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Kinematics

KINEMATICS
You can follow the contents of this lesson comfortably if you know the following facts.
A
1. Pythagoras theorem: Take a right angled triangle ABC. B is the right angle. AB
and AC are the sides adjacent to the right angle. We call them the sides. AC is
the side opposite to the right angle. We call it the hypotenuse. This theorem tells
us that : The sum of the squares of the sides is equal to the square of the B C
hypotenuse. In the given figure it becomes: AB2 + BC2 = AC2.
We can write AC= AB2 + BC2 . The symbol always represents a right angle.
2. Take a circle of radius r. The length of its circumference is called the perimeter and is given by
the expression 2r.
Half of the circle is called the semi-circle. One fourth of the circle is called a quadrant.

Circle Semi-Circle Quadrant of a circle

The distance between the two free ends of the semi-circle is 2r. The distance between the two
free ends of the quadrant is r 2 . (This is obtained by using Pythagoras theorem.)
3. The quantities we come across in physics are called physical quantities. Eg: mass, length, time,
force, work etc.,
4. Every physical quantity has a magnitude. They may or may not have direction.
Some physical quantities have only magnitude and no direction. Such physical quantities are
called scalars. Eg: mass, length, time, work and power.
5. Some physical quantities have magnitude and also direction. Such physical quantities are called
vectors. Eg: displacement, velocity. acceleration and force
6. Vectors are usually denoted by writing an arrow above the letter denoting the quantity. For
example the displacement is denoted by the letter s. Since displacement is a vector we write it
r
as s . However we are not sticking to that notation here. We leave it to be taught at a higher
class.
North
7. The direction of the physical quantities are denoted by the geographical
directions namely east, west, north and south. They are represented as
shown below on a paper. The top of the page, on which you write, is north. West East

The bottom of the page is south. The right edge of the page is east. The
left edge is west. South
8. We observe that the angle between any two adjacent directions is 90. We can draw bisectors
of these angles. These bisectors give 4 more directions north
north-east
north-east, north-west, south-east, south-west. In these eight north-west
directions the angle between any two adjacent direction is west east
45.
south-east
9. With this introduction we can go to the proper lesson. south-west
south

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Kinematics

KINEMATICS LESSON
1. In kinematics we learn of the motion of a body. In other words we learn of the physical quantities
associated with motion and the relation among them.
2. Distance: The length of the entire path traveled by a body is called as the distance covered by
it. This is a scalar quantity. A B

Eg:1) A man starts at A travels 300 m east and reaches B. He then travels 400 m
south and reaches C. The distance covered by him is the total length of the
path covered by him that is C
AB + BC = 300 m + 400 m = 700 m.

2) A man starts at A travels along a semi circular path and reaches the point
B. The radius of the path is r. The distance covered by him is the length of A B
the semi-circle = r.
3. Displacement: This is a vector quantity. It is the straight line joining the initial point of the
journey to the final point. It is also described as the straight line joining the origin of the journey
to the terminus. As it is a vector it has both magnitude and direction. The length of the straight
line is its magnitude and the direction from origin to the terminus is called the direction of the
vector.
Eg: 1) In example 1 of (2) we saw that the distance covered is AB+BC. A is the
A B
initial point of the journey and C is the final point of the journey. The
displacement is the vector AC.
Its direction of the displacement vector is from A to C and has magnitude
C
equal to the length of the line AC. We see that AC is the hypotenuse of
the right angled triangle ABC.
AB2 + BC2 = AC2 AC2= 3002 + 4002 = 5002
The magnitude of the displacement = 500 2 = 500m
We observe that the magnitude of the displacement is 500 m and its direction is from A to
C. We also observe that the magnitude of the displacement is 500 m whereas the
magnitude of the distance covered is 700 m.
2) In example 2 of (2) the displacement is the straight line from A to B. The
straight line AB joining the ends of the semi-circle is the diameter. The
A B
direction of the displacement vector is from A to B. The magnitude is 2r.
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We observe that the displacement of the particle is r = r = 3.14r where as the
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magnitude of the displacement is only 2r.
(In the above cases we have to give the direction of the displacement very precisely. Until
we give the description of the displacement the description of the vector is not complete.

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Kinematics
The proper discription of the direction will be taught in higher classes. For this class we
will be satisfied by showing to be from one point to the other point.)
4. It is very important to remember that when a body travels along a straight line the displacement
is equal to the distance covered.
5. Speed : Speed of a body is the distance covered by it in 1 second. Usually this is written as rate
of displacement.
dis tance
Speed =
time
Generally we take distance in meters and time in seconds. The general unit of speed is ms1.
6. Take example 1 of (2). Let the man travel from A to B in 10 s and from B to C in 40 s. The
total time of his journey is 50 s. The total distance covered by his is 700 m.

dis tance 700m

His speeds is = = 14ms-1
time 50 s
Take example 2 of (2). Let him travel from A to B in t seconds. The total distance covered by his
is r.
dis tance r
His Speeds is =
time t
7. Velocity : Velocity is defined as the rate of displacement. This means the displacement in one
second.
displacement
Velocity=
time
Usually we take the displacement in meters (m) and time in seconds. The unit of
displacement is m/s. This was written as m/s earlier. But the modern notation does not have any
denominator for the units. We write the unit as ms1.
You know that 1 m = 100 cm. 1 ms1 = 100 cms1.
There is another interesting conversion. When we speak of large displacements the unit of
length is taken as km (kilometer, 1 k = 1000 m) and the unit of time is taken as 1 hour. 1 hour =
60 minutes and 1 minutes = 60 s. 1 hour = 60 60 = 3600 s.
In such cases the unit of velocity will be km per hour = km hr1. It is usually written as kmph.
To conver kmph into ms1 we write the full form.
1000m 5
1 kmph= = ms-1
60 60 s 18
5
So x kmph = (x) ms-1
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8. Take example 1 of (2). The displacement of the man is 500 m and the time taken to travel from
displacement 500m
A to C is 50 s. The velocity is = = 10 ms-1 . The direction of the velocity is
time 50 s
from A to C.
Take example 2 of (2). The displacement is 2r. The time taken to go from A to B is t.

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Kinematics
2r
The velocity = . The direction of the velocity is from A to B.
t
9. Uniform velocity : Now you know that velocity is a vector. Like every vector it has magnitude
and direction. If either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity does not change the velocity
is called a uniform velocity.
As the direction of the velocity does not change, the motion will be along a straight line.
When a body is moving with uniform velocity we have that displacement = velocity x time or
s = vt.
10. Non-uniform velocity : If either the direction or the magnitude of the velocity changes or if both
of change the velocity is called non-uniform velocity. If the magnitude only changes and the
direction does not change the body continues to move along a straight line. This is called the
rectilinear motion. If the direction also changes the body moves along a curve.
In this class you will learn only about bodies which experience a change is magnitude but not a
change in direction of their velocity.
11. Acceleration : In the case of non-uniform velocity the rate of change of velocity is called
acceleration. Acceleration is a vector. It has a magnitude and direction.
change in velocity
Its magnitude is given by acceleration =
time
Its direction is the direction of the change in velocity.
Its unit is ms2. You know that 1 ms2 = 100 cms2.
12. Uniform acceleration : When either the magnitude or the direction of the acceleration does not
change the acceleration is called uniform acceleration.
As the direction of the acceleration does not change, when a body moves with uniform
acceleration it moves along a straight line.
In this class we study only motion with uniform acceleration. The motion with non-uniform
acceleration will be taught to you in higher classes.
13. Symbols : We discuss some properties of uniform acceleration and the symbols used to denote
the physical quantities involved in those properties.
A body starts moving with some velocity. It is called the initial velocity of the body and is denoted
by u. It has uniform acceleration a. After time t let the body have velocity v. v is called the final
velocity. In this time let it have a displacement s.
The average velocity over the entire journey is denoted by Vaverage
total displacement
Vaverage=
total time
u is initial velocity v is final velocity a is uniform acceleration
t is time of journey s is displacement
14. When a body moves with uniform acceleration.
i) It moves in a straight line
v -u
ii) a = or v = u + at
t

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Kinematics
v + u 1
iii) Displacement s = (average velocity) (time) = t = ut + at 2
2 2
iv) V2 u2 = 2as
1
v) The distance moved in the nth second is given by dn = u + a
n-
2
Equations ii, iii and iv are called the equations of motion. Galileo is credited with the formulation
of these equations. Hence these are also called Galilean equations of motion.
15. Acceleration can be positive or negative.
Positive acceleration is just called acceleration. When a body has positive acceleration its
velocity increases.
Negative acceleration is called retardation or deceleration. A moving body is said to be having
retardation when the acceleration is opposite to the velocity in direction. When a body moves
with retardation or deceleration, its velocity decreases.
16. The equations of motion in the case of retardation will be.
i) v = u at
1
ii) s = ut - at 2
2
iii) v 2 - u2 = 2( -a)s u2 - v 2 = 2as

WORKED EXAMPLES
1. A body is moving along a straight line. It starts from A and moves to B with uniform
velocity 16 ms1 for 4 seconds. It moves from B to C with uniform velocity 12 ms 1 for 3
seconds. Find the length AC.
Sol: In uniform velocity the distance covered is given by s = ut.
AB is covered with uniform velocity 16 ms1 in 4 seconds. A B C

s = AB = 16 4 = 64 m.
BC is covered with uniform velocity 12 ms1 for 3 s.
s = BC = 12 3 = 36 m
AC = AB + BC = 64 + 36 = 100 m.
2. A moves from P to Q with a velocity 12 ms 1. B moves from P to Q with velocity 15 ms 1
PQ = 180 m. (i) which of them reaches Q earlier ? (ii) What is the difference in their times
of travel ?
s
Sol: i) You know that t = . This means that the body with greater velocity will take less time to
v
cover the same distance. B has greater velocity. B reaches Q earlier than A.
180
ii) Time taken by A to go from P to Q = = 15 s
12
180
time taken by B to go from P to Q = = 12 s
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Kinematics
The difference in their times of travel = 15 12 = 3 s
3. A river is flowing with a velocity 4 ms 1. A boat can move in still water at a speed of 10
ms1. What is the velocity of the boat when it goes: (i) upstream and (ii) downstream.

Sol: The direction of flow of the river is called the downstream direction.
The direction opposite to the direction of flow of the river is called the upstream direction.
Speed of the boat down stream = velocity of the boat + velocity of the river = 10 + 4 = 14 ms 1
Speed of the boat upstream = velocity of the boat velocity of the river = 10 4 = 6 ms 1
4. A bridge is 400 m long. A starts at one end of the bridge to cross it and moves with a
velocity 14 ms1. B starts at the other end to cross the bridge and moves with a velocity 6
ms1. After what time after do they meet each other ?
Sol: As A and B start at the opposite ends of the bridge and cross it they meet each other on the
bridge. As they start at the same instant and meet each other at the same instant they travel for
the same time. This statement is generally given in symbols as : Let A and B start at time t = 0.
Let them meet at time t = t. Then each has traveled for a time t.
Let A start at P. Let Q start at R. Let them meet at Q. A B
We draw three conclusions
P R Q
i) A traveled a distance PR = (velocity of A) (t)
ii) B traveled a distance QR = (velocity of B) (t)
iii) PR + QR = PQ, the length of the bridge.
PR = 14t, QR = 6t
PR + RQ = PQ = 400 m gives us 14 t + 6t = 400
20t = 400 m
t = 20 s.
LEVEL I
1. A particle has a velocity 2 ms 1. It is given a uniform acceleration 1 ms 2 for 4s . Find its
displacement in this period.
2. A body moving with some initial velocity is subjected to uniform acceleration of 2 ms 2. Its
displacement is 3 s was found to be 21 m. Find its initial velocity.
3. A particle moving with a velocity of 3 ms 1 is subjected to a uniform acceleration. By the time its
velocity becomes 7 ms1 it was displaced through 40 m. Find its acceleration.
4. A particle moving with a velocity 10 ms 1is subjected to an acceleration 1 ms 2. Find its velocity
after 10 seconds.
5. A body started moving along a straight line, starting from A, with uniform velocity 5 ms 1. After
traveling for 5 s it reached B. At B it was given an acceleration 2 ms 2. It reached C in 4 s. Find
the distance between A and C.
6. A body started moving along a straight line, starting at A, with uniform velocity 10 ms 1. After
traveling for 4 s it reached B. At B it was given a retardation 0.5 ms 2. It reached C after 8 s. Find
the length AC.

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Kinematics
1
7. A body starts from rest and acquires a velocity of 12 ms in 5s. Find its acceleration and the
distance covered assuming the acceleration to be uniform.
8. A body subjected to uniform retardation comes to rest in 5m. The initial velocity is 10 ms 1. What
is the magnitude of retardation ?
9. A body moving with an initial velocity of 100 ms 1 is subjected to uniform acceleration. It traveled
a distance of 1250 m in 10 s under uniform acceleration. Find its uniform acceleration.
10. People are advised to be careful when driving at night. The reason is that the visibility on a clear
night is limited to the distance that can be illuminated by the head lights of the car. The driver
must be able to stop the car within the portion illuminated by the headlights, to be safe.
This distance is determined by the speed of the car and the retardation produced by the brakes.
If the headlights illuminate a distance of 10 m and the brakes of the car produce retardation 5
ms2 then find the maximum speed which is safe for the car.

LEVEL II
1. A runner is running in a 100 m competition. He starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at the
rate 1 ms2 till he covers 72m. After that he covers the rest of the distance with the velocity he
gained.
i. What is the maximum velocity attained ?
ii. What is the total time taken to complete 100 m ?
iii. What is the time taken to cover the first 50 m?
iv. What is the time taken to cover the second 50 m?
2. The length of a train is 300 m. it is to cross a bridge of length 400 m. If the train is traveling at
7 ms1. Find the time taken to cross the bridge.
3. A person starts from his house, walks 600 m due south and then 800 m due west. He completes
his journey in half an hour. Find the magnitude of the velocity in kmph.
total dis tance
4. When a body covers a distance with different velocities then is called the
total time
average velocity over the entire journey. If the path is a straight line then distance =
displacement. Use this information to solve the following problem.
A train travels along straight rails. It covers the first half of the distance between two stations
with a velocity a and the second half with a velocity b. Find the average velocity of the train
between the two stations.
5. A body started from rest and moved with acceleration of 1 ms 2 for 10 s. Then it moved with the
acquired velocity for 4 s. It was retarded and brought to rest in 10 s. Find the total distance
covered by it.
6. A body started from rest with uniform acceleration a. It covered a distance x in the first t
seconds, a distance y in the next t seconds and a distance z in the next t seconds. Find x : y:z.
7. A body starts from rest and travels some distance under uniform acceleration a. It then moves
along the same straight line with uniform retardation 2a. It travels some more distance under

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Kinematics
uniform retardation 2a and comes to rest. The total time of the journey is t. Show that the total
1 2
distance covered in the journey is at .
3
8. A and B are two points one straight line. AB = 45 m and B is to the right of A. Particle P starts
from A towards right at 3 ms1. At the same instant as P starts, another particle Q starts at and
moves to right with uniform acceleration 0.1 ms2.
i) After how many seconds do P and Q meet ?
ii) At what distance from A do they meet ?
9. A car is traveling at 36 kmph. When brakes are applied it stopped in 10 m. What is the
acceleration produced by the brakes ?
10. A body is moving at 20 ms1. It is retarded at 1 ms2. Find the distance covered in 8 s.

KEY TO LEVEL I
1) 16 m 2) 4 ms1 3) 0.5 ms2 4) 20 ms1 5) 41 m
6) 104 m 7) 2.4 ms2, 30 m 8) 10 ms2 9) 5 ms2 10) 10ms1, 36 kmph

KEY TO LEVEL II
1).i)12 ms1 ii)14. 33 s iii)10 s iv)4.33 s. 2)100s 3)2kmph.

2ab
4) 5)140 m 6) 1: 3 : 5 8) i) They meet after 30 s ii)90 m 9)5 ms2
a+b
10)128 ms1

WORK SHEET
1. For a body moving along a circular path the average velocity and average speed can never be
equal. (State this statement is true or false)
2. When a particle moves in a straight line from point A to point B the distance covered is ____ the
magnitude of the displacement.
3. A train covers equal distances in equal intervals of time. It has
a) Uniform acceleration b) uniform velocity c) Uniform speed d) all of the above
4. 129600 km h2 = .. ms2
a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20
5. Under what conditions, the distance and magnitude of displacement are equal?
6. A boy kicks a foot ball horizontally from the roof of a building of height 10 m. If the line joining
the initial position of the football and the point where it hits the ground make an angle of 45 with
the ground, then find the displacement of the football?

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Kinematics
7. A body moving with uniform acceleration covers 24 m in 4 sec and 21 m in the next 2 sec. Find
the initial velocity of the body?
8. If the magnitude of acceleration of a body is zero, can we say the body is moving with uniform
velocity? Explain.
9. A car travelling along a straight road starts from rest and acceleration uniformly at 0.25 ms 2 for
one minute. It then maintains acceleration of 0.5 ms 2 and stops completely. Calculate the
average speed of the car for this journey.
10. Anil went to a mela and took a ride in a gaint wheel having 7 m diameter. He was happy in the
beginning, but when the wheel completed 8 revolutions, he felt uneasy and got down from the
wheel after one more revolution. What was his displacement and the distance travelled?
11. A bus starts from rest with an acceleration of 5 ms 2. A man who is on a motorcycle, 24 m
behind the bus, overtakes the bus in 2 sec. If the motorcyclist moves with uniform velocity, find
his velocity.
12. It it possible for a body undergoing linear motion of have displacement and velocity in opposite
directions? Explain.
13. A river is flowing with a velocity 6 ms 1. A boat can more in still water at a speed of 12 ms 1.
What is the velocity of the boat when it goes, (i) up stream (ii) down stream.
14. A body starts from rest moves with uniform acceleration 6 ms 2. Find the distance covered by it
in 10 sec?
15. A car is moving at 36 kmph. When breaks are applied it stopped in 8m. What is the retaralation
produced by the breakes?

KEY TO WORK SHEET

1) true 2) equal to 3) c 4) b 6) 10 2 mt

7) 3 ms1 9) 14-817 ms1 10) displacement = zero , distance = 179 m 11) 17 ms1

13) (i) 6 ms1 (ii) 18 ms1 14) 300 mt 15) 6.25 ms2

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