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Rev. F. X. Una


Rev. F. X. Una


Rev. F. X. Una
Printed by

_ This was never intended to be a grammar book or
an organised Efik course. It grew naturally From trying
to -
teach "foreigners my" native language. The- questions that
those foreigners asked inspired research that brought these
pages into, being. thought initially of
In-compiling itT.I ;

foreigners mainly expatriates who would like- to learn the

language in a short space of time with a view, to using
it. had missionaries in mind. They would need to learn

enough within a short time and start using it for their

work so it had to be short while at the same time giving
them an essential start. I thought also of the interested
traveller. For him too, the course would have to be short
enough to be completed during the life time of his will to

It has since been observed that the contents of this

little book would be of great help to pupils of Elemen-
taries Five and Six.

I wish to express my gratitude to Students and Tea-

chers who used it in its mimeographed edition to prepare
for G.C.E. or School Certificate examination. Their com-
ments have been very encouraging, and if it has been as
helpful to them as they say, then my time has not been

F. x.
1. Orthography and Sounds 5

2. Number 6

3. Intonation 7

4. Greetings 8

5. Nouns 9

6. The verb "To Be" - If

7. Pronouns 13

8. Adjectives 15

9. Passive Voice 16

10. The Verbs 17

11. Relative Adjectival Clauses 26

12. Adverbs and Adverb Clauses 27

13. Conjunctions and Prepositions 29

14. Conditional and Purpose Clauses 30
15. Questions 32
16. Indirect Speech 33
17. "Da" and "Kama" 34
18. Appendixes _ 35
19. General Exercises 37
20. Vocabulary Exercises 37
21. Useful Information 66


1. ALPHABETS: The alphabets of Efik language are those used in Fnglish.
The letters J, L, Q, V, Z AND G ARE NOT used.
For Q we have 'kw' or 'ku' and for the Fnglish 'ng' sound we
have 'q*. There is in addition the 'kp' sound which offers the
foreign student much difficulties.

A of Abaij in Efik
2. The vowels of Efik language are; A, a; as ' A of Amo in Latin
I A of Mat in English
never like Eng, A.

E, e: as E in egg; e in Eto
I, as ee in seen or i in hit; i in itok.

E and I are very different. One cannot replace the other.

O: as O
of Tuo (Latin) ; o in ebot, o in so.
O, o; as O
of Dominus; in ofiorj, in God O
Like e and i, o and are essentially different.
U, u: as oo in boot; u in ukot

Vowels in the root word often affect those of the suffixes or


3. PRONUNCIATION: Efik words are more like latin than English in

the way they are pronounced. There are no neutral sounds; each
syllable has a right to exist as an individual. Words like nne, mmo,
mme, nnyin etc. which in English would be monosyllabic are
disyllabic in Efik.
The beginner is advised to take syllables separately to promote
This can only be done by reading and speaking dead slow.
The native speaker can be understood even when he elides or
speaks fast. This is not true of the foreigner. Borrowed wurds
retain their original pronunciation.

Read out loud
(a) Sokoro, mboro, ekpeme. uyai, idibi, okukubarakpa. otokorikc mmin,
mmorj, mbre, mmo, urien, ndutuho, idioknkpo, ererimbot, rjkertke
ndinamke, ekpededi, ikpuhokede, nsinsi, isuhokede, iwubekede.
(b) IJkpa enyemi akak owo uyo. Idaha emi edi nda-eyo.
Kukere nte rjkpo osorjde idaha emi.
Udosen Adiaha edi eyen eyen eka eka eka mi.
Ekere didie abarja usem Efik ?
Nim kpukpru mbet Abasi kubahade mmo.
fjkpo ifonke owo ima tutu esim hevin.
Owo emi mminamke utom idotke ndidia udia.
Anie owo mminyeneke ekikere?
Abasi edeme utom ono kpukpru owo.
Usen ederi idihe usen unam utom.
Se owo otode kpa oro ke enye edidok.
Nso udori ke owo edtbo edieke enye enyenede ofuri inyene
ererimbot emi, edi ke akpatre ukporj esie atak?
(a) Repeat (a) and (b) slowly and distinctly after a native speaker.



used as adjectives they follow the nouns they qualify.
2. Ordinals: Prefix "oyoho" to the numeral to get the corresponding
ordinal, except for "first" which is "Akpa*' and "second" which can
either be "udiana" or "oyoho iba".

3. Number Of Times: Only the first takes the prefix "im" the rest
take ika, and iku according as the predominant vowel of the numeral
ike, iki,
is a, e, i, o or u. ''Utim'' before the prefix Ik. does not alter the
meaning. You can just put akarj before any number (Ibibio).
4. Quantity: From 1 to 8 are as on the chart. From 9 on, the
numerals qualifv the persons or things e.g. Mmo (owo) duopenarj
Fourteen of them.

Numerals Number Chart cont.

13 Duopeta
14 Duopenarj The numbers 1 14 must be known off by
15 Efut heart. The number 15 is Efut. To get 16,
16 Efutekiet 17, 18. 19, add 1, 2,3,4 respectively to 1 5.
17 eba 15 Efut; 16 Efutekiet; 17 Efuteba;
18 eta 18 Efuteta; 19 Efutenaq.
19 enaij 20 is edip and other numbers up to 39
20 Edip can be formed by adding 119 to 20.
21 ye kiet To get 40, 60, and 80 change the ''i" of iba,

22 iba ita, inarj to "a''. The intermidiary numbers

23 ita
are formed by adding 19 to 40, 60 and

80. By this process of adding numbers you

30 ,, duop
can count to any number of your choice.
31 ,, duopekiet
Exercise 1

40 Aba
41 ye kiet
50 ye duop Write in E&k :

51 ye duopekiet
(a) 55: 86; 99; 111, 959; 60!
60 Ata : 333; 7561;
9999; 8571.
61 Ata ye kiet
70 Ata ye duop (b) 21st; 9th llth; 19th.
Ata ye duopekiet

80 Anar) (c) Once, ten times, nineth time; 1 39th
81 ye kiet time.
100 Ikie
200 iba (d) 59 persons; 90 sheep, two of them,
300 ita ten of them, sixteen of them.

1000 TDsin
2000 iba


The foregin student will find the intonation a great draw-back. The
intonation betrays the foreigner for words are pronounced to suit their
contexts. Only careful listening and sweat labour at trying to produce
the correct sounds will solve this problem. It will nevertheless come
with time and usage so have courage
A way of facing this difficulty of acquring the right into-
nation is asking severai questions This however, is not practicable
in regions like Oroo, Eket and Annang because people there have their
peculiar dialects. Examples of such useful questions.

Nso idi emi? = What is this?

Anie enyene enye? = Who owns it?
Eda enam nso? = What is it used for?
Nso ke owo oro anam? = What is that man doing?
Nso ke mmo enam? = What are they doing?
Nte afo emekeme ndinam
ntre? = Can you do so?
Nso inam mukemeke? = Why can't you?
Ekere didie? = What is your name?

Of all forms of greetings the commonest is "mokom o": I
greet you. This can be used in all circumstances; whether the person
greeted is sitting down, standing up, walking, working or whatever else
he may be doing. The response for it is "mmakom nde o": 1 greet
you too. Here are other forms of greetings;
Tie do-o = Sit you there for one sitting.

Da do o = Stand you there for one standing.

Ke anam o = You are working for one working.
For each of the above the response is "mmokom-o" = Yes I

greet you.
Ka di o = Go come farewell :

Hm^di Yr.u have come; Welcome.

Sarja surj = Good bye (when a person is leaving you).
Emesiere ( o) = Good morning.
Esiere (o) = Good niimt
As resp,>ns2s for the last two, leave out the incluic O' and add
'nde' When you are distant from the person use incline 'O' whether
greeting or responding In response, however, 'O' comes after 'nde'.

e g- Emesierende o = Good morning too.

Esierende o == Good nisht too.
Idem fo o? = How are >ou?
Ete fo o? == How or where is your father?
Irkafo o? = How or where is your mother?
Sosorjo o? Thank you.

Vocabulary 1

th e sentence To express the possessive case the object possessed is

placed before the possessor.
e.g. Mmorj rjvved eyen eka mi =
My brother's ink.
In this example I possess a mother who possesses a son who
possesses book which in its turn possesses water.

Number: The prefix "rnme" hyphenated to a noun makes it plural

except in rare


(d) Subject + Clause + Verb 4- Ind. Obj. + Clause

Peter emi otode okono mi oro
obio nnyin ino ekeyipde.
Peter who is a native gave rne ihe cloth that
of our village was stolen.

Vocabulary 2
Utit - End Editor) o Beginning
udoijo - sickness ikan tire
akpan first son ediwak many
obio - town, village utin sun
ntanta oft or) - star Adiaha first daughter
ufok - house itam hat
inr> thief ekpat - bag
iyak - fish Ukabade-isua Christmas
ini - time ebok - monkey
ete - father ediye - beautiful
usen -
day ubet room
mbiomo load, burden ibnk medicine
(a) Translate into English
Ufok ibok; Owo udorjo, Ebe Mary, Adiaha Peter, Oborj obio, ufok rjwed,
ekebe oforj ete mi, ekpat ubok Udo, ufok owo udorjo, ubom anyam
iyak, Cross Eyen Abasi.
(b) Translate into E&k:
The thief's The
time of Christmas, the father's house, John's eldest
son, my eye glasses, Many small white things, the third man's
name, the lorry driver's monkey, a fine day in good company, a bad
child is a burden to his parents.

1. As in English the verb "to be'' "Edi" is used:
(a) To express identity of subject and object
e.g. Eben edi eto. The pear is a tree.
(b) To express the state or quality of the subject.
e. g. Efiong edi eti owo. Efiong is a good man.
Peter edi anyan owo, Peter is a tall man.
Enye edi owo akpaniko. He is a truthful person.
2, The verb in its proper tense
"du'' denotes rest in a place,
e.g. Ami rjkodu ke ufok rjwed. I was in the School.
Mbuk uwem Christ odu ke edisana rjwed Abasi.
The story of Christ's life is in the Holy Bible.

Vocabulary 3
Owo ifu


I. Personal pronouns: The personal pronouns used in the Efik
language, are:

1st Person Singular
1st Plural

2. Possessive pronouns:

4. Demonstrative Pronouns:
(a) They are emi = this, which; oro = that (near you); oko = that
(yonder); eke which; emi, oro, oko, introducing clauses.
(b) When any of these introduces a clause the verb of the clause
takes the suffix 'de'

e. g. Utom emi enye anamde ofon. The work which he

is doing is good.

(c) When the clause is negative it is expressed thus:

(Pro) Noun 4- Personal form 4- verb root ke, ha, he. ho +
e.g. Se ami rarae nyomke
Se afo mmu uyomke
Se enye mmi iyomke
Se nnyin mmi iyomke
Se mmo mmi iyomke
Se mbufo mmi iyomke
N. B. For the use of ke, ha, he, ho cf. chapter 10, paragraph 1.

5 Relative Pronouns : These are :

emi, eke = who, which, that

se = what, that, which
They, in most cases, introduce qualifying clauses, cf. chapter 11,

6. Interrogative Pronouns:
nso what
anie who
ewe or efe which
When any of these comes before the verb in a sentence the pre-
position ke' comes between it and the rest of the sentence after
it. When it qualifies a noun 'ke' comes after the noun it qualifies.

e. g. :

Anie edi eyen fo? - Who is your child?

Itnye odu ke mmorj? Where is he?

udia food kere bay a think about
mbohoidurj neighbour idat mad person
ubuene poor person motor car
mbubik wickedness isorjke, ememem weak, soft
kaija yet utip reward
uto kind, type kpukpru all, every
ubak, ndusuk some tim collect,
arrange, pack, beat.

(a) Translate into English:

Oyom anie? Odu ke mm on? Odu ke cwc ufok? Owo oro
edi idat. Ami ke idem mi. Mmo eno nnyin udia ye oforj. Nti
Christian ema kpukpru owo. Ndusuk owo ekere ebaija idem
mmo Nno mmo se mmo ke idem mmo eyomde. Owo
eke amade Abasi ama mbohoiduij esie qko. Anie mmimaha
idem esie? Nam se amade kaija, Abasi eyeno fi utip. Nso uto
owo ke Christ ekedi?

(b) Translate into EAk:

A poor person arranges all his things; his clothes, his money and
his food. My
car is black yours is green. That man there is
wicked, that (near you) is weak but this is lazy.
(c) Make short sentences with these pronouns. Idem fo, to, okim,
emi, se, oro, nnyin, nso, efe.


The Efik language has very few adjectives so other words are
used as adjectives. Such words come before the nouns they
qualify. There are however, exceptions like these which come
after the noun man.

N.B. When the lastthree letters of a verb root are vowel consonant
vowel 'ke' usually used.
is But in words like kpohode ending

in 'de', 'ke' comes immediately before de\

What so stated is illustrated in the chart on page 14.
is Supplement
with these veibs and note that some verbs have ro noun
that chart
forms to fit in the column for nouns. Those that have are not
as uniformly formed as they seem to be, to allow for a rule.

Verb Roots contd.

N.B. When the lastthree letters of a verb root are vowel consonant
vowel 'ke' usually used.
is But in words like kpohode ending
in 'de', 'ke' comes immediately before 'de\

What so stated is illustrated in the chart on page 14.

is Supplement
that chart with these veibs and note that some verbs have co noun
forms to fit in the column for nouns. Those that have are not
as uniformly formed as they seem to be, to allow for a rule.


14" to
Change "the chart on page
Page 18 line 4:

"the chart on page 20".


Verb Roots contd.








3. The prefix with the root which are indicative of the

person are respectively 'n' or 'm' when the root starts in
'm' e, e, i, e, e, for 1st, 2nd and 3rd person singular
and plural. Only the 2nd and 3rd persons singular vary
with the vowels in the root. They are 'E' when the vowel
in the root are e, i, ue, and 'A' when the vowel is a, ai,
ua. They are 'O' for the vowels o, u, io and '3' for
the vowels 0, oi, io, uo.
The indicative vowel for 3rd person plural in a passive
sentence containing 'se' becomes 'i' instead of the usual 'e\

The verb wet to write


Present absolute I write

This in its affirmative form is used when one intends

only to give a simple information. It excludes other
persons from the action.

Affirmative Negative

Ami qwet Ami rjwetke

Afo ewet Afo uweike
Enye ewet Enye iwetke
Nuyin iwet Nnyin iwetke
Mbufo ewet Mbufo iwetke
M no ewet Mmo iwetke

Conditional Present If I (do not) write

Affirmative Negative

Edieke ami nwetde Edieke ami mme nwetke

,, afo ewetde afo mmu uwetke
enye ewetde enye mmj iwetke
,, nnyin iwetde nnyin mmi iwetke
,, mbufo ewetde mbufo mmi iwetke
,, mmo ewetde mmo mmi iwetke

Continuous Present: I am (not) writing

Affirmative Negative
Ami ke rjwet Same as present absolute
Afo ke cwet
Enye ke ewet
Nnyin ke iwet
Mbufo ke ewet
Mmo ke ewet

The habitual Present I usually {do not) write

Affirmative Negative
Ami mmesiwet Ami nsiwetke
Afo emesiwet Afo usuwetke
Enye esiwet Enye isiwetke
Nnyin imisiwet Nnyin isiwetke
Mbufo emesiwet Mbufo isiwetke
Mmo esiwet Mmo isiwetke

Perfect with have ; I have (not) written

Affirmative Negative
Ami mme wet Same as present absolute
Afo emewet
Enye (em) ewet
Nnyin imi wet
Mbufo (em) ewet
Mmo (em) ewet

Perfect without have past indefinite

Affirmative Negative
Ami mma nwet Ami nke wetke
Afo ama ewet Afo uku wetke
Enye ama ewet Enye iki wetke
Nnyin ima iwet Nnyin iki wetke
Mbufo ema ewet Mbufo iki wetke
Mmo ema ewet Mmo iki wetke

Habitual Past : I used to write

Affirmative Negative
Ami mma nsiwet Ami nkesiwetke
Afo ama esiwet Afo uku suwetke
Enye ama esiwet Enye iki siwetke
Nnyin ima isiwet Nnyin iki siwetke
Mbufo ema esiwet Mbufo iki siwetke
Mma ema esiwet Mmo iki siwetke

Another form of Perfect without have Definite past

Affirmative Negative
Ami nke wet Idihe ami nke wet
Afo eke wet afo eke wet
Enye eke wet enye eke wet
Nnyin iki wet nnyin iki wet
Mbufo eke wet mbufo eke wet
Mmo eke wet mmo eke wet
See appendix 9 for the use of EXE and AMA Perfect tense
Habitual Past It was I who used to write
Affirmative Negative
Ami nkesi wet Same as above
Afo ekesi wet with "si" between
Enye ekesi wet "nke" and "wet"
Nnyin ikisi j^wet
Mbufo ekesi wet
Mmo ekesi v/et

Past Conditional : If I wrote

Affirmative Negative
Edieke ami nke wetde Edieke ami mme nke wetke
afo eke wetde ,, afo mu uku wetke
enye eke wetde enye mmi wetkeiki

nnyin iki wetde nnyin mi wetke


mbufo eke wetde mbufo mmi iki wetke

mmo eke wetde mmo mmi iki wetke
Future Simple: shall (not) write
Affirmative Negative
Ami nye wet Ami ndiwetke
Afo eye wet Afo udu wetke
Enye eye wet Enye idiwetke
Nnyin iye wet Nnyin idi wetke
Mbufo eye wet Mbufo idi wetke
Mmo eye wet Mmo idi wetke


Habitual Future: I shall (not) be writing

Affirmative Negative

Ami nyesi wet Ami ndisi wetke

Afo eyesi wet Afo udu usuweike
Enye eyesi wet Enye idi si wetke
Nnyin iyisi wet Nnyin idi si wetke
Mbufo eyesi wet Mbufo idi si wetke
Mmo eyesi wet Mmo idi si wetke

Conditional Future: If I shall (not) write

Affirmative Negative

Edieke ami ndiwetde Edieke ami mme ndiwetke

afo udu wetde ,, afo mmu udu wetke
enye edi wetde ,, enye mmi idi wetke
nnyin idi wetde ,, nnyin mmi idi wetke
mbufo edi wetde mbufo mmi idi wetke
mmo edi wetde ,, mmo mmi idi wetke

Present Subjunctive: I should (not) write

Affirmative Negative

Ami mkpe wet Ami mkpe wetke

Afo ekpe wet Afo ukpu wetke
Enye ekpe wet Enye ikpi wetke
Nnyin ikpe wet Nnyin ikpi wetke
Mbufo ekpe wet Mbufo ikpi wetke
Mmo ekpe wet Mmo ikpi wetke

Conditional Present subjunctive

Affirmative Negative
Edieke ami mkpe wetde Edieke ami mme mkpe wetke
afo ekpe wetde afo mmu ukpu wetke
,, enye ekpe wetde enye mmi ikpi wetke
nnyin ikpi w^tde nnyin mmi ikpi wetke
mbufo ekpe wetde ,, mbufo mmi ikpi wetke
mmo ekpe wetde mmo mmi ikpi wetke


Habitual Present Subjunctive : I should (not) be writing

Affirmative Negative
Ami mkpe siwet Ami mkpe si wetke
Afo ekpe siwet Afo ukpu su wetke
Enye ekpe siwet Enye ikpi si wetke
Nnyin ikpi siwet Nnyin ikpi si wetke
Mbufo ekpe siwet Mbufo ikpi si wetke
Mmo ekpe siwet Mmo ikpi si wetke

Conditional habitual perfect subjunctive

Affirmative Negative
Edieke ami mkpe (ke) si wetde Edieke ami mme mkpeke si wetke
,, afo ekpe (ke) si wetde ,, afo mmu ukpukusu wetke
enye ekpe (ke) si wetde enye mi ikpi kisi wetke
nnyin ikpi (ki) si wetde ,, nnyin mi ikpi kisi wetke
mbufo ekpe (ke) si wetde mbufo mmi ikpi kisi wetke
,, mmo ekpe (ke) si wetde mmo mi ikpi kisi wetke
Perfect Subjunctive I should (not) have written
Affirmative Negative
Ami mkpe ke wet Ami mkpe ke wetke
Afo ekpe ke wet Afo ukpu ku wetke
Enye ekpe ke wet Enye ikpi ki wetke
Nnyin ikpi ki wet Nnyin ikpi ki wetke
Mbufo ekpe ke wet Mbufo ikpi ki wttke
Mmo ekpe ke wet Mmo ikpi ki wetke
Conditional Perfect Subjunctive: If I had.
Affirmative Negative
Edieke mkpe ke wetde Edieke mme mkpe ke wetke
,, ekpe ke wetde mmu ukpu ku wetke
,, kpe ke wetde mmi ikpi ki wetke
nnyin ikpi ki wetde nnyin mmi ikpi ki wetke
mbufo ekpe ke [wetde mbufo mmi ikpi ki wetke
,, mmo ekpe ke wetde mmo mmi ikpi ki wetke

Perfect Subjunctive implying moral obligation : I should have

Affirmative Negative
Ekpekena ami nwet Ikpikinaha ami nwet
afo ewet afo ewet
enye ewet enye ewet
nnyin iwet ,, nnyin iwet
mbufo ewet ,. mbufo ewet
mmo ewet ,, mmo ewet

Conditional Perfect Subjunctive implying a moral obligation.

: :

Vocabulary 7
Usuq road, way Nwarja open, clear, pour out
Ye be beautiful Isorj earth, ground, land

fa) Translate into English
Dep eke eyede. Saga usug eke enende. Kama udia emi edikemde ft
usen inarj. Nyom owo emi ekemede ndinam eti utom. Bo se Abasi
on ode esok fi.

(b) Translate into Eflk

We want boys who are good. He is a man who can draw maps.
Plant flowers in open ground. Put them in a clean dry place. Give
it to him at the appointed time.

(c) Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses.

Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses
of time.
Make 5 sentences containing relative adjectival clauses
of place.



1. Adverbs; Adverbs are very rare in the Efik language. The
deficiency is made up for by grouping words to produce the required
sense and by doubling certain words.

(a) Original adverbs are: mi, do, ko, mmon, didie.

(b) Adverbs formed by groups of words.

Ke eti ini in good time
Ke idiok ini in bad time
Ye idiok ekikere maliciously
FJkan nkuk about
Ke edem behind
Ebiet (itie) eke ededi any place
Ke anwa outside
Ke ufuot in the middle
Ke iso in front
(c) Adverbs formed by doubling words:
Uterje-uterje majestically, solemnly
idiok-idiak badly
ndisime-ndisime foolishly
idara-idara happily
ediye-ediye beautifully
eyihe-eyihe doubtfully
akakaha too much
idap-idap sleepily
usuhode-usuhode lowly
nkonkorj-rjkoqkorj highly

Adverb Clauses: Adverbial clauses of manner is usually expressed in

this coostruction.

NTE + (Pronoun) + Verb + de

e. g. Christ oyom nnyin idu uwem nte enye okodude
Christ wants us to live as he lived his life
Kpukpru ubon ekpenyene rditie nte ubon emi Christ akamanade
Every family should be like the family in which Cbrist was born

This use of 'nte'* should not be confused with 'nte" which introduces
a question to avoid ambiquity.
When ini or ke ini and ebiet or itie are involved, they are respectively
adverbial clauses of time and place. Both show that clauses containing
them are of their nature definite so the verb of the clause must be
definite in its form and has to take the suffix "de".

(c) Make sentences with the following:
Ebiet eke ededi, ke anwa, eyihe-eyihe, ke ufuot, uterje-uterje, nte
eli owo, ini nda-eyo.

1. Conjunctions: Conjunctions commonly used in Efik are: ye and,-
nko also, and.

Ye is not normally used to join sentences and clauses.

The auxiliary verb "nyug" is used in conjunction with the verb

of the clause to join sentences and clauses. "Nyurj" is conjugated like
a complete verb but not in the negative. It takes prefixes but does
not take any suffixes. All suffixes go to the verb with which it is used.
Like a complete verb, 'nyurj' obeys the rules governing the order of
sentences. It may be separated from the verb by other words.

Prepositions: All prepositions in English are reducible to "ke" and

''ye''. "Ke" seems to be infinite in its capacity for producing preposi-
tional meanings. It is sometimes combined with nouns or verbs to
form prepositions.
e. g. Ke edinyime (unyime) esie by his agreement
ke esit inside
ke enyorj on top
ke ufuot in the middle
ke idak under
ke nkarj beside

The verb "no'* if properly combined with other words can mean "for"
e. g. Dep enarj ukuak no mi. Buy a bicycle for me.
Vocabulary 8
-30 -
(b) Translate into EAk:

Who stands near the window? Put it into the fire. What is Peter tel-
ling Paul? James is playing in the school. I bought eggs from the
market. Heaven is not bought with money. Work in the garden and
also in the house. She sings nicely and plays well too. Go to the
market and meet ihe watch repairer too.

(c) Use "ke'' in 5 sentences

Use "ke" in 5 sentences as a preposition
Use "ye" as a conjunction in 5 different sentences
Use "rjko" in 5 sentences
Use "nyurj" in sentences as
(a) Present indicative (c) Future indicative
(b) Perfect indicative (d) Present subjunctive
(e) Perfect

Conditional and Purpose Clauses
1. PURPOSECLAUSES! Purpose is expressed by a clause introduced
by "man", "mbak" or ''man otodo", ndmam.
Constructions : (a) Introductory word + (Pro)noun + Verb.
Ndomo idaha emi man afo okut
I am measuring it now so that you may see
(b) Usun "Nte"
Introductory word 4- (Pro) noun + (verb) -f- nte + verb -f- de.
Nnam emi mman mbufo efiok nte mmade mbufo
I do this that you may know how much I love you.

(c) Using the verb "keme" and some other verbs

Introductory word -+- ...keme + infinitive + (Pro)noun
Kpep rjkpo man ekeme ndibe udomo
Study so that you may be able to pass your examination
Sia and koro do not introduce purpose clauses. They introduce clauses I

which give the reasons why an action was done

2. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES: The "If Clause'' is expressed in Efik by
the use of 'Edieke" in conjunction with the verb of the clause.

Construction : Edieke + (Pro)noun + verb + the suffix de.

e. g. Edieke afo amade mi nim mme - mbet mmi
If you love me keep my commandments

Construction for negative condition :

Edieke + (Pro)noun + mmu + verb root -f- ke, ha, he, or ho

e. g. Edieke (afo) mmunimke kpukpru mbet Abasi ukemeke ndiboho.
''Ekpedi" is used when there is a case of unfulfilled condition or one
that may
not be fulfilled but if fulfilled the consequence follows.
All introductory words can be eked out by correct intonation.

Anam, ndaha rjkporj fi. If you do, I leave you behind.
Osop idem eye sobo mmo ke usurj If you are quick you will meet
them on the way.

Give three examples in past, present and future.

Vocabulary 9
Sana kiet Walk together
Udomo Test, examination.
Ka iso Go ahead
Edim Rain
Ofion Moon, month
Ete ye Eka Parents
Tim (with a verb) do the action of the verb properly
Dara rejoice


(a) Translate into English:

Nyom edi man isarja kiet inyon, Of on ka, mbak onyorj ke eti ini.
Sop isarj mman oto do esim nsurj-ikarj. Tim kpep rjkpo mman ekeme
ndibe udomo. Nnam emi ndinam fi eti se rjketirjde. Ka iso edieke
okutde ete ofon- Edieke mmunamke ofon ndikpehe fi okuk. Mkpenam
nno fi edieke amade. Domo ndinam ke idem fo mbak eti. Jesus
Christ okokpoq ikpokidem esie ono nnyin ke Edisana Eucharist mman
nnyin inyene enye nte rjkpo uwa eke odotde ndida nno Abasi, rjko
mman enye edi akakan eti udia ono nnyin ndida mbok uwem ukporj
nnyin. Edim edep isoq eyebit. Otop mkpasip isimke isarj. Ekpedi
mmekpep mkpofiok.

(b) Put in Efik

If you were honest I would employ you. Eat this that you may have
life. What would you do if you were in the moon? If you had
studied hard during the term, you would have passed the examination.
Buy a good pen in order to write well. If you are good your parents
will rejoice.

(c) Write live Efik sentences containing purpose clauses and

five others containing conditional clauses.

1. Interrogative words like these are used to introduce questions.

Anie, mme-anie who

eke anie whose
nso what
didie how
nso mi what time
ini ewe or efe when
ikafan how often
mm on where
oto mm on whence
aka mm on whither
enye -e where is he, she, it.

Enye e can stand by itself or at the end of a sentence that has

no interrogative word.

2. When no interrogative word is used the ordinary question is just

like astatement. Intonation is the only distinguishing mark. The
foreigner can avoid the ambiquity that will be consequent upon
bad intonation by using "Nte'' or "Ndi" before the sentence.

Nte Paul edi eti owo? Is it that Paul is a good man?
Ndi nwed enyemi ke oyom? Is it that this is the book you want?

Ese cte ekpenam emi didie? Omofiak nte ewatde ubom?

Esine ke owed ifarj? Ebet nso?
Ndi Paul edi ete to? Enye e?
(b) Translate into Efik after answering them in Efik.
What do you like? Who knows all things?
How often did you tell him? Which book do you want?
Do you learn sums in school? Have you ever seen a crocodile?
Can you swim? Is it easy to learn Efik language?

(c) Write the answers to these questions in Efik;

Nso ke ekpri cyen anam edieke enye osopde usurj?
Eben onwum ikafarj ke isua?
Nso ke mme owo ewak ndinam ke ini ekopde uyo motor enyorj?
Iban esinam nso ke ini mmo ekutde uduk ikot?
Nso ke ndito-oworj enam ke ini ekutde afia owo?
Nso ye nso ke mkpri ndito enam ke ini owo awatde motor ebe?
(d) (i) Ask ten questions in Efik about your present sorroundings
(ii) Answer the questions in Efik.


Indirect Statement: The reflexive pronouns used in the indirect
speech are slightly different from those used in the direct speech.
Below are the pronouns along with the verb forms for Present,
Perfect and Future.

3. Indirect Command: (Pro)noun + P. Verb + nte + {Pro)noun
+ ( . nyene) 4- verb + object.
*'Yak" can be used instead of the (Pro)noun but where ">ak" is

used "nyene" is left out.

Vocabulary 11
Verb -f- ._

ma = the action of the verb is complete

ntre = so, like that
akpara = loom, harlot
>) Translate into English:
Enye anam nte imo imofon ima, Mkpema ndidiorjo mme eyeka,
John ye Paul ekedoho ete iyenam utom oro, Mmo eketirj ete owo
ikinoho mimo udia, Okobup abaija mme afo ama anam ntre,

:b) Translate into E&k

He he was in the school at the time,
said Do not ask me whether
1 know your name, There is no use saying you love God,
He said he was learned, Do you think he can drive a car?

I. "Da": meanings are stand or take. It is however used in
Its real
an applied sence with a shade of the second meaning to mean
"use", "How", "Employ', "Lead"
(a) Use : e,g (1) Eda akpara etuak oforj
Looms are used for weaving cloth
(2) Eda ifiok emen nnunurj
People use intelligence in carrying logs
(3) Eda ukpa eturj ubom
Ukpa (tree) is used for making canoes
Use" in the three sentences
are differently used, in (i) It designates
an instrumental cause, (ii) it designates an efficient cause (iii) it
designates a material cause.
(b) Ada...-K,. nso = how, by what means
e.g. Ada nso oGok ete Peter idotke
How do you know that Peter is unworthy
Anam didie ofiok? = How do you know?
Asarja didie ofiok? = ,, ,, ?

(c) Da... + ... utom = employ,

e.g. Owo idaha ufan mi ke utom
My friend is not employed
(d) Da usuq

e.g. Nnan ikemeke Ddida nDan usun = The blind cannot lead the blind

2. The primary meaning of 'kama" is "hold".

It can, however, be
employed to mean watch, e.g. Oyoho ibet inarj ob-p ete ye eka
nditim rjkama ndito mmo
The fourth commandment of God binds parents to take proper
care of their children

1. Nehede and Tim : Nehede (straighten out) and Tim (pack) are
often used with verbs to show sincerity in performing the action
of the verb.

e g. Tim nam utom fo. Do your work earnestly

Tim kpeme ndito fo. Take proper care of your children
Nehede kpep se etemede fi. Study what you are taught properly
Eke enehede ama Abasi eyedu ke idara. He who loves God well
will be happy

2. Tie: The verb 'Tie" is often used to have the idiomatic meaning
''resemble" or "seem''.
e.g. John etie nte ete Paul =
John resembles Paul's father
Ami ntiehc nte mbon eken. I am not like the rest of men
Etie nte ema eno mbufo iboro udomo
It seems your examination results are out

3- "Kam": The auxiliary verb "Kam" has no meaning without ano-

ther verb. When used with another verb it shows or demands
unfailing performance of the action of the verb
e g. Mbu fo ekam ekokut okpo owo. You must have seen some corpse
Nnyin ikam inono ndito ubuene unwam
We generally give help to poor children
4. "Kop"! "Kop'' which means hear, can also mean have or feel
e.g. Kop mbom batja andinyarja fi Have pity for your Redeemer
Mma nkop tuep ke esit ikot oro. I felt cold inside that bush
Ndik ama anam mi ke ini rjkokopde nte mmorj odukde ubom
I was afraid when I felt water entering the canoe
Nte afo omokop utebe obukpo rjkpo? Can you smell something dead?

5. Onion, and Anyan: Both respectively mean tall or long but they
are not interchangable.
oniorj (is tall) is used as a verb and so does not take a verb,
not even the verb ''to be"
eg. Peter oniorj nte ele esie = Peter is as tall as his father

36 -
Anyan: This is essentially an adjective and behaves as such.
It has to qualify some noun when used except it means "far"'
e.g. Nkaha anyan. =
not going far
[ ail
Peter edi anyan Peter edi anyan owo (correct)
Perer is a tall man
Nyomke ndisarja anyan usurj oro. I do not want to take the long way

6. Okpon and Akamba: "Okpon and akamba" are exactly the same
and anyan" in appendix 5. The same rules apply to them
as ''onion,
except that 'Akamba' has not the exception that 'anyan' has. The
same for "omuho and ibio''.
"Akan" used with adjectives to form the comperative degree is a
verb and so does not take the verb to be".
Not X edi okpon akan Y or X edi akan Y, but X okpon akan Y
or X akan Y.

7. TIF) and DOHO : Tin. means ''tell" may not be used

and to
translate "say". Doho means say but not as rigid as ''tirj".
it is It
can sometimes be used to translate "tell" that is mild.

8. Ndi and Edi: A verb with the prefix "edi" is essentially a parti-
ciple in.. ing. "Ndi'' makes a verb principally an infinitive but is

occasionally used as a loose participle. This possibly resulted from


9. Eke and Ama: There are two forms of the perfect without have
EK.E is used when the definite past is in question. The action
must have been completed and finished with. In the Efik language
this seems to imply a secret implicit meaning like this :
"Take this information, be satisfied with it and do not expect
any more from me". This is very rarely, if ever, intended by any
body using this tense. It is very polite and has to be used to
express the past definite. It excludes others from the action.
Ama shows that the information given is not complete and that
there is a good disposition to give more if required.
It states the indefinite past.
A verb with the prefix eke can take "de'' as its suffix in the
sentence but "ama'' does not admit of this That is the tense of
the verb in an adjectival clause introduced by a relative pronoun
may not be indefinite.
10. Dia and Ta Ta means chew. It is used to translate eat when
the object is something like meat, nuts etc. Dia means eat when
eat does not mean chew even if the thing or food eaten is mas-
tigated. One cannot supply for the other.
Ta udia, eben, mboro, paw paw, sokoro etc. (wrong)
Dia ,, ,, (correct)
Dia unam, iyak, isip mbakara, iborj, rjkarika etc (wrong,)
Ta ,, ,, ,, ,. (correct)
(a) Translate exercise 2 (b) page 2.
(b) Translate into English:
Ediwak mbre edu ke obio Ibibio. Ubak mmo edi, ukwa, eksn, nkere-
cbe, ekpe, obon, ekpo, mbok, ukara-idem, ebre. Mine mbre me nkere-
ebe emi ekesibrede rikpo nte isua edip rmi ekebede esomo. Ke otu
mbon emi edude idaha emi, ubak ifonke ndito Abasi ebre. Uto
oro edi ekpo, ekpe, obon, ebre. Niak edi emi. Owo
ikenieke ndi-
buana ke mmo ntre ndibiat mbet Abasi. Kpukpru esarja ye idiok
uwa, mme-andibre mmo inyurj iyakke mbon eke mibuanake ke mmo
edu ke ifure. Ikpinaha enyik owo aban mme ebre mbre ndomo kiei
emi enye mmimaha. Owo eke enyenede ima ye ukeme ndiban, aban,
owo eke mmimaha ebe aka mbubehe esie. Ndito ete, eboro ise, nso
idi ntak owo mminyimtke iban eban ekpo. inyurj iyakke mmo esarja
ke emem ebe eka mbubehe mmo? Anie enyene unen ndibiorjo owo
efen ndisar-a ke usurj emi anade ono kpukpru owo?

(c) Translate into Efik:

See, the climate is changing!. Do you notice thai? Yes, it is the
harmattan. The dry and dusty air is what I hate. Everything becomes
dry and dusty, even the human bodies. Breathing is unpleasant.
The mornings are very cold some people especially old men and women
do not like to drink water. That is because it is cold. But inspite
of the cold, water in the stream is warm. It is very warm and pleasant.
Children who manage to get to the stream enjoy a warm bath. But
they shiver again with the cold as soon as they come out. There
used to be fires in compounds. I do not mean inside the house
but near the small gardens. There people used to warm themselves.
They loved to sit or stand around it early in the morning. Did
you ever see a person turning his face, back and both sides to the
fire? They stretch their hands across it. This custom is dying out.

(d) Write a page or two on (i) A day in a bush station,

(ii) My first and memorable experiencei in Africa.

If aperson decides to learn a foreign language it is taken for granted
that he wishes to understand the users of that language when they speak
and himself use it to communicate himself. These aims can only be
achieved if the student acquires sufficient vocabulary and understands the
idioms and usages in the language and is familiar with its structure and
syntax. The following vocabulary exercises have been prepared with a
view to acquainting the foreign student with these important elements
in the Efik language without any conscious effort on the part of the student.
finishes the fifty-five exercises he shall have
By the time a student
learned more than words, and not only that hut also th-ir syn-
4. 000
tactic and idiomatic uses. Once he knows these words he would hardly
ever forget them aga>n as long as he tries to use the language, since
he has them in their proper contexts and 10 their grammatical struc-
ture. He uses the language as the native speaker doe>.
Each of the vocabulary exercises his about twenty short expressions
in common use in a column and their English equivalents in another
This is what you do. Get a piece of thick paper and with it
cover one of the two columns preferably the column of Efik expressions.
Leave the other column of that exercise open to view. Look at the
first expression of the uncovered column and guess what it means.
Vocalise your guess and then slide down your covering card just
far enough to reveal the corresponding expression. It does not matter
whether your guess is right or wrong. If it is right pass on to the
next expression. If wrong make an X on a piece of paper and pass
on. When you finish the last expression in the exercise the number of
X, you have will show how many mistakes you made. It does not
matter whether they are many or few. Keep repeating the exercise in
this manner until you can get through it two consecutive times without
any mistake. Then and only then should you go on to the next
The vocabulary exercises are on tape and is strongly recommended
to the serious student. Using the tape will help to acquaint you with
right pronunciation and intonation. This is what you do. Follow the
instruction preceeding V. E. I, viz.
fa) Listen to the expression announced;
(b) In the pause that follows say what you think it means in
(c) Listen to the correct version given on the tape;
In the case of V.E. l\ V.E. 55A. this is what you do:
(a) Listen to the English expression given on tape
(b) Say in Efik what you think it means
(c) Listen to the correct Efik version
(d) Repeat it faithfully.

N. B. put on your tape recorder while you

It is profitable to
are shaving, arranging things in your room, searching for
something or at any other time you are about in the room.
Repeat the play back several times daily and you will soon
begin to use the language with confidence.
N B. 2 The whole of this course including the exercises is
only an introduction to your study of the language. You will
begin the real study only when you go out into the streets,
homes, offices, markets, shops and gatherings to converse or to
do your business in the Efik language without an interpreter-

V. E. 1

Ekere didie? What your name?


Oyom Anie? Whom do you want?

Ewe ke ama akan? Which do you prefer?
Enye mi okpon akan This one is bigger.
Duk di. Come in.
Bet tutu udua efen Wait till next week
Ete fo odu oq? mm Where is your father?
kunim enye do. Don't put it there.
Sin ke ekebe Put it in a box
Mum son. ubok Hold it firm
Sin enye ke ufuot Put it in the middle
Oyom ifarj? How many do you warn?
Domo utuene ikarj Light a lamp
Sosop di Come quickly
Kutre ndika Don't fail to go.

Tirj inwarj inwarj Speak plainly

Ed on, enye utom He is sent on an errand.
Dep eke eyede Buy a beautiful one
Kufre se ntirjde Don't forget what I say
Don, mmo ke ekpat Put them in a bag.
V. R. 2
Kot rjwed sop idem Read fast
Nim ke ilie esie Put it in its place
Kpohode usug no enye Unlock the door for him
Berede usurj no mi Open the door for me
Enye inyeneke udia He has no food
Ofon ke usen ubok It is good in the morning

Baba idihe idaha emi No, not now

Kuyak enye efre Don't let him forget
Ifiokke rjwed ndikot He cannot read
Ifiokke ndiwewet rjko He cannot write either
Deme no mmo Share it for them
No mi ukpohode nnim Give me the key to keep
Nwed ndomo kiet iduhe do There is no book there
Ekot rjkpo oko didie What is that thing called
Idihe enye mi ke ndoho I do not mean this one
Anyan oro odu mmoij? Where the long one?
Sese ndodobi oro mi Here is the heavy one
Bet karja ke etehe Wait at the verandah
Korj ke enyorj Hang it up
Sin ke ufuot Put it in the centre

V. B.
Dori ke enyorj Put iton the top
Sin ke idak Put it underneath
Nnyin iyomke enye aba We do not want him anymore

Enye mi adat akaha This one is too ripe

Da ufuk eyo sok enye Take an umbrella to him
Don kpukpru ke ufoic Put the house
all in
Mmo emama esen owo They like strangers
Enye imaha ndito esie He does not love his children
Ka utom ke eti ini Go to work in time
Berede nim inwarj Leave it open
Bo mi dep mfin Buy from me today
Sat se ifonde siorjo Sort out the good ones
Kuduok ukpohore oro Do not lose the key
Okpokoro uwet nkpo A writing table
Nim kpukpru mbet Abasi Keep all the commandments of God
Kubahade mmo Do not split them
Eyekan oro mkporj It will be more tomorrow
Abasi iyakke God forbid
Enye edi owo nsu He is a liar
Afo edi e-tirj akpaniko You are a truthful person

V. B. 4

Sarja ke ubok ufien Walk on the left

Karj ke ubok nnasia Hang on the right
Bet enye edi Wait for him to come
Nnyeneke okuk aba I have no more money
Fiak ka idaha emi Go back now
Woro do ini kiet Go out at once
Ikemke ibat They are not enough
Ayak iba ndikem There are two remaining
Onion, akan fi He is taller than you
Abiarja idem fo You are deceiving yourself
Di mbemiso nwed etre Come before school closes
Enyam sokoro ke morj? Where are oranges sold?
Anyam didie bia? How much do you sell yams?
Eben edi ifarj ke tro? How many pears for 3d?
Yak enye edep shilling Let him pay 1/- for it

Ami nyom ndidep ke sisi I want to pay 6d

Utuene ikarj mmo ke ufok There is a lamp at home
Nnya inwumke idaha emi This is no season for garden eggs
Ibokpot idatke karja Maize is not ripe yet
Eda iwa enam garri Garri is made from cassava

V. E. 5

Eda ibokpot enam ogi Ogi is made from corn

Enyam akara iba ke penny Akara is sold two for a penny
Kubere ke ibibene Do not lean on the wall
Ka ke yet ubok Go and wash your hands
No mi edinworj mmorj Give me drinking water
Ikarj akata eyen esie Her child had a burn
Okim odu ke ufok Mine ia at home
Nte ete-ete fo aka ufok Abasi? Does your grand father go to
Esine ke nso nwed? In what class are you?
Nte afo omokot ediwak nwed? Have you read many books?
fjkotke nwed mbe duop I haven't read more than ten
Nim ubok onasia ke isorj Put down the right hand
Dori ubok uficn ke ibuot Put the left hand on the head
Ekpri mmin esine ke abarj There is little wine in the pot
Eyo ofiop mfin eti-eti The sun is very hot today
Ikifiopke ntem udua oko It wasn't so hot last week
Eyefiop akan cmi udua efen It will be hotter than this next week
Ufuk eyo awak ke udua There are many umbrellas in the
Nti ikpa ukot enana eti-eti Good shoes are very scarse
Ofon ndidep obufa enarj ukuak It's better to buy a new bicycle

V. E. 6
Eyop isopke ndikori Palm trees do not grow fast
Mmin anarja ete esie His father isdrunk
Anie etig iko ye afo? Who is talking with you?
Ufok nwed odu ke obio nnyin There's a school in our village
Ufok ibok kiet odu mi There is one hospital here

Kparj utorj Listen

Unen amama ibokpot Chickens like maize
Ebot eyeta bia oro A goat will eat that yam
Nsen unen edu ke esit There are eggs inside
Dori oforj ke bed Put some cloth on the bed
Dorj usan ke ekebe Put the plates in a box
Sin ikparj ke usan Put a spoon in the plate
Sio ubok ke ekpat oforj Remove your hand from your pocket
Sin efere awak Put in plenty of sauce
Ntokon ayat akaha There is too much pepper
Inurj imumke There is not enough salt
Etie mmorj-mmoi] It is watery
Inehekede inem It is not very sweet
Eyefon'f akan oro'ini efen It will be better next time

V. B. 7
Okoduok eyen ukpohode He lost a key
Kesomo kiet kiet They are disappearing one by one
Dorjkpukpru ebiet kiet Put all together
Don kpukpru ini kiet Put all at once
Siorjo mmo kiet-kiet Remove them one after the other
Kunim ke isoq Don't put it on the floor
Kporj rjkpo oro Leave that thing
Nyom ndikune ofon/Jisin I want to wear a loin cloth
Owo ifarj edu ke etehe? How many people are on the

Kuwat os op ntrc Don't drive so fast

Wat amana osop esit Drive a bit faster
Sin ekpri karja Put a little one yet
Uyom okpon mi akaha There is too much noice here
Obo ufen akaha She is suffering too much
Mmo mbiba edun. mi Both of them are living here
Mbufo ekere didie? What do you think?
Enye ekere didie? What is his name?
Onion akan eka esie She is taller than her mother
Nehede se Look well
Edi inioqke nte ete esie But she is not as tall as her father
Ekpedi emeseme mkpokut If you repented I would know
Omuho eti-eti It is very short
Avvak ndisana lkporj He often walks alone

V. E. 8

Okpon abara He extremely fat


Asarja ke ukot ye ubok He walks on hands and feet

Asarja surj-surj He walks slowly
Kusarja ikporj Don't walk alone
Tiene enye ka Go with him
Mbok usurj emi aka mmorj? Please where does this road lead to?
Nyom ndika Ikot Ekpene I want to go to Ikot Ekpene
Mbok teme mi usurj Please give me directions
Bet esesit Wait a while
Yak nwut fi usurj Let me show you the way
Ama esira akamba usurj When you get to the main road
Duk ubok ufien Tu rn left
Sana tutu esim inuk usurj Walk till you reach a corner
Be inuk oro Pass that corner
Eyekut akamba ufok You will see a big house
Sana be Walk pass it
Eyedisim akamba eto You will come to a big tree
Ubok u6en Left hand
Usurj iba edu do There are two roads there
Kiet aka nnasia One goes to right

V. E. 9

Enye ken aka ufien The other goes left

Duk emi akade ufien Take the one going left

Eyeda fi ekesim ekpri obio kiet It will bring you to a little village

Idihe Ikot Ufen edi oro That is not Ikot Ufen

Amabe obio oro When you pass that village
Eycsim ekpri obio efen You will reach another small town
Be enye oro rjko Pass that also
Oyoho obio ita edi Ikot Ufen The third village is lkot Ufen
Edim oborj eka mi The rain has soaked my mother
Obon. otre kpukpru ini He shouts like that always
Ufan di mi ise Friend, come here
Mbok odurj mi/3 Please are you living here?
Odurj ke mmorj ndien? Where then do you live.
Omodiono Peter Okon? Do you know Peter Okon?
Baba ndiorpke enye No, I don't know him
Anyan owo ntem A tall man like this
Afia esisit He is a bit fair in complexion
Nwen esie ekere Akon His wife is Akon
Ebiet mmdiorjo eyen It seems I know him
Enyerie ndito iban iba He has two daughters
Baba enyene eyen eden owo kiet No, he has one son

V. E. 10
Ob! odoho Peter Edet Okon O, you mean Peter Edet Okon
Enye ke nyom He is the person I want
Di nkowut fi ufok esie Come let me show you his house
Odurj ekpere nnyin He lives near us
Kukpa ndidi Don't bother coming
Teme mi us' rj Give me directions
Ofon be ka i o iso Alright go forward
Amakestm ufok nwed When you reach a school
Bup owo do Ask someone there
Eyewut fi ufok mmo You will be shown their house
Sosorjo eti-eti Thank you very much
Kukere Never mind
Eh, efehe aka mm on? Eh, where are you running to?
Yak ndi karja Wait till I come
Nkaka nditobo owo etop I want to give a message
Nyom ndidon. owo utom I want to send someone on an
Dkodaq eyen esie utom I sent his son on a message
No mi kiet Give me one
No ufan mi kiet Give one to my friend
Ifaq osuho idaha emi? How many are left now?

V. E. 11

Ekedi ition nkporj They were five yesterday

Anam akpana ita osuho So there should be three left
Ob on. ata owo okoneyo Mosquitoes bite people at night
Oborj obio nnyin odurj mmi Our chief lives here
Ama obobo kiet You received one already

Kiet okobobomo One was broken

Osusu You are telling a lie
Ntirj akpaniko I am the truth
Nimke afo etirjde
se I don't believe you
Mmunike kporj Please yourself if you don't believe
Nsarja didie rjkpon, enye How can I leave it

Oyom ndinam didie ndien What then do you want to do

Yak nyom ke ekpat oforj fo Let me search for it in your pocket
Ebre mbre You are joking
Ukemeke ndisin ubok ke ekpat You can't put your hand into
oforj mi my pocket
Nyesin ke amade ye mumaha I will, whether you like it or not
Se enye mi Here it is

Idihe eben oro edi emi This is not the pear

Kam se Just look
Otop esin ke ikot He has thrown it into the bush
Ka ini kiet Go at once
V. E. 12

Sosop kosio enye di Go quickly and bring it out

Mbok udua ekpere mi? Please is there a market near this
Udua oyom usun. eti cti The market is very far away
Enyene ebiet enyamde rjkpo mi There is a place here where things
are sold
Duk efak enye ko Enter that other street
Eyekut ufok udua do You will see a store there
Nso ke anyam do? What things are sold there?
Enyam ediwak nkpo Many things are sold
Eyekut se oyoyom do You will rind what you want there
Tian iyak do There is canned fish
Obu ye inurj do Crayfish and salt are there
Iyak ye obu ediwak Fish and crayfish are plentiful
Usan ye ikparj do rjko There are plates and spoons too
Nsio nsio mfri edu rjko Divers fruits are there too
Enyam inurj ke ekpat Salt is sold in bags
Nyom akpakaba oborj I want a cane chair
Uborj awak ke invvarj Gaurds are many in the farm
Nyom uborj obio Abasi I want God's kingdom
Ekporoko iwakke eti Stockfish is not very plentiful
Ndek ntokon edu There is fresh pepper
Tomato eke tian ikporj odu There is only tinned tomatoe
Maha eke tian I don't like the canned one

V. E. 18
Nso inam mmumaha? Why don't you like it?
Udia atian isinemke Canned food is not sweet

Eyedep mmoij-eba do? Will you buy milk there?

Uram ofon udua do Meat is cheap there
Unen osorj udep eii eti Fowl is very costly
Nyomke unen nyom iwa I don't want fowl, I want cassava
Nyom ndidep ikorj efere I want to buy vegetables
Cigarette iduhe mi There is no cigarette here
Newspaper nko iduhe There is no newspaper either
Owo ikwe nkpo mi idep One finds nothing here to buy
Ete fo aka mmoq? Wheie has your father gone to?
Aka inwaq He went to the farm
Aka utom He went to work
Nso utom ke enye anam? What work does he do?
Eyetiene aka ufok nwed You will accompany them to school
Nyom ndidi oko iyak I want to be a fisherman
Nyom ndidep ubom I want to buy a canoe
tnarj ukuak ofon akan A bicycle is better
Ifonke ikan motor It is not better than a car
Edieke amade If you like

V. B. 14

Mumaba kp?ij If you don't like leave it

Eyekut en>e ke ufok You will see him at home
odu ke itie utom He is in the workshop
Asarja ke ufuot usurj He walks in the middle of the road
Etie ke mben usurj He sits at the side of the road
Ebere ke itak eto He reclines at the foot of a tree
Esine ke esit ufok He is inside the house
Ofro oduk obube He jumps into a pit
Domo utuene ikarj Light a lamp
Nim ke ufuot ufok Put it in the palour
Nyom ndidi anvam udua 1 want to be a trader
Okuk ufok nwed School fees
Okuk udia edi ifarj? How much money for feeding?
Kuyat esit Don't be angry
Kutiene enye Don't followhim
Kukere se enye aoamde Don't mind what he is doing
Kufehe ndik Don't be afraid
Kusin oro ke esit Don't bear that in mind
Da eke amade Take anyone you like
Oyom kiet mme iba? Do you want one or two?

V. E. 15

Oyom emi mme enye ko? Do you want this or the other
No enye mbiba Give him both
Deme ukem ukem Share equally
Ini ekpere ndikem It is almost time
Idisimke karja He has not arrived yet

Ini ikemke karja It isn't time yet

Ayak esisit It remains a little
Ifonke ndinam ntre It not good to do so

Edibe ke edem He hides behind

Da ke edem karja Wait yet at the back
No mi esine ufuot Give me the one in the middle
Oyom motor oto fi? Do you want a car to knock you
Daha ke usurj Leave the way
Ama ndiia unam He likes to eat meat
Iyomke edesi He does not want rice
Enwan unam ke ikat Meat is dried in a basket
Otot iyak ke eto He puts fish on sticks
Owo itukke ikpa ukot esie His shoes are not polished
Se nte mmo
edehede See how dirty they are
Ekpri ukpohode A small lock
V. E. 16
Akpasa sokoro A basket of oranges
Adan mmansarj Groundnut oil
Nyom ndita ibokpot ye eben I want to eat maize and pear
Tuep okpon mi It is very cold here
Eyo ofiop akaha The sun is too hot
Nim enye ke mben Put it at the edge
Wet mmo kiet kiet Write them one by one
Tim durjode enye Examine it properly
Se se ekemede ndinam See what you can do
Nam nte afo amade Do as you like
Kparj utorj no enye Listen to him
Kparj utoq kop se enye etinde Listen to what he is saying
Emebre mbre akaha You play too much
Ukpepke rjkpo ekem You don't study enough
Oworo anwa kpukpru usen You go out every day
Suhode tetie mi Sit down here
Tie ke ufok mfio Stay at home today
Ka ketem mbiet Go and cut grass
Odu ke oturj ikan It is in the fireplace
Etem udia She is cooking

E. 17
Eyet oforj esie She is washing her clothes
Eyet mme usan ye ikparj She is washing plates and spoons
nwed esie
Ekefre eto She forget her pen
Mo mmi udeme mi Give me my own share
Nkanika eyesop ndimia The bell will soon ring
Oworo imiaha kaga? Is it not rung yet?
Baba imiaha karja No not yet
Ama amia anyan ini It was rung a long time ago

Ami nkokopke I did not hear it

Se ekpetirjde cdi oro That is what you should say

Kusorj enyin ye akamba owo Don't insult a big man
Etc mi okpon akan fi My father is bigger than you
Edi ami nsorjo enye But I am older
Enye enyene odudu akan fi He is more powerful than you
Ami nniog nkan enye 1 am taller than he is
Nte ami nniorjde nkan fi As I am taller than you
Inamke rjkpo It does not matter
Ese ete inamke rjkpo? Do you think it doesn't matter?
Ami nkere ntre 1 think so
Mmefre enyirj fo I have forgotten your name
V. E. 18

Ndifreke aba I will not forget anymore


Wet mbak eti Write it so as toremember

Ama ewet esio ke nwed You wrote it down
Enye eyetua rjkpofiok She will regret it
Ndituaha rjkpofiok I will not regret it

Yak isaija ke ubom Let us go by canoe

Eyeda ini akaha It will take too much time
Kporj tutu efen
ini Wait till next time
Ekere ere eyedi? Do you think he will come?
Ofon ndibet esisit It is good to wait a little
Ewe udua ke enyam mfin? What market is on today
Ekere ete eyekeme? Do you think you will be able?
Nso ke nkeme ndinam? What can I do?
Se rjkemede edi emi This is what I can
Ukemeke ndinam ndomo rjkpo kiet You can't do anything
Domo ukcme fo Try your best
Nam se ekemede Co what you can
Yak eken no Abasi Leave the rest to God
Nse nte idikemeke I think he will not be able

V. E. 19
Sioijo idem fep Forget about it
Kufina idem fo Don't bother yourself
Kubet enye aba Don't wait for ber any more
Inwarj esie ifonke Her farm is not good
Demede ke idap Wake up from sleep
Yak nde esisit Let me sleep a little
Eyo isorjke karja It is not late yet
Kpukpru owo edemede Everybody is awake
Mmo itorjoke karja They have not started yet
Togo ndika Begin to go
Sarja surj Farewell
Sarja sun. surj Walk slowly

Sio ubok fo fep Remove your band

Ukpuhode iduhe There is no change
Eyekut e*e edi ukem You they are alike
will see
Akamba ukpuhode odu There a great difference

Eyekut ete idihe ukem Yo'i will see they are different
Kuu'q iko aba Don't speak anymore
Omosop inua akaha Yoj are too fast
Dahado no mi Pardon me
V. B. 20
Ebre mbre He is playing
Ntirj skpaa-iko 1 am speaking the truth
Nnimke se etirjde I do not believe what you say
Ebehe rai didie? What is that to me?
Dia nti udia Eat good food
\)ia udia sun suy Hat slowly
Nwog ediwak mmorj Drink much water
Oyom ekese mfri He needs plenty of fruits
fjkpo nte eben ye sokoro Things like pear and oranges
Eyop mbakara o r on nko Pineapple is also good
Mboro iduhe idaha emi There are no bananas now
Paw-paw odu ke nda e>o Paw paw exists in the dry season
Pineapple onwum ke ukwo edim Pineapple bears fruit in the rainny
Sarja ke mben usurj Walk at the road side
Saga ke ufuot sun, i Walk on the middle of the road
Ifonke nditie ke usurj It is not good to sit on the road
Omokop se itebede? Do you smell something?
Ebiet nkpo emi asakde It is l>ke something burning
Efop ataha oforj A rag is burning
Efop okpo Rubber is burning

V. E. 21
Yak idaha mi Let's have this place
Nkemeke nditie mi aba 1 can stay here no longer
Ika mmon, ndien? Where should we go then
Ebiet efen Some other place
Itie eke ededi Anywhere
Ufok nnyin oyom usurj Our house is far away
Udua ekpere mi A market is near this place
Kiet ama akpa One had died
Ekedi isua iba ini oro He was two years old then
Edi ition idiha emi They are five now
Isimke duop karja Not up to ten yet
Ebe inarj It is past four
Ekpere ndidi itiokiet It's nearlv six
Se edem mbiba Look at both sides
Nso ina oro? What is lying there?
Ekpri ubak ofoq A small piece of cloth
Men enye sio do Remove it from there
Odoho nnim enyc ke mmoq? Where do you want it kept
Nim ke oto amade Put it where you like
Ufarj iduhe ke esit ufok There is no room inside the bouse

V. E. 22
Nim ke anwa Put outside

Da qkanya fuk Cover with roofing mats


Sin enye ke idak mbri Put it under a sleeping mat

Edieke ebetde mi If you wait here
Eyekut kpukpru owo You will see everybody
Esarja ke udim They walk in lines
Eyesop ndisim mi They will soon catch up on me
Okotop akpa ke ikarj He shot the first

Tigha udiana ke idarj Shoot the second will an arrow

Yet oyoho ita mbat Smear the third with dirt
Tin iko ye oyoho inarj Speak to the fourth
Koru oyoho ition ubok Shake hands with the fifth
Se oyaho itiokiek ke enyin Look the sixth
Duok enycken mmorj Pour water on the other
Dcq se isuhode ke ekpat Put the rest in a bag
Yet eken adan Annoint the rest with oil
Ka mbubehe fo Go your way
Kudi mi aba mfin Don't come here anymore today
Ndi nso usen ndien When then should I come
Usen eke amade Any day you like

V. E. 23
Kebede mfin Apart from today
Okot nwed eii eti He reads a lot
Okwo ikwo kpukpru ini He sings always
Duok odudu kana Rest a while
Kunam uyom mi Don't make a noise here
Kutin ndisime Doo't talk nonsense
Anie etirj ndisime? Who is talking nonsense?
Di ke nkanika iba Come at two o* clock
Ekim otorjo ndiduk It is getting dark
Ofion, eyesiaha mfin The moon will rise today
Otioq edisiaha ke usiere The moon dawn will riie at
Utin osop The sun has set
Yom usurj woro mi Find some way and go out
Kutie mi ikporj Don't stay here alone
Ufok emi ododobo This house is lonely
Owo ndomo kiet idunke mi There is no one living here
Owo lwakke mi There are not many people here
Kpukpru eto ufok edi All come from home
Yak mbet tutu ijkpoa Let me wait till tomorrow

V. E. 24
Nyeka do urua efen I go there next week
Njyetiene fi oka I go with you
Nyomke nsarja I don't want a companion
Nkporj emi rjkedide-e? What about yesterday when I came?
Fjkpoq ekedi oro That was yesterday
Mfin idihe ijkporj Today is not yesterday
Tie ke ufok mfin Stay at home today
Afo aka mmoq Where are you going to
fjka ndisc eka eka mi I am going to see my grand mother
Nso itibe ino enye? What has happened to her?
Ododogo She is sick
Okotorp nsi ini? When did it start?
Da enye ka ufok ibok Take her to the hospital
lkemeke ndisarja She cannot walk
Oyom enye asasarja? Do you want her to walk?
Isanake mbak nso? Why shouldn't she walk?
Ukwe ete enye osorj? Don't you see she is old?
Osorj akan ete mi? Is he older than my father?
Kuda enye udomo ye ete fo Don't compare her to your father
Ntaha? Why?

V. E. 25
Kpukpru ini ana obup ntak You are always asking why?
Men enye ke enarj ukwak Carry her on a bicycle
Ikanke itie ke enarj ukwak She can't sit on a bicvcle
Ke ntak usorj? On account of old age?
Idihe oro ikporj Not only that
Ye nso efen What else
Biarj esine okoro There is hunger as well
Oyom nno fi udia? Do you want me to give you food?
Edieke enyenede If you have any
Omofiok ete nyeneke You know I have none
Ntak okobupde mi-e? Why did you ask me?
Boro se nkobupde fi Answer what I asked you
Nso ke okobup mi? What did you ask me?
Emefefre Have you forgotten
Ama obup ediwak mbu~ e You asked many questions
rjkari fo edi oro That is your trick
Yak mfiak nti fi Let me remind you again
Nkemeke nditi I can't remember
Yak ke nyeti Don't mind I'll remember
Ntihe enye aba I don't remember him anymore

V. E. 26
Omosop ndifre owo eti eti You forget people easily
Enyirj ikporj ke mfre I forget only the name
Nso ke eti ndien? What then do you remember?
Msti iso I remember the face
Ye nso efen And what else
Kukaha mi ye mbume Do not bother me with questions
Inam didie ndit*n? What should we do now?
Nso rjko? What again?
Kabana owo udorp oro About the sick person
Men enye bine doctor Take her to the doctor
r^arja didie nsim Co How am I to get there
Ukemeke ndidori enye ke itorj? Can't you carry her on your shoulders
Ama ke edem ovvobo On your back if you like
Kporj mbre Stop joking
Idihe ini n>o edi emi This is not the time for jokes
Okot mi owo nyo? Do you call me a jester?
Ndohoke nte edi owo nyo I don't say you are a jester
Odoho didie ndien? What then do you say?
Omokut ete ini kebe You see the time is passing
Mbubehe fo edi oro Thai's your look out

V. E. 27

Ye okuo rjko And yours also

Ekedi nso ini? When did you come?
Qkedi ebem I came last year
Ekesim mi ebihi didie? How long is it since you arrived here
Ibihike It's not a long time
Ebihi eti-eti It's a very long time ago
Mma ndi ofion oko I came last month
Qkekwe fi I did not see you
Kubop iso ntre Don't frown like that
Akanam rjkwe asakde imamfi I have never seen you laugh
Ukwe nte ofonde? Don't you see it is good?
Ifonke ima karja It is not perfect yet
Ekpri ndo odu ke esit There is a little deftct in it
Nso idi oro? What is that?
Unam Meat
Nso ikinam enye.P What happened to him?
Ekesin ubak ke ikarj He put his hand into a fire
Kuyak obiom enye ndo Don't let it deform her
Odoho nnam didie? What do you want me to do?

V. B. 28
Qkpo awak se ekemede ndinam There are many things you can do
Bat mmo ise Name them
Ufon iduhe ndibat mmo There is no need to name them
Akamba unan A wound
Omadioqo mmo kpukpru You know them all
Ndiorjoke kpukpru I don't know all
Edi omodiorjo ediwak mmo But you know many of them
Nkereke ntre I don't
think so
Ababiarja You deceiving
Unimke se ntirjde You don't believe what I say
Nsarja didie nnim How can I believe it
Ofog kunim-e Alright do not believe
Kwohode utuene ikarj Clean the lamp
Glass ikarj ama obomo The globe was broken
Okobomo nso ini? When was it broken?
Okoneyo rjkporj Last night
Ini adahade ke etehe When you left the verandah
Okodorode ke okpokoro oduo It from a table
Bo okuk ka kedep efen Take money and go to buy another
Okuk emi ikemke This money is not enough

V. B. 29

Nso inam mikemke? Why is it not enough?

Oyom ndida oforj ikarj nnam nso? For what do you need a wick?
Ata ekpri okosuho Only very little was left
Idihe ekem ndien/> It is enough now isn't it?
Sosop ka nyorj di Go quickly and come back
Ayak okuk mmorj ikarj What is left is money for kerosene
Kufina mi aba Don't bother me anymore
Nso idi ufon ndidep What is the use of buying?
Glass ikarj ye oforj ikarj Globe and wick
Ufon ndomo kiet iduhe That is good for nothing
Mmorj ikarj miduhe If kerosene is lacking
Owo ikemeke ndidomo ikarj One cannot light a lamp
Daha mi Go away from here
Ebiet iditie ekim mfin It seems we will remain in the dark
No mi okuk oro Give me that money
Bo enye mi Take this
Amakem da ndiarjade di Bring change later
Ndiarjade okuk ifaq? How much change?
Sidirj duopeta Thirteen shillings

V. E. 30
Idihe duopeta It is not thirteen
Glass ikarj sidirj ition A globe for five shillings
Oforj ikarj sidirj kiet The wick one shilling
Mmorj ikarj sidirj kiet Kerosene a shilling
Kpukpru oworo sidirj itiaba All together cost seven shilling
Sisuhode edi duopeta What is left is thirteen
Nyedep suob nko I shall buy soap also

Ntokon iduhe There is no pepper

Adan nko ama okure Oil too has finished
Okure se oyomde Ddidep? Is that all you want to buy?
Yak rjkere karja Le me think for a moment
Yak ijkese ufok Let me go and see the house
Nyedcp polish ikpa ukot I shall buy shoe polish
Blue rjko osuho ata ekpri There is very little blue left
Kudep mbon oro mfin Don't buy those today
Oyom rafiak rjka udua rjkporj Do you want me to go to market
Nyedep mmo ke idem mi I shall buy them myself
Sop nam se ekemede Do what you can quickly
Nkemeke ndinam rjkpo ndomo kiet I cannot do anything
Idem emera mi akaha I am very weak

V. E. 31

Ododono? Are you sick?

Oto anyan isarj It's of a long walk
Yak nduok odudu karja Let me rest yet
Kutiij ediwak iko Dcn't talk much
Mme anie edi oko? Who are these ?
Ndiorjoke mmo
iso I can't recognise them
Kiet edi nwan One is a woman
Iba edi iden owo Two are men
IJkpri ndito ke isarj There are children in the company
Eden owo kiet One man
Mum ndito iban oro ubok Hold those girls by the hand
Enyoni isarj ekaha They walk very slowly
Oyom ndinam didie? What do you want to do?
Sarja ye mmo Walk with them
Usurj iyomke ikaha It is not very far away
Ibihike akadaha ke ufok It is not long since he left home
Esim udua iba It's up to two weeks
TJfen okpon do There is much suffering there
Odiok mi akan It is worse here
Ojiok ye ami akan It is worse for me

V. E. 82
Kotorjo ndifon It is becoming better
Ifoake ima karja It is not perfect yet
Ebe fo odu ke mmorj Where is your husband
Enye ke ufok He is at home
Aka utom He has gone to work
Ama osio ine He went to the fishing-port
Aka rjkarj ufan esis He went to see his friend
Icyorjke idi karja He has not yet come back
Nwan fo odu mmon,? Where is your wife?
Akaka ndise eka esie She went to see her mother
Akaka udua She went to the market
Emen enye eka ufok ibok She is taken to the hospital
Idem esie isorjke She is not well
Odu ke ufok ibok She is in the hospital
Enye kedi She is coming
Oworo jdidaha emi She has just gone out
Ebiet emebe enye ke usun, It seems you passed her on the way
Ibihike akadaha It's not long since she left
E\esop any or) edi She will soon come back
Ekefre rjkpo ke udua She forgot something in the market
V. E. 33

Ndito ifarj ke enyene? How many children have you?

Nkenyenc ition I had live
Kiet asarja ye eka One out with the mother
lba eka ufok rjwed Two have gone to school
Nsek even ana oko ede The baby is sleeping there
Inan,edi oro That's four
Uto oro ke nyom That's the type I want
Uio emi iduhe aba There no more of this type
Nyomke cnyemi I don't want this one
Wet sop ubak Write quickly
Sop idem Be quick
Kere bjrja se anamde Think of what you are doing
Kuse rjkpo efen Don't look at something else
Kabade enye Turn it

Kuyak ata ikarj Don't let it burn

Ese didie? What do you think ?
Bak duk idap Go to bed early
Bak demede Wake up early
Sop yere mm on, Take a bath quickly
Kwohode idem ke towid Dry yourself with a towel

V. E- 34
Sine eii oforj Dress well
Kuyara itam Don't wear a hat
Bobo eti bokit Wear a good headtie
Kufre ekpat ubok Don't forget your hand bag
Sin ekpri rfoq do Put a handkerchief there
Da mi bet bus Wait here for a bus
Worpde iso se ibibene Turn and face the wall
Berede windo Open the window
Sop isaij Walk fast
Sop kau oro Be faster
Teme enye nre enamde Tell him how to do it

Sinubak no nnym Assist us

Nim ke isorj Put it on the ground

Ebek ifia A bundle of firewood

Ukpat-rjkpo A truck
Edem unen mbakara The back of a duck
Edem ete ufok esie His master's house
Enem nte adan okwok It is as sweet as honey
Inurj isineke There is no salt in it

Ntokon ayat akaha There is too much pepper

V. E. 35

Ana ke eyo It is lying in the sun

Kuda enye mfefere mfefere Don't take it lightly
Edi ata akpan rjkpo It is a very imponant thing
Fiak kere Think again
Tim kere Think well
Tim berje idem Prepare well
Idap keyet mi I am feeling sleepy
Duk ke nana Go in and lie down
Sio idem fo fep do Have nothing to do with it
Idihe mbubehe 10 It is notyour business
Fehe kesim eka fo Run and meet your mother
Jkubo ke okpokoro ede He sleeps leaning on a table
Ikpehe okuk ufok ijwed He has not paid school fees
Ufiop eyo Heat of the sun
Ufiop ikaij Heat of the fire
Ufiop udia Hot food
Ufiop mmin Strong drink
Mbon udorjo itiaba Seven sick people
Akanam idahake ida He has never stood up
Duk akpa ubet Enter the first room

V. E. 86

Ka kotoi enye Go and wake him up

Sarja ye ebe fo di Come with your husband
Fuhode oforj okpokoro Remove the table cloth
Ikpa ukot e>en oworj A shoes
Qkpo mbre nditoworj Children's play things
Udeme ete fo Your Father's share
Kere karja mbemiso edi Think yet before coming
Nim do dafta Put it there and go away
Inyeneke esit mbcm He is not merciful
Oyom un vam fo He needs your help
Asarja iferi She walks naked
Mkpn ye ikpo Big and small
Anyan ye ibio Long and short
Eka mi ikponke ubom My mother is not fat
Mmo kekwD enek They are singing and dancing
Edorjo ke ubet They are in a room
Kodok eberi He is ascending a ladder
Ekette ke iiak eto They sat at the foot of a tree
Woro di Come out
Woro ka do Go out there

V. E. 37.
Ediye oforj enyin usuq A beautiful door blind
Ekpri oforj okpokoro A small table clotb
Ororj udori ibuot iba Two pilow cases
Edim eyedep mfin It will rain today
Da ufuk eyo di Bring an umbrella
Akpakam ada oforj edim You should raiher bring a rain coat
Ami nnyeneke oforj edim I have no rain coat
Nye'ep ikpa ukot edim I buy rain boots
No enye glass enyin Give him spectacles
No mi ijwed eke ededi Give me any book
Ema esio ndise Photographs were taken
Ifet iduhe There is no chance
Nyeneke ini mfin I have no time todav
Nso mbre ke ama What game do you like
Ama ndibre tennis You like to play tennis
En>e idehe idap ekem He does not sleep enough
Oduk idap ki idiok ini Pe goes to bed late
Edemede ke usiere He wakes up at dawn
Ini ama ekem eyem a rjkanika When it is time the bell will be rung
Nyom owo kiet kpot I want only one person

V. E. 38.
Ukemeke ndinyene se oyomde You what you want
can't get
Akamba owo nnyin aka isarj Our big man on tour
Bet tutu enye onyon, edi Wait until he comes back
Anie adiana enye? Who is next to him?
Udiana esie oworo nko His assistant is out too
Udufiak udi nso ini? When will you come back?
Usen ita ama ebe After three days
Tobo enye etop oro Give him that message
Kufre enyeken Don't forget the other
Moto akabiara ke usun The car broke down on the way
Sop fehe ka Run there quickly
Eyedok se otode You will reap what you sow
Ufien ye nnasia Left and right
Kubet nsuij ikarj Don't wait for the launch
Duk ubom nyorj Take a canoe home
Edieke ebetde nsurj-ikan. If you wait for a launch

Eyebiat ini You will waste time

Ini iduhe ndibiat There is no time to waste
Kuyak edaha ekporj fi Don't let them leave you behind
Sin ofum nno mi Inflate for me

V. B. 89.
Da efok nwed ita di Bring three envelopes
Ikpo mme mkpri Big or small
Se afo enyenede Whatever you have
Kubiat ukan oro
ini Don't waste more time
Idihe nte ami mmade It is not as I like
Ifonke ye ami It is not good for me
Ikpemeke eyefon ye afo It may be good for you
Yak ndomo nse Let me try it

Baba kutiat enye No, don't extend it

Eda okpo enam It is made of rubber
Eda ukuak enam It is made of steel
Eda eto enam enye It is made of timber
Ndien eda oforj efuk Then it is covered with cloth
Tuk mfin
isorj Polish the floor today
Mkporj afo odot ibibene Polish the walls tomorrow
Yet isorj simen Wash the cement floor
Da suop yet enye Wash it with soap
Oyoyom ediwak on mm It will require much water
Ed mmorj iduhe There is no good water

V. B. 40.
Mmorj enyemi isanake This water is not clean
Nyom edisana mmorj I want holy water
Anie edi oko? Who is that?
Oworo udiorjoke John Don't you know John
Kam se oforj esie Look at his clothes
Ye ubok esie And his hands
Ye ibuot nko The head also
Kpukpru idem The whole body
Mme nso ke akanam? I wonder what he was doing
Mokut ndien I see now
Okoduo oduk mbat? He into mud
Ortonode oduo He slipped and fell
John ekewere ke mbat? John did you role in the mud?
Baba IJkebre bol ke edim. No, I was playing ball in the rain
Ekebre ye anie With whom were you playing
Ami ye Peter Peter and I
Enye odu mmorj? Where is he?
Obun, ukot esie He broke his leg
Okobun ukot emen* eworo He was carried out when he broke
his leg

Aka mm or) idaha emi? Where are you going now?

V. E. 41
Nka ndiyere mrnorj I am going to have a bath
Eka fo ama oyom ft Your mother wanted you
Ami nyeneke eka I have no mother
Ndoho eka-eka fo. I mean your grand mother
Mofiok se oyomde mi I know what you want here
Dkodoho nka mmog? Where did you want me to go?
Oyom rjkoi mm on. nno imo She wants me to fetch water for her
Morj nnam idaha emi I will do it now
Yak ijkemen abarj Let me go and get a pot
Amayat esit She was annoyed
Anam didie ndien? What about it?
Yak enye ayat Let her be angry
Hyetirj ono ete fo She will tell your father
Idibe akpa edi oro That is not the first time
Eyemia fi isarj emi He will flog you this time
Mfcfehe ikpa I dread flogging
Qkereke ufen efen I do not mind any other punisbmen
Mikam idihe utre udia Apart from fasting
Eyen eka fo do? Is your brother there?
Aka oko iyak He went fishing
V. B. 42
Edinyorj nso ini? When will be be back?
Idiwarake inyorj He will not be back soon
Ama oko iyak ama When he finishes fishing
Enye kowok ewok She is swimming
Ke oro ebede After that
Eyeka akana ke ntan She will go and lie on the sand
Aka ndiwebe eyo She has gone to dry herself in the sun
Imaha ndiwebe ikarj She doesn't like to warm herself
with the fire
Edi utin eyesop osop But the sun will soon set
Eyo kosuhode The sun is going down
Ebiet oyobio ke edi It seems there will be a storm
Yak sop inyorj ufok
i Let's go home quickly
Kuyak edim etim nnyin Let the rain not beat us
Enye eyefehe oboho He will run to safety
Idibohoke mfin He will not escape today
Bet ke eyekut Wait and you will see
Nkwe Peter mbubit eyo emi 1 don't see Peter this evening
Asarja ye ete esie aka isarj He has gone on a walk with his father
R- 48.
Edinyorj ini ewe? When will they come back?
Ini eke mmo emade When it suits them

Tie do bet cnye Wait there for him

Nkemeke ndibet aba I cannot wait any more
Ana nsim ufok ke eti ini I have to reach home in time
Emekeme ndikut mmo ke usuij You can meet them on the way
Yak edi ntre Let it be so
Ete ete Francis odorjo Francis' grandfather is sick
Ekpere ndikpa He isnear dying
Yak akam ino enye
ikiborj Let's go and pray for him
Ke uven esie
ini In his early years
Ekesinim ke mmorj Where do you use to keep it
Nie iyak Like fish
Tona okosorj Since she became old
Eyere ufiop mmorj kpukpru usen She takes a hot bath everyday
Udia idoijke enye aba She no longer feels hungry
Etie ke ufak kpukpru ini She stays at home always
Etie anam nso? What does she stay to do?
Inamke rjkpo She does nothing
Kebede ndiwon esikorj Except smoking a pipe

V. E- 44.

Oworo isikotke nwed? Does it mean she does not read?

Kutin iko aba Do not speak any more
Oyom ndide idap She wants to sleep
Awak nditetie nde She usually sleeps sitting down
Ubak owo edada ede Some people sleep standing
Ubak esasarja ede Some sleep walking
Nso ke osop isarj ntre? Why do you walk so fast?
rjka ndisobo Efiong Okure I am going to meet Efiong Okure
Nsehe nte eyekut enye I do not think you will see him
Ke mfon Abasi nyekut enye By the grace of God I'll see him
Nkokut asarjade ye police I saw him walking with a policeman

Nso konyurj anam rjko? What has he done again?

Ye mkpokobi ke ubak With chains on his hands
Ete ekeyip ino He is to have stolen
Edi enye idihe ino But be not a thief

Ikpemeke ekesin efube May be he committed adultery

Midihe asarja use Otherwise he committed fornication
Nkereke ntre I do not think so
Kuda unwoip uno enye Do not swear for him
Awak ndika ufok akpara He often goes to a brothel

V. E. 45.

Se mhokdc edi oro That is what I know

Ebup enye akarj If he is asked he denies


Edi ata owo nsu He is a great liar

JnworjO enyirj Abasi mfefere-mfefere He takes God's name lightly
Onwoijo enyirj Abasi ke nsu He takes God's name in falsehood
Ekpedi ekeme If he could
Okpowot owo He would someone kill
Jsorjkesorj It is for him
not difficult
Ndisin ibok no owo To poison someone
Kuyak enye otuk fi aba Do not let him tcich you again
Ebihi rjkokut fi It's a long time I saw you
Nkoduhe ke ufok I was not at home
Okodu ke mmoij Where were you
Nkaki ndise eyen eka mi I went to see my sister
Kusu nsu Do not tell a lie
Nkop ete okodu ke ufok akam I heard you were in a prayer house
Anie eke tin/ eno fi? Who told you?
Akpantko mme nsu? Is it true or fal>e?
Oyoho ofion udihe ederi You have not attended service for
a month
Nket;e Mass usen inarj i missed Mass for four da>s

V. R. 46.

Ama aka ufok akam? Did you go to a prayer house?

Ndisuho nsu I not tell a lie
Mma nka ini kiet I went there once
Eyen mi okodorjo My child was sick
Ekenam nso eno Fi? What did they do for you?
Eked oh a uwa I was told to make a sacrifice
Mma nnam uwa oro I made the sacrifice
Mma rjka idion. rjko I consulted a fortune teller also
Oworo edikarj Abasi That means renouncing God
Amakarj mbuotidem fo You have denied your faith
Nsa mi God forbid
Se afo anamde What you have done
t)woro ntre Means that
Dahado no mi Forgive me
Kpe Abasi ubok no mi Ask God's pardon for me
Abasi efen fi God forgiven you
Sosoijo eti eti Thank you very much
Kunam ntre aba Do not do so again
Ndinamke aba I will not do that again
Nso ke enam ko? What is happening there?

V. B. 47.

Uyom okpon do eti eti There is much noise there

Ebre unek It's a ball room dance
Do ke afo aka? Are you going there?

Afo asarja ikpon You are walking alone

Mkpasarja ye anie With whom should I walk
Ye nwan fo With your wife
Nyeneke nwan I have no wife
Ka ke emenyene O! you have
Ntirj akpaniko I am speaking the truth
Nse nte amanam ndo I thought you wedded
Namke ndo karja I have not wedded yet
Mbupke-bup nwan kaqa I have not yet engaged anyone
Odurj ye anie With whom are you living
Ndun ye eka mi I am living with my mother
Ke ufok eyen eka mi In my brother's house
Ebe akakpa ebrm My husband died last year
Nso ke ok or) a oro What's that on your neck
Ikpuikpu uduk Nothing but a string
Nse nte edi ibok I think it is juju

V. B. 48.

Nyeneke ibok I have no juju

Mmenyene ibok ke ufok I have juju at home
Ukobo okpon ono mi I have a Jot of worries
Ka kabiat enye Go and destroy it
Enyene ndikpono Abasi kiet You ought worship one God
Mma nnam okposorj utom I did a difficult work
Ke usen ederi On Sunday
Mma rjkere idiok ekikere I had bad thoughts
Mma ntirj idiok iko I spoke bad words
Mma nse idiok ndise I had bad looks
Mma mbre idiok mbre 1 played bad play
Tirj se akanamde Say what you did
Tirj inwarj-inwarj Speak plainly
Kukop but Do not be ashamed
Tin surj_surj Speak slowly
Kutirjuyo osorj Do not speak loud
Uyo osorj akaha It too loud
Nkopke I do not hear
Tirj uyo oworo Speak louder
Tirj anwarja Speak clearly

V. B. 49.

Ekere didie abarja enye? What do you think of him?

Ebietmi adadama It seems he is mad
Edi owo ntarj-idem He is a proud person
Edi owo emera He is a man of peace
Edi owo afanikorj He is a troublesome person
Edi owo isin enyin She is a jealous person

Edi owo is or) esit He is a heart-hearted person

Edi owo uko He is a brave mao
Edi owo ufup He is an envious person
Edi owo ntime She is a troublesome person
Edi owo nnan enyin He is a man
of trouble
Edi owo idiok it 05 She is a greedy person
Edi ubucne She is poor
Edi enyene gkpo owo She is rich
Edi owo ifu She is lazy
Edi owo asian She is proud
Edi owo mbuk She is a backbiter
Edi owo mbubik She is wicked
Oyom etic didie ? How do you like it to be?
Nam onion, Make it long

V. B. 50.

Nyom edi anyan I want it tall

Nam omuho Make it short
Akpana oniarj It should be long
Ekedi obubit Itwas black
Ofon edi afia It is good for it to be white
Nyom edi awa-awa I want it green
Nyomke mmorj ibosj I do not want violet
Mma ndandat rjkan I prefer red
Etie ekara ekara It is round
Odobi akan emi It is heavier th*n this
Nkemeke ndibiom enye 1 csnnot carry it
Anwarja eti-tti It is very wide
Inwarjake ikem It is not wide enough
Ofuro ke ufuot It is narrow in the middle
Mben inenke The edge is not straight
Awaha ke mben It is torn at the edge
Ibuot ebehe The head has fallen off
Ukot iburjoke The leg is not broken
Esibe ubok kiet One hand is cut
Enyene utorj iba He has two ears

V. E. 61.
Enyin kiet etibc One eye is burst
Edet ebehe kpukpru The teeth are all gone
Sisuhode ededehe What is left is dirty
Ana ekwohode
eyet It has to be washed and ironed
Bon mma
ke mkpotuno Put them at the corner
Korj emi ke window Hang this on the window
Da ke enyin usurj Stand at the entrance
Tie ke ufuot ufok Sit in the parlour

Ino odu ke ubet There is a thief in the room

Okon obon ndito iba Okon has two children
Nwan esie imanke eyen His wife has not given birth
Idibi okobuburjo She had miscarriage
Asana ye idibi She is pregnant
Oyomo idibi She is pregnant
Ama osiorjo idibi ini kiet She committed abortion once
Akanam ami mbiatke idibi I have never committed abortion
Nkesinke nwan owo idibi I did not pregnate a man's wife
Nkanwamke enye ndisioqo idibi I did not assist her to abort
Nketeme cnye owo emi ofiokde I told her who can do it
Enye odorj owo efen idiorj She sent another person to a
fortune teller

V. E. 52.

Ete esie iduohoke enye His father does not blame him
Idaha ete ye eka nte nkpo He has no regard for his parents
Anam se amade She acts as she likes
Eyekut se oyomde She will get what she wants
Midihe mfin rjkporj If not today tomorrow
Emenim ndap ke akpaniko? Do you believe n dreams?
Kpono ikpo owo Respect elderly people
Kusuiji ete fo Do not curse your father
Udo edi eyen nsorj ibuot Udo is a strong headed boy
Ama rmo eka esie unan She injured her mother
Awak ndisuene eka esie She often disgraces her mother
Ama oyom ndiwot idem esie She wanted to kill herself
Okuduk idiok nsarja She kept bad company
Owo okotun enye usurj She was misled
Kusin owo ke idioknkpo Do not lead a person to sin
Kuno mi idiok item Do not give me bad counsel
Nyomke ndisiorjo usiene I do not want revenge

Udia iyuhoke mi I am not satisfied

Efere enem The sauce is sweet
Edi usurj ikponke But fofo is not big

V. E. 58.

Nam udia efen no mi Prepare another meal for me

Nkp3 iduhe ke ufok There is nothing in the house

Edesi do ediwak There is plenty of rice

Tem ekpri no enye Cook a little for him

Mmorj iduhe There no water

Di bo mmorj ke ufok mi Come and get water from my house

Edim ama obon ifia Rain had beaten fire wood

Ikarj jsakke Fire does not burn

Anwana ndiyom ntak You are trying to find a reason
Afo ke idem mfo omokut You see it yourself
Yak eka fo onyorj inwarj Let your mother return from the
Oyom nso? What do you want?
Nyom ekpe mi okuk utom I want to be paid for my work
Ema ekpekpe okuk fi You were paid already
Ekeno Joho okuk esok fi John was given money to bring to you
Odoho bon duop oro? Do you mean the ten pounds?
Akana eda oro edep rjkpo utom That was for buying materials
Okuk ubok utom edi isio Workmanship is different
Edi ifarj? How much is it?
Ban itiaba Seven pounds

V. B. 54.

Osorjudua akaba That is too much

Nyeneke nsim oro I haven't so much
Oyom ndikpe ifan How much do you want to pay
Bon iba Two pounds
Utu ke oro nnacu ikpuikpu Instead of that I do it free
Oro ikemke rjkpo ndomo kiet That nothing at all
Kutuk mi Do not cheat me
Nyomke ndituk fi I do not want to cheat you
Afo rjko kutuk mi You should net cheat roe either
Y*k edi bon ita Let it be three pounds
Bup owo eke odiorjode Ask anybody who knows
E>ekut utom oro osorj
ete You will see that the work is hard
Enye onyuq anam nyime ntre That is why I offer so much
Oworo ubiat ini It is a waste of time
Utom oro eyeda usen inarj That work will take four days
Ana mkpe owo nsin I have to employ workers
Ye rjkpo utom emi ndepde And the tools I buy
Edi ntre yak nyom owo efen If so let me look for another person
Edieke amade kpe bon ition Pay five pounds if you like
Nda ke mmorj? Where do I get it?

V. E. 55.

Eyekpe inarj ye duop Will vou pay four pounds ten

Baba No
Akpatre edi oro That is the last
Emenyime rjkpe fi ke mbak Do you agree that I pay in parts
Inamke rjkpo does not matter
Emekeme nditorjo urom You can start work

Eyetorp mfin? Will you start today?

Nditotp udua efen 1 will start next week
Makama utom efen ke ubok I have another work at hand
Mbop ufok eka anwan mmi I am building for my mother-in-law
Nyekure enye oro udua emi I shall finish that this
Udua efen ntorp okuo I'll begin yours next week
Etisim ofio j kiet mokire I will finish it within a mcnth



The student is advised to read the following books in

this order ;

1. Akpa nwed ke Iko Efik

2. Udiana Edikot nwed

3. Mbuk Ekim ye Unwana by E. A. Eyo
4. Edikot rjwed mbuk Vol. 1 by E. N. Amaku
5. >1 ? 5>

6. 55 ?> }>

7. ' 'J JJ

8. J5 9' 5'

9. > 9? J5

10. Mutanda oyom Namondo E. E. Nkarja

There is also a large number of Efik ballads in

(5k or 10k) pamphlets.

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