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Volume 12, Number 2 May 2007 August 2007

Olympiad Corner From How to Solve It to


Problem Solving in Geometry (II)
Below are the problems of the 2006
Belarussian Math Olympiad, Final K. K. Kwok
Round, Category C. Munsang College (HK Island)
D
Problem 1. Is it possible to partition the
We will continue with more examples.
set of all integers into three nonempty A
pairwise disjoint subsets so that for any X
Example 9. In the trapezium ABCD, P
two numbers a and b from different
AB||CD and the diagonals intersect at O. M
subsets, P, Q are points on AD and BC E
Y
F N
a) there is a number c in the third subset respectively such that APB = CPD Q

such that a + b = 2c? andAQB=CQD. Show that OP=OQ. G H


b) there are two numbers c1 and c2 in the
third subset such that a + b = c1 + c2? Idea: B C

We shall try to find OP in terms of


Problem 2. Points X, Y, Z are marked more basic lengths, e.g. AB, CD, OA, Idea:
on the sides AB, BC, CD of the rhombus OC, . To achieve that, we can The diagram is not simple. We shall try
ABCD, respectively, so that XY||AZ. construct a triangle that is similar to to express the lengths involved in terms
Prove that XZ, AY and BD are DPC. of more basic lengths, e.g. PA, PB, PC
concurrent. and PD.
B'
Problem 3. Let a, b, c be real positive D
numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that A B
A
2(a2+b2+c2)+a+b+c 6+ab+bc+ca. P
X
O P
Problem 4. Given triangle ABC with S
M
A = 60o , AB = 2005, AC = 2006. Bob N Y
and Bill in turn (Bob is the first) cut the T
triangle along any straight line so that C
D
two new triangles with area more than or
equal to 1 appear. Solution Outline: B C
(1) Extend DA to B such that BB = BA. Solution Outline:
(continued on page 4) Then PBB = BAB = PDC. So (1) First observe that PM = MF and PN
DPC BPB. = NG, hence BF = PD and CG = PA.
Editors: (CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK
(2) It follows that
(KO Tsz-Mei) EF BF PD PD XP
(LEUNG Tat-Wing) DP CD CD DO (2) = = , EF = .
(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST = = = XP BP BP BP
PB BB BA BO
(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU PA YP
and so PO || BB. Similarly, we have GH = .
Artist: (YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU CP
Acknowledgment: Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept., (3) Since DPO DBB, we have
HKUST for general assistance. DO DO (3) Let the line MN cuts AB and CD at S
On-line:
OP = BB = AB . and T respectively. Then
http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/
DB DB
CO
The editors welcome contributions from all teachers and (4) Similarly, we have OQ = AB SM BM BD SN AN AC
students. With your submission, please include your name, CA = = , = = .
address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if
and the result follows. XP BP 2BP XP AP 2 AP
available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,
are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for the
next issue is August 20, 2007. Example 10. In quadrilateral ABCD, Subtracting the equalities get
For individual subscription for the next five issues for the the diagonals intersect at P. M and N are MN 1 AC BD
05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressed = .
envelopes. Send all correspondence to: midpoint of BD and AC respectively. Q XP 2 AP BP
is the reflected image of P about MN.
Dr. Kin-Yin LI
Department of Mathematics
The line through P and parallel to MN Similarly, we have
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology cuts AB and CD at X and Y respectively.
The line through Q parallel to MN cuts MN 1 BD AC
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong = .
Fax: (852) 2358 1643 AB, BD, AC and CD at E, F, G and H YP 2 PD PC
Email: makyli@ust.hk respectively. Prove that EF = GH.
Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 2

PD XP PA YP (3) Following the steps discussed above, Example 13. [Simsons Theorem] The
(4) EF = GH = we get EM PQ and hence EP = EQ. feet of the perpendiculars drawn from
BP CP
any point on the circumcircle of a
PD MN PA MN
= . By (3), Example 12. [IMO 2001] Let ABC be an triangle to the sides of the triangle are
BP YP CP XP acute-angled triangle with circumcentre O. collinear.
PD BD AC PA AC BD Let P on BC be the foot of the altitude
= Solution:
BP PD PC CP AP BP from A. Suppose that BCA ABC +
In the figure below, D is a point on the
30o. Prove that CAB + COP < 90o.
BD PD AC AC PA BD circumcircle of ABC, P, Q, and R are
= A
BP BP PC CP CP BP feet of perpendiculars from D to BC,
BD PA BD AC PD AC AC, and BA respectively.
+ = + .
BP CP BP CP BP PC
Note that DQAR, DCPQ, and DPBR
O are cyclic quadrilaterals. So
By addition, both sides of the last
AC BD DQR = DAR = BCD
equation equal . B C
BP CP P = 180o PQD ,
i.e. DQR + PQD = 180o. Thus, P,
Example 11. [IMO 2000] Two circles Q, and R are collinear.
1 and 2 intersect at M and N. Let L Idea:
be the common tangent to 1 and 2 so (1) Examine the conclusion CAB +
that M is closer to L than N is. Let L C P B
COP < 90o, which is equivalent to
touch 1 at A and 2 at B. Let the line 2CAB + 2COP < 180o. That is,
through M parallel to L meet the circle
1 again at C and the circle 2 again at COB + 2COP < 180o. Q
D. Lines CA and DB meet at E; lines On the other hand, we have COB +
AN and CD meet at P; lines BN and CD A
2OCP = 180o. Therefore, we shall show D
meet at Q. Show that EP = EQ. R
COP < OCP or PC < OP.

(2) Examine the condition BCA ABC Example 14. [IMO 2003] Let ABCD
D be a cyclic quadrilateral. Let P, Q and
B + 30o, which is equivalent to 2BCA
E R be the feet of the perpendiculars from
2ABC 60o. That is,
K D to the lines BC, CA and AB
A Q BOA AOC 60o. respectively. Show that PQ = QR if
M
What is the meaning of BOA AOC ? and only if the bisector of ABC and
C
P
ADC meet on AC.
D A
N Solution :
From Simsons theorem, P, Q, and R
are collinear. Now
Idea: DPC = DQC = 90o
First, note that if EP = EQ, then E lies O D, P, C and Q are concyclic
on the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
C
DCA = DPQ = DPR.
B E P
Observe that AB || CD implies A and B Similarly, since D, Q, R and A are
are the midpoints of arc CAM and arc concyclic, we get DAC = DRP. It
DBM respectively, from which we see Solution outline: follows that DCA DPR.
ACM and BDM are isosceles. (1) Let D and E be the reflected image of
A and P about the perpendicular bisector Similarly, DAB DQP and DBC
Second, we have EAB = ECM = of BC respectively. Let R be the DRQ. So,
AMC = BAM and similarly, EBA circumradius. QR
DB
= ABM. That means E is the reflected DA DR BC = QR BA .
= =
image of M about AB. In particular, (2) BCA ABC + 30o DC DP DB PQ PQ BC
EM AB and hence EM PQ. BOA AOC 60o BA
DOA 60o DA BA
Therefore, PQ = QR = .
Therefore, the result follows if we can EP = DA R. DC BC
show that M is the midpoint of PQ.
(3) OP + R = OP + OC = OE + OC Example 15. [IMO 2001] In a triangle
Solution outline: > EC = EP + PC R + PC ABC, let AP bisect BAC, with P on
(1) Extend NM to meet AB at K. OP > PC COP < OCP. BC, and let BQ bisect ABC, with Q
on CA. It is known that BAC = 60o
(2) AK2 = KNKM = BK2 K is the (4) 2CAB + 2COP and that AB + BP = AQ + QB. What are
midpoint of AB M is the midpoint of = COB + 2COP the possible angles of triangle ABC?
PQ. < COB + 2OCP < 180o
and the result follows. (continued on page 4)
Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 3

Problem Corner ***************** We take the origin at the center O of


Solutions ABC. Let 1 be a cube root of
**************** unity and A,B,C,Q correspond to the
We welcome readers to submit their
complex numbers 1, , 2= , z
solutions to the problems posed below
Problem 271. There are 6 coins that look respectively. Then
for publication consideration. The
solutions should be preceded by the the same. Five of them have the same QAB + QBC + QCA = 90o
solvers name, home (or email) address weight, each of these is called a good coin.
and school affiliation. Please send The remaining one has a different weight if and only if
submissions to Dr. Kin Y. Li, from the 5 good coins and it is called a bad
coin. Devise a scheme to weigh groups of 1 1 ( ) | 1 |2
Department of Mathematics, The Hong =
the coins using a scale (not a balance) z 1 z z z3 1
Kong University of Science &
Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, three times only to determine the bad coin
is purely imaginary, which is
Hong Kong. The deadline for and its weight.
equivalent to z3 is real. These are the
submitting solutions is August 20, (Source: 1998 Zhejiang Math Contest)
complex numbers whose arguments
2007. are multiples of /3. Therefore, the
Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA), St.
Pauls College Math Team, YIM Wing required locus is the set of points on the
Problem 276. Let n be a positive three altitudes.
Yin (HKU, Year 1) and Fai YUNG.
integer. Given a (2n1)(2n1) square
board with exactly one of the following Number the coins 1 to 6. For the first Commended solvers: Jeff CHEN
(Virginia, USA), St. Pauls College
arrows , , , at each of its cells. weighting, let us weigh coins 1, 2, 3 and Math Team, Simon YAU and YIM
A beetle sits in one of the cells. Per let the weight be 3a. For the second Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1).
year the beetle creeps from one cell to weighting, let us weigh coins 1, 2, 4, 5 and
another in accordance with the arrows let the weight be 4b. Problem 273. Let R and r be the
direction. When the beetle leaves the circumradius and the inradius of
cell, the arrow at that cell makes a If a = b, then coin 6 is bad and we can use
triangle ABC. Prove that
counterclockwise 90-degree turn. the third weighting to find the weight of
Prove that the beetle leaves the board this coin. cos A cos B cos C R
+ + .
in at most 23n1(n1)! 3 years. If a b, then the bad coin is among coins 1 sin 2 A sin 2 B sin 2 C r
(Source: 2001 Belarussian Math to 5. For the third weighting, let us weigh
Olympiad) (Source: 2000 Beijing Math Contest)
coins 2, 4 and let the weight be 2c.
Problem 277. (Due to Koopa Koo, Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA),
If coin 1 is bad, then c and 4b3a are both
Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA) Kelvin LEE (Winchester College,
the weight of a good coin. So 3a4b+c=0.
Prove that the equation England), NG Eric Ngai Fung (STFA
Similarly, if coin 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 is bad, we
Leung Kau Kui College), YEUNG Wai
x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1 get respective equations 3a2bc=0,
Kit (STFA Leung Kau Kui College, Form
bc=0, a2b+c=0 and ac=0.
has infinitely many integer solutions 6) and YIM Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1).
(then try to get all solutions Editiors). We can check that if any two of these
equations are satisfied simultaneously, Without loss of generality, let a, b, c be
Problem 278. Line segment SA is then we will arrive at a=b, a contradiction. the sides and a b c. By the
perpendicular to the plane of the square Therefore, exactly one of these five extended sine law, R = a/(2sin A) =
ABCD. Let E be the foot of the equations will hold. b/(2sin B) = c/(2sin C). Now the area
perpendicular from A to line segment of the triangle is (bc sin A)/2=abc/(4R)
SB. Let P, Q, R be the midpoints of SD, If the first equation 3a4b+c=0 holds, and is also rs, where s = (a + b + c)/2 is
BD, CD respectively. Let M, N be on then coin 1 is bad and its weight can be the semi- perimeter. So abc=4Rrs.
line segments PQ, PR respectively. found by the first and third weightings to
Prove that AE is perpendicular to MN. be 3a2c. Similarly, for k = 2 to 5, if the Next, observe that for any positive x
k-th equation holds, then coin k is bad and and y, we have (x2 y2)(1/x 1/y) 0,
Problem 279. Let R be the set of all its weight can be found to be 3c2b, which after expansion yields
real numbers. Determine (with proof) 3a2c, 4b3a and 4b3a respectively. x2 y2 (*)
all functions f: RR such that for all + x + y.
real x and y, Problem 272. ABC is equilateral. y x
Find the locus of all point Q inside the By the cosine law and the extended
f ( f ( x) + y ) = 2 x + f ( f ( f ( y )) x ). triangle such that sine law, we get
QAB + QBC + QCA = 90o. cos A (b 2 + c 2 a 2 ) / 2bc
Problem 280. Let n and k be fixed =
positive integers. A basket of peanuts is (Source: 2000 Chinese IMO Team sin 2 A (a / 2 R) 2
distributed into n piles. We gather the Training Test)
2R2 b2 + c2 a2 R b2 c2
piles and rearrange them into n+k new = = + a.
piles. Prove that at least k+1 peanuts are
Solution. Alex Kin-Chit O (STFA abc a 2rs a a
Cheng Yu Tung Secondary School) and
transferred to smaller piles than the
YEUNG Wai Kit (STFA Leung Kau Kui Adding this to the similar terms for B
respective original piles that contained
College, Form 6). and C, we get
them. Also, give an example to show
the constant k+1 cannot be improved.
Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 4

cos A cos B cos C


Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA). Problem 8. A 2n2n square is divided
+ + into 4n2 unit squares. What is the
sin 2 A sin 2 B sin 2 C For i =7 to 13 and j = 1 to 11, let aij be the greatest possible number of diagonals
number of children of age i from country j
R b2 a2 c2 b2 a2 c2 in the group. Then of these unit squares one can draw so
= + + + + + a b c that no two of them have a common
2rs a b b c c a 11 13
bi = aij 0 and c j = aij 1 point (including the endpoints of the
j =1 i =7 diagonals)?
R R by (*).
( a + b + c) = are the number of children of age i in the
2rs r
group and the number of children from
Commended solvers: CHEUNG Wang country j respectively. Note that
Chi (Singapore). From How to Solve It to

13
c j = aij = aij , where is Problem Solving in
i =7 bi 0 bi 0
Problem 274. Let n < 11 be a positive Geometry (II)
integer. Let p1, p2, p3, p be prime used to denote summing i from 7 to 13 (continued from page 2)
skipping those i for which bi=0. Now
numbers such that p1 + p3n is prime. If Idea:
11 1 1
p1 + p2 = 3p, p2 + p3 = p ( p1 + p3 )
n aij
c b
By examining the conditions given, we
may see that the point C is not too
1 b 0 j =1
i j i

and p2> 9, then determine p1 p2 p3n . important.



11
11 aij aij C
=
bi 0 j =1
(Source: 1997 Hubei Math Contest)
j =1 cj bi 0 bi B'
Solution. CHEUNG Wang Chi 11 13
(Singapore), NG Eric Ngai Fung 1 1 = 4.
(STFA Leung Kau Kui College), YIM j =1 i =7
Q
Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1) and Fai Since aij(1/cj 1/bi) < aij/cj 1, there are at P
YUNG. least five terms aij(1/cj 1/bi) > 0. So
there are at least five ordered pairs (i,j)
Assume p1 3. Then p1+p2 > 12 and 3p such that aij > 0 (so we can take a child of A B P'
is even, which would imply p is even age i from country j) and we have bi > cj.
and at least 5, contradicting p is prime. We will focus on how to represent the
So p1=2 and p2=3p2. condition AB + BP = AQ + QB in the
diagram. For that, we construct points
Modulo 3, the given equation p2 + p3 = Olympiad Corner P and B on AB and AQ extended
p1n(p1+p3) leads to respectively so that PB = PB and QB
(continued from page 1)
0 3p = QB. Then
= p2+2 = 2n(2+p3)+2 Problem 4. (Cont.) After that an
obtused-angled triangle (or any of two AB + BP = AQ + QB
= 2n+1 + 2 + (2n1)p3 AB + BP = AQ + QB AP = AB
(1)n+1+2+((1)n1)p3 (mod 3). right-angled triangles) is deleted and the
procedure is repeated with the remained APBis equilateral (asBAP= 60o).
The case n is even results in the triangle. The player loses if he cannot do
the next cutting. Determine, which player Solution outline:
contradiction 0 1 (mod 3). So n is odd (1) Let ABQ = QBP = . Since PB
and we get 0 p3 (mod 3). So p3 = 3. wins if both play in the best way.
= PB, we have PPB = .
Finally, the cases n = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 lead to Problem 5. AA1, BB1 and CC1 are the
altitudes of an acute triangle ABC. Prove (2) Since AP bisects QAB and
p1 + p3n = 5, 29, 245, 2189, 19685 ABP is equilateral, it follows that B
respectively. Since 245, 19685 are that the feet of the perpendiculars from C1
onto the segments AC, BC, BB1 and AA1 is the reflected image of P about AP.
divisible by 5 and 2189 is divisible by
lie on the same straight line. So, PP = PB and QBP =APP = .
11, n can only be 1 or 3 for p1+p3n to be
prime. Now p2 = p1n(p1+p3) p3 = 2n53
Problem 6. Given real numbers a, b, k (3) Since QB = QB and QBP =
> 9 implies n = 3. Then the answer is
(k>0). The circle with the center (a,b) has =QBP, by Example 2, P lies on
p1 p2 p3n = 2 37 33 = 1998. either BB or the perpendicular bisector
at least three common points with the
parabola y = kx2; one of them is the origin of BB. If P does not lie on BB, we will
Problem 275. There is a group of have PB = PB = PP. This will imply
(0,0) and two of the others lie on the line
children coming from 11 countries (at
y=kx+b. Prove that b 2. BPP is equilateral, = 60o and
least one child from each of the 11
QAB + ABP = 60o + 2 = 180o,
countries). Their ages are from 7 to 13.
Problem 7. Let x, y, z be real numbers which is absurd. So, P must lie on BB.
Prove that there are 5 children in the
greater than 1 such that Therefore, B = C.
group, for each of them, the number of
children in the group with the same age xy 2 y 2 + 4 xy + 4 x 4 y = 4004,
(4) Since QB=QB=QC, QCB =
is greater than the number of children and xz 2 z 2 + 6 xz + 9 x 6 z = 1009.
in the group from the same country. QBC = . So QAB + 2 + = 180o
Determine all possible values of the
60o + 3 = 180o = 40o.
expression xyz+3xy+2xzyz+6x3y2z.
Therefore, ABC = 80o, ACB = 40o.