn to ice.
2 Explain why
(1) Boiled water tastes flat
(2) Aluminium, even though a reactive metal, does not react with water easily.
Ans: (1) The pleasant taste of drinking water is due to the presence of dissolved matter like air,
carbon dioxide and minerals, in it.
(2) Aluminium reacts with steam forms aluminium oxide and liberates hydrogen Aluminium
oxide makes Aluminium inactive towards water by forming coating on aluminium metal.
3 Hydrogen is collected by the downward displacement of water and not by air even
though it is lighter than air explain why?
Ans: Hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air, so inspite of being lighter it is not collected by
downward displacement of air.
4 Certain sample of water was found to contain 68 ppm of CaSO 4 and 19 ppm of MgCl 2.
What will be the total hardness of water ?
Sol: 1 gram mole CaSO4 1 gram mole CaCO3
136 ppm = 100 ppm
68 ppm = 50 ppm
Similarly, 1 MgCl2 = 1 CaCO3
95 ppm = 100 ppm
19 ppm = 20 ppm
Total hardness in water = Hardness due to CaSO4 + Hardness due to MgCl2
= 50 ppm + 20 ppm
= 70 ppm.
5 What is the weight of sodium peroxide (Na 2O2) obtained by sodium with oxygen which is
liberated on heating 17 grams of hydrogen peroxide (assume sodium is present in
excess).
Ans: 2H2O2 2H2O + O2
2 moles H2O2 2 x 34 g H2O2
n H2O2 = 0.5
2 moles H2O2 produce 1 mole O2
0.5
0.5 moles H2O2 produce moles = 0.25 moles of O2
2
On burning Na gives Na2O2 according to
2Na + O2 Na2O2
48
Water and its constituents
1 mole O2 1 mole Na2O2
0.25 moles O2 produce 0.25 moles Na2O2
i.e., 0.25 x 78 grams = 19.5 grams Na2O2.
6 What is the volume of H2 liberated at STP when 6.54 grams of zinc is treated with 73
grams of HCl ?
Ans: Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
1mole 2 moles 1 mole
65.4 g Zn 2 x 36.5 g HCl 22.4 litres at STP
6.54 22.4
Here Zinc is limiting reactant. So 6.54 g of Zinc liberate = 2.24 L
65.4
Limiting reactant :
The substance which is present in the least amount than other reactants and decides the
quantity of products formed is called the limiting reagent or reactant.

LEVEL I
1 Name the isotopes of hydrogen. How do they differ from each other ?
2 What is hardness of water ? How many types are there?
3 Describe two simple tests to know whether the given water sample is hard or soft ?
4 Why water is called universal solvent ?
5 What is eutroplication ?
6 What is meant by potable water and saline water ?
7 Is water an element, a mixture or a chemical compound ?
8 Why it is difficult to find absolutely pure water in nature ?
9 State the biological importance of the O2 dissolved in water
10 Temporary hardness of water can be removed by heating explain ?
11 What is the important hydride of Nitrogen which is used as fertilizer and how it is prepared
12 What do you mean by heavy water & distilled water.
13 Differentiate Electrolysis Hydrolysis.
14 Discuss a commercial use of hydrogen which depends upon:
i) the heat which is liberated when it burns
ii) its ability to react with vegetable oils and
iii) its ability to unite with nitrogen at high temperatures and pressures.
15 Give the formula of a variety of water molecule having molecular mass 20 amu.
16 Hydrogen is not found in atmosphere because
a) it is highly inflammable and so god desires it to be so.
b) it is a lightest gas.
c) it is absorbed by plants.
d) it immediately combines with oxygen to form water.
17 The major constituents of water gas are
a) hydrogen Carbondioxide b) carbon monoxide, nitrogen
c) Carbondioxide, nitrogen d) hydrogen, carbon monoxide
18 The metal which gives a peroxide with oxygen is
a) sodium b) magnesium c) copper d) iron
49
Water and its constituents
19 An acidic oxide among the following is
a) Na2O b) MgO c) CO2 d) CO

20 A sample of water contains 5 grams calcium carbonate per 100 kg of water. Calculate its degree
of hardness
21 What do you understand by the terms
i) Oxidation ii) Oxidising agent iii) Reduction iv) Reducing agent
Support your answer by one example each.
22 What are Acidic and Basic oxides give examples?
23 Indicate which of the following statements are true and which are false. If false give correct
statement.
(1) Hydrogen burn in oxygen to form carbon monoxide and water
(2) Burning is rapid oxidation.
24 What do you understand about the combustion behaviour of water and its component elements?

LEVEL II
1 By igniting 24 grams of H2 & 32 grams O2 what amount of H2O is produced?
2 Why common salt is added to water before the electrolysis of water ?
3 Why ice floats on the surface of water ?
4 Why water pipes burst when water freezes in them?
5 How do aquatic animals living in lakes survive in severe winter in the cold countries?
6 Calculate the molar volume of i) ice (D = 0.91g/cm3) ii) water (D = 1 g/cm3)
7 Why water is used as coolant in automobiles & also in nuclear power reactors?
8 Calculate the number of water molecules present in 9 grams of water?
9 What is the mass percentage of oxygen in water?
10 A Student gently drops an object weighing 15.9 g into an open vessel that is full of water, so that
volume of water spills out equal to the volume of the object. The experiment now finds that the
vessel and its contents weight 10.6 g more than the vessel full of water only. What is the density
of the object?
11 In fertilizer industry, Methane is converted into hydrogen by mixing it with steam and passing the
mixture over a nickel catalyst heated to 1170K represented by the equation.
Nicatalyst
CH4 + H2O 1170K
CO2 + 3H2
Daily production of hydrogen gas is 429.12 x 10 14 L at STP. Then calculate daily consumption of
methane (CH4)
12 The following questions consist of two statements. One labeled the Assertion A and the other
labeled Reason R. You are required to examine these two statements carefully and decide if
the assertion A and Reason R are individually true and if so. Whether the Reason is a correct
explanation of the assertion. Select your answer using the codes given below and mark Answer
accordingly.
Code
Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A a
Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A b
A is true R is false c

50
Water and its constituents
A is false but R is true d
I) Assertion (A) : Ice floats over water.
Reason (R) : Mass of ice is less than mass of water.
II) Assertion (A) : When ice melts to form water its chemical composition is still represented as
H2O
Reason (R) : No decomposition takes place when ice melts. Only a change in physical state

occurs
13 Determine the degree of hardness of a sample of water containing 30 ppm of MgSO 4.
14 What is the percentage loss of mass when washing soda (Na 2CO3.10H2O)is exposed to dry air
when it forms a) light ash (Na2CO3) and b) heavy ash (Na2CO3.H2O)
15 Rajesh prepared hydrogen by reacting 23 grams of sodium with water. Vishnu prepared
hydrogen by reacting 20 grams of calcium with water. They found volume of liberated hydrogen
is same in identical conditions. Explain why volume of the H 2 liberated is same in both cases?
(These two methods of preparation of hydrogen are not preferable in laboratory because of
several practical difficulties).
16 What is the volume occupied by gaseous mixture at STP which are liberated on electrolysis of
0.36 L of water?
17 What is the amount of heat energy in joules required to raise the temperature of 1mole of water
through 10C?
18 Why bottle of H2O2 cooled before opening?
19 Why exhaled air contains more CO2 than inhaled air?
20 Oxygen can be obtained by heating number of oxygen rich compounds. Four students A, B, C,
D prepared oxygen by heating 1 mole of mercuric oxide (HgO) potassium chloride (KClO 3)
potassium nitrate (KNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) respectively. Assuming one mole of
each substance costs the same, state which method is economically best suitable and why?
(Assume all samples are pure samples and they undergo complete decomposition).
21 Oxygen released on heating 61.25 grams of KClO 3 is used for burning magnesium metal.. After
burning little water is added to those contents. The resulting substance changes red litmus
paper into blue. What is that substance and find its weight by assuming all other reaching
substances are available in exact quantities
22 Two substances A and B are separately burned in two jars. After burning little water is added to
contents in two jars solution corresponding to A turns red litmus into blue litmus and other turns
blue litmus into red litmus. In the following A and B are respectively.
a) Carbon, Sulphur b) Calcium, Carbon
c) Magnesium, Calcium d) Carbon, Magnesium
23 Water extinguishes most fires, but it does not extinguish petrol fire?

KEY TO LEVEL I
11. N2 + 3H2 2NH3(ammonia) 13. Hydrolysis Decomposition of salts by means of water
15. D2O 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. c 20. 50 ppm
24. Hydrogen and Oxygen are constituents of water Hydrogen burns readily and it is not a supporter of

51
Water and its constituents
combustion. Oxygen is a supporter of combustion. Water put outs fire.

52
Water and its constituents

KEY TO LEVEL - II
1. 36 g
2. Pure water is bad conductor of electricity where as salt water is very good conductor of electricity
18 6.023x10 23
6. i) cm3 or mL ii) 18 cm3 or mL 8. 9. 89 10. 3g/cc
0.91 2
11. 143.04 x 1014 L 12. i) c ii) a 13. 25 ppm 14. 63% and 60.14%
16. 672 L
17. 75.6 J or 18 calories
18. Other wise H2O2 easily composes to give water and oxygen
2H2O2 2H2O + O2
19. In respiration energy is released from food in living cells. Glucose from food reacts with oxygen.
The carbon in glucose is oxidised
Glucose + oxygen Carbondioxide + water
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
21. 87 grams 22. b
23. Water extinguishes most fires by lowering down the temperature of the burning material. But in
case of petrol fire petrol being lighter than water, floats over water and fire spreads instead of
being extinguished.
WORK SHEET
1. What is definition of isotopes? Give examples of hydrogen isotopes?
2. Two methods of preparation of hydrogen?
3. Physical properties of hydrogen gas?
4. Chemical properties of hydrogen
Combination with elements
a) 2H 2 + O2 ------------------
b) H 2 + X 2 ------------------
c) N 2 + 3H 2 ----------------
d) C + 2 H 2 -----------------
e) Ca + H 2 -----------------
2. What is the composition of water gas?
3. What is the composition of producer gas?
4. What is the composition coal gas?
5. In the presence of hydrogenation of oils what is pressure ------------------ catalyst ---------
6. Two methods of preparation of oxygen?

53
Water and its constituents
7. Chemical properties of oxygen
a) Na + o2 --------------------
b) fe + o2 --------------------
c) s + o2 ---------------------
d) H 2 + O2 ------------------
8. Write a short notes on acidic oxides and examples?
9. Write a short notes on basic oxides and examples?
10. Write a short notes on neutral oxide and examples?
11. Write a short notes on amphoteric oxide and give example?
12. Write a short notes on oxidation with suitable equation?
13. Write a short notes on reduction with suitable equation?
14. What is the mass percentage of hydrogen and oxygen in water ( H 2O ) ?
15. Determine the degree of hard ness of a sample of water containg 100g of caso4 ?
16. Water can be changed from one state to another by changing ----------------
17. Hard ness can be removed by --------------------------- process
18. Hydrogen gas can be collated in to test tube by the --------------------------- of water.
19. Hydrogen is ----------------------------- to litmus
20. Hydride of nitrogen is called ---------------------
21. The chemical name of water is -----------------------
22. Water solution in acidic oxide turns ------------- litmus to --------------------------
23. Water solution in basic oxide turns-----------------litmus to --------------------
24. Oxidation is the process in which ----------------- is added ----------------- is removed.
25. Reduction is the process in which ------------------ is added ------------------- is removed.
26. P4 + 5O2 ------------------------ (Or) ---------------------
P2O5 + 3H 2O --------------

54