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Cambria Steel
A HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION
RELATING TO
Structural Steel
MANUFACTURED BY THE
ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS,
BUILDERS AND MECHANICS
19 19
Copyright, 1919, by Cambria Steel Company
Price, $1.50
Repbint 1919'
PREFACE TO TWELFTH EDITION.
Rolled safety floor plates and buckle plates are newly listed
in most convenient sizes.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
General Information VIX
Sections of IBeams and Channels 216
" Angles, Bulb Angles and Top Guard Angles. . . . 1723
Hatch ZBar and Car Side Stakes 23
" TBars, Crane Rail and Door Spreader 2426
Method of Increasing Sectional Areas 26
Proportions of Standard Beams and Channels 27
Diagram for Minimum Standard Beams and Channels 28, 29
Pressed Steel Car Parts and Car Forgings 30, 31
Sizes of Ingots 32
Sizes of Squares, Rounds and Flats 33
Sizes of Billets, Blooms and Slabs 34, 35
Square Billets and Sheet and Tin Bars 36
Sizes of Plates and Thin Sheared Sheets 3739
Weights and Dimensions of IBeams and Channels 4045
" " Bulb Angles, Top Guard ....
Angles and Car Side Stakes 45, 46
Weights and Dimensions of TBars and Angles 4751
References to Beam Tables, Beams as Girders, Connection
Angles and Live Loads for Floors 52
Standard Construction Details 5367
Materials and Construction for Fireproof Floors 6877
Notes on Lateral Strength of Beams 7883
Approximate Weights of Various Roof Coverings 84
Weights, Dimensions and Data for Steel Sheeting 85
Formulae for Dimensions and Stresses of Roof Trusses. . 8689
Buckle Plates and Safety Floor Plates 90
Reinforced Concrete Floor Slabs 9193
Limiting Spans and Maximum Loads of Beams and Channels 9497
Coefficients of Deflection of Beams 98, 99
Explanation of Tables of Safe Loads 100105
Tables of Safe Loads for IBeams and Channels 106123
" Spacing of IBeams 124135
" Maximum Bending Moments for IBeams and Chan
nels 136,137
Safe Loads for Angles 138159
General Formulae for Flexure and Bending Moments 160165
Formulae for Moments of Inertia of Standard Sections. . . 166, 167
Properties of Various Sections 168175
Explanation of Tables of Properties 176181
Tables of Properties of IBeams, Channels and Hatch ZBar 182191
" "
Bulb Angles, Car Side Stakes and
Door Spreader Bar 192195
TBars and Angles 196209
Moments of Inertia of Rectangles 210 213
Properties of Standard TRails 214
Radii of Gyration for Two Angles Placed Back to Back .... 215 217
Strength of Steel Columns or Struts 218221
Example of the Use of Tables on pages 215217 and 218 I 222
CAMBRIA STEEL.
PAGE
Explanations of Tables Relating to Steel Columns 222, 223
Dimensions and Properties of Plate and Angle Columns 224228
. . .
GENERAL INFORMATION.
be obsolete.
The method of increasing the sectional area of shapes from the
minimum or base sizes to intermediate' and maximum sizes, is
CAMBRIA STEEL.
STEEL CARS.
Gondola, HopperGondola, Hopper, Flat, Tank, Mine, etc.,
Underframes and Trucks.
Freight, Passenger, Electric and Industrial Car Wheels.
Draft Gears, Forged and Pressed Steel Car Parts.
STEEL RAILS.
Steel TRails, 12 lbs. to 150 lbs. per yard.
Angle, Plain and Special Type Splice Bars.
Standard and Special Track Bolts and Nuts.
For detailed information, see Rail and Splice Catalogue.
STEEL AXLES.
Passenger Car, Freight Car, Tender Truck, Engine Truck,
Driving, Electric Car, Street Car, Mine Car, etc.
FORGINGS.
Axles, Crank Pins, Piston Rods and Forgings in general
furnished of carbon steel, annealed, or treated by our Coffin
toughening process (patented) as specified.
Crank Pins and Piston Rods also furnished oiltempered and
annealed; other small Forgings will be, if desired.
For small car forgings and pressed steel parts, see list on pages
30 and 31 herein.
STEEL SPECIALTIES.
Aline Ties, Fence Posts, Reinforcing Bars, etc.
PLOW STEEL.
Bars and Slabs (Pen and Pernot), Flat Plow Shapes, Digger
Blades, Hammered Lay, Rolled Lay, etc.
STANDARD BEAMS.
B. 5
WT. 5.5, 6.5 AND 7.5LBS.
.17"
B.9
WT. 7.5. 8.5. 9.5 AND lO^LBS.
CD V 29"
^ .19"
MS,
CD
Tib
t I
co
CSI
iH
B. 13
WT. 9.75. 12.25 AND 14.75 LBS.
.13"/
"1
O
O \r>.3l'
Vj
co r
ur * is CO
B.17
VWT. 12.25. 14.75 AND 17.25 LBS/
CAMBRIA STEEL.
STANDARD BEAMS.
.27M
B. 25
WT. 18.00. 20.25. 22.75. AND 25.25 LBS.
8 'L
B. 29
WT. 21. 25. 30, AND 35 LBS.
.29"
9"
B. 33
WT. 25. 30. 35 AND 40, LBS.
C*.41"
.31"
10?
B.41
WT. 3L5. 35 AND 40 LBS.
.35"
12*
CAMBRIA STEEL.
BEAMS.
SPECIAL 12 BEAM.
STANDARD 15 BEAM.
3"
4i" B. 53
WT. 42. 45. 50. 55
AND 60 LBS.
CAMBRIA STEEL.
SPECIAL BEAMS.
.80'
1.27"
.90"
V
B. 113
WT. 80, 85. 90, 95
AND 100 LBS.
B. 109
WT. 75
60, 65, 70.
AND 80 LBS.
CAMBEIA STEEL.
STANDARD BEAMS.
00
46" B. 65
WT. 55, 60. 65AND 70 LBS.
CAMBRIA STEEL.
BEAMS.
SPECIAL 20 BEAM
CAMBHIA STEEL.
STANDARD BEAMS.
B. 89
WT. 80. 88, 00. 95 AND 100 LBS.
7.00* i
CAMBRIA STEEL.
SPECIAL BEAMS.
B. 127
WE. 105, 110 AND 115 LBa
10 CAMBRIA STEEL.
STANDARD CHANNELS.
0.5
WT. 4, 5 AND 6 LBS.
:s~nA0"
3" >
0.9
11" WT. 5.25. 6.25
00 \ AND 7.25 LBS.
18"
4. >
C. 13
<"% U i.5. 9
WT. 6.5
ib \ AND 11.5 LBS.
f W 9" 19"
. >
,
5
0.17
WT. 8. 10.5. 13 AND 15.5 LBS.
 6
13
"
0. 21
WT. 9.75. 12.25. 14.75. 17.25
C. 25
WT. 11.25. 13.75. 16.25. 18.75
AND 21.25 LBS.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 11
STANDARD CHANNELS.
C 29
WT. 13.25. 15. 20 AND 25 LBS.
.23"
T"l
12 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CHANNELS.
SPECIAL 18 CHANNEL
3.30'
STANDARD 15 CHANNEL
k 3.00'' *l
_ii
C.53t
WT. 33. 35. 40, 45.
50. AND 55 LBS.
.40"
_.
k 3.40 *J
C. 269 C. 72
WT. 7.1 LBS. fc WT. 10.1 LBS,
co
c
.306". 45/ oi
,..t
j.,
'* 3 j* 4'I_.
H33'
i
i
14 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SHIP CHANNELS.
.48"
C. 101 i
bas" .40" ^2
t*>1.48"
T
i
CAMBRIA STEEL. 15
^
16 CAMBRIA STEEL.
"
"o
to
CO
CAMBRIA STEEL. 17
> A *. * A
WT.
.
ggt
7.2 TO
.. 18.3 LES.
t Standard Ship S
CAMBEIA STEEL. 19
SPECIAL ANGLES.
* A. 47* A. 129
^ '% WT. 12.3 TO
/K^ WT. 3.07 TO
\ 23.6 LBS. ^>,_ 7. 7 LBS.
A. 131
"oV WT. 7.7 TO
*\' 16.0 LBS.
20 CAMBRIA STEEL.
BULB ANGLES.
TOP GUARD ANGLES
2
TTHV A. 174
WT. 11.7 LBS.
= " 3" L
Vif
%7 _j_
K 4'
CAMBRIA STEEL. 21
BULB ANGLES.
^30"
A. 179
WT. 15.7. 17.5 AND 19.1 LBS.
"
;43 k1.25^H
1
.45" .73;
1
_t. 44
rn
A. 181
WT. 17.4. 19.3 AND 2L5 LBS,
Kl.35>j
CO
8^
rn
A. 183
WT. 20.3. 22.6 AND 24.8 LBS.
k1.48"*
iX
"to
1
1
22 CAMBRIA STEEL.
_i__.
^ ^.375"
.675"
P*
A 188
(B.S.B.A. 8)
WT. 15.3, 16.8, 18.
AND 20.0 LBS.
;f
I 145" 2
..* .JL
A. 189
(B.S.B.A 12)
WT. 18.0,19.6, 21.6
AND 23.2 LBS.
.45"
IS
._*_
f
CAMBRIA STEEL. 23
^
24 CAMBRIA STEEL.
T. 5 T. 183
WT. .89 LBS. WT. 1.51 LBS.
i k ^,}re"*;= 2
i'iif!!*! t
T. 181
1*T; WT. 1.37 LBS.
ft _il''i*
T. 191
T. 187
WT. 1.94 LBS.
WT. 1.60 LBS.
* >iV'*ft
T. 188
WT. 1.70 LBS
.X JJ .
n:
aft K
"f
T. 193 T. 37
WT. 2.47 LBS. WT. 3.56 LBS.
i. U2
^ . 32*1 i '
CAMBRIA STEEL. 25
T. 39
WT. 4.3 LB&
T. 16 T. 18
WT. 1.48 LB3. WT. 1.56 LBS.
,U1
f!f"\
T. 20
WT. 1.25 LBS. .*.__
i"
or
Y ' ~*7 !*~32 '
Y
26 CAMBRIA STEEL.
DOORSPREADER.
CRANE RAIL.
NQ. 539
"WT. 50 "LBSr iPER FOOT)
BSS
c = T6 Minimum Web.

STANDARD CHANNELS
i
i
O M,S3 3.
o
5 <
c
2 a
2> rt 3
< CO ~
30 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA
32 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 33
STEEL SQUARES.
All sizes from A" to 2 re" increasing by gV'
All sizes from 2^" to 3^s" increasing by ^2"
All sizes from 3}4" to byi" increasing by yi"
Planished squares from fa" to 2^"
EDGED PLATES.
THICL'.ESS ffi INCHES.
Width
Inches.
A i 1 1 n u h 2
38
CAMBRIA STEEL. 39
SHEARED PLATES.
THICISESS IH niCHES.
40
42 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Number. Section.
Inches. Pounds. S\. In. Inch. Inchos.
Section'
Number.
CAMBRIA STEEL 45
Section'
Number.
46 CAMBRIA STEEL
Section
Num
ber.
All
*A 15
*A 17
A 19
*A 21
50 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CONNECTION ANGLES.
When beams are coped or fitted together at right angles, con
nection angles are generally used, standards for which, covering
usual cases, are shown on pages 53, 54 and 55. Explanations and
may be used are
tables of limiting spans for which these standards
given on pages 56 to 59. Beams may be fitted together thus with
flush tops or bottoms or in intermediate positions, as required in
cases where the girder or trimmer beam is the larger. In cases
where the girder or trimmer beam is the smaller, special stirrups
or other connections are required.
[iJE} "e^ei
]
2 6 X 4 X f ANGLES 2 LONG
WEIGHT 4.1 LBS.
a
2 6"x 4"x "ANGLES5^"LONG
WEIGHT 11.3 LBS.
J
54 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Depth of Beams
Inches
CAMBRIA STEEL. 55
Depth of Beams
56 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Stress.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 67
late.
per Foot
Shop Rivets. Turned Bolts.
Sp*" ^^ ,
BoIts Span.
A pb'l
t = thicknessof plate in inches.
1 = length ofplate in inches, in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the
beam or channel.
b = width of flange of beam or channel in inches.
R = reaction at point of support in pounds.
For uniformly distributed loads, R
= onehalf of the load given in Tablea of Safe
Loads, pages 106 to 123 inclusive.
p = allowable stress in pounds per square inch on extreme fibre of plate.
b* = width of plate in the direction of the axis of the beam or channel; *'. e
bearing on wall in inches.
If p = 16 ooo lbs. for steel we have
EX AMPLE.
What the proper size of steel bearing plate to be used in a wall of brick laid
is
in cement mortar to support the end of a 10inch standard IBeam, weighing 40
pounds per foot, of 10 foot span, subjected to its safe load uniformly distributed?
On page 109 in the Table of Safe Loads Uniformly Distributed for Cambria
IBeams, the total load is found to be 33 850 pounds, and half of this, or 16 925
pounds, will be the reaction at each end.
On referring to the Table of Bearing Plates, on page 65, the proper size for
this load on the class of masonry in question is found to be 6" x 10". The
width of flange of a 10inch 40 lb. standard beam is 5.10 inches.
Substituting these values in the formula for thickness gives
aJ ~j
V
t = .00685 (8  5.10) = .323
and the nearest commercial size above this is %", which is the thickness required.
64 CAMBRIA STEEL.
STANDARD
BEARINGS AND BEARING PLATES.
Size
CAMBRIA STEEL. 65
66 CAMBRIA STEEL.
STANDARD CAST IRON SEPARATORS FOR IBEAMS.
i %
*C5
Beams.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 67
Beams.
68 CAMBRIA STEEL.
FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION.
Buildings of fireproof construction consist essentially of a steel
frame or skeleton to support the floors, and in the case of high
buildings, the outside walls also are carried by the steel framing.
All parts of the steel work are enclosed and protected by some
fireresisting material, which should be of such quality and
arrangement as not to disintegrate or fall away when heated to
high temperatures and at the same time exposed to a stream of cold
water. The fireproofing for the floors, in addition to its ability to
afford a fireproof protection to the steel beams, must be capable of
supporting the load and distributing it to the floor beams, which
in turn transmit it to the columns and thence to the foundations.
One of the earlier forms of floors consists of brick arches built
between and supported by the bottom flanges and lower portions
of the web of iron or steel IBeams, but this style has considerable
dead weight and, as ordinarily constructed, does not provide fire
proof protection for the bottom flanges of the beams. Another of
the earlier forms of floor is composed of sheets of corrugated iron
arched between the beams, on which a concrete filling is placed,
and this also, as ordinarily constructed, does not provide protec
tion for the bottom flanges of the beams, besides, it is quite heavy.
A later style of floor is the hollow tile system, which is composed
of flat or segmental arches constructed of moulded blocks of hard
burned clay, specially shaped, and of various depths to suit
different loads and the sizes of the IBeams supporting them. In
the hollow tile system, the blocks may also be of porous terra
cotta which is lighter than hard clay.
Various other systems of fireproofing are now in use, the most
usual forms of which consist of cement, concrete or other material
used alone or deposited or arranged about a strengthening or sup
porting framework of steel shapes, bars, rods, wire, wirecloth, etc.
Column or girder fireproofing may be accomplished by the use of
hard clay or porous terracotta blocks shaped to fit and enclose the
steel work, or the steel may be wrapped with wire, wirecloth,
metal lath, etc., and a concrete or plastered coating applied to it.
Fireproof partitions may be constructed of hollow tile composed
of hard clay or porous terracotta to which the plaster finish may
be directly applied, or they may be composed of suitable metal
studding on which is secured the wirecloth or metal lath that
serves to support the concrete or other fireproofing, the surface
then being plastered in the usual manner.
The dead weights of fireproof floors vary between wide limits
dependent upon the system employed, the load to be carried and
the distance between the supporting beams.
CAMBBIA STEEL. 69
Example. What load will an 8inch arch carry (using a
Factor of Safety of 5), for a span of 5 feet 6 inches, the blocks
having a sectional area parallel to the beams, of 44.25 square
inches?
Safety Factor 7.
ARCHES.
72 CAMBRIA STEEL.
ARCHES.
CAMBKIA STEEL. 73
ARCHES.
74 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Depth
CAMBRIA STEEL. 75
THRUST OF ARCHES.
The horizontal thrust of segmental floor arches, on the assump
tion of uniform loading, may be found by the following formula:
in which
3PL
T=
R
For arches with flat tops and bottoms, such as are used in floors,
the voussoir joints on each side of the central key are usually laid
out on parallel lines, and in these cases the thrust may be deter
mined approximately by using for R, in the above formula, the
effectivedepth of the arch, which is somewhat less than the
nominal depth, as indicated on page 77.
For segmental arches the rise R is the vertical distance from the
highest part of the intrados to the plane of the springing line. If
the radius of the intrados for segmental arches is r, the rise may
be obtained from the following formula
R= r \' r2
conversely, r
R L2
= +
TIE RODS.
Although completed structure the horizontal thrusts of
in the
adjoining arches may counterbalance each other, the tie rods
should be so proportioned and spaced as to withstand the entire
thrust of the arches, thus tying the structure together and facili
tating the construction.
76 CAMBHIA STEEL.
AX RX 10 000
WL 3
in which
In spacing tie rods, the lateral strength of beams, for flexure due
to the thrust of the arches, should be taken into consideration,
explanations for which are given on pages 78 to 81 inclusive.
Spacings for other loads than that of the table may be found
by proportion, thus:
Required spacing =
+ weight of arch
kt
100
i
77
in pounds per square foot
New load in lbs. per sq. ft. + weight of, archr^
. ,.
:
.
it
.
in lbs.
77 X
per sq. ft.
. . .
spacing from table.
...
Weights of tile arches per square foot are given on page 69.
, wxiB 2
m
in which
p' = fibre stress in pounds per square inch due to lateral forces,
w = lateral load or thrust in pounds per lineal foot of section used
as a beam.
xi = distance of the extreme fibre from the neutral axis in inches.
B = distance between tie rods or lateral supports in feet.
I' = moment of inertia about the vertical axis of the section or
In this case the above formula for intensity of unit stress due to
lateral load becomes:
_ wbB*
p = ?rp (2)
CAMBEIA STEEL. 79
* This method of treatment gives approximate results which are on the side
of safety.
The correct determination can be secured by the use of the section modulus
polygon. (See Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers,
VoL LVI, 1906. page 169, et seq.)
80 CAMBEIA STEEL.
Example.
What is the proper size of IBeam without other lateral support
than the usual tie rods, corresponding to a total fibre stress of
16 000 pounds per square inch under the following conditions?
The beam is 18 feet between end supports and carries a tile arch
on one side having a nominal depth of 9 inches, effective depth of
6.6 inches, a span of 5 feet, designed to carry a superimposed load
of 75 pounds per square foot in addition to the weight of the arch
and other floor materials. The hollow tile arch weighs 36 pounds
per square foot and the other materials, including plastering,
weigh 14 pounds, making a total load, exclusive of the weight of
the beam, equal to 125 pounds per square foot.
For tie rods of f" diameter the spacing between them would be
5.9 feet, as shown by the table of Spacing of Tie Rods on page 77
in which the safe stresses in the rods only are considered.
Substituting the proper values in the formula for lateral thrust
of arches, given on page 75, this will be
T = o X a a ~~ = 710
Z \s o.o
lbs. per lineal foot.
2 X 6.89 '
.48 of the amount given by the Tables of Safe Loads in case the
spacing of the tie not changed.
rods is
The safe vertical load for a 10" beam, weighing 25 lbs. per foot,
18 feet long between supports, for fibre stress of 16 000 lbs. per
square inch, is 14 470 lbs. uniformly distributed, including the
that the total stress due to it and the lateral thrust shall not
exceed 16 000 lbs. per square inch.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 81
If the spacing of the tie rods at the center be reduced from 5.9
feet to 3.25 feet,it may be found, in a manner similar to that used
in the above calculations, that the safe vertical load for an 8"
IBeam, weighing 18.0 lbs. per foot, is reduced to .74 of its tabular
value of 8 430 lbs., or 6 328 lbs., and as this amount is greater than
the actual load as above, namely, 5 625 lbs., the 8" beam would
answer the purpose, under the changed conditions as to spacing
of tie rods. As this beam might deflect beyond the limit for
plastered ceilings, it should be examined in accordance with the
rule or formula given for obtaining safe deflections in the explana
tion of the Tables of Safe Loads, and elsewhere herein.
Calculating this by the rule given on pagel02,the safe load for
the allowable limit of deflection is
W v= 9 480 X 16*
 7_ 491
^gj 
,
lbs.,
which is greater than the actual amount, 5 625 lbs., so that the 8"
beam is sufficient and proper if the spacing of central tie rods be
changed to 3.25 feet, as assumed in the last case.
82 CAMBRIA STEEL.
= 18000
P W
1 +
3000b2
in which
stresses and proportions of their full loads which they can safely
carry when laterally supported at various distances is given in
the following table:
CAMBEIA STEEL. 83
Ratio of Span
or Disunite
between
Literal
Supports to
Flange Width.
84 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Pitch
of
CAMBRIA STEEL. 85
STEEL SHEETING.
Weights given (U. S. Standard) are based on 4S0 lbs. per cu. ft.
Gauge
Number
86 CAMBRIA STEEL.
ROOF TRUSSES
(PRATT.)
n=SHH=2cot a
P = Panel Load.
I 4 Panels.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 87
Ill 8 Panels.
88 CAMBRIA STEEL.
V Simple.
CAMBRIA STEEL 89
ROOF TRUSSES
(FAN).
n = SnH = 2cot a.
P = Panel Load.
Heavy lines in dia
grams indicate com
pression members.
VII Simple.
90 CAMBRIA STEEL.
>!e^ L
CAMBRIA STEEL. 91
1*<H
NOTATION.
w= Total weight in lbs. per sq. ft. including slab weight.
L= Span in feet c. to c. of beam supports.
M= Bending Moment for 12" width of slab (inch pounds).
Ec = Modulus of Elasticity for concrete.
= " steel. "
Es " "
= Ratio. Es ~ Ec.
r
C = Extreme fibre stress of concrete in compression.
S= " " " " steel in tension.
K = Constant for a given steel and concrete.
d = Effective depth of slab in inches.
p = Ratio of steel area to effective slab area.
x = Distance, Top of slab to Neutral Axis d. j
FORMULA.
M= 1.5 wL2for slabs freely supported.
= 1.2 wL2 " " continuous over supports.
2
Cr =rp
v
2S(Cr + S) (V^+l 1
)
v _ Sp /2Cr + 3S \
K "1T \ Cr + S/
j = l
u =
V (not to exceed 60 lbs. for stone or 30
. . lbs. for cinder concrete),
jdlo
For Square and Round Bars, refer to pages 451457.
Note. Best practice indicates that Spans of Floor Slabs should not ex
ceed seven feet between steel beams or steel girders. Generally speaking,
the span should in no case exceed 10 feet for ordinary work.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 93
Dantt
94 CAMBBIA STEEL.
tion due to web crippling does not appear. The shearing stresses
tained by the use of moments in the usual way, and these are
given for various cases on pages 162 to 165 inclusive.
and the former will tend to buckle the web, which should there
12000
p
vr~
3000
v
t
2
we have
12000
1 + 1500 2
in which
cases where the intensity of shear exceeds that given by the above
formula the web should be provided with stiffeners.
The following tables have been prepared based upon the above
formula for safe unit shearing stress in the webs of beams and
channels.
96
98 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Thus, to find, from the preceding table, the deflection in inches for
Cambria shapes used as Beams under their safe loads uniformly dis
tributed including the weight of the beam :
Note. For deflections of Beams and Channels due to any central or
uniform load see coefficients of deflection N and N' in the Tables of Properties
relating to these sections and the accompanying explanations.
For deflections of any symmetrical beams due to various systems of loading,
see general formulae and diagrams on pagea 160 to 165 inclusive.
100 CAMBRIA STEEL.
These loads include the weight of the steel shape itself, which
should be deducted in order to obtain the external load that it
the weight of the steel, together with that of the other portions
of the floor construction, must be deducted in order to obtain the
includes an element of safety for the reason that the beams will
be deflected, after being put in place, by their own weight and that
of the floor materials before the plastering is applied.
In cases where the deflection limits the use of the beam for the
beam may be used with a less load such as to produce only the
allowable deflection. The lesser load corresponding to the limit
of deflection may be obtained for any span from the Table of
Safe Loads as follows:
WsXD.
Lx*
102 CAMBRIA STEEL.
in which
Multiply the safe load next above the heavy line of the tables by
the square of the corresponding span in feet and divide the product
by the square of the required span. The result will be the required
For any given size of beam the spacing or distances from centers
to centers for different intensities of loading varies inversely as
the load, so that the spacing for any intensity of loading may be
found from the tabular spacing by proportion as stated in the
beam, 60 pounds per foot, will more than suffice, but as this
of
section is not regularly kept in stock the standard 15inch 60
pound beam should be ordered if prompt delivery is wanted.
It may also be found from page 114, that an 18inch 55pound
beam will amply suffice, and as this is both stiffer and lighter than
the 15inch 60pound beams, it could be used with economy if
Example II.
From the Tables of Safe Loads, page 108, it is found that the
safe load for the beam in question is 7 580 pounds, but this value
is below the line which indicates the span corresponding to the
allowable limit of deflection.
Substituting the proper values in the formula for obtaining the
reduced load corresponding to the allowable deflection, as given
on page 101, we have
W = WsXL2
w j^ = 9 48020*X 16
2
= Rn<V7 ,
P unds 
Example III.
9.6X100 f
150
40
^ X 22 X 150 = 66 000 pounds.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 105
From the Table of Safe Loads, page 111, it is found that this will
require two 15inch standard IBeams, each weighing 60 pounds
per foot.
On account of the advisability of spacing the floor beams equally,
the arrangement outlined above would reduce their distances to
22
r 5.5 feet center to center, so that 10inch IBeams, weighing
40 pounds per foot, might be used for the body of the floor, as may
be determined by referring to the Table of Spacings of Cambria
IBeams, page 127, and calculating as before, with the result that
the allowable spacing for these conditions is found to be 5.7 feet.
The 10inch 40pound beam under these conditions, will, how
ever, deflect almost to the allowable limit for plastered ceilings,
besides, they are heavier than the 12inch 31.5pound beams
first considered, so that the latter will be the stiffer and more
economical.
further computation.
1.06 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Distance
CAMBRIA STEEL. 117
Distance
between
118 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Distance
CAMBRIA STEEL. 125
Distance
126 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBKIA STEEJL. 127
Distance
STANDARD IBEAMS.
between 9 Inch No. B 29. 10 Inch No. B 33.
supports
in feet 21 25 30 35 25 30 35 40
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.
8 31.5 34.1 I
37.7 41.4
9 24.9 26.9 i 29.8 32.7
10 20.1 21.8 24.1 26.5 26.0 28.6 31.2
31
130 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SPACING OF CAMBRIA IBEAMS FOR UNI
FORM LOAD OF 100 LBS. PER
SQUARE FOOT.
Proper distance in feet, center to center of Beams.
1
Distance
CAMBBIA STEEL. 131
Distance
132 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Distance
CAMBRIA STEEL. 133
Distance
134 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SPACING OF CAMBRIA IBEAMS FOR UNI
FORM LOAD OF 100 LBS. PER
SQUARE FOOT.
Proper distance in feet, center to center of Beams.
Maximum fibre stress 16 000 pounds per square inch.
Distance
CAMBKIA STEEL. 135
Distance
136
138 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SAFE LOADS IN POUNDS UNIFORMLY DIS
TRIBUTED FOR CAMBRIA ANGLES.
EQUAL LEGS.
NEUTRAL AXIS PARALLEL TO EITHER LEG
Safe loads below are figured for fibre stress of 16 000 pounds
per square inch and include weight of angle.
J
CAMBRIA STEEL. 139
Distance
J
140 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Distance
146 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SAFE LOADS IN POUNDS UNIFORMLY DIS
TRIBUTED FOR CAMBRIA ANGLES.
UNEQUAL LEGS.
NEUTRAL AXIS PARALLEL TO LONG LEG.
Safe loads below are figured for fibre stress of 16 000
pounds per square inch and include weight of angle.
.
' 4
CAMBRIA STEEL. 147
HrtBM
between
150 CAMBRIA STEBL.
UNEQUAL LEGS.
NEUTRAL AXIS PARALLEL TO LONG LEO.
Safe loads below are figured for fibre stress of 16 000 pounds
per square inch and include weight of angle.
I
CAMBRIA STEEL. 151
I" I A"
110.4 12.0 13.6 15.2 16^8
I V  ^"1 
ia Y9^8
y I
ft"
21:3 22.7 24.2
W
1
106. lbs.
IDS. IDS.
lbs. IDS.
lbs. 1..
IDS. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.
in feet. 
i I
I
I
per ft. per ft. per ft. per ft. per ft per ft. per ft. per ft. per ft. per ft. per ft.
2 10320 12240 14100 15930 17710 19450 21150 22810 24440 26030 27590
3 6880 8160 9400 10620 11810 12970 14100 15210 16290 17350 18400
4 5160 6120 7050 7960 8850 9720 10570 11410 12220 13020 13800
5 4130 4890 5640 6370 7080 7780 8460 9120 9780 10410 11040
6 3440 40S0 4700 5310 5900 6480 7050 7600 8150 8680 9200
7 2950 3500 4030 4550 5060 5560 6040 6520 6980 7440 7880
8 3060 3530 3980 4430 4860 5290 5700 6110 6510 6900
9 2250 2720 3130 3540 3940 4320 4700 5070 5430 5780 6130
10 2060 2450 2820 3190 3540 3890 4230 4560 4890 5210 5520
11 1830 2220 2560 2900 3220 3540 3850 4150 4440 4730 5020
12 1720 2040 2350 2650 2950 3240 3520 3800 4070 4340 4600
13 1590 1880 2170 2450 2720 2990 3250 3510 3760 4000 4240
14 1470 1750 2010 2280 2530 2780 3020 3260 3490 3720 3940
15 1380 1630 1880 2120 2360 2590 2820 3040 3260 3470 3680
16 1290 1530 1760 1990 2210 2430 2640 2850 3050 3250 3450
17 1210 1440 1660 1870 2080 2290 2490 2680 2880 3060 3250
18 1150 1360 1570 1770 1970 2160 2350 2530 2720 2890 3070
156
158 CAMBKIA STEEL.
Center of Gravity,
v = Distance, in inches, between these Axes.
S = Section Modulus in inches8 ,
GENERAL FORMUL.fi.
S= lii+Av* I =
x^ ^fz
M .A.1 is
= = = pS.\ p = = =  Or for Symmetrical Section M = r
For Beam supported at both ends and Uniformly Loaded:
a
SAFE LOADS.
F= j where p = 16 000 pounds and 1 = 12* therefore F = j 16 000 S
deflections.
(1) Beam supported
~ a
Deflection
c
for Total
^
at both ends and Uniformly Loaded:
, ,
Load = ^
D= ^^ =
5 mi 5
(Wi + Wi)
l
1
8EI 8EI
\Vil
Deflection for Superimposed Load = Dw = :
^=
(4) Beam one end, and unsupported at the other, with load concen
fixed at
trated at the unsupported end:
Deflection for Total Load =
P13
D = ^y + ^
wji
Pl
Deflection for Superimposed Load = D p = ^j
5 Wli
= 5 (Wi + Wi)
li .
where
_
w =
_+
W t
_.
Wj) = im
,
000 1
. .
pounds and
.
384 EI 384 EI
1= 12*
Pli
N' = v^f . where P = 1 000 pounds and 1 = 12*
48 fc.1
Total Deflection, in inches, due to a Beam Uniformly Loaded for any span in
NWL* X (Wi Wi) Li = +
1 000 1 000
Total Deflection, in inches, due to a Superimposed Load P and the Weight of
d c N'PLi NWiLi
Beam W, for any span in feet
t
D
= r> =
l(m + y^
,
Total Deflection, in inches, for a fibre stress of 12 500 lbs. per square inch
5 (Wi+W )l 3
= Wl
2
of
PI
beam = M =
W2I
= \
Maximum Shear at points of support =
P+W 2
4
Diagram, Dead Load, similartoCase(l)
(3) Beam fixed atone end, Unsup
ported at the other and Safe Superimposed Load, in lbs., uni
\Uniformly Loaded. W,
j
formly distributed, W' = r Ws.
M!
Maximum Bending Moment at point of
Wl (Wi+W s)l
support = 3 = g
P +W 2.
V
2al
8a
Maximum Bending Moment at center
W2I
of beam = Pa H 
Maximum Shear at points of support =
2P+Wi
2
Diagram Superimposed Load:
for
Maximum Deflection =
a W.l.
M
Draw trapezoid having p = Pa.
A \
Diagram, Dead Load, similar to Case(l) 24 EI
*(*) +
/ 384 EI
:
The ordinates in diagrams give the bending moments for corresponding points
on beam. For superimposed load only, make W2 in formulae equal to zero.
Bending Moment at P2 = M p2
= Ra2
1
'
2
Shear or Reaction at Right Support =
The bending moment at any
total
P 2 a 2 +Piai +Pa Wz
point produced by all the weights is
1
24 24
Diagram for Total Load: Draw Maximum Shear at points of support =
parabola having M = WI
%
o
Also A A Wi + Wi
parallel to base and at a distance 2
WI
=
Wl
M' = The Vertical distances Maximum Deflection
384 EI
between the parabola and line A A' CWi +w 2) i3 *
8
+ 24
'
PI
Draw triangle having M = Also
4 =
A A' parallel to base and at a distance P Maximum
+W
Shear at
2
points of support
PI
M' = jr The Vertical distances be
tween the triangle and line A A' are Pl
the moments forcorres ponding points Maximum Deflection =
on beam. 192EI
Diagram for Dead Load similar to WJ.
Case (8). 384EI*
166 CAMBRIA STEEL.
o= 2
A= [b +2 (a  t)] t.
kAar !
(btt*) (a 2 at)
Tan. 2a = + ir
b b
I, Axis 1  1 = aba'(b2t)
12
a'>J
A = Ut + U) +
n' ti + b' (s + n').
1 r
;
t> j
3s(bti)+2b's'(s'+3s)+3tidl (tit) (3d 1)
=
efp 6A
,
I, A
Axis
. .
1 ,
1 = l(3t+ti)+4bn'2bV A (x . .
n
x,
sbHs'tiHlt' s'b'[2b'K2b'+3ti)]
I'.Axis22 =
12 36
, l(tit) [(ti t)'+2 (t,+ 2t)]
144
e = Area of head.
2  
A = e + t (d k) + (b t) (s + )
, b ,
s
/
+
2bs
A
. ,
(x s).,2
i .
T'A,=9 9 ek
I.Ax,s22= ,
 gg ,
dcosa + bsina
bd
bd 3
2 2d
j* b
bd
*xi =d
2
ird 1 d
= .785d = "77
T(dJdii)
= .785 (d  d!)
x=^=.212d
Sir
7rd
= .393d>
a=3.r (3n  4) d
= .2S8d
6ir
Kbrt b + 2bi
b + bi b + b
b. + 2b
b + bi 3
Not the neutral axis.
CAMBRIA STEEL, 171
s = L r = T
A
bd bd = .236d
36 24 l/ IS
d d
= .098d
32
r(ddi)
.049(ddi<)
(d<d,) ^(d'd,*)
.098
V d* + di
64 32 d
9ir64
d = .007d< At
d' = <Y>AAi
.024d*
VwfA
_,
d = .I32d
192 (3ir  4) 12tt
.
d* tan. 30 = .866d*
nbd
= .785 bd
d
td + 2b' (s + n') xi = x
TTTb' itfl
td + 2b' (s + n')
itlpp
^Pk
14*'
n
d
^d ^ b, td + b' (s + n')
X.]
=$1
i  *"PJ ht e1
x = + ^
[b*s + (bt)
td + b' (s + n') 0 + 2t) + A ]
xi = b x
CAMBRIA STEEL. 173
SL r= '" F
I A^
d /
l + 2 c os'30
.12d3 4cos30A 3
6 L. 4 cos 1 30 l
= .06d = .264d
irbd irbd*
= .<H9bd = .098bd*
64 32
 ;i
l[^4g rh, ]
*
l n2 = h
b
~!
t
1
[ (d  h) + Itf
j
+ J(bt<;]
h1 A A
where g =
bt
Whereg= ^~^
2ib^\]
lL29b
3 +lt , + b<:<
]
I
Ax*
whereB=
27b^T
bx A^
a
;
Pz bd  h (b  t) Xi
d
= rr
x,t<b
FTd
j   b
bd h (b t) Xl = TT
iLFroui
bd  h (b  t)
41
C = 2bs+ht
2A
 
if bd h (b t)
xi = b ~x
td +s (b  t)
*'
r
dt + s(bt)
bs + ht 2A
fa xi = dx
I
176 CAMBKIA STEEL.
PROPERTIES OP IBEAMS.
F = f X 16 000 XS
F'  X 12 500 X S
N
Wl
76.8EI
3
N' = PI3
48EI
in which
beam one foot long with a load of 1 000 pounds, hence, the deflec
tion of a beam for any load and span may be obtained by multi
plying the proper coefficient by the cube of the span in feet, and
by the number of 1 000pound units in the given load.
I'
In this case the Section Modulus S' = 
PROPERTIES OF ANGLES.
The values in the Tables of Properties of Standard and Special
Angles, with Equal Legs, pages 198 to 203, are those stated in the
headings, and those in the Tables of Properties of Standard and
Special Angles, with Unequal Legs, on pages 204 to 209, are
similar, but with the addition of values for I", S" and r" about
the inclined axis 33, the position of which, in order to give the
minimum value.,, was determined by the formula on page 166
or the value of the tangent of 2a. After determining the position
of the inclined axis, the properties corresponding thereto were
obtained by the formula on page 166.
50jf inches, varying by rgths. Value for any other width may
be obtained from Table II by direct multiplication of tabular
value by that other width.
Example I.
is twice that for the same load uniformly distributed, hence the
coefficient necessary to meet the conditions is 35 000 X 25 X 2
= 1 750 000. From the Table of Properties of Standard
IBeams, page 185, column 13, the coefficient F for a 24inch
Example II.
Example III.
Example IV.
What is the fibre stress in a 5" x 3" angle weighing 8.2 pounds
per foot if loaded at the center with a weight of 1500 pounds, used
as a beam with a span of 6 feet, the 5inch leg to be placed verti
cally?
Wd
,
h
W =21 1 500 X 72 ,
1
8.2 X 6 X 72 = __ ._. . .
4 8 4 8
Referring to the Table of Properties of Standard Angles,
Unequal Legs, on page 207, the Section Modulus for this angle,
the maximum fibre stress in pounds per square inch at the point
most remote from the neutral axis, which in this case is the
_4L
a
1 A
1
CAMBRIA STEEL. 185
M .i.
12
186 CAMBBIA STEEL.
I Mi?
h d
1
188 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 189
1 i*?
d 1T7T7.
14 16 16 17 18 19 20
Coef of Strength.
. Coef. of Deflection.
Radios Distance Increase of
of Center Thickness

.50
190 CAMBRIA STEEL.
T
PROPERTIES OF STANDARD
K rrp." SHIP CHANNELS.
ir
d General slope of flange =2 or .035.
r
6 8 9 10 11 12
Radius
Section Section
Thick Thick of Moment
Area Width Mod Mod
W'ght Gyra of
Section of of ulus ulus
per of Inertia
at tion Inertia
Section. Flange Aiis Aiis
Number. Foot. Web. Aiis 11
Mid Axis Aiis 22.
11. 22.
11.
A S S'
Lbs. 1
Sq. Ins. Inch. Ins.* Ils. Ins.* Ins.3
C 55 6 16.8 4.92 .325 3.45 475 28.5 9.5 2.41 569 2.49
"(BSC8) " 117.8 5.22 .375 3.50 29.4 9.82.38 6.09 2.58
" 119.8 5.82.475 3.60 31.2 10.4:2.32 6.86 2.77
C 57 7 18.9 5.55 .350 3.45 .500 42.8 12.2'2.78 6.312.69
"(BSC10) " 20.1 5.90.400 3.50 44.2'12.6 2.74 6.73 2.78
;
" 22.5 6.60 .5003.60 47.113.5,2.67 7.54,2.98
C
"
59 8 21 6.23 .375 3.45 525 61. 215. 313.13 6.922.89
(BSC13) " 22 6.63 .425 3.50] 63.3 15.8 3.09 7.362.98
u " ;25 7.43 .525 3.60 67.6 16.913. 02 8.21,3.18
C 60 9 23 6.96 400 3.45 ) 84.3 18.7l3.48 7.52'3.08
"(BSC17) " 25 7.41 450 3.50 87.3 19.4 3.43 7.973.17
" 28 8.31 550 3.60 93.420.73.35 8.853.38
" 31 9.21 650 3.70 99.4 22.1,3.29 9.71:3.57
C 61 1024
1
PROPERTIES OF ZBAR
HATCH SECTION.
STANDARD SHIP SECTION.
Section
Kumber.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 191
PROPERTIES OF STANDARD
SHIP CHANNELS.
i
IF General slope of flange = 2 or .035.
n
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
':
Coefficient of Coefficient of
: k
of Strength. Deflection.
:
of
G7ra
Center ness of _ 
.
Section
GraTieacaLb. 16 000 Lbs 12 500 Lbs. "^
oifn Center
^
1
r'
Inch M :i :
PROPERTIES OF ZBAR
HATCH SECTION.
STANDARD SHIP SECTION.
1
CAMBEIA STEEL. 193
w x*i
9
194 CAMBRIA STEEL.
PROPERTIES OF
STANDARD BULB
ANGLES.
1
STANDARD BULB
ANGLES.
9
196 CAMBRIA STEEL.
PROPERTIES OF TBARS.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 197
PROPERTIES OF TBARS.
EQUAL LEGS.
10
198
CAMBRIA STEEL.
200
CAMBRIA STEEL.
202 CAMBRIA STEEL.
1
CAMBEIA STEEL. 203
9 10
204 CAMBRIA STEEL.
PROPERTIES OF
STANDARD ANGLES.
UNEQUAL LEGS.
1
206 CAMBRIA STEEL.
208 CAMBRIA STEEL.
210
CAMBRIA STEEL. 211
Neutral I Axis
t b i
Stand
CAMBKIA STEEL. 215
216 CAMBBIA STEEL.
Section
CAMBRIA STEEL. 217
218 CAMBRIA STEEL.
J
220
CAMBRIA STEEL. 221
fore,? =6.3.
1.27
Referring to the table of Strength of Steel Columns or Struts for
medium steel, page 220, the ultimate strength of a column in which
=6.3 is found by interpolation between the values for 6.2 and 6.4
based upon the Least Radius of Gyration, are given on pages 268 to
27 and data relating to the proper sizes of lattice bars and stayplates
1 ,
to be used with these columns are given on pages 272 and 273.
On pages 232 and 233 are given the Principal Dimensions of Plate
and Channel Columns with comparatively narrow plates called for ,
>< k~
t* <!'
i y
Size
CAMBRIA STEEL. 225
Sin
226 CAMBHIA STEEL.
K
/fc
A>j<A
i 4
tfl
kb4f~b^',
Depth
CAMBEIA STEEL. 231
* t
Ai*A
'
d
>
i
*EUe*h; i
b
[*
^
*j*b>4j
SERIES A.
234
CAMBEIA STEEL. 235
236
238 CAMBRIA STEEL.
240
CAMBBIA STEEL. 241
242
CAMBRIA STEEL. 243
rvwi 9
ii
so
m
ri'i'"J ril
pi
O; j[o
/ = ^LiL^^A A ^ovt
Depth of
Best in
CAMBRIA STEEL. 245
Length in Feet.
246
CAMBRIA STEEL. 247
(12L)
Safety factor
1 +
4. 36 000r
Length In Feet.
8
250 CAMBRIA STEEL.
"
A 74.8 22.01 2.54 5.83 272
" H K 85.0 25.00 2.57 5.81 309
A "
A 95.2 28.00 2.59 5.79 347
* H 105.3 30.95 2.62 5.77 383
"
a 115.1 33.87 2.65 5.74 419
125.3 36.74 2.68 5.72 455
134.7 39.62 2.71 5.70 491
144.5 42.45 2.74 5.68 526
153.8 45.25 2.77 5.66 561
1.1 163 2 48.00 2.81 5.64 595
CAMBHIA STEEL. 261
252 CAMBHIA STEEL.
1
50 ooo
+
(12 D*
i m g^ 1
5 xSHxA 14xA
"
49.7 14.62 1.98 5.77 180
H 59.5 17.45 2.01 5.75 215
A '
"
A 68.8 20.25 2.04 5.73 249
H 78.2 23.00 2.07 5.71 283
' A "
A 87.6 25.76 2.09 5.69 317
"
k "
X 96.9 28.43 2.12 5.67 351
ti 105.9 31.11 2.15 5.64 384
" 114.9 33.74 2.18 5.62 416
123.9 36.38 2.21 5.60 449
% 132.5 38.93 2.24 6.58 481
"
ri 141.4 41.49 2.27 5.56 512
6 i3Hx^ 16x<
"
67.2 19.68 2.46 6.68 244
A A 77.8 22.88 2.49 6.66 283
* A
l
88.4 26.00 2.52 6.64 322
A A 99.0 29.12 2.54 6.61 360
% '
"
H 109.6 32.20 2.57 6.59 399
H H 119.8 35.24 2.60 6.57 436
130.4 38.24 2.63 6.55 474
140.2 41.24 2.66 6.53 511
: : tl 648
150.4 44.20 2.69 6.51
160.2 47.12 2.72 6.48 684
170.0 50.00 2.75 6.46 620
CAMBHIA STEEL. 253
Length in Feet.
8
254 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Area Least
Weight of Radius of Radius of Length
of of Gyration
Column Gyration In Feet.
Plate. Column. Section. Axis 11.
Axis 22.
"
A 37.2 10.87 1.38 4.92 135 131
"
N 44.1 12.94 1.41 4.90 160 157
A 51.1 14.97 1.43 4.88 186 182
*
"
H 58.0 17.00 1.46 4.85 211 206
A 64.6 18.99 1.49 4.83 236 231
5 i3HiA 16xA
" "
51.8 15.24 1.94 6.59 187
"
Vb H 62.0 18.20 1.97 6.57 224
" A '
A 71.8 21.12 2.00 6.54 260
" H H 81.6 24.00 2.02 6.52 295
"
A A "
91.4 26.88 2.05 6.50 331
v%
e

% 101.2 29.68 2.08 6.48 366
H "
a 1106 32.48 2.11 6.46 400
h 120.0 35.24 2.14 6.44 435
tt H " 129.4 38.00 2.17 6.41 468
* H 138.4 40.68 2.19 6.39 502
"
U U "
147.8 43.36 2.22 6.37 535
JUL.)*
Safety factor 4. 36 000 r*
Area Least
Size Size Weight Radius of Radius of Length
of of Gyration
Column Gyration in Feet.
Angles. Plate. Column. Axis 22.
Section. Aiisl1.
e b
Depth
CAMBRIA STEEL. 271
Length in Feet.
272 CAMBRIA STEEL.
t23
4 SERIES A.
Weight
CAMBRIA STEEL. 275
SERIES A. & !
276
278 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Weight
280 CAMBRIA STEEL.
h U*i
^1 l^
1
4 a,
SERIES A.
Weight of
282
CAMBRIA STEEL. 283
SERIES A.
Thick Weight
Length In Feet. HH8 of of each
18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 
Inch. Lbaperft
170
284
286
CAMBRIA STEEL. 287
3
;> SERIES B.
Weight of
CAMBRIA STEEL. 289
^1 \2>
SERIES B. < ^
290
CAMBRIA STEEL. 391
ll'*,
SERIES B. k s
392 CAMBRIA STEEL.
4 !a SERIES B.
Weight
CAMBRIA STEEL. 293
294
296
298
300 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL.
302 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Outside
"
d>
P safe load In pounds per square inch.
1 = length of column in inches,
d outside diameter of column in inches.
Ultimate compressive strength= 80 000 pounds per square inch. Safety factor 8.
Safe loads for other safety factors than that of the tables may be obtained as
a
follows: New safe load = Safe load from table X r?
New
.
tactor
I Area Weight
Diam Thick Length Column
of in Peet. of Metal per Foot
eter in ness in
Inches. iMfeaa 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 3 Ins. Pounds.
18 IN 754 732 708 6.84 659 633 608 596 557 533 83.6 281.2
W*. 808 782 757 732 704 677 650 637 596 569 89.3 279.2
VA 857 832 805 777 749 720 691 677 633 605 95.0 296.8
2 907, 880 852 823 792 762 731 717 S3 100.5 314.2
20 IH 922 900 876 850 824 797 769 742 714 100.3 313.6
VA 981 957 932 905 87 848 819 789 760 731 106.8 333.6
2 1039 1014 987 958 929 898 867 836
113.1 353.4
VA 1097 1070 1041 1011 980 948 915 882 849 817 119.3 372.9
I
22 VA 1106 1082 1058 1032 1005 976 947 918 888 859 118.5 370.5
2 1171 1147 1122 1094 1065 1035 1004 974 941 910 125.7 392.7
2A 1239 1213 1186 1157 1126 1094 1062 1029 996 962 132.9 415.3
1301 1275 1246 1215 1183 1150 1116 1081 1046 1011 139.6 436.3
24 2 1303 1280 1241 1229 1201 1171 1141 1110 1079 1047' 138.2 432.0
2H 1376 1352 1311 1298 1268 1238 1206 1173 1140 1106' 146.0 456.4
2K 1449 1423 1380 1367 1335 1303 1269 1235 1200 1165! 153.7 480.4
VA 1520 1494 1448 1434 1402 1367 1332 1296 1259 1222 161.4 504.2
26 2H 1515 1492 1467 1440 141 2 1382 1351 1319 1286 1252, 159.4 498.1
1Y4. 1596 1572 1546 1517 1487 1456 1423 1389 1354 1319 167.9 524.6
2*A 1675 1650 1623 1593 1562 1528 1494 1458 1422 1385 178.3 550.9
2H 1754 1728 1699.1668 1635 1600 1564 1527 1489 1450. 184.6 576.8
28 2y< 1742 1719 1694 1667 1638 1608 1576 1542 1508 1474! 182.0 568.8
2H 1829 1806 1780 1751 1721 1689 16.55 1620 1584 1548 191.2 597.5
2A 1917 1892 1864 1834 1802 1769 1734 1697 1660 1622 200.3 625.9
80
2H
2H
2002
III 1967 1948
206.1
653.9
644.1
2H 2078 2055 2028 2000 1969 1937 1903 1867 1830 1793 216.0 675.0
A 2172 2148 2119 2090 2058 2024 1989 1952 225.8 7 ',
.5
VA 2265 2240 2210 2180 2147 2111 2074 2035 1995 1954 235.4 735.7
82 VA 2239 2217 2192 2165 2135 2104 2071 2036 2000 1963 231.7 724.0
VA 2341 2318 2292 2264 2233 2200 2165 2129 2092 2053 242.2 757.0
Vi 2442 2418 2391 2361 2329 2295 2259 2221 2182 2141 ;
2.52.7 789.7
VA 2542 2517 2489 2458 2424 2389 2351 2312 2271 2229 263.1 822.1
84 VA 2511 2488 2463 2438 2406 2374 2341 2306 2272 2232 258.7 808.6
2% 2820 2596 2570 2542 2511 2478 2441 2406 2370 2329
1
270.0 843.7
VA 2728 2703 2676 2648 2814 2580 2.544 2505 2468 2425 281.1 878.5
3 2835 2810 2781 27.50 2717 2881 2843 2604 2565 2520 292.2 913.0
36 Vi 2796 2774 2749 2721 2892 2660 2628 2591 25.53 2.5: 897.7
214 29132889 2883 2834 2803 2770 273.5 2698 2859 2619 299.2 935 JO
3 3028 3003 2978 2946 2904 2880 2849 2805 27652723. 311.0 971.9
304 CAMBRIA STEEL.
p = in which
V ^4
lo
Distance Center
CAMBRIA STEEL. 509
}<7":H
d &
N 10H
Distance Center
31C CAMBRIA STEEL.
S^JsH
4

t*7H*\
Distance Center
312
CAMBRIA STEEL. 313
keOi
\im'^s
Distance Center
314
CAMBEIA STEEL. 315
{<9};>i
224" IBeams
itiaW**.
Distance Center
316
CAMBRIA STEEL.
Web X W
Web Plate 36"X %"
Flange Angles 6" X 6"
IF T
Plate 36"
Distance Center
322 CAMBBIA STEEL.
SAFE UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS FOR
PLATE GIRDERS IN THOUSANDS OF
POUNDS.
The safe loads below include the weight of the girder and are calculated for
a fibre stress of 15 000 pounds per square inch on the net section. The net
section is obtained by deducting holes figured, at one inch in diameter (for %"
rivets) from both flanges.
Distance Center
to Center of
324 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBHIA STEEL.
326
CAMBRIA STEEL. 327
IrT
?!
IIIIIIIIIIII
M ^(d a) *f< "* *H4(<*a>*{
.
Atlanta 60 150 75 75
Baltimore 60 150 75 75
Boston r 100(b) /125(c)
100 100
50 \ 60
Buffalo 40(d)
70 70 100
70
50(e)
5 Chicago 50 50 75
40
6 Cincinnati 40 100 50 60
7 Cleveland 60(u) / 80(a)
125 80
80 \125
40
8 Denver
50(h)
70 70 50(a)
9 Detroit
80(f)
50
125
(100(c)
I 75
10 Hartford 50 100 100
11 Jersey City 60 150 75
12 Los Angeles /125(t)
75 75
\ 60
13 Louisville 60 150 75 75
14 Milwaukee / 40
30 80 40
\ 60
15 Minneapolis 50 100 75 100
16 Newark, N. J.. 60 150 75 75
17 New Haven 100(g)
75
60
70(b) /125(c)
18 New Orleans.. ..
40 \ 60
19 New York 40 60 60 75
20 Philadelphia 70 100 100
21 Pittsburgh 50
70 70 70
70(h)
80(f) 80(c)
22 Portland, Ore. . 100 60
60
50
100(b) 125(c)
23 Providence 150 75
60
50
24 Rochester 60(h)
70 70 70
50
25 St. Louis 60 150 70 100
125(c)
26 St. Paul 50 125 60
f
60
125(c)
27 San Francisco. . 60 60
r
75(a)
75(b) \ 100(c)
28 Seattle
40
125 50
75
100(g) 100(g) 90(c)
29 Syracuse f
75 75
75(g) 110(g) 110(g)
30 Washington
50
f
75 75
75
31 60 125 75 75
(a) Where seats are fixed; (b) Public rooms exceeding 500 sq. ft. area;
(c) Assembly rooms; (d) Occupied by less than 2"> persons; (e) Sleeping
accommodations for 20 or more persons; (f) Kirst floor Hotels, Tenements
and Lodging Houses; (g) Rooms and spaces for public use or common use of
tenants; (h) Tenement Houses and Hotels.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 329
40 (n)
40 (o) / 40(o)
100 I 100
75
100
80
150(q)
60(p) 60(p)
SO 80
75
100 100
80 80
85
75
330 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 331
Columns.
City.
White Pine, Chestnut
Maxi
Yellow Norway Pine Oak. and Locust.
mum
and Spruce. Length
Pine. Hemlock.
10 Hartford (m)..
<12D1000 <12D1000
13 Louisville ....
> " 120 R
L> " (F) (F)
<15D1125 <15D825i <15D1125 (<15D675 /<15D750j
14 Milwaukee.
> 30 D
,> " (T)(k) .> " (T)(b) " " (T)(c) "
.
(T) \> l> (T)
<12D1000 <12D700 <12D80O /<12D600
15 .Minneapolis. .> " (F)(e) >
" (J)(b) > " (K)(a) \> " (J)(c)
(a) Also for Norway Pine; (b) White Pine only; (c) Hemlock only; (d) White
Pine and Spruce only; (e) Also for Washington and Oregon Fir; (f) Spruce only;
(g) Oregon Pine only; (h) White Pine and Virginia Pine only; (i) Also Douglas
Formulae: (E)C125
12D
 fll) 9009
Ratio
Concrete Allowable Unit Stresses.
Moduli Compression.
or
Concrete Elastic
City.
Mixture. ity
Extreme
Steel to
Direct. Fibre
Con Bending
orete.
/500(b)
2 Baltimore. 1:2:4 1500
500
3 Boston. . . 1 : 5 (h) 500
4 Buffalo... 1:2:5 350 500
/500 (1)
5 Chicago 400 700
1500(d)
6 Cincinnati. 600 700 (z)
14 Milwaukee. 500(b)
flO
15 Minneapolis. . 2 : 4
\15
16 Newark, N. J. 2 : 4 15
18 New Orleans. 15
19 New York .... 6(h) 15
20 Philadelphia.. 2 : 4 500
30 Washington. 2 : 4 15
fl20(c)
1450
CAMBRIA STEEL. 349
RIVETS.
PINS.
Shop Field
Inside. Outside.
0Q0
(Farside) (Nearside^ Both Sides.
This system, designed by F. C. Osborn. C. E., has for foundation the diagonal
cross to represent a countersink, the blackened circle for a field rivet and the
diagonal stroke to indicate a flattened head. The position of the cross, with
respect to the circle (inside, outside or both sides) indicates the location of the
,
countersink and. similarly, the number and position of the diagonal strokes
indicate the height and position of the flattened heads.
Diameter
CAMBRIA STEEL. 353
1
354 CAMBRIA STEEL.
LENGTH OF RIVETS REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS
GRIPS INCLUDING AMOUNT NECESSARY
TO FORM ONE HEAD.
Grip i.
Grip
r< Length
Grip of
356 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 357
358 CAMBRIA STEEL.
direction of the line of stress should not exceed 6 inches for "yi and
$4 inch rivets, 4}^ inches for yi inch rivets and 4 inches for J4 inch
rivets. For angles with two gauge lines in builtup members,
rivets staggered, the maximum pitch in each line may be twice
these distances.
The distance between the sheared edge of any piece and the
center of the rivet hole should not be less than \yi inches for
yi inch rivets, 1^4 inches for y^ inch rivets, \yi inches for yi inch
rivets and 1 inch for yi inch rivets; for a rolled edge, these
distances may be lJ4, lyi, 1 and yi inches, respectively; when
practicable it should, for all sizes, be at least 2 diameters of the
rivet and should not exceed 8 times the thickness of the plate.
Diam
eter of
360
362
CAMBRIA STEEL. 363
:*._
!. Q _>J
Diameter
CAMBRIA STEEL. 373
G >i
Diameter
374 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Side
CAMBEIA STEEL. 375
A
*
Li.
G
Side
376 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Width
CAMBHIA STEEL. 377
X G >{
5A.
coe0
3R
G = 4A " .0698 = 8.843855  10.
Width of
Body of Bar.
378 CAMBRIA STEEL.
TURNBUCKLES.
PRESSED WROUGHT IRON.
L S\ ^WH !*T*l
K
380 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CLEVISES.
rB>< ^rq # j5 t3
The Cleveland City Forge and Iron Co.
fee;
CAMBRIA STEEL. 381
382 CAMBBIA STEEL.
BRIDGE PINS, NUTS AND PILOT NUTS.
r4*~
All Threads 8 per inch.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 383
LATERAL PINS.
Rough
Diameter
of Pin.
384 CAMBRIA STEEL.
COUNTER AND LATERAL RODS.
LOOP WELDED EYES.
Additional length of bar beyond center of pin required to make eye for square
or round bars.
Diameter
or Side
CAMBRIA STEEL. 385
r"
r<X**2Di K2D51*
Additional length of bar beyond center of pin required to make eye for square
or round bars.
Diameter
or Side
386
1
Length in Inches.
S.3 A i 11 U 1*
000 .362
00 .331
.307
1 .283 57 50
2 .263 65 58
3 .244 100 87 76 67
4 .225 120 104 90 80
5 .207 211 169 141 121 106 94
.192 247 197 164 1 41 123 111
.177 299 239 200 171 149 133 120 1
100
.162 345 275 229 197 172 153 137 115
.148 414 331 276 236 207 184 1651 138
.135 663 496 397 333 283 248 220 198 165
.120 837 628 502 418 359 314 279 25li 209
.105 1096 822 658 548 469 411 365 329 27
.092 1429 1072 857 714 613 536 476 429 357
.080 2840 1893 1420 1136 947 811 710 631 568' 473
.072 3504 2336 1752 1402 1168 1001 876 778 701 584
.063 4571 3048 2280 1.2S 1523 1305 !
1143 1015 913 761
.054 6233 4156:
Sizes.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 389
Sue.
390 CAMBRIA STEEL.
STRUCTURAL STEEL.
Grades.
I. MANUFACTURE.
Process.
Elements Considered.
394 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Properties Considered.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 395
(b) The specimen for pins and rollers shall bend cold through
test
180 deg. around a pin without fracture on the outside of the bent portion.
1in.
(c) A rivet rod shall bend cold through 180 deg. flat on itself without
fracture on the outside of the bent portion.
(d) Bend tests may be made by pressure or by blows.
Test Specimens.
12. (a) Tension and bend test specimens shall be taken from the finished
rolled or forged product, and shall not be annealed or otherwise treated, except
as specified in section 13.
(b)Tension and bend test specimens for plates, shapes and bars,
except as specified in paragraph (c), shall be of the full thickness of material
as rolled, and with both edges milled to the form and dimensions shown in
Fig. 1, or may have both edges parallel.
Fig. 1.
(c) Tension and bend specimens for plates and bar3 (except eyebar
test
flats) over 1 J^ in. in thickness or diameter may be turned or planed to a diameter
or thickness of at least %in. for a length of at least 9 in.
(d) Tension and bend test specimens for pins and rollers shall be taken
parallel to the axis, 1 in. from the surface of the bar. Tension test specimens
shall be of the form and dimensions shown in Fig. 2. Bend test specimens
shall be 1 in. by H in in section.
Annealed Specimens.
13. Test specimens for material which is to be annealed or otherwise treated
before use shall be cut from properly annealed or similarly treated short lengths
of the full section of the piece.
Number of Tests.
14. (a) At least one tension test and one bend test shall be made from each
melt. If material from one melt differs Js in. or more in thickness, tests shall
be made from both the thickest and the thinnest material rolled.
(b) If any test specimen develops flaws, or if an 8in. tension test
specimen breaks outside the middle third of the gage length, or if a 2in. ten
sion test specimen breaks outside the gage length, it may be discarded and
another specimen substituted therefor.
(c) Material intended for fillers or ornamental purposes will not be
subject to test.
(c) The weights of angles, tees, zees and channels of bar sizes, and the
dimensions of rounds, squares, hexagons and fiats, shall conform to the Manu
facturers' Standard Practice governing the allowable variations in size and
weight of hotrolled bars.
V. FINISH.
Finish.
16. The finished material shall be free from injurious defects and shall
have a workmanlike finish.
VI. MARKING.
Marking.
17. The name of the manufacturer and the melt number
shall be legibly
marked, stamped or rolled upon all finished material, except that each pin
and roller shall be stamped on the end. Rivet and lattice steel and other
small pieces may be shipped in securely fastened bundles, with the above
marks legibly stamped on attached metal tags. Test specimens shall have
their melt numbers plainly marked or stamped.
times while work on the contract of the purchaser is being performed, to all
parts of the manufacturer's works which concern the manufacture of the
CAMBRIA STEEL. 397
material ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free of cost,
all reasonable him
facilities to satisfy that the material is being furnished in
accordance with these specifications. All tests and inspection shall be made
at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, and shall be so conducted as
not to interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.
Rejection.
19. Material which, subsequent to the above tests at the mills and its
acceptance there, develops weak spots, brittleness, cracks or other imperfec
tions, or is found to have injurious defects, may be rejected at the shop, and
shall then be replaced by the manufacturer at his own cost.
BOILER STEEL.
Grades.
1. There shall be three grades of steel for boilers, namely: flange, firebox,
and boiler rivet.
I. MANUFACTURE.
Process.
Elements Considered.
398 CAMBKIA STEEL.
Properties Considered.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 399
Test Specimens.
10. Tension and bend test specimens for plates shall be taken from the
(a)
finished product, and shall be of he full thickness of material as rolled. Ten
1
sion test specimens shall be of the form and dimensions shown in Fig. 1. Bend
test specimens shall be \ A
in. to 2K in. wide, and shall have the sheared
l
V. FINISH.
Finish.
13. The finished material shall be free from injurious defects and shall
have a workmanlike finish.
VI. MASKING.
Marking.
14. The melt or slab number, name
of the manufacturer, grade, and the
minimum grade as specified in section 6 shall be legibly
tensile strength for its
stamped on each plate. The melt or slab number shall be legibly stamped
on each test specimen representing that melt or slab.
times while work on the contract of the purchaser is being performed, to all
Rejection.
16. Material which, subsequent to the above tests at the mills and its
acceptance there, develops weak spots, brittleness, cracks or other imperfec
tions, or is found to have injurious defects, may be rejected at the shop, and
shall then be replaced by the manufacturer at his own cost.
400 CAMBRIA STEEL.
When ordered to thickness, the thickness of each plate shall not vary more
than 0.01 inch under that ordered. The overweight of each lot* in each ship
ment shall not exceed the amount given in the following table:
CAMBKIA STEEL. 403
the upper dotted line indicates the limit of deflection for the kind
ofwood for which the deflection coefficient is given, corresponding
to a modulus of elasticity of 500 000 pounds per square inch,
which should be considered in cases where the deflection should
be more closely limited.
The coefficients of deflection for Cedar corresponding to moduli
of 700 000 and 350 000 may be obtained by multiplying those
of the table by ^ and ^ respectively, and for Spruce and
Eastern Fir corresponding to moduli of 1 200 000 and 600 000 by
multiplying those of the table by and j respectively.
The full zigzag line in the table gives the limits of the safe loads
corresponding to the allowable shearing stress along the neutral
beam, The safe loads above the line, which are based
axis of the
upon the extreme fibre strains, will produce shearing stresses
along the axis or with the grain in excess of that allowable, which,
in the case of White Pine and the other woods of this table, is
100 pounds per square inch.
The position of this line, which indicates the limit of safe loads
for shearing along the neutral axis, was determined by the aid
of the following formula:
.,. 4bds
in which
unds per square inch, for flexure, and the deflection coefficients
:calculated for a modulus of elasticity of 1 500 000 pounds per
jare inch.
rhe limit for a deflection of jl^ of the span is indicated by the
ver dotted zigzag line on the tables, the values below which
'respond to deflections greater than, and those above to
[lections less than, the limiting deflections. The upper dotted
zag line similarly indicates the limits of deflection for a
>dulus of elasticity of 750 000 pounds per square inch,
rhe lower full zigzag line indicates the limit of allowable
taring stress along the axis corresponding to the allowable
ensity, forYellow Pine, of 150 pounds per square inch.
Similarly, theupper full zigzag line indicates the limits for
taring along the axis for White Oak based on an allowable
ensity of 200 pounds per square inch.
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE.
"Since the strength of timber varies very greatly with the
moisture contents (see Bulletin 8 of the Forestry Division), the
economical designing of such structures will necessitate their being
separated into groups according to the maximum moisture
contents in use.
MOISTURE CLASSIFICATION.
"Class A (moisture contents, 18 per cent.) Structures freely
exposed to the weather, such as railway trestles, uncovered
bridges, etc.
"Class B (moisture contents, 15 per cent.) Structures under
roof but without side shelter, freely exposed to outside air, but
protected from rain, such as roof trusses of open shops and sheds,
covered bridges over streams, etc.
"Class C (moisture contents, 12 per cent.) Structures in
buildings unheated, but more or less protected from outside air,
such as roof trusses of barns, enclosed shops and sheds, etc.
"Class D
(moisture contents, 10 per cent.) Structures in
buildings at all times protected from the outside air, heated in the
winter, such as roof trusses in houses, halls, churches, etc.
"For longleaf pine add to all the values given in the tables,
except those for moduli of elasticity, tension and shearing, for
Class B, 15 per cent.; for Class C, 40 per cent.; and for Class D,
55 per cent. For the other species add to these values, for Class
B, 8 per cent.; for Class C, 18 per cent., and for Class D, 25 per
cent."
Classes.
408 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Classes.
. .
"32 >
S::::es.
The values marked " D " were obtained from experiments made
by the Forestry Division. The other values were obtained from
various sources, chiefly the 10th Census Report, but so modified
as to give results comparable with Forestry Division values. To
arrive at true average values of strength multiply safe loads by
factor of safety given in each column. The value for resilience
and tensile strength are the ultimate values. The former is
practically never used in designing. The latter is a factor
impossible to develop in practice, since the piece will always fail
in some other way, usually by shearing.
The crushing strength across the grain in above is based upon a
crushing of 3 per cent, of the cross sectional height of the piece.
Compression.
414 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Kind of Timber.
With Grain. Across Grain.
Kind of Timber.
With Grain. Across Grain.
Compression.
416
418
430
422 CAMBRIA STEEL.
STRENGTH OF SOLID WOODEN COLUMNS OF
DIFFERENT KINDS OF TIMBER.
For various values of
p = F v 700 + 15c
700
. 15c+ c2 +
P = ultimate strength in pounds per square inch.
Values of F are those given in table on pages 414 and 415 herein.
.
" "
broken, of any size, loose 47 to 52
8 "
moderately shaken 51 to 56
"
solid, Cambria Co., Pa.. 1.271.34. 79 to 84
8 " " 1.2 to 1.5 1.35 84
8 "
1 ton occupies 43 to 48 cubic feet
" lignite .83
Cobalt S.77 546
Coke. 1.34 85
loose, a heaped bushel, 35 to 42
" " good quality 23 to 32
" ton occupies SO to 97 cubic feet
1
8
wrought 8.9. 555
Cork, dry (see note p. 4331 .24 15
CAMBRIA STEEL.
.
Rubber 60
Rubber goods. 95
Rye 50
Talc... 170
Tallow .94 58.6
Tar.... 1.15 71.7
CAMBRIA STEEL.
434 CAMBRIA STEEL.
a =
3 D tU3 Sq. Sq. Circular
Mils Mm. Ins. Ins. Mils Mils
3=3 a oS
^3 to
is pa
c g
3 C Sq. Sq. Circular Sq.
Mils Mm. Ins. is Ins. Mils Mils Mm.
Diameter
442
444 CAMBRIA STEEL.
DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF
NONBINARY FRACTIONS
(Denominators 7 to 19.)
Nu
CAMBRIA STEEL. 445
DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF
NONBINARY FRACTIONS
^(Denominators 21 to 31.)
DENOMINATOR
21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31
1 .0476 .0455 .0435 .0417 .0385 .0370 .0357 .0345 .0333 .0323
2 .0952 .0909 .0870 .0833 .0769 .0741 .0714 .0690 .0667 .0645
3 .1429 .1364 .1304 .1250 .1154 .1111 .1071 .1034 .1000 .0968
4 .1905 .1818 .1739 .1667 .1538 .1481 .1429 .1379 .1333 .1290
5 .2381 .2273 .2174 .208 .1923 .1852 .1786 .1724 .1667 .1613
6 2857 .2727 2609 .2500 .2308 .2222 .2143 .2069 .2000 .1935
7 3333 .3182 3043 .2917 .2692 .2593 .2500 .2414 .2333 .2258
8 .3810 .3636 3478 .3333 .3077 .2963 .2857 .2759 .2667 .2581
9 4286 .4091 3913 .3750 .3462 .3333 .3214 .3103 .3000 .2903
10 4762 4545 .4348 .4167 .3846 .3704 .3571 .3448 .3333 .3226
11 .5238 .5000 .4783 .4583 .4231 .4074 .3929 .3793 .3667 .3548
12 .5714 .5455 .5217 .5000 .4615 .4444 .4286 4138 4000 .3871
13 .6190 .5909 .5652 .5417 .5000 .4815 4643 .4483 4333 .4194
14 .6667 .6364 .6087 .5833 .5385 .5185 .5000 4828 4667 .4516
15 .7143 .6818.6522 .6250 .5769 .5555 .5357 5172 5000 .4839
16 .7619 .7273.6957 .6667 .6154 .5926 .5714 .5517 .5333 .5161
17 .8095 .7727.7391 .7083 .6538 .6296 .6071 .5862 .5667 .5484
18 .8571 .8182.7826 .7500 .6923 .6667 .6429 .6207 .6000 .5806
19 .9048 8636 .8261 .7917 .7308 .7037 .6786 .6552 .6333 .6129
20 .9524 .9091 .8696 .8333 .7692 .7407 .7143 .6897 .6667 .6452
21 .9545 .9130 .8750 .8077 .7778 .7500 .7241 .7000 .6774
22 .9565 .9167 .8462 .8148 .7857 .7586 .7333 .7097
23 .9583 .8846 .8519 .8214 .7931 .7667 .7419
24 .9231 .8889 .8571 .8276 .8000 .7742
30 .9677
446
448
CAMBEIA STEEL. 449
Thickness
452 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Thickness
454
CAMBRIA STEEL. 455
Thickness
456
458
CAMBRIA STEEL. 459
Thickness or
460
462 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SQUARE AND ROUND BARS.
(continued.)
Thickness or
464
CAMBRIA STEEL.
466 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Diameter in
468
470
472
474
476
478
480
482
484
i486 CAMBBIA STEEL.
488
490
492
CAMBRIA STEEL. 493
Diameter.
494
496
498
CAMBHIA STEEL. 499
Diameter.
500 CAMBRIA STEEL.
AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.
Diameters ^ to 100.
Diameter.
502
504 CAMBRIA STEEL.
AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.
Diameters & to 100.
Diameter.
506 CAMBBIA STEEL.
AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.
Diameters tj to 100.
Diameter.
508
510
512 CAMBRIA STEEL.
TRIGONOMETRIC FORMULAE.
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.
k Q Let A = angle BAC=arc BF.
Then
sin A
= .
TRIGONOMETRIC FORMUUE
>: tinned).
OBLIQUE TRIANGLES.
s = V 2 (a+b+c)
KNOWN  REQUIRED FORMULAE
c sin C
sin A
C,a, b H (A + Bj \ + B)=90HC
H(AB) tan Y (AB)=^
z
afb
tan Y2 (A+B)
A, B A=H(A+B) + ^(AB),
B = V2 (A + B)y2 (AB)
c
^
= t<a+b) ,
cos y2 (A+B)
^t . ,
(A B)
,
cosH
_ sin }/
2 (A + B)
^ a bj
sinK(AB)
= Va 2 + b s 2ab.cosC
area area = y2 a b sin C.
A b c
a, b, c sinHA=JIg
3 > (5 >
V be
MA = J s(sbe a )
V
tan HA=J (sb)(s(sc) s a)
sec
= lvers A = 2cos ]/2 Al = 12 sin H A 2 2
tan A
1
= Sin Ar=Vsec
/ zj
A 2
cot A cos A
A A
1 Vlcos
2
sin 2
"
"4/ cos 2 A cos A l+cos 2 A
sin 2
o Aa
.
cot H A
cot
.
A =
tan
1
Ar sin

AA
= COS r=Vcosec Al
/ tt
2
r
cos A /vers A
W~ 2~
l
.
sin HA
, , .
= <J
jj
=
1L+cos A
cos HA
., tan A
.
V A 
2
1 cos A /l cos A
tan Yi A =77  = cosec A cot A= .
1+sec A sin A \
Vfl+cos A
1/ a
A _ l+cos A
_
s' n 1
sin A cosec A cot A
vers A
cot A 1
2
cot 2 A =
A 2 cot
vers 2 A =2 sin A = 2 sin A cos A tan A
2
2 tan A 2
exsec 2 A =
.
rr
1tan A 2
tan 3 A =
.3
13 tan A
tan A tan A
2
3
tan 4 A
.
= 4
. tan A
4 tan A
16 tan A+tan A

2
;
3
o
520
CAMBRIA STEEL.
522 CAMBRIA STEEL.
o
524
526
538
530
532
534
536
538
540 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SQUARES OF NUMBERS
AND FRACTIONAL INTERVALS.
Fraction 4
X .015625
.019775
1.26563
1.30103
4.51563
4.5S228
9.76563
9.86353
17.01563
17.14478
26.26503
26.42603
.024414 1.33691 4.64941 9.96191 17.27441 26.58691
.029541 1.37329 4.71704 10.06079 17.40454 26.74829
SQUARES OF NUMBERS
AND FRACTIONAL INTERVALS.
Fraction 8 10 11
SQUARES OF NUMBERS
AND FRACTIONAL INTERVALS.
Fraction
X .562500
.586182
3.06250
3.11743
7.56250
7.64868
11.C&250
14.17993
22.56250
22.71118
33.06250
33.24243
.610352 3.17285 7.73535 14.29785 22.86035 33.42285
.635010 3.22876 7.82251 14.41626 23.01001 33.60376
X .765625
.793213
3.51563
3.57446
8.26563
8.35571
15.01563
15.13696
23.76563
23.91821
34.51563
34.69946
.821289 3.63379 8.44629 15.25879 24.07129 34.88379
.849854 3.69360 8.53735 15.38110 24.22485 35.06860
v
32
H
"g
47.0156
47.7744
172.2656
173.0869
199.5156
200.3994
228.7656
229.7119
260.0156
261.0244
293.2656
294.3369
48.5352 173.9102 201.2852 230.6602 232.0352 295.4102
V TIT
49.2979 174.7354 202.1725 231.6104 2 63.0479 296.4854
32
V * 50.0625
50.8291
175.5625
176.3916
203.0625
203.9541
232.5625
233.5166
264.0625
265.0791
297.5625
298.6416
51.5977 177.2227 204.8477 234.4727 266.0977 299.7227
52.3682 178.0557 205.7432 235.4307 267.1182 300.8057
H 53.1406
53.9150
178.8906
179.7275
206.6403
207.5400
236.390S
237.3525
268.1406
269.1650
301.8906
302.9775
A 54.6914
55.4697
180.5664
181.4072
208.4414
209.3447
238.3164
239.2822
270.1914
271.2197
304.0664
305.1572
# 56.2500
57.0322
182.2500
183.0947
210.2500
211.1572
240.2500
241.2197
272.2500
273.2822
306.2500
307.3447
57.8164 183.9414 212.0664 242.1914 274.3164 >
308.4414
68.6025 184.7900 212.9775 243.1650 275.3525 j
309.5400
59.3906 185.6406 213.8906 244.1408 276.3906 310.6406
60.1807 186.4932 214.8057 245.1182 277.4307 311.7432
60.9727 187.3477 215.7227 246.0977 278.4727 312.8477
61.7666 188.2041 216.6416 247.0791 279.5166 313.9541
K 62.5625
63.3604
189.0625
189.9229
217.5625
218.4854
248.0625
249.0479
230.5625
281.6104
316.0625
316.1729
64.1602 190.7852 219.4102 250.0352 282.6602 317.2852
64.9619 191.6494 220.3369 251.0244 283.7119 318.3994
65.7656
66.5713
192.5156
193.3838
221.2656
222.1963
252.0156
253.0088
234.7656
235.8213 i
319.5156
320.6338
67.3789 194.2539 223.1289 254.0039 286.8789 [
321.7639
68.1885 195.1260 224.0630 255.0010 287.9385 i
322.8760
CAMBRIA STEEL. 543
SQUARES OF NUMBERS
AND FRACTIONAL INTERVALS.
Fraction
'
+
544
CAMBRIA STEEL. 545
18.741608 '
1028.3895 1365.3221
229.78320 361.70508 536.37695 759.7988 ! 1037.3707 1376. 892G
233.31827 366.48526 542.58975 '
775.5183 '
1057.3113 1400.2232
240.49580 376.17160 j
555.15391 783.4587 
1067.0710 1411.3958
244.14053 381.07813 55*. 51563 791.4531 1076.8905 1423.8281
247.82103 385.02713 567.92063 799.5017 1036.7703 1435.7263
S61.S3S33 391.01880 574.37427 807.6047 1096.7102 1447.6907
255.29257 395.05331 530.87656 815.7623 1106.7105 1459.7213
259.08333 401.13036 587.42773 823.9746 1116.7715 1471.8184
232.91275 40S.25162 594.02798 832.2418 1126.8932 1483.9821
2C5. 77905 411.41577 600.67743 840.5642 1137.0753 1496.2126
270.68307 416.62350 607.37643 848.9419 1147.3198 1508.5102
546 CAMBRIA STEEL.
548
550 CAMBRIA STEEL.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 551
MENSURATION(Continued)
AREA.
Triangle = base X half perpendicular height.
Parallelogram = base X perpendicular height.
Trapezoid = half the sum of the parallel sides X perpendicular
height.
Trapezium, found by dividing into two triangles.
Circle = diameter squared X 0.7854; or, = circumference squared
X 0.07958.
Sector of circle = length of arc X half radius.
Segment of circle = area of sector of equal radius triangle
when segment is less, and + triangle when segment is greater
than the semicircle; also for flat segments very nearly =
4v
3^0.388 v2+
Then by
Simpson's Rule, (n must be even)
w
Area= [(ho+h)+4(h,+h + 3 . . .h.i)+2 (h 2 +ln+ . . . h. 2 )]
Durand's Rule
Area = w[0.4 (h+h) + l.l (h,+h.,) + (h 2 +h 3 + . . . h.*)]
Trapezoidal Rule
Area = w [K (ho+h) + (h,+h +h 2 3 + . . . h.,)]
552 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Central
Angle
Degrees
554 CAMBRIA STEEL.
SURFACES AND VOLUMES OF SOLIDS.
CYLINDER
Convex Surface =7rdh
2
Total Surface = 7rdh+^
PRISM
Lateral Surface =h XBase Perimeter
Total Surface = Lateral Surface (2 XBase Area) +
Volume = h X Base Area
PYRAMID
Lateral Surface :
r XBase Perimeter
Total Surface = Lateral Surface fBase Area
Volume = XBase Area
*
h
Center of Gravity =, above base
FRUSTUM OF PYRAMID
Lateral Surface = s(Top 4 Base Perimeters)
If a=top area and A = base area.
Total Surface = Lateral Surface +(a+ A)
Volume = h(a+A+ VaA)=3
Center of Gravity _h/'3a+A+2 VaA^
above base 'Sf a+A+VaA
CONE
Convex Surface = sds=r Vd 2 +4h 2
2 4
Total Surface = Convex
xd*
Surface \ j
Volume =T^d h
24
d 2
^ 4s2  d2
,*
WEDGE
Surface =Sum of surfaces of bounding planes
]
CAMBRIA STEEL. 555
1 .
1 jT
556 CAMBRIA STEEL.
PRISMOID
End faces are in parallel planes.
1
+H, maximum)
bd!
gravity of abed.
Let ct be the angular amount of generating
revolution.
Then
Total Surface of solid abef
= (2nha^360) X perimeter abed
Volume of solid abef =( 2xh z^360) Xareaabcd
For complete revolution(27rhxf360) =2*h
e
MINUTES AND SECONDS EXPRESSED AS
DECIMALS OP A DEGREE
natai
558 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Grains.
CAMBHIA STEEL. 559
Inches.
560 CAMBRIA STEEL.
DRY MEASURE.
United States only.
Pints.
CAMBRIA STEEL. 561
LENGTH.
562 CAMBRIA
564 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Inches
CAMBRIA STEEL. 569
(Continued)
152 .400 177 .800 203 .200 228 .601 254 .001279.401
!
X 161.925'l87.325!212.725238.125 263.526288926
162 .719l88.119213. 519,238 .919 264.319 289.719
163.513jl88.913j214.313 239.713 265.113 290.513
164 .307 189 .7071215 .107 240 .507:265 .907 291 .307
168 .275!l93 .675 219 .075 244.475 269 .876 295 .276
169.069 194.469 219.869 245 .269 270 .669 296 .069
169.863 195.263 220.663 246.063 271.463 296.863
.8571272 .257 297.657
170.657J196.057J221.457J246
H 171 .450'l96 .850'222 .250 247 .650,273 .051 298 .451
172 .244 197 .644 223 .044J248 .444 273 .844 299 .244
173 .038 198.438 223 .838 249 .238 274.638 300 .038
173.832 199.232 224.632 250.032 275.432 300.832
1
12 Inches=304.800G Millimetres.
570 CAMBRIA STEEL.
Millimetres
572
574
'
576
578
CAMBRIA STEEL 579
INDEX,
PAGE
Angles, bulb, cuts of sections of 2023
properties of 192195
" weights and dimensions of 45, 4G
connection, for Ibeams and channels, cuts of 53
notes on 52, 56
tables of 5461
location of 54, 55
cuts of sections of special, equal and unequal legs 19
standard, equal legs 17
unequal legs 18
bulb and top guard angles 20, 23
explanation of tables of properties of 178
maximum sizes of rivets, and spacing of rivet and bolt holes in 62, 356
properties of special, equal legs 202, 203
unequal legs 208, 209
" standard, equal legs 198201
unequal legs 204207
radii of gyration for two, back to back 215217
tables of safe loads for, used as beams 138159
" notes on 95103
weights and dimensions of special, equal legs 50
" unequal legs 51
standard, equal legs 48
" " " unequal legs 49, 50
Apothecaries' weight 558
Arches, notes and tables for spacing tie rods for tile 76, 77
"of floor, end construction 69
"
"of material for fireproof floor 6S, 69
* on thrust of 75, 7881
" " tie rods to withstand thrust of 75
terracotta floor, explanation of tables of 70
" " flat and segmental, tables of 7173
tests and breaking loads for hollow tile floor 74
weights of hollow brick and tile floor 69
"
segmental floor 69
Areas in mensuration 551
method of increasing sectional 26
of circles 487509
" " for diameters greater than one hundred 499
" flat rolled steel bars 468473
hollow cast iron columns 302, 303
8
rivet holes, to be deducted to obtain net areas of plates. . . 356, 357
square and round bars
" 451, 457
"
various sections, formula? for 168175
for standard sections 166, 167
Atlanta, extracts from building laws of 328349
Avoirdupois pounds equivalents in kilograms 582
weight 558
Baltimore, extracts from building laws of 328349
Band or hoop steel, table of weights of 474
Bands, light, dimensions of 33
Bars, eye 377
flat, dimensions of upset screw ends for 376
" rolled steel, areas of 4GS473
notes on areas of 473
" " " weights of 486
" "
weights of 4751S6
lattice, sizes of and rivet spacing in, for latticed channel columns 272, 273
round and square, dimensions of upset screw ends for 372375
" weights, areas and circumferences of 451457
sheet and tin 36
... 1
PAGE
Bases, typical details of column 243
Beam box girders, explanations of tables of safe loads for 305
" " tables of safe loads for 306316
Beams, notes on bearing plates for shapes used as 63
coefficients for deflection of 98, 99
general formula for flexure of 160,101
girders, notes on 52
grillage, notes on, for foundation.; 327
I section, cast iron separators for 66, 67
cuts of sections of special 9
4, 5, 7,
standard 24, 68
" " standard connection angles for 53
" explanation of tables of properties of 176, 177
diagram of sections of minimum standard 28
'
location of connection angles for 54, 55
maximum bending moments in foot pounds for. . . 136
" size of rivets in 54,356
" minimum spans for, with standard connection angles 58
" notes on lateral strength of 7883
" without
lateral support 82
safe loads for 100105
" spacing for 102105
" proportions of sections of standard 27
spacing of rivet and bolt holes in flanges and con
nection angles of 60
" spans limiting and maximum safe loads due to crip
pling of web . . 96
" tables of bearing plates for '.
. . 66
" properties of special 184, 1S5
" " " standard 182185
safe loads for 106117
used as columns 244247
" spacing for 124135
" tangent distances between fillets 60"
" weights and dimensions of special 41
standard 40, 4
reduction in safe loads and fibre stress, due to lateral flexure of 83
of uniform section, bending moments and deflections for. . . . 102165
" safe superimposed loads and shears for. . . . 102105
wooden, notes on bearing at points of support 406
" notes on safe loads for 403400
" tables of safe loads for 410421
BEARING plates for Ibeams and channels, tables of sizes of 64, 05
" for shapes used as beams, notes on 63
values of pin plates, tables of 359
" wall plates, safe unit 64
" rivets and plates 352, 353
of wooden beams at points of support, notes on 406
Bearings and bearing plates, standard, tables of sizes of 64
Bending moments for beams of uniform section 162165
for Ibeams and channels, tables of maximum. . . . 138, 137
" for pins, tables of maximum 360, 361
Billets, dimensions of square and round cornered steel 3436
Birmingham wire gauge (B. W. G.) 435
new standard sheet and hoop gauge (B. G) 435
Blooms, dimensions of steel 34, :;.">
PAGE
Box girders, beam, tables of safe loads of, explanation of 305
Brackets for riveted columns, typical details of 243
Brass, weights of sheets and plates of 436, 437
Breaking unit stresses, tables of, for timber 410415
Brick, hollow, for partitions and arches, weights of 69
Bridge pins and nuts, dimensions of 382
Buckle plates, dimensions of 90
Buffalo, extracts from building laws of .... 328349
Building laws of various cities, extracts fro: 328349
Bulb angles, cuts of sections of 2023
" properties of 192195
" weights and dimensions of 4,3,46
Cable and rope measure . . 559
Car forgings and pressed steel parts . 30, 31
Car side stakes, cut of section of j 23
" " properties of . 194, 195
' "weights and dimensions of 46
Cast iron columns, tables of safe loads for hollow, round 302, 303
* strength of hollow, round and rectangular 304
" bases for columns, typical details of 243
" separators, standard and special, for Ibeams 66, 67
Ceilings, weights of porous terracotta for 69
Center of gravity, formulae for location of, in Cambria sections 1C6, 167
* location of, in various sections 108175
" of solids 554556
Chains, dimensions and weights of, safe loads for 381
Channel and plate columns, tables of dimensions cf .
232235
" " safe loads for, series A 274287
" * " " " series B 2S8301
columns, latticed, diameter of rivets for 273
" spacing of rivets for lacing bars 272
" tables of dimensions of 230
" safe loads for 268271
Channels, bearing plates for, tables of 65
" (standard) for, tables of 64
cuts of sections of special 1216
" standard 1012
" standard connection angles for 53
diagram of sections of minimum standard 29
explanation of properties of standard and special 177
limiting spans and maximum safe loads due to web crip
pling 97
maximum bending moments in foot pounds for 137
" size of rivets for 62, 356
minimum spans for, with standard connection angles .... 56
proportions of sections of standard L7
safe loads for, tables of 11
_"..* notes on 1C0I05
spacing of rivet and bolt holes in f.anges and connti
angles of (11
tables of properties of special 188191
" " standard 180, 187
tangent distances between fillets 61
weights and dimensions of special 4345
standard 42, 43
Chicago, extracts from building laws of 328349
Cincinnati, extracts from building laws of 328349
Circles, areas and circumferences of, for diameters greater than 100. 499
" " tables of 487509
Circular plates, limiting sizes of 38, 39
" " weights of 464^67
segments, relations in 552, 553
Circumferences of circles 487509
" " for diameters greater than 100 499
" round bars 451457
594 CAMBRIA STEEL.
PAGE
Cities, extracts from building laws of various 328349
Cleveland, extracts from building laws of 328349
Clevises, dimensions of 380
Coefficients beams, explanation of tables of
of deflection for 177
" shapes used as beams 98
strength, explanation of tables of, for Ibeams
" 176
Columns, bases for, typical details of 243
cast iron, hollow, round and rectangular, strength of 304
" tables of safe loads for 302,303
Ibeams used as, tables of safe loads for 244, 247
latticed channel, diameter of rivets for 255
" lattice bars and stay plates for 272, 273
" tables of dimensions of 230
" tables of safe loads for 268
plate and channel, tables of dimensions of 232235
" a sa f e i oa(j s f or> ser i es a
" 274287
" " " B 288301
steel, examples of the use of the tables of strength of 222
" explanation of tables of dimensions and safe loads for . 222, 223
" medium, tables of strength of 220, 221
" " *
soft 218, 219
wooden, notes on 403
" tables of strength of 422, 423
Compound shapes, properties of, notes on 181
Concrete, reinforced, for floor slabs, notes on 91
" " " " formula for and tables of 92, 93
Connection angles for Ibeams and channels, cuts of 53
" notes on 52, 56
" " "
" " spacing of rivet and
bolt holes in 60, 61
" " beams, location of 54, 55
"
notes on
" 52
Conversion tables, U. S. weights and measures to metric and vice versa 562590
Copper, weights of sheets and plates of 436, 437
Counter rods, loopwelded eyes, dimensions of 384, 385
" with solid or upset eyes, dimensions of 383
Crane rail, cut of section of 26
weight, dimensions and properties of 214
Crippling of webs of Ibeams and channels, notes and tables o.i 9497 . . . .
PAGE
Degree, decimals of, expressed as minutes and seconds 557
Denver, extracts from building laws of 328349
Design of reinforced concrete floor slabs 9193
Details of plate girders and column bases, steel columns, splices and
brackets '.
243
Detroit, extracts from building laws of 328349
Diagram for minimum standard beams 28
" ' channels 29
Dimensions and safe loads of steel columns, explanation of tables of 222, 223
of angles, special, equal legs 50
" unequal legs 51
" standard, equal legs 46
" " ' unequal legs 49, 50
bolt heads and nuts, Manufacturer's standard 369371
" bolts and nuts, Franklin Institute standard 362
" bridge pins, nuts and pilot nuts 382
" buckle plates 40
" bulb angles 45, 46
" cast iron separators, standard and special, and bolts
for beams 66, 67
" chains, weights of, safe loads for 381
" channels, special and ship 4345
" " standard 42,43
clevises 380
" columns, explanation of tables for 222, 223
" counter and lateral rods with loop welded eyes 3S4. 385
" edged and sheared plates 3739
" eye bars 377
" flats and thin flats or light bands 33
* Ibeams, special 41
" standard 40, 4
" lateral pins and rods 3S3
" lattice bars to be used with latticed channel columns. 272
" latticed channel columns, tables of 230
minimum stay plates with latticed channel columns. 273
plate and angle columns, tables of 224, 225
" " channel columns, tables of, series A and B 232235 .
PAGE
Eye bars, dimensions of 377
Factors of safety for various wooden structures 408
Fastenings for steel sheeting 85
Feet equivalents in metres 574
Fibre stress, allowable, for direct flexure, in extreme fibre 83
Fi reproof floors and materials, notes and tables for 6893
Flat bars, upset screw ends for 376
rolled steel bars, areas of 468173
" " " tables of weights of 475486
Flats, regular and thin, dimensions of 33
Flexure, lateral, reduction of allowable stress in beams due to 83
" strength of beams to resist thrust of arches 7881
of beams, formula? for 160175
Floor arches, tables on end construction of 69
" terracotta, flat and segmental 7073
" tests and breaking loads for hollow tile 74
plates, rolled safety 90
slabs, reinforced concrete, notes on, design of 9193
Floors, notes and tables for fireproof, and material for 6893
usual live loads for 52, 328
Foot, decimals of, fractions of an inch, tables of 446449
Forcings, car 31
Formulae for bending moments, shears, safe loads and deflections. . . 162175
" moments of inertia for Cambria sections 166, 167
" the properties of various sections 168175
general, for flexure of beams 160, 161
Foundations, notes on grillage beams for. . 327
Fractions of an inch in decimals of a foot 446449
" an inch 450
nonbinary, values of 444, 445
square and cube roots of 444
Franklin Institute Standard for bolts and nuts 362365
Functions, natural trigonometrical 516522
Furring, weights of porous terracotta for 69
Gas, steam and water pipe, sizes of wrought iron welded 390392
Gauge, table of American or Brown & Sharpe wire 435
" Screw Co. screw wire 435
" Birmingham or Stubs iron wire (B. W. G.) 435
" new Birmingham sheet and hoop (B. G.) 435
" British Imperial standard wire 435
" standard decimal 435
" Trenton Iron Co. wire 435
" U. S. standard for iron and steel sheets and plates. . 435
" Washburn & Moen Co. and Roebling's Sons Co. wire 435
Gauges, combined table of
wire, 438443
Girders, beam box and plate, explanations of tables of safe loads for. . 305
" tables of safe loads for 306316
notes on beams used as 52
plate, stiffener angles and rivet spacing for, notes on 305
" tables of safe loads for 317326
Gravity, specific, for various kinds of timber 408
of various substances, tables of 424433
Grillage beams for foundations, notes on 327
Grip of rivets and bolts through flanges of beams and channels 60, 61
" lengths required for 354
Guide rounds, dimensions of 33
Gunter's chain measure 559
Gyration, radii of, see Radii of gyration.
Hand rounds, dimensions of 33
Hartford, extracts from building laws of 328349
Hatch section, ZBar, cut of 23
" properties of 180, 191
CAMBRIA STEEL. 597
PAGE
Heads, bolt, weights and dimensions of, Manufacturers' standard . . . 369
or circular plates, limiting sizes of 38, 39
rivet, dimensions of, after driving 380
square and hexagon, weights of, Franklin Institute standard . . 364, 365
Hollow brick, weights of, for arches and partitions 69
round and rectangular cast iron columns, strength of 304
Hoop or band steel, tables of weights of 474
Inch, decimals of, for each &, tables of 450
" 446449
a foot for fractions of an
Inch, equivalents in millimetres 568
Inertia, moments of, explanations of tables of, for rectangles 178
"
formulae for various sections 169175
"
for standard sections 166, 167
"
tables of, for rectangles 210213 .
PAGE
Plates, riveted, tables of areas to be deducted to obtain net areas of. 356, 357
" tables of bearing values of 352, 353
rolled steel safety floor 90
sheared, tables of dimensions of 3739
standard bearing, for Ibeams and channels 64
stay, minimum sizes of, used with latticed channel columns. 273
Portland, extracts from building laws of . 328349
Pounds and tons used in the U. S., comparison of 590
avoirdupois, equivalents in kilograms 582
Pressed steel car parts 30
Properties, examples of use of tables of, for standard sections 179180
explanation of tables of, for Ibeams 176, 177
" " " channels 177
" o a
ang j es 178
of compound shapes, notes on 181
" various sections, formulae for 168175
" tables for, angles, special, equal legs 202, 203
unequal legs 208, 209
" " " standard, equal legs 198201
"
" " " " unequal legs 204207
" " " " channels, special and ship 188, 191
"
" " standard
" 186, 187
bulb 192,195
*
Ibeams, special 184, 185
" " ' standard 182185
pipe, standard 390, 391
" " * Trails, standard, and crane rail  214
Proportions of sections of standard Ibeams and channels 27
Providence, extracts from building laws of 328349
*
Radii of gyration for two angles, back to back, equal legs
unequal legs
example use
215
216,217
f of
tables of 222
" "of various sections, formula for 169175
Rail for cranes, cut of section of 26
" " properties, weights and dimensions of 214
Rails, T, properties, weights and dimensions of 214
Reciprocals, tables of 523539
Rectangles, tables of moments of inertia of 210213
Rectangular hollow cast iron columns, strength of 304
Reinforced concrete floor slabs 92, 93
" allowable unit stresses for 93, 348
Right and left nuts, dimensions of 379
Rivet and bolt grips in flanges of Ibeams and channels 60, 61
Riveted plates, area to be deducted to obtain net area of 356, 357
Riveting, conventional signs for _ 351
Rivets, areas to be deducted to obtain net area of riveted plates. . . . 356, 357
dimensions of heads after driving 380
for latticed channel columns, lattice bars and stay plates 272, 273
length of, required for different grips 354
spacing of, general rules for 305, 358
" "in
latticed channel columns 272
" " " plate girders, notes on 305
tables of maximum sizes of, in angles 62, 356
" " Ibeams and channels 62, 356
" shearing and bearing values of 352, 353
" " spacing of 357 .
PAGE
Roof Trusses, coefficients and formulae for 8689
Roots, square and cube, of fractions 444
" " numbers.
" 523539
Rope and cable measure 559
Round bars, circumferences, weights and areas of 451457
" upset screw ends for 372, 373
hollow cast iron columns, strength of 304
Rounds, dimensions of hand and guide 33
Rules for proportions of bolts and nuts, Franklin Institute standard. 363
" rivet spacing for bridge and structural work 358
Safe Loads, explanation of tables of, flat and segmental floor arches. 70
PAGE
Siding, flat and corrugated steel sheets for 85
Signs, conventional, for riveting 351
Slabs, reinforced concrete 9193
steel,dimensions of 34, 35
Sleeve nuts, see Right and left nuts.
Soils, safe bearing capacity of various 338
Solid or cubic measure _
560
Solids, surfaces and volumes of 554556
Spacing for Ibeams and examples of the use of tables of 102105
tables of 124133
..
of channels for equal moments of inertia, notes on
PAGE
Syracuse, extracts from building laws of 328349
Tangent distances between fillets of Ibeams and channels 60, 61
TBars, cuts of sections of 24, 25
properties of 196, 197
weights and dimensions of 47
Terracotta floor arches, notes on, tables for 7073
porous, notes and tables for 69
Thrust of arches, notes on 75, 7881
Tie rods for arches, notes on 75
" tile arches, notes and tables for spacing of 76, 77
Tile arches, breaking loads and tests for hollow floor 74
" notes and tables for spacing of tie rods for . . 76, 77
hollow, weights of, for floor arches 69
Timber, safe unit stresses for 409415
table of breaking and working unit stresses for. 409415
" " safe loads for beams 416421
Timber, table of specific gravities and weights per foot 408
" " strength of solid wooden columns 422, 423
Tin bars 36
Tons and pounds used in the U. S., comparison of 590 
:i(i'.). 371
CAMBRIA STEEL. 603
PAGE
Weights of machine bolts, with square heads and hexagon nuts,
Franklin Institute standard 364, 365
" minimum stay plates to be used with latticed channel
columns 273
porous terracotta, furring, roofing and ceiling 69
" roofing materials 84
" round headed rivets and bolts without nuts 368
" rivets and rivet heads 355
sheets and plates of iron, steel, copper and brass 436, 437
" square and round bars 451463
standard pipe 390392
" standard Trails and crane rail 214
" various substances per cubic foot, tables of 424433
per foot board measure and cubic foot for various kinds of
timber 408
Wire and sheet metal gauges 434443
Wire gauges, in combined table 438 11 3
nails and spikes, standard and miscellaneous sizes 386389
Wooden beams, bearing at points of support, notes on 406
" explanations of tables of safe loads for 403406
" tables of safe loads for 416421
columns, notes on 403, 422
" tables of strength of solid 422, 423
structures, moisture classification 407, 408
" proportions of safe loads for 407
" safety factors for 408
Wood screws, diameters of 389
Worcester, extracts from building laws of 328349
Wrought iron welded steam, gas and water pipe ^
392
" weights of sheets and plates of 436, 437
spikes, weights and sizes of 389
Zbar, hatch section, cut of 23
" " properties of 190,191