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Refining-Petrochemicals-Chemicals-Engineering

PRINCIPLES OF INITIAL FRACTIONATION


OF CRUDE OILS

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................1

I - TBP ANALYSIS...............................................................................................................................1

II - THE DIFFERENT PETROLEUM CUTS ........................................................................................3


1 - Fuel gas cut ........................................................................................................................................4
2 - Propane and butane cuts...................................................................................................................4
3 - Gasolines and naphtha cuts ..............................................................................................................4
4 - Kerosene cut ......................................................................................................................................6
5 - Gas oils or middle distillates ..............................................................................................................7
6 - Vacuum gas oils .................................................................................................................................8
7 - Vacuum residue .................................................................................................................................9

III - CRUDE OIL FRACTIONATION SCHEME...................................................................................10

IV - YIELDS AND MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUDE OILS.....................................................12

APPENDICES: Characteristics of some crude oils


Figure 1: Middle East
Figure 2: North Sea - France
Figure 3: North Africa - West Africa
Figure 4: West Africa
Figure 5: Latin America - North America
Figure 6: Far-East - Oceania - Russia
Figure 7: Typical crude oil characteristics
Figure 8: Typical atmospheric residues characteristics
Figure 9: Typical vacuum residue characteristics

RA FIB - 00007_C_A - Rev. 14 08/12/2008


2008 - IFP Training
1

INTRODUCTION
The first treatment undergone by crude oils in the refinery units is fractionation especially by distillation. This
produces approximately a dozen petroleum cuts which have volatilities close to those of commercial products.

In some cases, these cuts may be directly marketed or used for the manufacture of finished products. They
generally require chemical transformations:

either to improve their quality and meet requirements concerning specifications.


Petroleum cuts are thus converted into bases which are blended to obtain the finished
products

or to convert them in order to quantitatively satisfy market demands. Conversion


treatments are applied to heavy cuts to transform them into light cuts. Conversion
operations often produce a large range of hydrocarbons which are relatively similar to a
crude oil and must, also, be separated into cuts

Separation Refining
Blending
by distillation processes

CRUDE Petroleum

D PCD 2070 B
Bases Products
OILS cuts

The processing through the conversion units produces most of the time a large scale of hydrocarbons that
looks like a crude oil. Thus it has to be fractionated into cuts. That is the reason why distillation is so often
used all around the refinery.

The yields obtained by fractionation of a crude oil or a cracked effluent can be determined by means of the
TBP analysis.

I- TBP ANALYSIS
Every petroleum cut obtained by distillation corresponds to a volatility range that may be characterized simply
by a series of normal boiling point temperatures, or by the number of carbon atoms of the hydrocarbons
contained in the cut. For example:

180-230C
Kerosene cut or C10-C13

The relationship between the boiling point temperature range and the yield of a crude oil is obtained by the
TBP (True Boiling Point) analysis. This consists of a high separation distillation operation which produces all
the petroleum components one after the other in function of their boiling point temperature at the top of the
column. The result of the analysis is represented by the TBP curve of the crude i.e. the curve linking the
boiling point temperatures at the top of the column to the distilled amounts.

TBP distillation curve Boiling point temperatures versus distilled percentages.

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Boiling point
of hydrocarbons at the top
of the column

CONDENSER Boiling
T temperature
Measurement
of the
temperature Reflux
Receiver

il
eo
rud

il
eo
"c

rud
vy
ea

t" c
"H

gh
"Li
DISTILLATION t2
TRAYS
Measurement t1
of distilled
quantities

Crude oil sample

%
Distilled
0 50 100
HEATING Yield of
Yield of
DEVICE cut t1 t2
cut t1 t2

PRINCIPLE OF TBP DISTILLATION TBP CURVE

Separation of crude oil constituents in function Boiling point temperature versus distilled
D ANA 022 B

of their boiling point amounts

For two boiling point temperatures t1 and t2 characterizing a petroleum cut, the TBP curve shows the
principle of yield determination and the result obtained for two different crude oils.

At the same time, the comparison of the distilled amounts at a given temperature shows the yield variations
between a "light" and a "heavy" crude oil.

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II - THE DIFFERENT PETROLEUM CUTS


An other representation of the TBP distillation curve is obtained by associating the temperature scale and the
distilled percentages as shown below. In this diagram, each rectangular area represents the yield of the
different cuts from the crude. This makes it possible to situate the names and the corresponding temperatures
limits or cut points of the petroleum cuts obtained in refineries.

Fuel gas C1 C2
Propane C3
Butane C4
OC
iC 5 C 5

2 to 3 cuts
Light gasoline
80 90C Gasoline and C6
C7 Final boiling
naphtha cuts Heavy gasoline point
145C
or
Heavy naphtha C 10 C 11
185C
C 9 C 11 Final boiling point
220C
Kerosene cut Freezing point
C 13 C 14
to
240C C 13 C 14

Light gasoil Flash point


Gasoil
cuts to
Cloud point
1 to 3 cuts Heavy gasoil CFPP
360C C 20 C 25
to
380C C 20 C 25

Distillate cuts Distillate 1


or
Color
VGO
Metal contents

2 to 4 cuts Distillate 2
550C C 50
to
600C C 40 C 50 +

Vacuum
residue
D PCD 066 C

Normal Boiling
Point (C)

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The operation of the crude oil distillation leads to the following cuts:

1- FUEL GAS CUT (C1-C2)


This cut is generally used as internal fuel in the refinery furnaces.

2- PROPANE AND BUTANE CUTS (C3 - C4)


These two cuts are generally treated to remove the impurities as H2S or mercaptans. Then they are
included in the commercial products: propane, butane, automotive LPG. Butane can also be used in
motor gasolines to adjust the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP).

3- GASOLINES AND NAPHTHA CUTS (C5 to C10 - C11)


These cuts from C5 to C 10 - C11 generally undergo further processing to improve their low octane
number. We can distinguish:

LIGHT GASOLINES (C5 - C6 or from 0C up to 80C or 100C).

They can be used for different purposes:

directly as motor-gasoline base with a poor octane number (RON between 60 and
80). Note that these gasolines were good bases for leaded products, since they have
a very good response to lead incorporation.

it may be sold as petrochemical naphtha feedstock for a steam cracker. In this


case, isopentane is generally first separated from the light gasoline by distillation
and then mixed with motor gasolines (iC5: RON: 92.3; MON: 90.2). The
petrochemical naphtha is then called deisopentanized naphtha.

isopentane Isopentane
to gasoline
pool

Light
gasoline DEISOPENTANIZER
C5 - C 6

Deisopentanized
D PCD 067 B

naphtha Deisopentanized
naphtha
to petrochemistry

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it can be subjected to the isomerization process in order to improve the octane


number. The process consists in converting the normal paraffins (low octane
number) into isoparaffins with a medium or high octane number. This operation is
especially useful for meeting requirements concerning the MON values of unleaded
automotive gasolines. It produces a motor-gasoline base rich in isoparaffins called
isomerate.

Light gasoline Isomerate C5 - C6


C5 - C6 ISOMERIZATION RON 83-90

D PCD 484 B
RON 60 to 80 MON 82-88

- HEAVY GASOLINE (C7 to C10 - C11 or 80 up to 180C) with a low octane number (20 to
50) which will be used as a feedstock for catalytic reforming. The purpose of this unit is
essentially to convert the paraffinic and naphthenic molecules to aromatic components with
a high octane number. This operation provides a very good gasoline base called reformate.

Heavy gasoline Reformate


CATALYTIC
C7 - C10 / C11 Gasoline with a high

D PCD 485 B
REFORMING
RON 20 to 50 RON 100

This conversion is only possible on hydrocarbons with a minimum of 6 carbon atoms and
thus able to be easily changed into aromatics. However, in view of the recent specifications
concerning the restriction of benzene content, refineries will have to run C7+ feeds. The
corresponding initial cut point is around 80-100C.

Besides, the upper limit is chosen according to the gasoline final boiling point which must
be lower than 210C. As a matter of fact, the final boiling point temperatures between the
naphtha feedstock and the reformate increase by 20C to 30C during the reforming
process. The result is that the naphtha cut is limited at around the upper temperature of
180-185C.

In practice, this upper limit is chosen between 140C and 185C according to the
relative commercial requirements of gasolines and gas oil.

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4- KEROSENE CUT (C9-C10 to C13-C14)


This cut is used as base material for:

jet fuels, mainly Jet A1


diesel fuels and home-heating fuels

The quality specifications in relationship with volatility and the cut points are mainly:

the flash point, especially when the cut point between heavy gasoline and kerose is low

for Jet A1, the specification is: flash point (ABEL)  38C
for diesel fuels, flash point of the kerosene cut limits its incorporation rate

the final boiling point, which is related to the cold flow properties. The freezing point has
to be lower than 47C. From that point of view, the kerosene cut is an excellent base to
be used to improve the cold flow properties of the gasoil

Concerning the sulfur content, the following table compares the kerosene cut and the commercial
products.

KEROSENE CUT JET A1 SPECIFICATIONS

Sulfur content (% wt) Sulfur content  0.3% wt


- between 0.01 and 0.07 for Mercaptans content  30 g/t
cuts from BTS crude oils
- between 0.07 and 0.3 for Copper strip and silver strip corrosion
cuts from HTS crude oils
Mercaptans content 10 to 300 g/t DIESEL FUEL SPECIFICATIONS
depending on the crude origin
Sulfur content  0.035% wt

On the basis of these figures, it is to be seen that desulfurization is generally not necessary when
sending the kerosene cut to the Jet A1 pool.

On the contrary, the presence of a too large amount of mercaptans imposes a sweetening process like
MEROX, KEROX or SULFREX to get rid of these impurities. This unit transforms the mercaptans into
non corrosive disulfide.

The elimination of the mercaptans can also be achieved by hydrotreatments like


HYDROSWEETENING.

Sweetening processes
MEROX, SULFREX, ...
Kerosene cut Sweet cut
with mercaptans to JET A1 pool
D PCD 486 B

Hydrotreatment
Hydrosweetening

In view of the production of diesel fuels with less than 0.035% wt sulfur, or even less, the
hydrodesulfurization of kerosene cuts will become necessary as soon as the sulfur content of the
kerosene cut is larger than the specified value.

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5- GAS OILS OR MIDDLE DISTILLATES (C13-C14 to C20-C25)


Gas oil fractions (US: distillates) are used for the production of diesel fuels or domestic fuel-oils.

They must be desulfurized in proportion to the specification of sulfur content that become more and
more stringent. This operation is carried out in a catalytic hydrogen-consuming unit called a gas oil
hydrodesulfurisation unit.

Hydrogen

Gas oil cuts Desulfurized


with high sulfur HYDRODESULFURIZATION
gas oil cut
content

0.1 to 0.3% wt sulfur Less than 0.005% wt sulfur


from LS crudes for diesel oil pool

D PCD 487 B
0.3 to 2% wt sulfur Less than 0.1% wt sulfur
from HS crudes for heating oil pool

Mainly in European countries, large quantities of such products are needed and the refiner tries to
obtain the largest yields for these cuts. Cold flow properties - pour point and CFPP - limit the maximum
yield possibilities (maximum end boiling point at around 350 - 380C).

This temperature range of 350C to 380C can be considered as the maximum boiling
temperature which separates the light and medium cuts from the heavy cuts. The light and
medium cuts can be handled without heating and valorised as motor, engine, turbine fuels.
The heavy cuts will remain warmed inside the refinery in order to avoid congealing and to
allow normal flowing. Except in the case of special products (lube oils, bitumen), it is
necessary to transform the heavy cuts into light and medium cuts by conversion
treatments. The complexity of these treatments is related to the characteristics of the heavy
cuts obtained by distillation.

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6- VACUUM GAS OILS (C20-C25 to about C50)


These cuts form the lighter fractions of the atmospheric residue (350 - 380C+). Their components are
vaporised during vacuum distillation: this is the origin of characterizing them as VACUUM GAS OIL
(VGO).

These heavy cuts are thus separated from the Vacuum Residue in order to contain few asphaltens
and metal contaminents, and to be easily processed in catalytic conversion units.

The refiners generally try to obtain the maximum yield of VGO/distillates, maximizing the final
boiling point around 550C to 600C.

The conversion processes are generally:

catalytic cracking (F.C.C.) to produce mainly gasolines and olefins (propylene-butenes)


hydrocracking (HCK) which produces gasolines, kerosenes and gas oil fractions.

Gas - LPG
(olefin rich)

F.C.C

D PCD 488 B
VGO / Distillates Cracked gasoline
Fluid Catalytic Cracking
C20 - C50 ( 50%)

Cracked
gas oil (LCO)
heavy cuts
Hydrogen

Gasoline

VGO / Distillates H.C.K.


Hydrocracking Kerosene
C20 - C50
D PCD 489 B

Gasoil

At the same time, this VGO cuts might be used as feedstocks for light base lubricating oil and
waxes manufacturing. The need for products with various viscosities requires the separation of three
to four distillates in the atmospheric distillation column.

Lube
base oil
LUBE OIL
VGO / Distillates MANUFACTURING
D PCD 490 B

Waxes

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7- VACUUM RESIDUE
It is the "non-vaporisable" fraction of the crude oil. It is often called "the bottom of the barrel".

VACUUM RESIDUES (Yield in % volume) This vacuum residue, which must be


stored at more than 130C, because
of its high viscosity, concentrates the
Saharian crude 10 to 15%
asphaltenes and petroleum resins,
20 to 30% which contain the major part of metal
Middle-East crude
contaminants making catalytic
(Arabian light or Kuwait)
conversions difficult.
Heavy crude oils 60 to 70% According to the refinery type, different
(Boscan, Venezuela) uses or treatments are applied to this
cut.

Internal fuel oil


(rare in Europe)
Direct use
Base heavy fuel oil
production
Base for bitumen
manufacturing
Lubricating oils LUBE OIL Heavy lube base oil
PLANT Waxes

Cracked cuts
VISBREAKER

Vacuum Cracked cuts


Residue Thermal
COKER
conversion
Coke

Cracked cuts

FLEXICOKER
Fuel gas
(gasified coke)

LMC
residues
F.C.C. Cracked cuts
Catalytic
conversion Hydrotreatment
Cracked and
D PCD 491 B

or
hydrotreated cuts
Hydroconversion
LMC : Low Metal Content

LMC: Low Metal Content

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III - CRUDE OIL FRACTIONATION SCHEME


The initial fractionation of a crude oil into the different petroleum cuts described above can be summarized
into three separate operations:

- atmospheric distillation of crude oil


- vacuum distillation of the atmospheric residue
- fractionation of gases and gasolines

The following figure gives the general and simplified scheme of the initial fractionation of crude oil. The
successive steps are represented:

- preheating of the crude oil and heating in the furnace

- desalting in order to set aside the mineral salts

- fractionation into five cuts in a topping column. This atmospheric distillation column has
quite a large size: about 50 m high and around 8 m diameter corresponding to a 1000 t/d
capacity

At the top, the mixture of gas and gasolines come out, then three side stream cuts called
kerosene, light gasoil and heavy gasoil, and last the atmospheric residue at the bottom

- separation of the light ends with four or five distillation columns:

+
debutanizer separating the gas C 4 and the gasolines C 5

deethanizer separating the fuel gas C 2 and the LPG C3 and C 4
depropanizer to separate the propane C3 from the butane C 4
gasoline splitter separating the two gasolines, i.e. the light gasoline including C5
and C6 and the heavy gasoline with C7 to C10/11
deisopentanizer to separate the isopentane (iC5) from the light gasoline

- the vacuum distillation of the atmospheric residue in a column operating at a lower


pressure from atmospheric pressure. The aim of using vacuum is to reduce the
temperatures in the furnace and in the column to keep them compatible with the stability of
the hydrocarbons (cracking threshold is 400-430C). This column also has quite a large
diameter and is connected to a vacuum system to suck the non condensable fraction at the
top. It separates side stride streams called vacuum distillates (UK) or vacuum gasoil (US)
and at the bottom, the vacuum residue.

In order to maximize the yield of vacuum distillates, which can be valued in conversion catalytic unit as
FCC, one operates with a very high inlet temperature, and the lowest possible pressure. This causes a large
vaporization of the column feed.

Even if the aim of the different refineries in the same, numerous different schemes exist for the initial
fractionation of the crude oils. The following scheme is only an example.

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CRUDE OIL INITIAL FRACTIONATION


Overview scheme
Fuel gas
26
C2- Propane C3
DEETHANIZER 17

Gas
11 C1 - C4
DEPROPANIZER
DEBUTANIZER
C3 - C4
CRUDE OILS STORAGE Gas + gasoline
Butane C4
Water C1 - C10/11
2.5
HEAT
Light gasoline Isopentane iC5
EXCHANGERS
1,5 C5 - C6
Gasoline
2.5
C 5+
DESALTER DEISOPENTANIZER

GASOLINE
ATMOSPHERIC SPLITTER
COLUMN
Deisopentanized
light gasoline
Water
Water + salts
C7 - C10/11 Heavy gasoline naphtha

Kerosene

STRIPPERS
HEAT Light gas oil
EXCHANGERS

365 Medium gas oil

60 To vacuum system
2.8 mbar
ATMOSPHERIC
Heavy gas oil
FURNACE

VACUUM
Atmospheric COLUMN
VGO/Distillate 1
residue
C20/25+

VGO/Distillate 2
Pressure in bar abs

Temperature in C
400 80
D PCD 054 B

VACUUM mbar
FURNACE Vacuum residue

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IV - YIELDS AND MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUDE OILS


The yields in petroleum cuts strongly depend on the origin of the crude oil. The scheme below shows the
yield structures in gas, gasolines, intermediate cuts (kerosenes, gas oils), heavy cuts (VGO, Vacuum
Residue) obtained from several crude oils.

SAHARIAN LIGHT ARABIAN SAFANIYA


CRUDE OIL ATHABASKA BOSCAN
CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL
(Algeria) (Saudi Arabia) (Saudi Arabia) (Canada) (Venezuela)
0 GAS
10
20 GASOLINES

30
40
Weight %

50
KEROSENE
60 GASOLES
70
80
DISTILLATE
90
R.S.V.
100
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.806 0.855 0.893 1.000 0.995

D PCD 385 G
API 44 34 27 10 10.7
SULFUR CONTENT
0.2 1.7 2.8 4.27 5.27
wt %

Comparison of yields obtained from different crude oils

It can be noted the link between the specific gravity (Sp. gr. or API) and the yields in light cuts. The
specific gravity is an important criteria for crude oils which leads to the following classification:

Light crude oils: Sp. Gr. 0.800 to 0.830 - high yields in gasolines and intermediate distillates
Medium crude oils: Sp. Gr. 0.830 to 0.890
Heavy crude oils: Sp. Gr. 0.890 to 1.000

In the same time, an other chief quality criteria is the sulfur content which can vary between 0.04% wt and 6-
8% wt for the sulfur richest crude oils. Sulfur content drives the utilisation of desulfurization treatments in order
to reach the specifications of the different petroleum products. It can be distinguished into:

Low sulfur content crude oils (< 0.6% wt of sulfur) for which the cuts easily meet the
specifications

Medium and high sulfur content crude oils (> 0.6% wt of sulfur) which requires desulfurization
treatments

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The other technical characteristics which can also be involved in the quality of crude oils are:

the viscosity, particularly as far as transportation in the pipelines is concerned

the pour point which is generally low enough so that the tanks have not to be heated. In
some cases, and sometimes for light crude oils, high pour points are observed due to high
paraffin contents. Some precautions, such as blending or preheating are to be taken to
allow transportation

the asphaltene and metal content

the ability to produce base lube oils and bitumen

The following tables shows the main quality criteria of the crude oils coming from:

MIDDLE EAST crude oils (Figure 1) of variables quality have almost all a high sulfur content

NORTH SEA and NORTH AFRICA crude oils (Figure 2) are rather light and low sulfur

WEST AFRICA crude oils are generally LS crude oils (Figures 3 and 4). Their naphthenic
character gives them a high specific gravity despite the fact that they generate good yields
of light product and intermediates

LATIN AMERICA crude oils (Figure 5) are generally heavy and high sulfur

FAR EAST and RUSSIA crude oils (Figure 6) are of variable quality

00007_C_A 2008 - IFP Training


Figure 1
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF 1/2
SOME CRUDE OILS

MIDDLE EAST

Murban Zakhum lower Duba Iranian light Iranian heavy Basrah light Kirkuk

Origin Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi Duba Iran Iran Irak Irak

API 39,60 40,16 31,25 33,8 31,0 33,7 36,2

Sp. gr. 0,826 0,824 0,869 0,856 0,871 0,856 0,844

%S 0,73 1,01 2,07 1,35 1,65 2,00 1,95

Pour Point 12C 12C 30C 29C 21C 26C 30C

Viscosity 5,9 cSt to 10C 6 cSt to 10C 16,2 cSt to 10C 10,6 cSt to 10C 17 cSt to 10C 15 cSt to 10C 12,8 cSt to 10C

0 G
G G G G G G

10 N N N
N N N N
150C
20 150C 150C
150C 165C
150C
165C
30

K
K K GO
40 K
GO GO
GO K
K
GO K GO
50 GO 352C
345C
352C
60 375C
345C

375C VGO
70 375C VGO
VGO
VGO
VGO
550C
80 VGO VGO 550C 550C 550C
550C

90 550C VR
550C VR VR VR VR
VR
VR
100
1,6 % 3,09 % 4,36 % 3,2 % 3,4 % 4,7 % 5,8 %
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 055 E

% volume
2008 ENSPM Formation Industrie - IFP Training
Figure 1
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF 2/2
SOME CRUDE OILS

MIDDLE EAST

Kuwait Oman Qatar North field Arab Arab light Arab heavy Souedie
marine condensate extra light Safaniya
Origin Kuwait Oman Qatar Qatar Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Syria

API 31,4 33,34 32,50 55,72 37,7 33,9 28,0 24,1

Sp. gr. 0,869 0,858 0,862 0,755 0,836 0,855 0,888 0,909

%S 2,56 1,04 1,80 0,21 1,26 1,79 2,82 3,9

Pour pointt 15C 24C 15C 34C 43C 34C 30C

Viscosity 10 cSt to 38C 34,3 cSt to 10C 17 cSt to 10C 1,29 cSt to 10C 5,8 cSt to 21C 10 cSt to 21C 37 cSt to 21C 150 cSt to 10C

0 G G G G G G
G G

N N
10 N N N
N N
150C 150C
20 150C 165C
165C 165C 165C
N
30 K K
K
K GO GO GO
K K
GO K GO GO
40 GO
345C
345C 145C 375C
50
375C
345C

60 375C 345C

VGO VGO
VGO
70 VGO
VGO K VGO 550C
VGO 550C
550C
550C
GO
80
550C 550C

VR VR
90 VR VR 550C
VR
VR
375C
VR
100 VGO
5,5 % 2,32 % 4,3 % 3,14 % 4,03% 5,9 % 6,97 %
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 055 F

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
Figure 2
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOME CRUDE OILS

NORTH SEA FRANCE

Brent Forties Flotta Statfjord Ekofisk Sleipner Chaunoy


condensate
Origin UK UK UK UK-Norway Norway Norway Seine et
marne
API 38,08 44,54 35,7 39,1 37,47 59,8 37,2

Sp. gr. 0,834 0,803 0,846 0,829 0,837 0,739 0,839

%S 0,38 0,20 1,14 0,22 0,202 0,02 0,13

Pour point 3C 15C 6C + 6C 6C < 45C

Viscosity 7,1 cSt to 10C 3,9 cSt to 10C 31 cSt to 5C 7,0 cSt to 10C 9,8 cSt to 10C 0,7 cSt to 20C

0 G G G G
G G

N
10 N
N N N
N
20 N 150C

150C 150C 150C


30
165C
150C K
GO
40
K K
GO GO K
50 K
K GO GO
GO
60
345C 350C
375C
375C 375C
70

375C VGO
80 VGO VGO
VGO VGO 180C

VGO
550C 550C
K 550C
90 550C 550C GO
VR 550C VR
VR VR VR VR
375C
100 VGO
1,25% 1,06% 2,23% 0,77% 0,63%
Sufur Sufur Sufur Sufur Sufur
D PPC 056 D

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
Figure 3
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOME CRUDE OILS

NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA

Sahara blend Zarzartine Es Sider Girassol Palanca Kole

Origin Algeria Algeria Libya Angola Angola Cameroon

API 44,8 42,0 36,25 31,33 37,23 31,51

Sp. gr 0,803 0,816 0,843 0,867 0,838 0,868

%S 0,15 0,08 0,44 0,33 0,18 0,35

Pour point 29C 12C + 6C 6C 9C 9C

Viscosity 3 cSt to 21C 6,9 cSt to 10C 10 cSt to 10C 36,9 cSt to 10C 7,6 cSt to 10C 14,5 cSt to 10C

0 G G G G G
G

N N
10 N N
150C
N
150C
20 N 165C 150C

30 165C

165C K K K
40 GO GO GO
K
50 GO K
GO
375C
K
60 GO
375C 375C
345C 375C

70
VGO
345C VGO VGO VGO
80 VGO
550C
550C 550C
VGO 550C
90 550C
VR VR
550C VR
VR VR
100 VR
0,51% 0,19% 1,15% 0,75% 0,47% 0,90%
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 059 E

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
Figure 4
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOME CRUDE OILS

WEST AFRICA

Djeno Mandji Bonny light Forcados Qua lboe Oso condensate

Origin Congo Gabon Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria

API 27,36 29,54 35,36 30,43 36,4 47,40

Sp. gr. 0,890 0,870 0,848 0,873 0,843 0,791

%S 0,27 1,1 0,14 0,18 0,12 0,05


Pour point 0C + 9C 18C 27C + 7C + 2C

Viscosity 179 cSt to 20C 72 cSt to 10C 6,9 cSt to 10C 17,4 cSt to 10C 8,3cSt to 20C 1,9 cSt to 20C

0 G G G G G
G
N
N N
10 150C N
150C 150C N

20 N
150C
K
GO 165C
30 K
GO

K
40 GO
375C
K K 165C
50 375C GO GO

VGO
60 K
345C GO
VGO
70 550C 375C
375C
550C
80 VGO 345C
VGO
VR VGO
VR
90 VGO
550C
550C 550C
VR 550C
100 VR VR VR
0,39% 2,33% 0,55% 0,56% 0,40%
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 059 F

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
Figure 5
SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOME CRUDE OILS

LATIN AMERICA NORTH AMERICA

Tia juana Tia juana Bachaquero Isthmus Maya Cold lake North Slope
light heavy blend
Venezuela Venezuela Venezuela Mexico Mexico Alberta USA Alaska
Origin Canada
API 32,1 12,1 16,8 32,8 22 21,2 30,6
Sp. gr. 0,865 0,985 0,954 0,861 0,922 0,927 0,873

%S 1,1 2,7 2,4 1,51 3,32 3,69 1,01


Pour point 43C 1C 23C 26C 18C 48C 18C

Viscosity 11 cSt to 39C 3 cSt to 50C 300 cSt to 38C 6 cSt to 38C 70 cSt to 38C 177 cSt to 20C 13 cSt to 20C

0 G
N G
G G G G
165C
N
150C N
K
10 N GO N N
N
K 150C
345C GO
20
165C 150C
150C 165C
375C K
30 GO K
VGO GO
K K
40 GO 345C 345C
GO
K
GO
VGO
50 345C VGO
550C 345C
VGO
345C
60
550C 550C

VGO 550C VGO


70
VR VGO
VR VR
80 550C 550C
VR
550C

90 VR VR
VR

100
2,64% 3,77% 3,3% 3,62% 5,81% 2,21% 2,53%
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 058 D

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
Figure 6
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOME CRUDE OILS

ASIA OCEANIA RUSSIA AZERBAIJAN

Daquing Shengli Bekapai Minas Tapis Gippsland Urals Azeri light

Origin China China Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Australia Russia Azerbaijan

API 33,3 24,2 43,2 35,3 45,5 48,7 31,8 34,8

Sp. gr. 0,859 0,909 0,809 0,848 0,799 0,785 0,866 0,851

%S 0,11 1,0 0,06 0,07 0,02 0,09 1,35 0,16

Pour point + 35C + 21C 29C + 35C + 16C 12C 18C 7C

Viscosity 132 cSt to 50C 8 cSt to 50C 2,9 cSt to 10C 12,4 cSt to 50C 3,18 cSt to 20C 1,7 cSt to 20C 17,9 cSt to 10C 11,9 cSt to 20C

0 G G G G G G G G

N N
N N
165C
10 165C N
165C

K N N 165C
K GO 150C
20 K
GO
GO N

30 345C
150C 165C K K
345C GO GO
40 375C

165C
50 VGO VGO
K 375C
GO 375C
60 VGO K
K GO
550C 550C GO
70 VGO
VGO
345C
550C
80 345C
550C
VR VR
375C VR VGO 550C
90 VGO
VGO VR
VR
550C 550C 550C
100 VR VR VR
0,17% 1,37% 0,45% 0,17% 0,17% 0,84% 2,78% 0,43%
Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur Sulfur
D PPC 070 D

% volume
2008 - IFP Training
TYPICAL CRUDE OIL CHARACTERISTICS

Figure 7

Arabian
Taching Ekofisk Brent Kirkuk Safaniya Cold Lake Boscan Emeraude
Light

Characteristics

Specific gravity 0.8611 0.8085 0.8313 0.8575 0.8487 0.8871 0.977 0.999 0.912

API 32.7 43.4 38.6 33.4 35.1 27.9 13.2 10.1 23.6

Viscosity at 20C cSt 53.79 4.25 5.86 10.58 7.72 38.89 6349 160000 234

2008 - IFP Training


Viscosity at 100C cSt 7.1 1.50 1.27 1.94 1.49 4.03 44.1 220 3.11

Sulfur wt % 0.090 0.140 0.29 1.79 1.97 2.85 4.11 5.50 0.60

Nitrogen ppm 1650 900 980 1200 1680 4200 6360 1400

Conradson Carbon wt % 2.80 1.24 1.69 3.58 3.8 7.9 13.1 14.9 7.6

C7 insolubles wt % 0.09 0.87 1.50 4.03 8.0 12.0 1.6

Nickel ppm 3.1 1.65 0.8 4.4 11 18 173 1200 50

Vanadium ppm 0.1 0.1 2.5 20.5 29 57 73 150 5


TYPICAL ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUES CHARACTERISTICS

Figure 8

Arabian
Taching Ekofisk Brent Kirkuk Safaniya Cold Lake Boscan Emeraude
Light

Cut yield wt % 70.58 33.85 42.03 43.79 46.48 59.82 81.76 85.30 68.09

Specific gravity 0.9038 0.9240 0.9222 0.9545 0.9508 0.9814 1.014 1.0272 0.9678

Sulfur wt % 0.1271 0.366 0.668 3.14 3.77 4.30 4.91 5.89 0.575

Nitrogen ppm 2300 3190 1990 1400 2430 2250 5100 6400 2200

2008 - IFP Training


Viscosity at 210F cSt 25 16 15 24 26 94 288 1750 188

Conradson Carbon wt % 4.0 2.5 3.5 7.6 9.2 13.2 14.0 18.1 9.0

Asphaltenes wt % 0.13 0.57 1.2 1.68 2.90 3.59 5.06 6.37 1.38

Ni + V ppm 4.5 5.1 7.9 50 88 125 299 1580 93


TYPICAL VACUUM RESIDUE CHARACTERISTICS

Figure 9

Arabian
Taching Ekofisk Brent Kirkuk Safaniya Cold Lake Boscan Emeraude
Light

Cut yield wt % 31.65 1.24 11.01 17.7 16.24 27.65 46.52 60.74 41.38

Specific gravity 0.9418 0.9753 0.9888 1.0224 0.0129 1.052 1.0615 1.062 0.989

Sulfur wt % 0.178 0.598 1.28 4.34 5.6 6.00 6.2 6.26 0.7

Nitrogen ppm 4200 6190 4490 2960 4600 4000 7600 9900 2800

2008 - IFP Training


Viscosity at 210F cSt 199 404 518 1590 4310 55300 96600 500000 2260

Conradson Carbon wt % 9.50 14.8 25.6 20.3 26.9 27.7 27.0 24.0 16.5

Asphaltenes wt % 0.21 1.87 7.90 5.59 7.8 9.2 10.5 10.6 2.69

Ni + V ppm 10 13.6 30 141 251 269 526 2220 152