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# Centre of Gravity and Stability of Bodies

## CENTRE OF GRAVITY AND STABILITY OF BODIES

Centre of gravity :
Centre of gravity is a point with in a body where whole weight of body is supposed to act. Let
there be an object, consisting of a large number of small particles each weighting w. The weight
of each particles of the body acts vertically downwards.
Thus, the object AB is acted upon by a large number of parallel forces, each equal to w. If
the number of these forces be n, then the resultant W, of all these forces will be equal to their
sum.
i.e. The resultant = w + w + .. + w (n times) = nw
R
or W = n w
The point at which this resultant W acts must be some where within
CG
the object. This point on the body at which the resultant of al parallel
forces acts vertically downwards, due to force of gravity is called the
centre of gravity of the body. w ww w w w
It is easy to find the centre of gravity of a body having uniform density
and simple geometrical shape.
Eg : Centre of gravity of a uniform rod is at its mid point, that of a disc or a sphere is a its centre.
Centre of Gravity of regular bodies :
A body which has a definite geometrical shape and whose density is uniform throughout, will
have its centre of gravity at its geometric centre. If a body is suspended or pivoted at this point it
remains in a balanced state.
i) The centre of gravity of a rectangular or square or a parallelogram lamina is the point of the
intersection of diagonals.

CG CG CG

ii) The centre of gravity of a triangular lamina is the point on the intersection of its medians.

CG

iii) The centre of gravity of a cylinder is a point at the centre of its axis.
axis

Ch
iv) Centre of gravity of a sphere or circular lamina is its geometric centre.

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Centre of Gravity and Stability of Bodies

CG

CG

Boomerang

Stability :
The stability of the state of a body depends upon two factors (a) base area (b) height of C.G.
Stability of the state of a body increases with base area and decreases with the height of C.G.
The principles of stability are utilized in constructing a ship.
Equilibrium :
When a body does not change its state of rest or uniform motion, on the application of one or
more external forces, the body is said to be in equilibrium.
Conditions for complete equilibrium :
a) Resultant of all the linear forces acting on the body should be zero.
b) Resultant of all the turning forces acting on the body should be zero.
Stable equilibrium :
When a body takes a new place on the application of external force, but returns back to its
original position, when external force is removed, the body is said to be in stable equilibrium.
Unstable equilibrium :
When a body takes a new position on the application of external force, but does not return back
to its original position, when external force is removed, the body is said to be in unstable
equilibrium.
Neutral equilibrium :
When a body on the application of deforming force, takes a new place, rather than a new
position and may or may not comes back to its original place, on the removal of external force,
the body is said to be in neutral equilibrium.
Practical examples of equilibrium ;
i) Why does not a boatman allow he passengers to stand in boat, in mid-stream ?
It is because, standing passengers raise the C.G. of system and there is a possibility that
line joining C.G. and C.E. may fall outside the base of boat, when it is pitching and rolling in
water. Thus boat can capsize.
ii) Why are not passengers allowed to sit on the top of a bus or place a heavy luggage on
its top?
It is because it tends to raise the C.G. of system. Thus, when bus goes around sharp curves,
there is a possibility that line joining C.G. and C.E may fall outside the base of bus and
hence it may overturn.

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Centre of Gravity and Stability of Bodies
CENTER OF GRAVITY AND STABILITY OF BODIES:
1. Calculate the distance of C.G. from one of the corners of a lamina in the form of a square of
length 10 cm.
2. A brick has its dimensions 16 cm 6 cm 8 cm 4 cm. Find the ratio of its heights of centres
of gravity, when it has maximum stability and minimum stability.
3. In the above problem, find the ratio of its base areaas when it has maximum stability and
minimum stability.
4. A cylinder has a height of 12 cm and diameter 5 cm. Find the decrease in height of its C.G.
When its position is changed.
5. A road roller is in..
6. If water leaks out from a hole at the bottom of a hollow sphere full of water, then
a) C.G. shifts downwards (b) C.G. moves upwards (c) No. charge in position of C.G (d) C.G.
first shifts down wards and then raises up to original position.
7. Where does the C.G. of a metal sphere lie ?
(a) At its surface (b) at its bottom (c) may lie anywhere (d) at its geometric centre
8. A funnel kept on a table such that it stem and mouth both touch the surface of table, the
equilibrium is
9. The equilibrium of a cricket ball placed on the ground is.
10. The centre of gravity of a carom board striker lies at its. .
11. A man walking on a rope suspended between two vertical poles has equilibrium .
12. The centre of gravity of a body is the point from which the of the body acts.
13. An example of unstable equilibrium is..

KEY
1) 7.07cm 2)1:4 3) 4:1 4) 3.5cm 5) Neutral equilibrium

## 11) unstable 12) weight 13) road roller(or)man walking on a rope

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