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Motors and Generators

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ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1

OUTCOME 3 - TUTORIAL 2

FORMERLY UNIT 21718P

SYLLABUS

3. DC and AC theory

DC electrical principles: Ohm's and Kirchoff's laws; voltage and current dividers; analogue and digital

signals; review of motor and generator principles; fundamental relationships (eg resistance, inductance,

capacitance; series C-R circuit, time constant, charge and discharge curves of capacitors, L-R circuits)

AC circuits: features of AC sinusoidal wave form for voltages and currents; explanation of how other more

complex wave forms are produced from sinusoidal wave forms; R, L, C circuits (eg reactance of R, L and C

components, equivalent impedance and admittance for R-L and R-C circuits); high or low pass filters; power

factor; true and apparent power; resonance for circuits containing a coil and capacitor connected either in

series or parallel; resonant frequency; Q-factor of resonant circuit

Transformers: high and low frequency; transformation ratio; current transformation; unloaded transformer;

input impedance; maximum power transfer; transformer losses

Outcomes and assessment criteria

To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to:

determine distribution of shear force, bending moment and stress due to bending

1 Analyse static in simply supported beams.

engineering systems select standard rolled steel sections for beams and columns to satisfy given

specifications

determine the distribution of shear stress and the angular deflection due to torsion in

circular shafts

2 Analyse dynamic determine the behaviour of dynamic mechanical systems in which uniform

engineering systems acceleration is present

determine the effects of energy transfer in mechanical systems

determine the behaviour of oscillating mechanical systems

solve problems using DC electrical principles

recognise a variety of complex wave forms and explain how they are produced

from sinusoidal wave forms

apply AC theory to the solution of problems on single phase R, L, C circuits and

components

apply AC theory to the solution of problems on transformers

4 Investigate information

and energy control describe the method by which electrical signals convey information

systems describe the methods by which electrical signals control energy flow

select and interface system components to enable chosen system to perform

desired operation

If you are not familiar with the basic theory of alternating electricity, electrostatics and

electromagnetics, you should study the pre-requisite tutorial.

D.J.Dunn 1

INTRODUCTION

Capacitors and Inductors are called reactive electric components because their affect on the flow of

alternating electricity is dependant on the rate of change of voltage and current with time. (Resistors, on

the other hand, (tutorial 1) are passive components and are unaffected by changes to the current).

PART 1. CAPACITORS

Stores static electricity in the form of electrons with a charge Q

Stores energy

Block the flow of direct current.

Apparently allow the flow of A.C.

1. BASIC CONSTRUCTION

an insulating material called a dielectric. There are many

types for a variety of purposes but the basic theory is the

same for all. A is the area of the plates and d the distance

between them.

CAPACITANCE

When a voltage difference exists between the plates, electrons are forced off one and onto the other. The

plate with excess electrons is hence negatively charged with static electricity and the plate with a

deficiency of electrons is positively charged. The charge Q stored on a pair of plates depends upon the

voltage and the physical dimensions and properties of the plates and dielectric. For a given capacitor it is

found that charge is directly proportional to voltage such that

Q = CV

The constant C is the CAPACITANCE. Capacitance is measured in Farads (F) but this is a small unit so

we use the following multiples.

2. CAPACITOR SYMBOLS

3. ELECTROSTATIC THEORY

Each electron carries a negative quantity of energy of 1.6 x 10-19 Joules per volt. If a plate has excess

electrons it has a negative charge and if it loses electrons it becomes positively charged.

Plates which have opposite charge attract each other. Plates with a similar charge repel each other. These

forces are electrostatic forces.

ELECTRIC FIELD E

ELECTRIC FLUX

Electric flux is the charge that exists in common between two plates. It is expressed as the charge per

square meter of common plate area. It is defined as follows.

Electric flux density = D = Q/A Coulombs/m2

D.J.Dunn 2

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD AND FLUX

It is found that for a given capacitor, the electric flux is directly proportional to the electric field.

D = constant x E and D = Q/A E = V/d so substituting we get:-

The ratio or constant is changed if a different dielectric is used. If a vacuum separates the plates it is

found that D/E = Qd/AV = 8.85 x 10-12

This constant is called the ABSOLUTE PERMITTIVITY of free space and is denoted as o.

o =8.85 x 10-12

For other materials the constant is different. In order to take this into account the following formula is

used.

D/E = Qd/AV = constant = o r

r is a multiplier which states how many more times the constant is than when it is a vacuum. r is called

the RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY. Here are some values of r.

MATERIAL r

Free Space 1.000

Air 1.006

Paper 2 approx.

Glass 7 approx.

Mica 4 approx.

Ceramic 6 approx.

Plastics various

We said that D/E = Qd/AV = or so it follows that the capacitance C is given by:

C = Q/V = (A/d)o r

We put this in more simple terms by saying that capacitance is directly proportional to area but inversely

proportional to the gap d. It also depends upon the relative permittivity of the dielectric.

1. Calculate the charge stored on a capacitor of value 200 F when 50 V are applied to the plates.

(0.01 Coulomb)

3. Calculate the Voltage required to store 20 Coulombs in a capacitor of value 50 F. (400 kV)

4. An overhead cable is 30 m from the ground at a potential difference of 20 kV to the ground. Calculate

the electric field strength and the theoretical voltage at a height of 2 m from the ground.

(666.7V/m and 1333 V)

glass. (77 pF)

The plates are charged to 100 V and left isolated. the glass is removed and air replaces it. What

happens to the voltage on the plates?

D.J.Dunn 3

4. ENERGY STORED

A charge of 1 Coulomb carries energy of 1 Joule for each volt. The energy in a charge is hence QV.

When a capacitor is charged, the voltage has to build up from 0 to V so the average voltage is V/2. The

energy stored is hence QV/2. Substituting Q=CV the energy stored in a capacitor is hence

CV 2

E =

2

5. NETWORKS

CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL

voltage is the same on each one. The charge stored on each is

Q1 = C1 V Q2 = C2 V Q3 = C3 V

The total charge stored QT = Q1 +Q2 +Q3

QT = C1 V +C2 V +C3 V = V(C1 +C2 +C3)

We define QT as CTV where CT is the total capacitance so it follows that

CT =(C1 +C2 +C3)

It follows that capacitors in parallel are added together.

CAPACITORS IN SERIES

total but the voltage on each one is V1, V2 and V3.

Since the movement of electrons must be the same onto and off all

the plates, the charge stored on each capacitor is the same and

equal to the total charge.

QT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Q

V = QT /CT and V1 = Q1 /C1 V2= Q2 /C2 and V3 =Q3 /C3

Since V = V1 + V2 + V3 then Q /CT = Q/C1 + Q /C2 + Q/C3

Cancelling Q we have 1 /CT = 1/C1 + 1 /C2 + 1/C3

Hence CT = 1/(1/C1 + 1 /C2 + 1/C3)

Note that capacitors in series follow the same rule as resistors in parallel.

COMBINATION

following example shows this. Solve the total capacitance and the voltage

across the 20 F capacitor.

Cp = 100 + 70 = 170 F

Next solve this in series with the 20.

CT = 1/(1/20 + 1/170) = 1/0.05588 = 17.89 F

Next solve the charge Q = CT V = 17.89 x 10-6 x 20 = 357.9 x 10-6 Coulomb

The charge is the same on all series capacitors so the charge on the 20 F is the same.

Q = 357.9 x 10-6 = 20 x 10-6 x V hence V = 17.89 V

D.J.Dunn 4

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 2

Solve the total capacitance and the voltage on the 30F capacitor. (9.167 F and 6.11 V)

D.J.Dunn 5

PART 2 REVIEW OF MOTOR AND GENERATOR PRINCIPLES

As stated, this is a review and the students who are not familiar with basic electrical science should study

the prerequisite material first.

These can be detected by a compass needle and

the pattern around a bar magnet is as shown. Flux

is measured in Weber (Wb).

with the cross sectional area A. The flux density is

defined as

B = /A

The concept of flux density can be applied to any flux flowing through an area A.

It is found that flux in an electro-magnet is directly proportional to the current i, the number of turns n and

inversely proportional to the length of the magnetic path l . This means that i n/l is a constant for a given

electro magnet and this is called the Magnetising force H

H = Magnetising Force

in

H= (Ampere turns per metre)

l

The length of the magnetic circuit is often difficult to see because often the

flux flows through the surrounding air as well as the core. If the coil is wound

on a toroid the flux is entirely within the core and the length is the

circumference.

When the coil is wound on a core with no magnetic properties the ratio of B/H has a constant value called

the absolute permeability of free space symbol o

If the material has any magnetic properties (usually iron based but other materials also) the ratio is

dramatically changed by and the relative permeability r is introduced to correct the values.

B/H = o r

D.J.Dunn 6

2. MOTOR PRINCIPLE

Consider a conductor placed in a gap between the poles of a magnet. When current passes through the

conductor, the circular lines of magnetism around it react with the straight lines from the magnet and

produce a force on the conductor.

The lines of magnetism between the north and south poles would rather pass over the top of the conductor

because both lines are in the same direction on top. The lines behave like elastic bands and force the

conductor down. If the direction of either the current or the magnetic field is reversed, the force will act

up.

The force on the conductor is directly proportional to the current I (Amperes), the magnetic flux density B

(Tesla) and the length of the conductor within the flux l (metres). It follows that

1. The diagram shows a conductor 60 mm long carrying 12 Amperes in a flux of density 120 Tesla.

Calculate the force acting on it and determine the direction of the force. (86.4 N left to right)

2. The diagram shows a conductor 80 mm long carrying 5 Amperes in a flux of density 20 Tesla.

Calculate the force acting on it and the direction in which it moves. (8N Right to left)

D.J.Dunn 7

3. THE GENERATOR PRINCIPLE

When a conductor is made to pass through a magnetic field, a voltage is generated in it. This voltage will

be reduced slightly by the resistance of the conductor so we talk about the theoretical voltage as though

the conductor had no resistance and this is called the ELECTRO MOTIVE FORCE or EMF with a

symbol E for a constant value and e for an instantaneous value (when it is changing with time).

B, the velocity v and the length of conductor within

the flux l. The following is known as the generator

equation.

e=Blv

The direction of the current generated is found from Flemings Right Hand Rule. Point the index finger of

your right hand in the direction of the flux (North to South). Point your thumb in the direction of the

velocity. Bend over the second finger and it points the direction of the current.

1. The diagram shows a conductor moving through a flux. The length is 80 mm and the flux density is

2 Tesla. The velocity is 12 m/s. Calculate the emf produced and the direction of the current.

(1.92 V into the page)

2. The diagram shows a conductor moving through a flux. The length is 100 mm and the flux density is

1.8 Tesla. The velocity is 2 m/s. Calculate the emf produced and the direction of the current.

(0.36 V out of page)

D.J.Dunn 8

4. INDUCTORS

electric circuit is called an inductor. In this section we shall how the

property of an inductor is used to influence the flow of current.

Symbols

Inductors react to alternating current because of the electro-magnetic fields generated. They are basically

a coil of conducting material wound on a former and they may be very small or very large.

flowing. You should know that the current produces

a magnetic field around the coil. If the current varies,

then the magnetic flux varies and so the flux grows,

then shrinks and then grows in the opposite sense.

Since the lines of flux are cutting the turns on the

coil, they must generate a back emf in the coil. This

emf opposes the flow of the applied current (Lenz's

Law).

make the current flow hence there appears to be a

resistance to the flow of current but this is not

resistance it is called REACTANCE.

The rate of change of flux is hence directly proportional to the rate of change of current. d/dt = kdi/dt

The back emf is hence e = - nk di/dt

For a given inductor nk is a constant called the INDUCTANCE with the symbol L.

The units of inductance are Henries (H). The base unit is very large and mH or H are more common.

B = Flux density = /A

H = Magnetising Force = i n/l

n is the number of turns again and l is the length of the magnetic circuit.

(/i) = k o r = k l /An

k = L/n o r = L l /An2

L = o r An2/ l

This is a theoretical formula for the inductance of a coil.

D.J.Dunn 9

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 1

A coil is 250 mm long and 25 mm diameter with 1500 turns on it. The core material has a relative

permeability of 420.

A current is made to vary in the coil at 300 A/s. Calculate the back emf.

SOLUTION

L = o r An2/ l

A = x 0.0252/4 = 490.87 x 10 -6 m2.

l =0.25 m

Suppose the current in an inductor is increased uniformly from 0 to i Amps in time t seconds. The rate of

change of current is constant so di/dt = i/t and the emf required is Ldi/dt = Li/t

The power grows from zero to (V i) in time t so the energy stored is the mean power x time

1. An inductor is wound on a toroid 50 mm mean diameter and a round cross section 10 mm diameter.

There are 300 turns and the relative permeability is 500. Calculate the inductance. (28 mH)

2. Calculate the energy stored in an inductor of value 1.7 H when 5 Amps flow. (21.25 J)

3. An inductor stores 5 Joules when 2 A flow in it. Calculate the inductance value. (2.5 H)

D.J.Dunn 10

PART 3 TIME CONSTANT FOR SERIES CIRCUITS

When a capacitor is charged, it does not happen instantaneously and the time taken to charge it to a given

voltage depends on the resistance in the circuit. This gives rise to a time constant for the circuit. In the

same way when a current is passed through an inductor, it takes time for the current to grow to a

maximum and this also depends on the resistance in the circuit. Another time constant results for this

circuit. This section shows the derivation of these time constants but the result is fairly easy to deal with.

The circuit shows a capacitor in series with a resistor and a DC source. When the switch is in position 1,

the battery will send current through the resistor and charge the capacitor. The voltage VC is initially zero

and the voltage VR is the same as VS so the capacitor charges at a fast rate. As the capacitor charges, the

voltage VC increases and VR decreases and the current reduces until the VC = VS and the current is zero.

The capacitor is then charged to VS.

rushes out of the capacitor through the resistor,

dissipating all the energy as heat until no current

flows and VC = VR = 0.

how the current and voltage vary with time. There

are many ways of doing this but here we use

straight forward algebra and basic calculus.

TIME CONSTANT

We call the product RC the time constant and denote it T. If you refer to the absolute basic units of

Farads and Ohms you will see that the units are indeed seconds.

CHARGING

The current heat flows from the source a rate i amps through the resistor and into the capacitor.

Q

Current is the rate of charge with time so i =

t

V

The voltage across the resistor is VR = i R i = R .

R

VR Q

Equating we have =

R t

Over an infinitesimally small change in time this becomes the calculus form

VR dQ dQ

= hence VR = R .(A)

R dt dt

For the capacitor, the we know Q = CVC

For a small change Q = CVC

For an infinitesimally small change dQ = C dVC .(B)

dV

Substitute (B) into (A) VR = RC C

dt

VC = VS VR hence (VS VC ) = RC dVC

dt

This equation tells us how VC varies with time t but in order to use it, we must solve it.

dV

In order to find T we must solve the equation (VS VC ) = T C

dt

Let VS VC = x Differentiate and since VS is a constant we find -dVC = dx

D.J.Dunn 11

dx dt dx

The equation becomes x = T x Rearranging =

dt T x

t

1 dx

Integrating dt = = [ln x ]

T0 x

The limits become clear when we substitute x = VS VC

t

1 dx t

dt = = [ln (VS VC )]0 C = [ln (VS VC ) ln (VS )]

V

T0 x T

t

t V VC V VC

= ln S = ln1 Take antilogs and e T

= 1

T VS VS VS

t

Rearrange VC = VS 1 - e T

This relates the voltage over the capacitor to time from the moment when the switch is thrown to

position 1.

DISCHARGING

When the switch is thrown to position 2

the voltage over the capacitor is VS at t =

0 and if the derivation is repeated with the

correct limits of integration we find the

relationship is:

t

VC = VSe T

seconds and VS = 10 V.

Note the voltage across the resistor is VS VC so the same graphs represent VR if we switched the labels.

t

Consider the charging curve. T

VC = VS 1 - e

The rate of change of voltage at any time is the gradient of the curve and simply obtained by

differentiating.

dVC VS T

t

= e

dt T

dVC VS

Consider that at t = 0 (the start of the process) = (Remember that e0 = 1)

dt T

voltage would become VS after T seconds as

illustrated on the graph.

the maximum value if the initial rate of

change is maintained. In other words it is

where the initial gradient intercepts the final

value as shown.

D.J.Dunn 12

Another meaning is obtained by examining the value after T seconds. Putting t = T we have

t

VC = VS 1 - e = VS (1 - e 1 ) = 0.633 VS So the time constant is the time taken to change by 63.3% of the

T

final value. This is useful when finding T from a graph.

If calculate the voltage at t = 4T we find V = 98.2%VS and this is taken as another definition of T.

A Capacitance of 200 F is connected in series with a resistor of 20 k. The voltage across the

network is suddenly changed from 0V to 10V.

Calculate the time constant T and deduce the time taken for the voltage on the capacitor to rise to 5V.

SOLUTION

V =5 = 10(1 e-t/4 )

0.5 =(1 e-t/4 )

0.5 = e-t/4

ln(0.5) = -t/4

-0.693 = -t/4

t = 2.77 s when V = 5 V

resistor across the terminal.

Calculate the time constant T and deduce the time taken for the voltage on the capacitor to fall to 1V.

SOLUTION

V =1 = 50e-t/20

1/50 = e-t/20

ln(1/50) = -t/20

-3.912 = -t/20

t = 78.24 s when V = 1 V

D.J.Dunn 13

2 CHARGE DISCHARGE OF AN INDUCTOR

When a resistor is connected in series with an inductor we get a similar charging and discharging effect.

When the switch is thrown to position 1 there is a rush of current. At this moment the rate of change of

current di/dt is a maximum so we get maximum back emf on the inductor. After a time the current settles

down to a maximum value of I = Vs/R so Vs = IR

VR = iR

VL = L di/dt

di

VS = iR + L

dt

di

IR = iR + L

dt

di

R(I i) = L

dt

L di

(I i) =

R dt

If we examined the units of L/R we would find that this is seconds and L/R is the time constant T for the

circuit.

di di

(I i) = T dt = T

dt Ii

If we substitute x = I i then dx = -di

t

dx dx

dt = T t = T[lnx ] = T[ln(I i )]0

i

dt = T

x 0

x

t I-i i

= ln(I i) ln(I) = ln = ln1

T I I

Take antilogs

t

i i

t

t

V

t

e T

= 1 = 1 e T T

i = I1 e = 1 e T

I I R

This relates the current flowing in the circuit to time and the result is a current that rises fast and then

levels off at the constant value. The graph shows the result for V = 10 V, R = 0.5 and L = 2H giving

T = 4 seconds (The values are not practical and only used to illustrate the result)

The time constant may be defined as the time taken to reach 63.3% of the maximum current. Pure

inductance is impossible and inductors always have some resistance in the conductor. Circuits usually

show a practical inductor as a pure inductance in series with a resistance. In items like transformers, the

resistance of the coil can be quite high.

D.J.Dunn 14

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 4

Calculate the time constant.

What is the steady state current when 20 V is applied across it?

What is the current 0.02 s after the voltage is suddenly changed from zero to 20 V?

SOLUTION

I = V/R = 20/0.3 = 66.7 A

t

0.02

i = I1 e T = 66.71 e 0.013 = 51.8 A

1. Calculate the time constant for an RC circuit with a resistance of 220 and capacitance of 470 nF in

series.

(103 s)

2. Calculate the time constant for a series R L circuit with an inductance of 6 H and resistance

0.02 . (3 ms)

Calculate the charge stored. (0.024 Coulomb)

Calculate the energy stored. (0.144 J)

Calculate time taken to discharge to 1 V (0.025 s)

4. An inductor with inductance 60 mH and resistance 0.7 suddenly has 2V connected across it.

Calculate the steady state current. (2.857A)

Calculate the energy stored and power dissipated. (0.245 J and 5.714 W)

Calculate the time taken for the current to rise to 0.5 A. (16 ms)

D.J.Dunn 15

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