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Practical Steps to Improving Process Safety/HSE Culture

Steve Arendt, Vice President (speaker) Lelio DePaiva SaFreitas

Organizational Performance Assurance IMS Manager, Quality Assurance
ABS Consulting American Bureau of Shipping
Houston, Texas Houston, Texas
+1-281-673-2914 +1-281-877-6576

Rick Curtis. Ron Henderson

Senior Risk Consultant Manager, EHS Training and Management Systems
ABS Consulting ABS Consulting
Houston, Texas Houston, Texas
+1-281-673-2780 +1-281-673-2816

1. Introduction

Some companies wonder why they keep experiencing the same process safety problems. Others
wonder why they seem to have plateaued in process safety performance. Culture has also been
recognized as a contributor to major accidents; these have been termed organizational accidents.

Understanding and improving Culture is KEY. Culture is the individual and organizational
DNA that represents our tendency to want to do (1) the right thing in (2) the right way at (3)
the right time, (4) ALL the time even when if no one is looking. The safety culture that exists
in a plant or company is the result of all the actions - and inactions - in institutional/workforce
memory.1 Many facilities use management systems to help control risks of hazardous processes.
These management systems are operated by people people whose inherent attitudes about
safety can affect the choices they make in operating these systems and, thus, the overall safety
performance of the facility.

This paper presents lessons learned from companies implementing process safety/HSE culture
improvements involving the following steps: education, planning, workforce involvement, and
providing remedies for culture weaknesses.

2. Understanding Process Safety/HSE Culture

The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) has created a framework for understanding,
evaluating, and improving culture (Table 1)2,3. Using that framework, we have created a unique
analysis process for determining culture weaknesses by comparing workforce opinions gained
via survey and interviews with HSE performance deficiencies.4 This Performance Assurance
Review (PAR) approach was presented at the May 2008 1st Latin American Process Safety
Conference in Buenos Aires. This novel approach highlights the culture weaknesses in a plant or
a company that give rise to HSE performance deficiencies.
Table 1 Essential Features of a Good Process Safety/HSE Culture

1. Establish process safety/HSE as a core value

2. Provide strong leadership
3. Establish and enforce high standards of performance
4. Formalize the process safety/HSE culture approach
5. Maintain a sense of vulnerability
6. Empower individuals to successfully fulfill their HSE responsibilities
7. Defer to expertise
8. Ensure open and effective communications
9. Establish a questioning/learning environment
10. Foster mutual trust
11. Provide timely response to process safety/HSE issues and concerns
12. Provide continuous monitoring of performance

Once weaknesses are determined, culture improvements can be focused to generate the best,
sustainable process safety/HSE performance improvement.

3. A Picture of a Great Process Safety/HSE Culture

When pursuing any goal, it is often helpful to keep in mind a picture of what a better condition
would look like. The same can be said for pursuing culture improvements. Using the CCPS 12
Essential Culture Features, the following is a paradigm of what a really good process safety/HSE
culture would be like.

1. Establish process safety/HSE as a core value

People at a plant or a company possess shared values about the importance of process safety and
HSE. These values give rise to commitment and a pride in the way that the organization
approaches process safety and HSE issues. Performance tends to be good and improving.
Everyone says that "you can stop production without killing the messenger", and there is
evidence to demonstrate that the plant has shut down a process or not started a process in order to
be certain that it is safe. If it cost them a lot of money, they still praised the individual who took
the action. The following are some typical survey questions used to determine the status of this
culture feature at a plant or a company.

Process Safety is a top priority at X.

This company does not cut corners on process safety because of production pressures.
Process Safety is a top priority in my work area everybody takes it very seriously.
Overall, this is a safe place to work.

2. Provide strong leadership

This feature is marked by people throughout the organization that lead by example. They do not
simply talk about the importance of process safety/HSE; their daily actions show that they
believe it. For example, management provides sufficient resources to support safety programs.
Plant manager and operations managers are frequent visitors, they ask questions, and people feel
comfortable telling them what they think. Supervisors and hourly workers speak up in safety
meetings and voice their concerns or praise for those that have acted in supported of the
company safety goals. The following are some example survey questions for this feature.

Site management visits my work area on a regular basis.

Site management often takes time to discuss process safety with us.
My manager/supervisor sets a good example when it comes to process safety he/she is
committed to keeping us safe.
When my manager/supervisor evaluates my work, he/she includes my process safety

3. Establish and enforce high standards of performance

The feature is marked by evidence that an organization holds itself accountable for the
requirements and standards of care that it accepts. Documentation (procedures, records, etc.) are
kept up-to-date. If you ask someone or observe work, you notice that the practices they use are
always consistent with procedures. Shortcuts are not encouraged and if someone does, their
peers call them out on it. Typically, the plant has excellent housekeeping. Personal safety
equipment is ALWAYS used and employees take action (and contractors) if they don't use it.
The following are some typical survey questions for this feature.

Process safety procedures are mandatory here anyone who ignores them is disciplined.
I fully understand what the company expects of me when it comes to process safety and
my job.
My coworkers always follow the correct work procedures.
We have good routines for housekeeping and equipment maintenance at this site.

4. Formalize the process safety/HSE culture approach

For this feature, the plant/company has taken action to understand and improve its process
safety/HSE culture. Company web sites, policies, and communication refer to the importance of
process safety/HSE and the company has a plan for periodically evaluating culture. For
example, they have done a culture survey or have sponsored some seminars/training on safety
culture. The following are some typical survey questions for this feature.

The companys process safety policies are clearly understood by all employees.
I have attended one or more meetings/classes on the importance of good safety attitudes
and behaviors.
I have participated one or more safety-improvement activities (such as doing work
observations in a behavior-based safety program).

5. Maintain a sense of vulnerability

This feature is marked by a pervasive awareness of the hazards of the plants they operate and the
activities undertaken. Everyone has an idea of what the worst case scenario is. People

remember notable incidents at the site or in the company/industry and what was important about
them to prevent recurrence. The following are some example survey questions.

Everyone at this site is strongly aware of the consequences (injuries, fires, etc.) of unsafe
actions or conditions.
We do a good job of sharing the lessons learned from near-misses and hazard studies.
Before starting any work, our standard routine is to make sure it is safe to proceed.

6. Empower individuals to successfully fulfill their HSE responsibilities

Company management provides the training, tools, resources, and - most importantly the time
for people to do their job safely. Everyone says that "you can stop production if you think there
is a safety problem without retribution". There is evidence that people have used company
resources to improve safety. Safety/HSE training is taken seriously and is up-to-date. The
following are some survey questions for this feature.

I would feel comfortable shutting down a process or equipment for safety reasons.
I have the resources I need (equipment, tools, procedures) to do my job safely.
I have the training I need to do my job safely.
I have the time I need to do my job safely.

7. Defer to expertise

Employee involvement in planning, preparing and executing process safety/HSE activities is the
norm. Workers say that their opinions matter. If a labor union is on site, its leadership is
engaged with management. When important decisions are made, people always take the time to
seek out evidence or experienced people to provide their input. The following are some typical
survey questions for this feature.

X is committed to a high standard of safety training for its employees.

When key process safety decisions are made (such as changes to process, equipment),
people with process safety expertise are always involved in the process.
In my work area, safety-trained people always check the process before we start a
hazardous job.

8. Ensure open and effective communications

There are multiple, active lines of communication frequently used up and down the
organization and across departments. Workers say that their supervisors and management
frequently ask for their opinions. There are frequent, effective town hall meetings. Here are
some typical questions used to elicit insight into this feature at a company.

Our reporting processes work well all near-misses, accidents and injuries are fully
My manager/supervisor encourages our feedback on safety issues.
Overall, we do a good job here on communicating about work and safety issues.

9. Establish a questioning/learning environment

Workers are not afraid to ask their supervisors for reasons why they take decisions or perform
certain actions. They speak up often and are engaged in process hazard review meetings. Safety
meetings where incident lessons are discussed are remembered by the workforce. Executives
and senior management respond to tough questions about their decisions in a non-defensive
manner. This feature can be investigated in a survey using the following questions.

In my work area, our safety training keeps us very aware of potential hazards and how to
prevent them.
We have a good process for routinely reviewing hazards and risks.
We do a good job of investigating process safety incidents and near-misses.

10. Foster mutual trust

There is a strong spirit of teamwork in place at the plant. The constructive discipline process is
implemented in a just way. Workers say they trust each other and their supervision and
management. The following are some typical survey questions dealing with trust.

I trust site management to do the right thing when it comes to process safety.
Honest safety mistakes are treated fairly by site management.
I trust my coworkers to do the right thing when it comes to safety.
We all feel comfortable raising process safety issues with management, with no fear of

11. Provide timely response to process safety/HSE issues and concerns

When you look around the work site, it is apparent that housekeeping is important. Backlogs of
work requests and corrective actions are low. Process safety metrics relating to inspections are
"in the green". Audit findings are taken seriously and responses are completed quickly, not
waiting for the last minute. This feature can be investigated using the following questions.

In my work area, any changes to safety procedures are promptly updated.

My manager/supervisor always acts promptly on safety issues reported to him/her.
Changes recommended by hazard assessments and investigations are put in place as soon
as possible.
Process safety issues are always satisfactorily corrected.

12. Provide continuous monitoring of performance

Metrics exist, are used throughout the departments and are visible to all employees. Employees
are aware of the HSE and process safety performance. Management reviews are frequently
conducted on-site and at corporate offices to encourage good performance and refocus on areas
that need improvement. The following are some example survey questions for this feature.

We have a good process for noticing potential site process safety problems (e.g., frequent
safety walk-arounds).
Process safety performance indicators are routinely tracked (e.g., incomplete inspections,
number of injuries).
Our company takes appropriate action whenever process safety performance is poor (e.g.,
injury rates increase).

Frequently, it is convenient and necessary to develop process safety/HSE culture insights via the
use of targeted or layered interviews. This tactic can help reveal some of the reasons why
worker opinions exist. It is also easier to resolve questions behind the culture questions
regarding root causes of organizational dysfunction. Interviews can be formal or casual
conversations. In either case, it is important to have in mind the focus of the culture inquiry.
Typically, narrative answers are given that are reduced to the interviewer assessing whether the
interviewee exhibited the following overall response to a feature: Doing a Good Job, Needs
Improvement, or Do not know/not relevant.

4. How to Improve Process Safety/HSE Culture

Once your have determined the areas of process safety/HSE culture weakness, it is time to begin
the process of improvement. Usually, culture improvement activities will take many months or
years to have a deeply rooted effect. Regardless of the size of the plant or company, the
following activities and concerns are important to creating a last-lasting culture change.

Workforce involvement

Education is given to all layers in a plant/company. Typically, three main audiences are
addressed with approximate initial awareness training durations given:

1 to 1-days for plant management or corporate executives

4 to 6-hours for supervisors, engineers, and team leaders
1- to 2-hours for all employees (including contractors) for awareness

The following are some example topics used for reach layer of training.

Management and Supervision Course Topics and Activities

Addresses organizational culture as a key element in the successful implementation of both

process safety and conventional safety programs. Attendees learn how to:

Assess current plant culture

Determine changes that need to be made
Establish an environment to foster change
Measure the effect of culture change
Discuss suggestions for ways to correct process safety cultural problems
Management courses should include how to design and implement a management system for
evaluating and nurturing plant process safety culture. Courses should revolve around facilitated
workshop exercises; however, the number and timing of such activities will be limited in the
shorter duration course.

Employee and Contractor Awareness Level Course Topics

This training focuses primarily on:

Examples of accidents that occurred due to process safety culture problems

12 essential features of a good process safety culture
Taking personal responsibility for evolving your process safety/HSE culture
Understanding potential historical root causes for culture problems
Soliciting ideas for improving culture

Culture Workshop Ideas

Such training, whether for executives or hourly workers, is more effective is the delegates are
fully engaged and thinking about culture change. Their opinions matter and it is important that
we discover their ideas for culture change. Interactive, facilitated workshops provide an
effective means for dialogue, soliciting ideas, engagement, and learning. These workshops are
most effective if done using small groups that consider some of the following issues:

1. What can you do to assess the culture in your company and/or your facility?
2. What can you do to identify which of the process safety culture features will have the
greatest impact in your company; which is the weakest in your company?
3. Pick one of the culture areas and develop an action plan to address the following issue at
your company/site.

Develop a culture improvement plan for your company/site. Be as specific as

Decide which culture elements you are going to address
Decide who in management is needed to support your efforts
Develop a plan for the next month, the next six month, the next year, and the next
three years.
Determine what metrics will be used to monitor progress

Identify Culture Improvement Options

The following steps should be addressed in culture workshops at all levels of the plant/company.

1. Identify possible culture weakness root causes.

Brainstorm what has happened in the past that could be in the memory of the work
Look at culture survey/interview results by feature.
What is going on the past year/recently that could affect this feature?
2. Identify existing activities that could be used or amended to help correct the cultural

What things are going on now in the plant/company that could improve or adversely
affect this issue?
o Capital expansion/operations contraction
o Employee welfare
o Workforce changes
o Implementation of new safety programs (e.g., Behavior Based Safety)

3. Look at the PSM/HSE audit finding resolution actions.

See how they could be done in a culture-smart way

Avoid initiative overload and unfunded mandates that could adversely affect culture

4. Identify additional actions to fix the culture issues.

See the list of potential remedial actions in the next section as a starting point.
Have small groups during culture awareness training develop company and personal
culture action plans using this list.

5. Develop an overall, integrated list of activities to help deal with the culture challenges.

Work the plan as you would any process safety/HSE action plan
Monitor implementation
Develop culture improvement metrics

5. Remedies for Culture Weaknesses

Following the above approach will require that you eventually address what actions you should
take to improve culture. You will follow an interactive process that engages all levels of the
plant and company. At each occasion early on, you will seek peoples opinions about the root
cause of culture weaknesses, factors that contributed to the problems, conditions that the
company faces in the near-term as it purses culture improvements.

Normally, a plant or company faces one or more culture issues at the same time. These issues
should be addressed together to avoid adverse interactions of improvement actions and to
increase efficiency. The following tables give some examples for each culture essential feature
of possible remedies that have been used by many companies to address culture weaknesses.

1. Process Safety/HSE Is NOT a Core Value
Establish a process safety policy
Communicate the Business Case for Process Safety to senior executives; communicate the process
safety policy regularly
Hold training courses/workshops on the policy
Reinforce policy via company newsletters and meetings
Ask the workforce for feedback on whether they consider process safety to be a core value and
whether management is acting that way
Demonstrate that process safety is a core value by making decisions and taking visible action in
support of the policy
Celebrate workforce actions that demonstrate adherence to process safety being a core value
Encourage senior executives to participate in process safety functions/committees/symposia with
other respected executives
Widely share the CCPS Process Safety Beacon
Share significant incidents from similar facilities and relate the broader consequences of a process
safety incident
Help people at all levels in the organization to understand the importance of process safety
Appeal to the business case for process safety, the humanitarian case for process safety, and the legal
case for process safety
Find a process safety champion high in the organization that is willing to try to influence other senior
Provide ideas/input for annual reports and other visionary documents that are periodically published

2. Lack of Strong Process Safety/HSE Leadership

Establish a clearly defined process safety leader at a level that can influence operational vice-
presidents and facility managers
Clearly define process safety responsibilities
Establish process safety element owners at the company level and at the site level
Include process items in annual objectives for line management leadership positions
Provide short talking points for company executives to mention during town hall meetings
Periodically publish a short company process safety newsletter that includes notes from executives
Provide process safety topics to be included in the company annual report
Fund specific process safety activities
Participate in process safety activities (e.g., management reviews)
Process safety significance is reinforced throughout the chain of command
Take decisions and action on the side of process safety
Attend process safety training courses/workshops
Address process safety issues in every company/work group meeting
Discuss process safety during day-to-day conversations
Visit workers and discuss process safety issues
Investigate lapses in process safety performance
Participate in external venues to promote process safety as a core value
Participate in industry groups that support process safety
Establish a process safety management review system

3. Normalization of Deviance Not Maintaining High Standards of Performance
Create reasonable, high standards of performance and communicate expectations
Create a dialogue within the company on the importance of operational discipline
Promote accountability throughout the organization
Institute a constructive discipline policy
Promote a safe reporting environment; if necessary, create an anonymous reporting system
Create metrics and communicate results
Consider a zero-tolerance policy for severe or willful transgressions and for chronic failures. Take
strong action when necessary to protect company performance standards
Appropriately communicate both positive and negative consequence situations to significant breaches
Highlight examples throughout the chain of command not just at the hourly worker level
Institute some fashion of pay-at-risk for performance failures and reward for performance successes

4. Culture Process Not Formalized

Develop a vision statement for process safety culture
Ensure that process safety is included in annual objectives for facility leadership
Provide elevator speeches for senior leadership so that they can speak frequently and consistently
about the importance of process safety
Establish clear documented accountabilities for process safety
Establish and enforce high standards of performance for activities that affect process safety results
Implement a policy of zero tolerance for willful violations of process safety policies and procedures
Document how the organization approaches evaluating and nurturing process safety culture
Consider establishing a Process Safety Culture element is the PSM system using the CCPS RBPS
Create a process safety culture element with the company process safety management system
Institute process safety culture evaluations
Provide process safety culture training
Highlight process safety culture as an evaluation area in audits, incident investigations, etc.
Write articles and newsletter items on improving company process safety culture
Make process safety performance and culture a part of every worker, supervision, and management
annual evaluations

5. Lack of Sense of Vulnerability

Create institutional memory about past company accidents; communicate reminders
Investigate and communicate lessons learned from recent accidents throughout the company
Communicate lessons from external accidents
Provide hazard/risk awareness training to all new employees; provide regular refreshers
Provide root cause analysis training to all employees
Institute a burden-of-proof in favor of pessimistic action to preserve safety rather than a presumption
of safety
Adopt incident investigation policy to look at what could have happened instead of just what did
Relate on-the-job safety events to off-the-job situations

Publish the CCPS Process Safety Beacon internally

6. Lack of Empowerment and Personal Responsibility for Safety

Clearly define accountability for process safety systems; who is responsible for what
Effectively communicate expectations by training employees in process safety policies and
Implement a policy of zero tolerance for willful violation of process safety policies and procedures
Be certain that management response to acceptable and unacceptable performance of process safety
responsibilities is timely, consistent, and fair
Establish annual process safety objectives/goals throughout the organization
Institute an off-the-job safety program
Employ an anyone can and everyone should shut it down policy
Provide awareness training on workplace hazards/risks and accident statistics
Consider adopting an employee-driven behavior-based safety program including peer observations
Promote highlighting of employee safety concerns through formal and non-traditional means
Celebrate employee safety decision/action successes
Establish a Conduct of Operations element that encourages rigorous implementation of process safety
policies and procedures

7. Not Listening to Technical Experts

Identify the technical experts for various functions and types of operating equipment
Define necessary technical disciplines that need to be involved in specific process safety activities
(e.g., types of MOCs) and use them
Train the individuals identified as technical experts to fill their technology expertise weaknesses
Establish a network of technical experts within the company so that experts can share ideas and learn
from experts at other sites
Encourage technical experts to attend technical symposia in their area of expertise
Involve management in defining expertise that is valuable/respected/needed
Enhance the employee participation element so that management is more likely to naturally involve
During discussions about critical issues, periodically ask management if they are using all of the
available expertise to resolve the issue
Expand MOC to non-traditional change types (e.g., organizational, policy, budget changes)
Formalize the process for making risk decisions; itemize types; consider procedures and requirements
Ensure SMEs are included in the decision making loop; seek out SME input
Develop a process safety training competency matrix for all levels of the organization
Consider designating a facility or company process safety authority

8. Ineffective Communications
Encourage senior management in the facility to be in the plant frequently to be available to listen and
respond to employee concerns. Remember to seek input from professional staff as well as hourly
Provide a mechanism for anonymous input to management so that those that have fear of reprisal
have an avenue to provide input

Do not shoot the messenger
Praise bad-news messengers in visible, public ways
Provide frequent status of lengthy projects that are important to employees so they are aware that the
project is progressing
Help management include process safety messages in their periodic newsletters or other
Establish process safety committees that include a vertical slice of the organization
Hold regular process safety management reviews
Provide communications training to everyone
Solicit workforce opinions on effective communication means and frequency
Create newsletters, increase safety meeting frequency and effectiveness
Emphasize communication throughout chain of command
Develop/improve communications response discipline for phone mail, email, and web responses

9. Lack of a Questioning/Learning Environment

Widely circulate the CCPS Process Safety Beacon
Develop and distribute summaries of incident reports that include what happened, lessons learned,
and how the lessons learned might apply locally
Employ a high potential incident practice of communicating notable incidents across the company
and industry
Modify the incident investigation system to more fully address what could have happened instead
of only the actual incident consequences
Conduct table top drills with operating teams to discuss response to operating problems and incident
Review key hazard scenarios with highest potential consequences from PHAs with operating and
technical teams
For outside incidents with lessons learned that have serious potential local consequences, require
documented follow-up to ensure similar conditions do not exist or are well managed locally
Conduct hazard awareness training for operating teams and for technical teams
State a policy from the top that it is okay/required for people to appropriately question issues
Hold training and workshops
Hold meetings specifically to question issues
Demonstrate the questioning attitude in designed situations and then walk the talk
In company meetings, invite people to question senior management on issues model positive
approaches to the workforce
Institute a formal hazard evaluation system
Consider using peer feedback of work practices

10. Lack of Mutual Trust

Design a system that ensures response to incidents is consistent
Establish an employee committee to help address consistency
Institute blameless, root cause analysis system. Incidents result in minimal consequences unless
willful policy violations occurred.
Create an anonymous safety issue reporting system
Communicate the need for reporting of all incidents

Conduct refresher training about the progressive discipline system
Include an elapsed time at which previous violations no longer impact future discipline. For example,
incidents more than two years old do not impact the progressive discipline system
Make examples of supervisors and management who do things right and wrong
Establish/re-invigorate an employee/management safety committee
Include workforce representatives on a accident investigation committee
Provide human factors/behavioral safety training

11. Non-Responsiveness to Safety Concerns

Relate the safety concerns of the company to actual incidents within the company or to incidents
outside the company
Present the business case for process safety to company executives and site management
Ensure senior management understands the results of realistic scenario consequence modeling
Communicate to senior management the OSHA fines from serious incidents
and the possibility of personal criminal litigation
Periodically share the learnings from incidents within your own company or from similar processes
Publish the CCPS Process Safety Beacon internally
Develop a strong near miss identification system for potential process safety incidents
Do a survey of all process safety-related action items; determine status and dues dates
Determine roles and responsibilities and schedules for completion
Develop a unified action item tracking system to stay on top of process safety items
Develop an improvement strategy and supply resources to reduce backlog; communicate progress to
Determine performance standard on completion of action items
Develop a management system to deal with process safety issues and action item life-cycle
Create process safety issue metrics and monitor metrics during regular management reviews
Incorporate safety concern responsiveness into regular management reviews
Provide a means for employee input of safety concerns
Provide awareness and detailed training as needed
Include metric in employee accountability and performance reviews

12. No Performance Monitoring or Pursuit of Improvement

Include process safety topics in annual objectives for line management
Start monitoring a few site-wide easily obtained but meaningful metrics; start small
Ask each operating unit to monitor a few easily obtained but meaningful metrics; develop appropriate
safety metrics scorecards and communicate broadly
Establish a process safety management review system
Form a site-wide process safety committee from several disciplines to promote PS improvement
Ask senior leadership to promote process safety improvement in town hall meetings
Establish a business case for process safety for your company
Discuss with senior executives the consequences of a Texas City type event to your company
Consider putting pay at risk based on performance to process safety objectives and metrics
(Re)establish continuous improvement as a core value and communicate broadly
Develop strategy to incorporate learnings from audits, hazard reviews, incidents into the work life

Hold management reviews to spotlight good performance and focus on weaknesses
Make improvement a part of the accountability and performance review system
Create ways to solicit and accept employee suggestions
6. Conclusions

If we want to have sustainable improvement in process safety and HSE performance, it is vital
that we address individual and organizational culture issues. Safety/HSE culture for an
individual is the complex product of a persons life experiences on and off the job. In order to
have a non-temporary impact on these lifetime-learned attitudes and habits, we must seek new
ways to re-map the process safety/HSE DNA in us.

Re-mapping requires that we know what the problems are to begin with. The CCPS Culture
Essential Features and the PAR approach provides a reliable, reproducible, and defensible way to
discern culture weaknesses and focus attention on those challenges that spark the greatest risk to
future process safety/HSE performance.

Once those weaknesses are identified, companies must courageously look in the mirror, be
vulnerable, and be willing to change. Such culture change will take time, but such journeys are
more likely to achieve the type of performance improvement that has always be promised by
applying quality principles except this time, we not only fix the system, but we fix the
human tendencies in we who operate the process safety/HSE systems.


1. Chapter 3 Process Safety Culture in Risk Based Process Safety, Center for Chemical
Process Safety, Wiley, March 2007.

2. Center for Chemical Process Safety, Building Process Safety Culture: Tools to Enhance
Process Safety Performance, PSCulture.aspx.

3. Frank, W. L., Essential Elements of a Sound Safety Culture, AIChE, Process Plant
Safety Symposium, Atlanta, GA, April 2005.

4. Arendt, J.S. et al, "Connecting Process Safety Performance Outcomes to Process Safety
Cultural Root Causes", 1st Latin American Process Safety Conference, 26-28 May 2008,
Buenos Aires.