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Jul 01, 2017

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mathematical excalibur

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mathematical excalibur

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Problem Solving in Geometry (II)

Below are the problems of the 2006

Belarussian Math Olympiad, Final K. K. Kwok

Round, Category C. Munsang College (HK Island)

D

Problem 1. Is it possible to partition the

We will continue with more examples.

set of all integers into three nonempty A

pairwise disjoint subsets so that for any X

Example 9. In the trapezium ABCD, P

two numbers a and b from different

AB||CD and the diagonals intersect at O. M

subsets, P, Q are points on AD and BC E

Y

F N

a) there is a number c in the third subset respectively such that APB = CPD Q

b) there are two numbers c1 and c2 in the

third subset such that a + b = c1 + c2? Idea: B C

Problem 2. Points X, Y, Z are marked more basic lengths, e.g. AB, CD, OA, Idea:

on the sides AB, BC, CD of the rhombus OC, . To achieve that, we can The diagram is not simple. We shall try

ABCD, respectively, so that XY||AZ. construct a triangle that is similar to to express the lengths involved in terms

Prove that XZ, AY and BD are DPC. of more basic lengths, e.g. PA, PB, PC

concurrent. and PD.

B'

Problem 3. Let a, b, c be real positive D

numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that A B

A

2(a2+b2+c2)+a+b+c 6+ab+bc+ca. P

X

O P

Problem 4. Given triangle ABC with S

M

A = 60o , AB = 2005, AC = 2006. Bob N Y

and Bill in turn (Bob is the first) cut the T

triangle along any straight line so that C

D

two new triangles with area more than or

equal to 1 appear. Solution Outline: B C

(1) Extend DA to B such that BB = BA. Solution Outline:

(continued on page 4) Then PBB = BAB = PDC. So (1) First observe that PM = MF and PN

DPC BPB. = NG, hence BF = PD and CG = PA.

Editors: (CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK

(2) It follows that

(KO Tsz-Mei) EF BF PD PD XP

(LEUNG Tat-Wing) DP CD CD DO (2) = = , EF = .

(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST = = = XP BP BP BP

PB BB BA BO

(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU PA YP

and so PO || BB. Similarly, we have GH = .

Artist: (YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU CP

Acknowledgment: Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept., (3) Since DPO DBB, we have

HKUST for general assistance. DO DO (3) Let the line MN cuts AB and CD at S

On-line:

OP = BB = AB . and T respectively. Then

http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/

DB DB

CO

The editors welcome contributions from all teachers and (4) Similarly, we have OQ = AB SM BM BD SN AN AC

students. With your submission, please include your name, CA = = , = = .

address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if

and the result follows. XP BP 2BP XP AP 2 AP

available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,

are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for the

next issue is August 20, 2007. Example 10. In quadrilateral ABCD, Subtracting the equalities get

For individual subscription for the next five issues for the the diagonals intersect at P. M and N are MN 1 AC BD

05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressed = .

envelopes. Send all correspondence to: midpoint of BD and AC respectively. Q XP 2 AP BP

is the reflected image of P about MN.

Dr. Kin-Yin LI

Department of Mathematics

The line through P and parallel to MN Similarly, we have

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology cuts AB and CD at X and Y respectively.

The line through Q parallel to MN cuts MN 1 BD AC

Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong = .

Fax: (852) 2358 1643 AB, BD, AC and CD at E, F, G and H YP 2 PD PC

Email: makyli@ust.hk respectively. Prove that EF = GH.

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 2

PD XP PA YP (3) Following the steps discussed above, Example 13. [Simsons Theorem] The

(4) EF = GH = we get EM PQ and hence EP = EQ. feet of the perpendiculars drawn from

BP CP

any point on the circumcircle of a

PD MN PA MN

= . By (3), Example 12. [IMO 2001] Let ABC be an triangle to the sides of the triangle are

BP YP CP XP acute-angled triangle with circumcentre O. collinear.

PD BD AC PA AC BD Let P on BC be the foot of the altitude

= Solution:

BP PD PC CP AP BP from A. Suppose that BCA ABC +

In the figure below, D is a point on the

30o. Prove that CAB + COP < 90o.

BD PD AC AC PA BD circumcircle of ABC, P, Q, and R are

= A

BP BP PC CP CP BP feet of perpendiculars from D to BC,

BD PA BD AC PD AC AC, and BA respectively.

+ = + .

BP CP BP CP BP PC

Note that DQAR, DCPQ, and DPBR

O are cyclic quadrilaterals. So

By addition, both sides of the last

AC BD DQR = DAR = BCD

equation equal . B C

BP CP P = 180o PQD ,

i.e. DQR + PQD = 180o. Thus, P,

Example 11. [IMO 2000] Two circles Q, and R are collinear.

1 and 2 intersect at M and N. Let L Idea:

be the common tangent to 1 and 2 so (1) Examine the conclusion CAB +

that M is closer to L than N is. Let L C P B

COP < 90o, which is equivalent to

touch 1 at A and 2 at B. Let the line 2CAB + 2COP < 180o. That is,

through M parallel to L meet the circle

1 again at C and the circle 2 again at COB + 2COP < 180o. Q

D. Lines CA and DB meet at E; lines On the other hand, we have COB +

AN and CD meet at P; lines BN and CD A

2OCP = 180o. Therefore, we shall show D

meet at Q. Show that EP = EQ. R

COP < OCP or PC < OP.

(2) Examine the condition BCA ABC Example 14. [IMO 2003] Let ABCD

D be a cyclic quadrilateral. Let P, Q and

B + 30o, which is equivalent to 2BCA

E R be the feet of the perpendiculars from

2ABC 60o. That is,

K D to the lines BC, CA and AB

A Q BOA AOC 60o. respectively. Show that PQ = QR if

M

What is the meaning of BOA AOC ? and only if the bisector of ABC and

C

P

ADC meet on AC.

D A

N Solution :

From Simsons theorem, P, Q, and R

are collinear. Now

Idea: DPC = DQC = 90o

First, note that if EP = EQ, then E lies O D, P, C and Q are concyclic

on the perpendicular bisector of PQ.

C

DCA = DPQ = DPR.

B E P

Observe that AB || CD implies A and B Similarly, since D, Q, R and A are

are the midpoints of arc CAM and arc concyclic, we get DAC = DRP. It

DBM respectively, from which we see Solution outline: follows that DCA DPR.

ACM and BDM are isosceles. (1) Let D and E be the reflected image of

A and P about the perpendicular bisector Similarly, DAB DQP and DBC

Second, we have EAB = ECM = of BC respectively. Let R be the DRQ. So,

AMC = BAM and similarly, EBA circumradius. QR

DB

= ABM. That means E is the reflected DA DR BC = QR BA .

= =

image of M about AB. In particular, (2) BCA ABC + 30o DC DP DB PQ PQ BC

EM AB and hence EM PQ. BOA AOC 60o BA

DOA 60o DA BA

Therefore, PQ = QR = .

Therefore, the result follows if we can EP = DA R. DC BC

show that M is the midpoint of PQ.

(3) OP + R = OP + OC = OE + OC Example 15. [IMO 2001] In a triangle

Solution outline: > EC = EP + PC R + PC ABC, let AP bisect BAC, with P on

(1) Extend NM to meet AB at K. OP > PC COP < OCP. BC, and let BQ bisect ABC, with Q

on CA. It is known that BAC = 60o

(2) AK2 = KNKM = BK2 K is the (4) 2CAB + 2COP and that AB + BP = AQ + QB. What are

midpoint of AB M is the midpoint of = COB + 2COP the possible angles of triangle ABC?

PQ. < COB + 2OCP < 180o

and the result follows. (continued on page 4)

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 3

Solutions ABC. Let 1 be a cube root of

**************** unity and A,B,C,Q correspond to the

We welcome readers to submit their

complex numbers 1, , 2= , z

solutions to the problems posed below

Problem 271. There are 6 coins that look respectively. Then

for publication consideration. The

solutions should be preceded by the the same. Five of them have the same QAB + QBC + QCA = 90o

solvers name, home (or email) address weight, each of these is called a good coin.

and school affiliation. Please send The remaining one has a different weight if and only if

submissions to Dr. Kin Y. Li, from the 5 good coins and it is called a bad

coin. Devise a scheme to weigh groups of 1 1 ( ) | 1 |2

Department of Mathematics, The Hong =

the coins using a scale (not a balance) z 1 z z z3 1

Kong University of Science &

Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, three times only to determine the bad coin

is purely imaginary, which is

Hong Kong. The deadline for and its weight.

equivalent to z3 is real. These are the

submitting solutions is August 20, (Source: 1998 Zhejiang Math Contest)

complex numbers whose arguments

2007. are multiples of /3. Therefore, the

Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA), St.

Pauls College Math Team, YIM Wing required locus is the set of points on the

Problem 276. Let n be a positive three altitudes.

Yin (HKU, Year 1) and Fai YUNG.

integer. Given a (2n1)(2n1) square

board with exactly one of the following Number the coins 1 to 6. For the first Commended solvers: Jeff CHEN

(Virginia, USA), St. Pauls College

arrows , , , at each of its cells. weighting, let us weigh coins 1, 2, 3 and Math Team, Simon YAU and YIM

A beetle sits in one of the cells. Per let the weight be 3a. For the second Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1).

year the beetle creeps from one cell to weighting, let us weigh coins 1, 2, 4, 5 and

another in accordance with the arrows let the weight be 4b. Problem 273. Let R and r be the

direction. When the beetle leaves the circumradius and the inradius of

cell, the arrow at that cell makes a If a = b, then coin 6 is bad and we can use

triangle ABC. Prove that

counterclockwise 90-degree turn. the third weighting to find the weight of

Prove that the beetle leaves the board this coin. cos A cos B cos C R

+ + .

in at most 23n1(n1)! 3 years. If a b, then the bad coin is among coins 1 sin 2 A sin 2 B sin 2 C r

(Source: 2001 Belarussian Math to 5. For the third weighting, let us weigh

Olympiad) (Source: 2000 Beijing Math Contest)

coins 2, 4 and let the weight be 2c.

Problem 277. (Due to Koopa Koo, Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA),

If coin 1 is bad, then c and 4b3a are both

Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA) Kelvin LEE (Winchester College,

the weight of a good coin. So 3a4b+c=0.

Prove that the equation England), NG Eric Ngai Fung (STFA

Similarly, if coin 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 is bad, we

Leung Kau Kui College), YEUNG Wai

x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xyz = 1 get respective equations 3a2bc=0,

Kit (STFA Leung Kau Kui College, Form

bc=0, a2b+c=0 and ac=0.

has infinitely many integer solutions 6) and YIM Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1).

(then try to get all solutions Editiors). We can check that if any two of these

equations are satisfied simultaneously, Without loss of generality, let a, b, c be

Problem 278. Line segment SA is then we will arrive at a=b, a contradiction. the sides and a b c. By the

perpendicular to the plane of the square Therefore, exactly one of these five extended sine law, R = a/(2sin A) =

ABCD. Let E be the foot of the equations will hold. b/(2sin B) = c/(2sin C). Now the area

perpendicular from A to line segment of the triangle is (bc sin A)/2=abc/(4R)

SB. Let P, Q, R be the midpoints of SD, If the first equation 3a4b+c=0 holds, and is also rs, where s = (a + b + c)/2 is

BD, CD respectively. Let M, N be on then coin 1 is bad and its weight can be the semi- perimeter. So abc=4Rrs.

line segments PQ, PR respectively. found by the first and third weightings to

Prove that AE is perpendicular to MN. be 3a2c. Similarly, for k = 2 to 5, if the Next, observe that for any positive x

k-th equation holds, then coin k is bad and and y, we have (x2 y2)(1/x 1/y) 0,

Problem 279. Let R be the set of all its weight can be found to be 3c2b, which after expansion yields

real numbers. Determine (with proof) 3a2c, 4b3a and 4b3a respectively. x2 y2 (*)

all functions f: RR such that for all + x + y.

real x and y, Problem 272. ABC is equilateral. y x

Find the locus of all point Q inside the By the cosine law and the extended

f ( f ( x) + y ) = 2 x + f ( f ( f ( y )) x ). triangle such that sine law, we get

QAB + QBC + QCA = 90o. cos A (b 2 + c 2 a 2 ) / 2bc

Problem 280. Let n and k be fixed =

positive integers. A basket of peanuts is (Source: 2000 Chinese IMO Team sin 2 A (a / 2 R) 2

distributed into n piles. We gather the Training Test)

2R2 b2 + c2 a2 R b2 c2

piles and rearrange them into n+k new = = + a.

piles. Prove that at least k+1 peanuts are

Solution. Alex Kin-Chit O (STFA abc a 2rs a a

Cheng Yu Tung Secondary School) and

transferred to smaller piles than the

YEUNG Wai Kit (STFA Leung Kau Kui Adding this to the similar terms for B

respective original piles that contained

College, Form 6). and C, we get

them. Also, give an example to show

the constant k+1 cannot be improved.

Mathematical Excalibur, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 07 Aug. 07 Page 4

Solution. Jeff CHEN (Virginia, USA). Problem 8. A 2n2n square is divided

+ + into 4n2 unit squares. What is the

sin 2 A sin 2 B sin 2 C For i =7 to 13 and j = 1 to 11, let aij be the greatest possible number of diagonals

number of children of age i from country j

R b2 a2 c2 b2 a2 c2 in the group. Then of these unit squares one can draw so

= + + + + + a b c that no two of them have a common

2rs a b b c c a 11 13

bi = aij 0 and c j = aij 1 point (including the endpoints of the

j =1 i =7 diagonals)?

R R by (*).

( a + b + c) = are the number of children of age i in the

2rs r

group and the number of children from

Commended solvers: CHEUNG Wang country j respectively. Note that

Chi (Singapore). From How to Solve It to

13

c j = aij = aij , where is Problem Solving in

i =7 bi 0 bi 0

Problem 274. Let n < 11 be a positive Geometry (II)

integer. Let p1, p2, p3, p be prime used to denote summing i from 7 to 13 (continued from page 2)

skipping those i for which bi=0. Now

numbers such that p1 + p3n is prime. If Idea:

11 1 1

p1 + p2 = 3p, p2 + p3 = p ( p1 + p3 )

n aij

c b

By examining the conditions given, we

may see that the point C is not too

1 b 0 j =1

i j i

11

11 aij aij C

=

bi 0 j =1

(Source: 1997 Hubei Math Contest)

j =1 cj bi 0 bi B'

Solution. CHEUNG Wang Chi 11 13

(Singapore), NG Eric Ngai Fung 1 1 = 4.

(STFA Leung Kau Kui College), YIM j =1 i =7

Q

Wing Yin (HKU, Year 1) and Fai Since aij(1/cj 1/bi) < aij/cj 1, there are at P

YUNG. least five terms aij(1/cj 1/bi) > 0. So

there are at least five ordered pairs (i,j)

Assume p1 3. Then p1+p2 > 12 and 3p such that aij > 0 (so we can take a child of A B P'

is even, which would imply p is even age i from country j) and we have bi > cj.

and at least 5, contradicting p is prime. We will focus on how to represent the

So p1=2 and p2=3p2. condition AB + BP = AQ + QB in the

diagram. For that, we construct points

Modulo 3, the given equation p2 + p3 = Olympiad Corner P and B on AB and AQ extended

p1n(p1+p3) leads to respectively so that PB = PB and QB

(continued from page 1)

0 3p = QB. Then

= p2+2 = 2n(2+p3)+2 Problem 4. (Cont.) After that an

obtused-angled triangle (or any of two AB + BP = AQ + QB

= 2n+1 + 2 + (2n1)p3 AB + BP = AQ + QB AP = AB

(1)n+1+2+((1)n1)p3 (mod 3). right-angled triangles) is deleted and the

procedure is repeated with the remained APBis equilateral (asBAP= 60o).

The case n is even results in the triangle. The player loses if he cannot do

the next cutting. Determine, which player Solution outline:

contradiction 0 1 (mod 3). So n is odd (1) Let ABQ = QBP = . Since PB

and we get 0 p3 (mod 3). So p3 = 3. wins if both play in the best way.

= PB, we have PPB = .

Finally, the cases n = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 lead to Problem 5. AA1, BB1 and CC1 are the

altitudes of an acute triangle ABC. Prove (2) Since AP bisects QAB and

p1 + p3n = 5, 29, 245, 2189, 19685 ABP is equilateral, it follows that B

respectively. Since 245, 19685 are that the feet of the perpendiculars from C1

onto the segments AC, BC, BB1 and AA1 is the reflected image of P about AP.

divisible by 5 and 2189 is divisible by

lie on the same straight line. So, PP = PB and QBP =APP = .

11, n can only be 1 or 3 for p1+p3n to be

prime. Now p2 = p1n(p1+p3) p3 = 2n53

Problem 6. Given real numbers a, b, k (3) Since QB = QB and QBP =

> 9 implies n = 3. Then the answer is

(k>0). The circle with the center (a,b) has =QBP, by Example 2, P lies on

p1 p2 p3n = 2 37 33 = 1998. either BB or the perpendicular bisector

at least three common points with the

parabola y = kx2; one of them is the origin of BB. If P does not lie on BB, we will

Problem 275. There is a group of have PB = PB = PP. This will imply

(0,0) and two of the others lie on the line

children coming from 11 countries (at

y=kx+b. Prove that b 2. BPP is equilateral, = 60o and

least one child from each of the 11

QAB + ABP = 60o + 2 = 180o,

countries). Their ages are from 7 to 13.

Problem 7. Let x, y, z be real numbers which is absurd. So, P must lie on BB.

Prove that there are 5 children in the

greater than 1 such that Therefore, B = C.

group, for each of them, the number of

children in the group with the same age xy 2 y 2 + 4 xy + 4 x 4 y = 4004,

(4) Since QB=QB=QC, QCB =

is greater than the number of children and xz 2 z 2 + 6 xz + 9 x 6 z = 1009.

in the group from the same country. QBC = . So QAB + 2 + = 180o

Determine all possible values of the

60o + 3 = 180o = 40o.

expression xyz+3xy+2xzyz+6x3y2z.

Therefore, ABC = 80o, ACB = 40o.

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