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VECTOR SPACES

Definition 1 Let V be a set on which addition and scalar multiplication are defined
(this means that if u and v are objects in V and c is a scalar then weve defined u + v
and c u in some way) . If the following axioms are true for all objects u, v, and w in V
and all scalars c and k in K then V is called a vector space and the objects in V are called
vectors.

a) u + v is in V This is called closed under addition.


b) cu is in V This is called closed under scalar multiplication.
c) u+ v = v + u
d) u + (v + w) = (u + v ) + w
e) There is a special object in V, denoted 0 and called the zero vector, such that
for all u in V we have u + 0 = 0 + u = u .
f) For every u in V there is another object in V, denoted -u and called the
negative of u, such that u - u = u + (- u ) = 0 .
g) c (u + v) = cu + cv
h) (c + k )u = cu + ku
i) c (ku ) = (ck )u
j) 1u = u

When we restrict the scalars to real numbers we generally call the vector space a real
vector space and when we allow the scalars to be complex numbers we generally call
the vector space a complex vector space. We will be working exclusively with real
vector spaces and from this point on when we see vector space it is to be understood
that we mean a real vector space.

We should now look at some examples of vector spaces and a couple of examples of sets that
arent vector spaces.

Example 1 If n is any positive integer then the set = with the standard addition and
scalar multiplication as defined in the Euclidean n-space section (standard addition is
defined as let = (1 , 2 , , ) = (1 , 2 , , ) 2 +
= (1 , 2 , , ) + (1 , 2 , , ) = (1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , , + ) and scalar
multiplication is defined as for c in R and u in V = (1 , 2 , , ) =
(1 , 2 , , ) ) is a vector space.

Example 2 The set = 2 the standard vector addition and scalar multiplication defined
as

c (u1,u2 ) = (u1 , cu2 )


is NOT a vector space.

The axiom (h) of the definition is not valid


(c + k )u = (c + k )(u1,u2 ) = (u1,(c + k )u2 ) = (u1, cu2 + ku2 )

cu + ku = c(u1,u2 ) + k(u1,u2 ) =(u1,cu2 )+(u1,ku2 )=(2u1,cu2 + ku2)


Example 3 The set = 3 with the standard vector addition and scalar multiplication
defined as,
c (u1,u2 ,u3 ) = (0,0, cu3 )

is NOT a vector space.

The axiom (j) of the definition is not valid

1u = 1(u1,u2 ,u3 ) = (0,0,(1)u3 ) = (0,0,u3 ) (u1,u2 ,u3 ) = u

Example 4 The set = 2 with the standard scalar multiplication and addition defined as
(u1,u2 ) + (v1, v2 ) = (u1 + 2v1, u 2 + v2 )
Is NOT a vector space.

Take a look at the axiom (c).


u + v = (u1,u2 ) + (v1, v2 ) = (u1 + 2v1, u 2 + v2 )

v + u = (v1, v2 ) + (u1,u2 ) = (v1 + 2u1, v2 + u2 )

we can see that u + v v + u and so this is not a vector space.

Example 5 Let the set V be the points on a line through the origin in R2 with the standard
addition and scalar multiplication. Then V is a vector space.

Example 6 Let the set V be the points on a line that does NOT go through the origin in R2
with the standard addition and scalar multiplication. Then V is not a vector space.

In this case the equation of the line will be,

ax + by = c for fixed constants a , b and c where one of a and b 0 and c0


Not closed under addition

Let u = (x1 , y1 ) and v = (x2 , y2 ) be any two points in V such that

a x1 + b y1 = c and a x2 + by2 = c. Then

u + v = a (x1 + x2 ) + b ( y1 + y2 ) = (ax1 + by1 ) + (ax2 + by2 ) = c + c = 2c c

Therefore u + v is not in V

Example 7 Let the set V be the points on a plane through the origin in R3 with the standard
addition and scalar multiplication. Then V is a vector space.
Example 8 Let n and m be fixed numbers and let Mn m represent the set of all n m
matrices. Also let addition and scalar multiplication on Mn m be the standard matrix
addition and standard matrix scalar multiplication. Then Mn m is a vector space.

Example 9 Let F [a ,b] be the set of all real valued functions that are defined on the interval
[a ,b] . Then given any two vectors, f = f (x) and g = g (x) , from F [a ,b] and any scalar c define
addition and scalar multiplication as

(f + g )(x) = f(x) + g (x) (c f )(x) = c f (x)


Under these operations F [a,b] is a vector space.

Example 10 For n0, the set of polynomials of degree n consists of all


polynomials of the type

() = 0 + 1 + 2 2 + +

Forms a vector space , where 0 , 1 , , and variable t are real numbers.

HomeWork The set of all convergent sequences is a vector space over the field of
real numbers ?

HomeWork Suppose that the set V = R+ is the set of positive real numbers with addition
and scalar multiplication defined as follows

x + y = xy and cx = x c x, y R+ and c R

The set under this addition and scalar multiplication is a vector space over R.

PROPERTIES OF VECTOR SPACE


Let V be a vector space over a field K and 0 be the zero vector in V. Then

a0 = 0 a K
0u = 0 V
a(-u) = -(au) a K , V
(-a)u = -(au) a K , V
a(u-v) = au - av a K , , V
au = 0 either a = 0 or u = 0
SUBSPACES