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EDEXCEL HNC/D

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1

OUTCOME 3 - TUTORIAL 2

EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1


FORMERLY UNIT 21718P
SYLLABUS

3. DC and AC theory
DC electrical principles: Ohm's and Kirchoff's laws; voltage and current dividers; analogue and digital
signals; review of motor and generator principles; fundamental relationships (eg resistance, inductance,
capacitance; series C-R circuit, time constant, charge and discharge curves of capacitors, L-R circuits)
AC circuits: features of AC sinusoidal wave form for voltages and currents; explanation of how other more
complex wave forms are produced from sinusoidal wave forms; R, L, C circuits (eg reactance of R, L and C
components, equivalent impedance and admittance for R-L and R-C circuits); high or low pass filters; power
factor; true and apparent power; resonance for circuits containing a coil and capacitor connected either in
series or parallel; resonant frequency; Q-factor of resonant circuit
Transformers: high and low frequency; transformation ratio; current transformation; unloaded transformer;
input impedance; maximum power transfer; transformer losses
Outcomes and assessment criteria

Outcomes Assessment criteria for pass


To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to:

determine distribution of shear force, bending moment and stress due to bending
1 Analyse static in simply supported beams.
engineering systems select standard rolled steel sections for beams and columns to satisfy given
specifications
determine the distribution of shear stress and the angular deflection due to torsion in
circular shafts

2 Analyse dynamic determine the behaviour of dynamic mechanical systems in which uniform
engineering systems acceleration is present
determine the effects of energy transfer in mechanical systems
determine the behaviour of oscillating mechanical systems

3 Apply DC and AC theory


solve problems using DC electrical principles
recognise a variety of complex wave forms and explain how they are produced
from sinusoidal wave forms
apply AC theory to the solution of problems on single phase R, L, C circuits and
components
apply AC theory to the solution of problems on transformers
4 Investigate information
and energy control describe the method by which electrical signals convey information
systems describe the methods by which electrical signals control energy flow
select and interface system components to enable chosen system to perform
desired operation

If you are not familiar with the basic theory of alternating electricity, electrostatics and
electromagnetics, you should study the pre-requisite tutorial.

D.J.Dunn 1
INTRODUCTION

Capacitors and Inductors are called reactive electric components because their affect on the flow of
alternating electricity is dependant on the rate of change of voltage and current with time. (Resistors, on
the other hand, (tutorial 1) are passive components and are unaffected by changes to the current).

PART 1. CAPACITORS

Capacitors are devices which


Stores static electricity in the form of electrons with a charge Q
Stores energy
Block the flow of direct current.
Apparently allow the flow of A.C.

1. BASIC CONSTRUCTION

Capacitors are basically two parallel plates separated by


an insulating material called a dielectric. There are many
types for a variety of purposes but the basic theory is the
same for all. A is the area of the plates and d the distance
between them.

CAPACITANCE
When a voltage difference exists between the plates, electrons are forced off one and onto the other. The
plate with excess electrons is hence negatively charged with static electricity and the plate with a
deficiency of electrons is positively charged. The charge Q stored on a pair of plates depends upon the
voltage and the physical dimensions and properties of the plates and dielectric. For a given capacitor it is
found that charge is directly proportional to voltage such that

Q = CV
The constant C is the CAPACITANCE. Capacitance is measured in Farads (F) but this is a small unit so
we use the following multiples.

mF = F x 10-3 F = F x 10 -6 nF = F x 10-9 pF = F x 10-12

2. CAPACITOR SYMBOLS

3. ELECTROSTATIC THEORY

Each electron carries a negative quantity of energy of 1.6 x 10-19 Joules per volt. If a plate has excess
electrons it has a negative charge and if it loses electrons it becomes positively charged.

Plates which have opposite charge attract each other. Plates with a similar charge repel each other. These
forces are electrostatic forces.

ELECTRIC FIELD E

The electric field strength is defined as = E = V/d Volts/metre

ELECTRIC FLUX

Electric flux is the charge that exists in common between two plates. It is expressed as the charge per
square meter of common plate area. It is defined as follows.
Electric flux density = D = Q/A Coulombs/m2
D.J.Dunn 2
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC FIELD AND FLUX

It is found that for a given capacitor, the electric flux is directly proportional to the electric field.
D = constant x E and D = Q/A E = V/d so substituting we get:-

D/E = Constant = (Q/A)/(V/d) Q d/A V = constant

The ratio or constant is changed if a different dielectric is used. If a vacuum separates the plates it is
found that D/E = Qd/AV = 8.85 x 10-12

This constant is called the ABSOLUTE PERMITTIVITY of free space and is denoted as o.
o =8.85 x 10-12
For other materials the constant is different. In order to take this into account the following formula is
used.
D/E = Qd/AV = constant = o r
r is a multiplier which states how many more times the constant is than when it is a vacuum. r is called
the RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY. Here are some values of r.

MATERIAL r
Free Space 1.000
Air 1.006
Paper 2 approx.
Glass 7 approx.
Mica 4 approx.
Ceramic 6 approx.
Plastics various

We said that D/E = Qd/AV = or so it follows that the capacitance C is given by:
C = Q/V = (A/d)o r
We put this in more simple terms by saying that capacitance is directly proportional to area but inversely
proportional to the gap d. It also depends upon the relative permittivity of the dielectric.

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 1

1. Calculate the charge stored on a capacitor of value 200 F when 50 V are applied to the plates.
(0.01 Coulomb)

2. Calculate the value of a capacitor which stores 5 Coulombs at 20 V. (0.25 F)

3. Calculate the Voltage required to store 20 Coulombs in a capacitor of value 50 F. (400 kV)

4. An overhead cable is 30 m from the ground at a potential difference of 20 kV to the ground. Calculate
the electric field strength and the theoretical voltage at a height of 2 m from the ground.
(666.7V/m and 1333 V)

5. Calculate the capacitance of two parallel square plates 50 mm x 50 mm when separated by 2 mm of


glass. (77 pF)
The plates are charged to 100 V and left isolated. the glass is removed and air replaces it. What
happens to the voltage on the plates?

D.J.Dunn 3
4. ENERGY STORED

A charge of 1 Coulomb carries energy of 1 Joule for each volt. The energy in a charge is hence QV.
When a capacitor is charged, the voltage has to build up from 0 to V so the average voltage is V/2. The
energy stored is hence QV/2. Substituting Q=CV the energy stored in a capacitor is hence
CV 2
E =
2
5. NETWORKS

CAPACITORS IN PARALLEL

Consider three capacitors C1, C2 and C3 connected in parallel as shown. The


voltage is the same on each one. The charge stored on each is

Q1 = C1 V Q2 = C2 V Q3 = C3 V
The total charge stored QT = Q1 +Q2 +Q3
QT = C1 V +C2 V +C3 V = V(C1 +C2 +C3)
We define QT as CTV where CT is the total capacitance so it follows that
CT =(C1 +C2 +C3)
It follows that capacitors in parallel are added together.

CAPACITORS IN SERIES

Consider three capacitors in series with a voltage V across the


total but the voltage on each one is V1, V2 and V3.

Since the movement of electrons must be the same onto and off all
the plates, the charge stored on each capacitor is the same and
equal to the total charge.

QT = Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Q
V = QT /CT and V1 = Q1 /C1 V2= Q2 /C2 and V3 =Q3 /C3
Since V = V1 + V2 + V3 then Q /CT = Q/C1 + Q /C2 + Q/C3
Cancelling Q we have 1 /CT = 1/C1 + 1 /C2 + 1/C3
Hence CT = 1/(1/C1 + 1 /C2 + 1/C3)

Note that capacitors in series follow the same rule as resistors in parallel.

COMBINATION

Solving capacitor networks is similar to solving resistor networks. The


following example shows this. Solve the total capacitance and the voltage
across the 20 F capacitor.

First solve the parallel capacitors.


Cp = 100 + 70 = 170 F
Next solve this in series with the 20.
CT = 1/(1/20 + 1/170) = 1/0.05588 = 17.89 F
Next solve the charge Q = CT V = 17.89 x 10-6 x 20 = 357.9 x 10-6 Coulomb
The charge is the same on all series capacitors so the charge on the 20 F is the same.
Q = 357.9 x 10-6 = 20 x 10-6 x V hence V = 17.89 V
D.J.Dunn 4
SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 2

Solve the total capacitance and the voltage on the 30F capacitor. (9.167 F and 6.11 V)

D.J.Dunn 5
PART 2 REVIEW OF MOTOR AND GENERATOR PRINCIPLES

As stated, this is a review and the students who are not familiar with basic electrical science should study
the prerequisite material first.

1. REVISION OF BASIC ELECTRO - MAGNETISM.

MAGNETIC FLUX - and FLUX DENSITY - B

Magnetism produces lines of force known as flux.


These can be detected by a compass needle and
the pattern around a bar magnet is as shown. Flux
is measured in Weber (Wb).

The flux flows through the core of the magnet


with the cross sectional area A. The flux density is
defined as
B = /A

The units are Tesla (T) 1 T = 1 Wb/m2

The concept of flux density can be applied to any flux flowing through an area A.

It is found that flux in an electro-magnet is directly proportional to the current i, the number of turns n and
inversely proportional to the length of the magnetic path l . This means that i n/l is a constant for a given
electro magnet and this is called the Magnetising force H
H = Magnetising Force
in
H= (Ampere turns per metre)
l

The length of the magnetic circuit is often difficult to see because often the
flux flows through the surrounding air as well as the core. If the coil is wound
on a toroid the flux is entirely within the core and the length is the
circumference.

When the coil is wound on a core with no magnetic properties the ratio of B/H has a constant value called
the absolute permeability of free space symbol o

B/H = o=12.5 x 10-7.

If the material has any magnetic properties (usually iron based but other materials also) the ratio is
dramatically changed by and the relative permeability r is introduced to correct the values.

B/H = o r

D.J.Dunn 6
2. MOTOR PRINCIPLE

Consider a conductor placed in a gap between the poles of a magnet. When current passes through the
conductor, the circular lines of magnetism around it react with the straight lines from the magnet and
produce a force on the conductor.

The lines of magnetism between the north and south poles would rather pass over the top of the conductor
because both lines are in the same direction on top. The lines behave like elastic bands and force the
conductor down. If the direction of either the current or the magnetic field is reversed, the force will act
up.

The force on the conductor is directly proportional to the current I (Amperes), the magnetic flux density B
(Tesla) and the length of the conductor within the flux l (metres). It follows that

F=BlI This is the important equation for the force on a conductor.

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 3

1. The diagram shows a conductor 60 mm long carrying 12 Amperes in a flux of density 120 Tesla.
Calculate the force acting on it and determine the direction of the force. (86.4 N left to right)

2. The diagram shows a conductor 80 mm long carrying 5 Amperes in a flux of density 20 Tesla.
Calculate the force acting on it and the direction in which it moves. (8N Right to left)

D.J.Dunn 7
3. THE GENERATOR PRINCIPLE

When a conductor is made to pass through a magnetic field, a voltage is generated in it. This voltage will
be reduced slightly by the resistance of the conductor so we talk about the theoretical voltage as though
the conductor had no resistance and this is called the ELECTRO MOTIVE FORCE or EMF with a
symbol E for a constant value and e for an instantaneous value (when it is changing with time).

The EMF is directly proportional to the flux density


B, the velocity v and the length of conductor within
the flux l. The following is known as the generator
equation.

e=Blv

The direction of the current generated is found from Flemings Right Hand Rule. Point the index finger of
your right hand in the direction of the flux (North to South). Point your thumb in the direction of the
velocity. Bend over the second finger and it points the direction of the current.

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 4

1. The diagram shows a conductor moving through a flux. The length is 80 mm and the flux density is
2 Tesla. The velocity is 12 m/s. Calculate the emf produced and the direction of the current.
(1.92 V into the page)

2. The diagram shows a conductor moving through a flux. The length is 100 mm and the flux density is
1.8 Tesla. The velocity is 2 m/s. Calculate the emf produced and the direction of the current.
(0.36 V out of page)

D.J.Dunn 8
4. INDUCTORS

Any coil of wire is an inductor. A coil made specifically for an


electric circuit is called an inductor. In this section we shall how the
property of an inductor is used to influence the flow of current.

Symbols

Inductors react to alternating current because of the electro-magnetic fields generated. They are basically
a coil of conducting material wound on a former and they may be very small or very large.

Consider a coil in which alternating current is


flowing. You should know that the current produces
a magnetic field around the coil. If the current varies,
then the magnetic flux varies and so the flux grows,
then shrinks and then grows in the opposite sense.
Since the lines of flux are cutting the turns on the
coil, they must generate a back emf in the coil. This
emf opposes the flow of the applied current (Lenz's
Law).

Faradays law gives the back emf e = - n d/dt

An equal and opposite voltage must be applied to


make the current flow hence there appears to be a
resistance to the flow of current but this is not
resistance it is called REACTANCE.

The flux is directly proportional to current. = k i


The rate of change of flux is hence directly proportional to the rate of change of current. d/dt = kdi/dt
The back emf is hence e = - nk di/dt

For a given inductor nk is a constant called the INDUCTANCE with the symbol L.

k = L/n hence e = - L di/dt

The units of inductance are Henries (H). The base unit is very large and mH or H are more common.

In the last section we had B/H = o r


B = Flux density = /A
H = Magnetising Force = i n/l
n is the number of turns again and l is the length of the magnetic circuit.

B/H = o r = l /(Ai n) = (/i) (l /An)

(/i) = k o r = k l /An

k = L/n o r = L l /An2

L = o r An2/ l
This is a theoretical formula for the inductance of a coil.

D.J.Dunn 9
WORKED EXAMPLE No. 1

A coil is 250 mm long and 25 mm diameter with 1500 turns on it. The core material has a relative
permeability of 420.

Determine the inductance given o= 12.5 x 10-7.

A current is made to vary in the coil at 300 A/s. Calculate the back emf.

SOLUTION

L = o r An2/ l
A = x 0.0252/4 = 490.87 x 10 -6 m2.
l =0.25 m

L = 12.5 x 10-7 x 420 x 90.87 x 10 -6 x 15002/0.25 = 2.33 Henries

e = - L di/dt = - 2.33 x 300 == -700 Volts

5. ENERGY STORED IN AN INDUCTOR

Suppose the current in an inductor is increased uniformly from 0 to i Amps in time t seconds. The rate of
change of current is constant so di/dt = i/t and the emf required is Ldi/dt = Li/t

The power grows from zero to (V i) in time t so the energy stored is the mean power x time

E = V i t/2 Substitute V = Li/t and the energy stored is E = L i2/2

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 5

1. An inductor is wound on a toroid 50 mm mean diameter and a round cross section 10 mm diameter.
There are 300 turns and the relative permeability is 500. Calculate the inductance. (28 mH)

2. Calculate the energy stored in an inductor of value 1.7 H when 5 Amps flow. (21.25 J)

3. An inductor stores 5 Joules when 2 A flow in it. Calculate the inductance value. (2.5 H)

D.J.Dunn 10
PART 3 TIME CONSTANT FOR SERIES CIRCUITS

When a capacitor is charged, it does not happen instantaneously and the time taken to charge it to a given
voltage depends on the resistance in the circuit. This gives rise to a time constant for the circuit. In the
same way when a current is passed through an inductor, it takes time for the current to grow to a
maximum and this also depends on the resistance in the circuit. Another time constant results for this
circuit. This section shows the derivation of these time constants but the result is fairly easy to deal with.

1. CHARGE DISCHARGE OF A CAPACITOR

The circuit shows a capacitor in series with a resistor and a DC source. When the switch is in position 1,
the battery will send current through the resistor and charge the capacitor. The voltage VC is initially zero
and the voltage VR is the same as VS so the capacitor charges at a fast rate. As the capacitor charges, the
voltage VC increases and VR decreases and the current reduces until the VC = VS and the current is zero.
The capacitor is then charged to VS.

If the switch is moved to position 2, the charge


rushes out of the capacitor through the resistor,
dissipating all the energy as heat until no current
flows and VC = VR = 0.

We need to look at the mathematics of this to see


how the current and voltage vary with time. There
are many ways of doing this but here we use
straight forward algebra and basic calculus.

TIME CONSTANT

We call the product RC the time constant and denote it T. If you refer to the absolute basic units of
Farads and Ohms you will see that the units are indeed seconds.

CHARGING
The current heat flows from the source a rate i amps through the resistor and into the capacitor.
Q
Current is the rate of charge with time so i =
t
V
The voltage across the resistor is VR = i R i = R .
R
VR Q
Equating we have =
R t
Over an infinitesimally small change in time this becomes the calculus form
VR dQ dQ
= hence VR = R .(A)
R dt dt
For the capacitor, the we know Q = CVC
For a small change Q = CVC
For an infinitesimally small change dQ = C dVC .(B)
dV
Substitute (B) into (A) VR = RC C
dt
VC = VS VR hence (VS VC ) = RC dVC
dt
This equation tells us how VC varies with time t but in order to use it, we must solve it.
dV
In order to find T we must solve the equation (VS VC ) = T C
dt
Let VS VC = x Differentiate and since VS is a constant we find -dVC = dx

D.J.Dunn 11
dx dt dx
The equation becomes x = T x Rearranging =
dt T x
t
1 dx
Integrating dt = = [ln x ]
T0 x
The limits become clear when we substitute x = VS VC
t
1 dx t
dt = = [ln (VS VC )]0 C = [ln (VS VC ) ln (VS )]
V

T0 x T
t
t V VC V VC
= ln S = ln1 Take antilogs and e T
= 1
T VS VS VS

t
Rearrange VC = VS 1 - e T

This relates the voltage over the capacitor to time from the moment when the switch is thrown to
position 1.

DISCHARGING
When the switch is thrown to position 2
the voltage over the capacitor is VS at t =
0 and if the derivation is repeated with the
correct limits of integration we find the
relationship is:
t

VC = VSe T

The graph shows the result for T = 2


seconds and VS = 10 V.

Note the voltage across the resistor is VS VC so the same graphs represent VR if we switched the labels.

THE MEANING OF THE TIME CONSTANT



t
Consider the charging curve. T
VC = VS 1 - e

The rate of change of voltage at any time is the gradient of the curve and simply obtained by
differentiating.
dVC VS T
t
= e

dt T
dVC VS
Consider that at t = 0 (the start of the process) = (Remember that e0 = 1)
dt T

If the change continued at this rate, the


voltage would become VS after T seconds as
illustrated on the graph.

We could define T as the time taken to reach


the maximum value if the initial rate of
change is maintained. In other words it is
where the initial gradient intercepts the final
value as shown.

D.J.Dunn 12
Another meaning is obtained by examining the value after T seconds. Putting t = T we have

t
VC = VS 1 - e = VS (1 - e 1 ) = 0.633 VS So the time constant is the time taken to change by 63.3% of the
T


final value. This is useful when finding T from a graph.

If calculate the voltage at t = 4T we find V = 98.2%VS and this is taken as another definition of T.

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 2

A Capacitance of 200 F is connected in series with a resistor of 20 k. The voltage across the
network is suddenly changed from 0V to 10V.

Calculate the time constant T and deduce the time taken for the voltage on the capacitor to rise to 5V.

SOLUTION

T = RC = 20 x 103 x 200 x 10-6 = 4 seconds


V =5 = 10(1 e-t/4 )
0.5 =(1 e-t/4 )
0.5 = e-t/4
ln(0.5) = -t/4
-0.693 = -t/4
t = 2.77 s when V = 5 V

WORKED EXAMPLE No. 3

A Capacitance of 10 F is charged up to 50V. The capacitor is discharged by connecting a 2 M


resistor across the terminal.
Calculate the time constant T and deduce the time taken for the voltage on the capacitor to fall to 1V.

SOLUTION

T = RC = 2 x 106 x 10 x 10-6 = 20 seconds


V =1 = 50e-t/20
1/50 = e-t/20
ln(1/50) = -t/20
-3.912 = -t/20
t = 78.24 s when V = 1 V

D.J.Dunn 13
2 CHARGE DISCHARGE OF AN INDUCTOR

When a resistor is connected in series with an inductor we get a similar charging and discharging effect.
When the switch is thrown to position 1 there is a rush of current. At this moment the rate of change of
current di/dt is a maximum so we get maximum back emf on the inductor. After a time the current settles
down to a maximum value of I = Vs/R so Vs = IR

Let the current at any time be i.


VR = iR
VL = L di/dt
di
VS = iR + L
dt
di
IR = iR + L
dt
di
R(I i) = L
dt
L di
(I i) =
R dt
If we examined the units of L/R we would find that this is seconds and L/R is the time constant T for the
circuit.
di di
(I i) = T dt = T
dt Ii
If we substitute x = I i then dx = -di
t
dx dx
dt = T t = T[lnx ] = T[ln(I i )]0
i
dt = T
x 0
x
t I-i i
= ln(I i) ln(I) = ln = ln1
T I I
Take antilogs

t
i i
t

t
V
t
e T
= 1 = 1 e T T
i = I1 e = 1 e T
I I R
This relates the current flowing in the circuit to time and the result is a current that rises fast and then
levels off at the constant value. The graph shows the result for V = 10 V, R = 0.5 and L = 2H giving
T = 4 seconds (The values are not practical and only used to illustrate the result)

The time constant may be defined as the time taken to reach 63.3% of the maximum current. Pure
inductance is impossible and inductors always have some resistance in the conductor. Circuits usually
show a practical inductor as a pure inductance in series with a resistance. In items like transformers, the
resistance of the coil can be quite high.

D.J.Dunn 14
WORKED EXAMPLE No. 4

An Inductance of 4 mH also has a resistance of 0.3 .


Calculate the time constant.
What is the steady state current when 20 V is applied across it?
What is the current 0.02 s after the voltage is suddenly changed from zero to 20 V?

SOLUTION

T = L/R = 0.004/0.3 = 0.013 s


I = V/R = 20/0.3 = 66.7 A

t

0.02

i = I1 e T = 66.71 e 0.013 = 51.8 A

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No. 6

1. Calculate the time constant for an RC circuit with a resistance of 220 and capacitance of 470 nF in
series.
(103 s)

2. Calculate the time constant for a series R L circuit with an inductance of 6 H and resistance
0.02 . (3 ms)

3. A capacitor of 2000 F is charged to 12 V and then a resistor of 5 is connected across it.


Calculate the charge stored. (0.024 Coulomb)
Calculate the energy stored. (0.144 J)
Calculate time taken to discharge to 1 V (0.025 s)

4. An inductor with inductance 60 mH and resistance 0.7 suddenly has 2V connected across it.
Calculate the steady state current. (2.857A)
Calculate the energy stored and power dissipated. (0.245 J and 5.714 W)
Calculate the time taken for the current to rise to 0.5 A. (16 ms)

D.J.Dunn 15