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Dynamic Analysis

S ECTION 10

Dynamic Analysis
Performs dynamic analysis on a piping model. This section introduces dynamic analysis
concepts and describes data input for each of the options available. The command is also
available from Analysis > Dynamics.

In This Section
Dynamic Loads in Piping Systems................................................ 628
Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis.................................... 634
Dynamic Analysis Workflow.......................................................... 635
The Dynamic Analysis Window..................................................... 636
Excitation Frequencies Tab........................................................... 639
Harmonic Forces Tab.................................................................... 641
Harmonic Displacements Tab........................................................ 645
Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab......................................... 648
Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab....................................... 653
Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab................................................. 668
Lumped Masses Tab..................................................................... 673
Snubbers Tab................................................................................ 675
Control Parameters Tab................................................................ 676
Advanced Tab............................................................................... 708
Directive Builder............................................................................ 712
Enter/Edit Spectrum Data.............................................................. 713
DLF/Spectrum Generator.............................................................. 714
Relief Load Synthesis................................................................... 724
Analysis Results............................................................................ 736

Dynamic Loads in Piping Systems


A piping system can respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of
the same magnitude. Static loads are those which are applied slowly enough that the system
has time to react and internally distribute the loads, thus remaining in equilibrium. In
equilibrium, all forces and moments are resolved (that is, the sum of the forces and moments
are zero) and the pipe does not move.
A dynamic load changes quickly with time. The piping system does not have time to internally
distribute the loads. Forces and moments are not always resolved, resulting in unbalanced
loads and pipe movement. Because the sum of forces and moments are not in equilibrium, the
internally-induced loads can be differenteither higher or lowerthan the applied loads.
The software provides several methods for analyzing different types of system response under
dynamic loads. Each method provides a trade-off of accuracy versus computing requirements.
The methods include modal natural frequency calculations, harmonic analysis, response
spectrum analysis, and time history analysis.
Modal natural frequency analysis measures the tendency of a piping system to respond to dynamic
loads. The modal natural frequencies of a system typically should not be too close to
Dynamic Analysis
equipment operating frequencies. As a general rule, higher natural frequencies usually cause
less trouble than low natural frequencies. CAESAR II provides calculation of modal natural
frequencies and animated plots of the associated mode shapes.
Harmonic analysis addresses dynamic loads that are cyclic in nature, such as fluid pulsation in
reciprocating pump lines or vibration due to rotating equipment. These loads are modeled as
concentrated forces or displacements at one or more points in the system. To provide the
proper phase relationship between multiple loads, a phase angle can also be used. Any number
of forcing frequencies can be analyzed for equipment start-up and operating modes. Harmonic
responses represent the maximum dynamic amplitude the piping system undergoes and have
the same form as a static analysis: node deflections and rotations, local forces and moments,
restraint loads, and stresses. For example, if the results show an X displacement of 5.8 cm at a
node, then the dynamic motion due to the cyclic excitation is from +5.8 cm. to -5.8 cm. at that
node. The stresses shown are one half of, or one amplitude of, the full cyclic stress range.
Response spectrum analysis allows an impulse-type transient event to be characterized by
response versus frequency spectra. Each mode of vibration of the piping system is related to
one response on the spectrum. These modal responses are summed together to produce the
total system response. The stresses for these analyses, summed with the sustained stresses,
are compared to the occasional stress allowables defined by the piping code. Spectral analysis
can be used in a wide variety of applications. For example, in uniform inertial loading, ground
motion associated with a seismic event is supplied as displacement, velocity, or acceleration
response spectra. The assumption is that all supports move with the defined ground motion and
the piping system catches up to the supports. It is this inertial effect which loads the system.
The shock spectra, which define the ground motion, can vary between the three global
directions and can even change for different groups of supports (such as independent or
uniform support motion). Another example is based on single point loading. CAESAR II uses
this technique to analyze a wide variety of impulse-type transient loads. Relief valve loads,
water hammer loads, slug flow loads, and rapid valve closure type loads all cause single
impulse dynamic loads at various points in the piping system. The response to these dynamic
forces can be predicted using the force spectrum method.
Time history analysis is one of the most accurate methods, because it uses numeric
integration of the dynamic equation of motion to simulate the system response throughout the
load duration. This method can solve any type of dynamic loading, but due to its exact solution,
requires more resources (such as computer memory, calculation speed and time) than other
methods. Time history analysis is not appropriate when, for example, the spectrum method
offers sufficient accuracy.
Force versus time profiles for piping are usually one of three types: Random (on page 630),
Harmonic (see Newsletter Index - http://www.coade.com/Mechanical%20Engineering
%20News%20Index.shtml), or Impulse (on page 632). Each profile has a preferred solution
method. These profiles and the load types identified with them are described below.
Dynamic Analysis

Random
With this type of profile, the load unpredictably changes direction or magnitude with time. Even
with the unpredictability, some load characteristics can predominate. Loads with random
force/time profiles are best solved using a spectrum method or a static equivalent.
The major types of loads with random time profiles are wind and earthquake.

Wind
Wind velocity causes forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe
creating an equivalent pressure on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they can have
predominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are subject to gusting, such as
sudden changes in direction and velocity. As the time period lengthens, the number of wind
changes also increases in an unpredictable manner, eventually encompassing nearly all
directions and a wide range of velocities.

Earthquake
Seismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random ground motion, such
as accelerations, velocities, and displacements and corresponding inertia loads (the mass of
the system times the acceleration) into a structure through the structure-to-ground anchorage.
Random ground motion is the sum of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic) ground
motions. Two earthquakes can be similar in terms of predominant direction (for example, along
a fault), predominant harmonic frequencies (if some underlying cyclic motions tend to
dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their exact behavior at any given time can be
quite different and unpredictable.

Harmonic
With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic
profile, ranging from its minimum to its maximum over a fixed time period. For example, the
load can be described by a function of the form:
F(t) = A + B cos( t + )
Where:
F(t) = force magnitude as a function of time
A = mean force
B = variation of maximum and minimum force from mean
= angular frequency (radian/sec)
= phase angle (radians)
t = time (sec)
Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using a harmonic method. The major
types of loads with harmonic time profiles are equipment vibration, acoustic vibration, and
pulsation.
Dynamic Analysis
Equipment Vibration
If rotating equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out-of-tolerance (for example, when a drive
shaft is out-of-round), it can impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of
attachment. This is the location where the displacement cycle most likely corresponds to the
operating cycle of the equipment. The displacement at the pipe connection can be
imperceptibly small, but could cause significant dynamic-loading problems. Loading versus time
is easily predicted after the operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.

Acoustic Vibration
If fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example, when flow conditions change
from laminar to turbulent as the fluid passes through an orifice), slight lateral vibrations may be
set up within the pipe. These vibrations often fit harmonic patterns, with predominant
frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example, Strouhals
equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an
orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec)
and D is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements
as well (a phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency of approximately
0.18 V/D, where V is the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe.

Pulsation
During the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the fluid is compressed by
pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic change over time in the fluid pressure at
any specified location in the system. Unequal fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or
closures create an unbalanced pressure load in the system. Because the pressure balance
changes with the cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force also changes. The frequency
of the force cycle is likely to be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, because
multiple pistons cause a corresponding number of force variations during each shaft rotation.
The pressure variations continue to move along through the fluid. In a steady state flow
condition, unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at any number of elbow pairs in
the system. Load magnitudes can vary. Load cycles may or may not be in phase with each
other, depending upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the compressor,
and the length of the piping legs between the elbow pairs.
For example, if the pressure at elbow a is Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b is Pb(t), then the
unbalanced force acting along the pipe between the two elbows is:
F(t) = (Pa(t) - Pb(t)) A
Where:
A = internal area of the pipe
Assuming that the pressure peak hits the elbow "a" at time t = 0, Pa(t) is:
Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t
Where:
Pavg = average pressure in the line
dP = alternating component of the pressure
= driving angular frequency of pulse
Dynamic Analysis

If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse reaches elbow
bts after it has passed elbow a:
ts = L / c
Where:
c = speed of sound in the fluid
Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is:
Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t - Q)
Where:

Q = phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b

= ts

Combining these equations, the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair is:
F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos (t - L/c) ]
Under steady-state conditions, a similar situation exists at all elbow pairs throughout the
piping system.

Impulse
With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains
relatively constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For rapid ramping times, this
type of profile resembles a rectangle. Loads with impulse force/time profiles are best solved
using time history or force spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse time profiles
are relief valve, fluid hammer, and slug flow.

Relief Valve
When system pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to vent
fluid and reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on
the piping system. This force ramps up from zero to its full value over the opening time of the
valve. The relief valve remains open (and the jet force remains relatively constant) until
sufficient fluid is vented to relieve the over-pressure condition. The valve then closes, ramping
down the jet force over the closing time of the valve.

Fluid Hammer
When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted through valve closure or a pump trip,
the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped instantaneously. As fluid continues
to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses causing
a high pressure situation. On the other side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the
stoppage point, creating a low pressure (vacuum) situation. Fluid at the next elbow or closure
along the pipeline is still at the original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure
force acting on the valve seat or the elbow.
The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of
flow stoppage, causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the
pulse moves past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run,
leading to a balanced (that is, zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. The unbalanced
Dynamic Analysis

pressure, by passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure
load continues to rise and fall in sequential legs as the pressure pulse travels back to the
source, or forward to the sink.
The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low
flow, such as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Because the leading edge of
the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse travels through the system, the
ramp-down time is the same. The duration of the load from initiation through the beginning of
the down ramp is equal to the time required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the
pipe leg.

Slug Flow
Most piping systems are designed to handle single-phase fluids (that is, fluids that are uniformly
liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, the fluid may have multiple phases. For example,
slurry systems transport solid materials in liquids and gases may condense, creating pockets of
liquid in otherwise gaseous media. Systems carrying multi-phase fluids are susceptible to slug
flow.
In general, fluid changes direction in a piping system through the application of forces at
elbows. This force is equal to the change in momentum with respect to time, or
Fr = dp / dt = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]1/2
Where:
dp = change in momentum
dt = change in time
= fluid density
v = fluid velocity
A = internal area of pipe
= inclusion angle at elbow
With constant fluid density, this force is normally constant and is small enough that it can be
easily absorbed through tension in the pipe wall. The force is then passed on to adjacent
elbows with equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net load on the system. Therefore these
types of momentum loads are usually ignored in analysis. If the fluid velocity or density changes
with time, this momentum load will also change with time, leading to a dynamic load which may
not be canceled by the load at other elbows.
Dynamic Analysis

For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is
insignificant because the fluid density of a gas is effectively zero. The liquid suddenly slug hits
the elbow, increasing the momentum load by orders of magnitude. This load lasts only as long
as it takes for the slug to traverse the elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero again with
the exact profile of the slug load depending upon the shape of the slug. The time duration of the
load depends upon the length of the slug divided by the velocity of the fluid.

Where:
F1 = v2 A(1 - cos )
Fr = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]
F2 = v2 A sin

Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis


To perform a dynamic analysis, the static model must first be created and error checked. The
model is also usually run through static analysis before the dynamic analysis begins, but this is
not required unless nonlinear supports or hanger selections are included in the model. If
nonlinear supports are present, the static analysis must be run and the results made available
before the dynamic analysis can be performed.
The dynamic analysis techniques used by CAESAR II require strict linearity in the piping and
structural systems. Dynamic responses associated with nonlinear effects are not addressed. An
example of a nonlinear effect is slapping, such as when a pipe lifts off the rack at one moment
and impacts the rack the next. For the dynamic model, the pipe must be either held down or
allowed to move freely. Nonlinear restraints used in the static analysis must be set to active or
inactive for the dynamic analysis. CAESAR II allows you to set the nonlinear restraints to any
configuration found in the static results by specifying the value of Static Load Case for
Nonlinear Restraint Status (on page 689) on the Control Parameters tab. You usually select
the operating case to set the nonlinear restraint configuration. For example, if a +Y
support is active in the static operating case and the operating case is used to set the
status of the nonlinear supports for dynamics, CAESAR II installs a double-acting Y
support at that location for the dynamic analysis. The pipe does not move up or down at
that point regardless of the dynamic load.
Another nonlinear effect is friction. Friction effects must also be linearized for use in dynamic
analysis. By default, CAESAR II excludes the effects of friction from the dynamic analysis. If
requested, CAESAR II can approximate the friction resistance to movement in the dynamic model by
including spring stiffness normal to the restraint line of action. For a Y restraint with
Dynamic Analysis

friction, the friction stiffness is added in the X and Z directions. You define the stiffness of these
springs as a function of the friction load calculated in the static analysis. CAESAR II calculates
the friction stiffness by multiplying the resultant force on the restraint from the selected static
case results, the friction coefficient, and the Stiffness Factor for Friction defined on the
Control Parameters tab. For example, if a normal force on the restraint from the static analysis
is 1000 lb and the friction coefficient (mu) is 0.3, then the total friction load is 300 lb. If Stiffness
Factor for Friction is 500, then springs having a stiffness of SQRT(1000^2 +
300^2)*0.3*500=156605 lb./in are inserted into the dynamic model in the two directions
perpendicular to the line of action of the friction restraint. Converting friction damping into
stiffness is not mathematically legitimate, but serves as a good engineering approximation for
dynamic friction in a wide variety of situations.

Dynamic Analysis Workflow


Before starting and error checking a dynamic analysis, develop dynamic analysis data using the
following steps. The steps can occur in any order.

Specify the loads


You do not need to specify dynamic loads if only natural frequencies are to be counted or
calculated. Harmonic analysis requires the driving frequencies and forces or displacements to
define and locate the sinusoidally varying point loads.
Creating the dynamic loads for spectra or time history analysis requires the most attention. The
response spectra or time history profile must be defined, built, or selected. Force sets are built
for force response spectra and time history analysis. Response spectra/time history and force
sets are combined with other data to build the load cases to be analyzed. Finally, additional
load cases may be constructed by combining shock results with static results to check code
compliance on occasional stresses. The software provides methods to simplify many of these
tasks.

Modify the mass and stiffness model


For dynamic analysis, CAESAR II converts each piping element from a continuous beam
element between two nodes to a stiffness between two masses. Additional stiffness is added at
the node points to model anchors, restraints, hangers, and other supports in the static analysis
model. The masses assigned to each node are one half the sum of all element masses framing
into the node. These masses are used as translational inertias only. Rotational moments of
inertia are ignored in the dynamic mass model. Their inclusion in the analysis would cause a
large increase in solution time without a corresponding improvement in the general accuracy of
the analysis.
In many instances, the mass and stiffness established in the static model is used without
modification in the dynamic analysis. Some situations, however, can be improved by the
deletion of mass points or degrees of freedom. This usually occurs in models with unnecessary
masses far from the area of interest or unnecessary degrees of freedom that do not act in the
direction of interest. Some piping systems have supports that are installed to suppress vibration
and do not affect the static analysis. If these shock absorbers or snubbers were not part of the
static model, they can be added to the dynamic model as additional stiffness.
Dynamic Analysis

Set the parameters that control the analysis


Options on the Control Parameters tab set the type of analysis to be performed: calculation of
natural frequencies and mode shapes, harmonic analysis, spectral analysis, or time history.
General settings for the analysis are also defined, such as maximum frequency cutoff, mode
summation methods, static configuration for nonlinear restraints, and the friction factor for
including friction in the dynamic analysis. The Advanced tab allows you to change the
parameters governing the eigensolution which does the modal extraction. These parameters
should only be altered under special circumstances.
For more information, see Control Parameters Tab (on page 676) and Advanced Tab (on page
708).

The Dynamic Analysis Window


After the basic model has been constructed, click Analysis > Dynamics or Dynamic Analysis
to perform a dynamic analysis. The Dynamic Analysis window opens.

Toolbar Commands
Analysis Specifies the type of analysis. Select Modal, Harmonic, Earthquake (spectrum),
Type Relief Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), or Time History.
The window tabs change for each analysis.

Save Input and File > Save Input - Saves entered values to the CAESAR II file.

Check Input and File > Check Input - Opens the Dynamic Syntax Check dialog
box to check entered values for errors.
Dynamic Analysis

Run the Analysis and File > Run Analysis - Performs the error check and, if no
errors are found, performs the analysis the dynamic analysis for the selected
Analysis Type and the entered values. Analysis results are then available for
review. For more information, see Analysis Results (on page 736).

Add Entry and Edit > Add Entry - Adds a row to the table.

Delete Entry and Edit > Delete Entry - Deletes a row from the table.

Enter/Edit Spectrum Data and Tools > Spectrum Data Points - Specifies
spectrum data for manually-entered or ASCII-file-based spectrum definitions. For
more information, see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data (on page 713).

DLF/Spectrum Generator and Tools > DLF Spectrum Generator - Converts


spectrum time waveform excitation data into a frequency domain dynamic load
factor (DLF) curve or other response spectrum. For more information, see
DLF/Spectrum Generator (on page 714).

Relief Load Synthesis and Tools > Relief Load Synthesis - Calculates the
magnitudes of relieving thrust forces. For more information, see Relief Load
Synthesis (on page 724).

Cmt Changes the selected row in the table to a comment line. You can add comment
lines anywhere in the table.

Modal Analysis (on page 637)


Harmonic Analysis (on page 638)
Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis (on page 638)
Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis (on page 638)
Time History Analysis (on page 639)
Dynamic analysis uses the units from the piping input file or from the configuration file of a structural-
only analysis. For more information on dynamic load cases, data, and procedures, see
Interfaces (see "External Interfaces" on page 1039).
If the model contains spring hangers selected by the software or nonlinear boundary
conditions (such as single directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction), then a static analysis
must be performed before the dynamic analysis to determine how the nonlinear supports are
acting.

Modal Analysis
Enter values on the following tabs when Modal is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic
Analysis window.
Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)
Snubbers Tab (on page 675)
Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)
Advanced Tab (on page 708)
Dynamic Analysis

Modal analysis extracts natural frequencies and shapes for the modes of vibration of the
pipe system. No loads are specified.

Harmonic Analysis
Enter values on the following tabs when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the
Dynamic Analysis window.
Excitation Frequencies Tab (on page 639)
Harmonic Forces Tab (on page 641)
Harmonic Displacements Tab (on page 645)
Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)
Snubbers Tab (on page 675)
Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis


Enter values on the following tabs when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type
in the Dynamic Analysis window.
Spectrum Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)
Spectrum Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)
Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)
Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)
Snubbers Tab (on page 675)
Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)
Advanced Tab (on page 708)
For earthquake loads, you define one or more response spectra and apply them in a
specified direction over part or all of the piping system.

Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis


Enter values on the following tabs when Relief Loads (spectrum) or Water Hammer/Slug
Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.
Spectrum Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)
Force Sets Tab (on page 658)
Spectrum Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)
Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)
Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)
Snubbers Tab (on page 675)
Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)
Advanced Tab (on page 708)

Relief Loads
This method solves relief valve loading on a piping system through force spectrum analysis.
The force-time profile is estimated using relief load synthesis and then converted to a force
multiplier (dynamic load factor, or DLF) spectrum. The force is then applied in conjunction with
this spectrum.
Dynamic Analysis

Water Hammer/Slug Flow


This method solves water hammer or slug problems. It is similar to the force spectrum analysis
used for relief valve loadings, except that relief load synthesis is not required. The force-time
profile is estimated and then converted to a force multiplier spectrum. This is linked to force
sets in the load cases.
Force-time profile estimation methods are shown in the CAESAR II Applications Guide.
Steps proceed as described for relief loads.

Time History Analysis


Enter values on the following tabs when Time History is selected for Analysis Type in the
Dynamic Analysis window.
Time History Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)
Force Sets Tab (on page 658)
Time History Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)
Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)
Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)
Snubbers Tab (on page 675)
Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)
Advanced Tab (on page 708)
Time history analysis solves the dynamic equation of motion for extracted nodes of vibration.
The results are then summed to find the system results. Loadings are specified in terms of
force-time profiles and force sets. The force-time profile defines the load timing. The force set
defines the load direction and location. Either the profile or the force set can be used to define
the magnitude.

Excitation Frequencies Tab


This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis
window.
One or more individual frequencies or frequency ranges can be specified, one to a
row. CAESAR II performs a separate analysis for each frequency.
A frequency range has values for Starting Frequency, Ending Frequency, and Increment.
You can enter the number of anticipated load cycles for each frequency range. Load cases are
then calculated with a fatigue stress type. Otherwise, the load cases are calculated with an
occasional stress type.
Harmonic loads may be specified on the Harmonic Forces Tab (on page 641) or the
Harmonic Displacements Tab (on page 645).

Topics
Starting Frequency........................................................................ 640
Ending Frequency......................................................................... 640
Increment...................................................................................... 640
Load Cycles.................................................................................. 641
Dynamic Analysis

Starting Frequency
Specifies the starting frequency for the analysis in Hertz (Hz). This is the frequency at which
the harmonic forces or displacements are applied.
Harmonic displacements and forces have the
form: A*cosine(t+ )
where A is the amplitude of the force or displacement, is the phase angle, and is the
frequency of the loading.
Real and imaginary solutions are developed for each frequency in the defined range, from
which any phased solution can be calculated. There must be a starting frequency for a
frequency range to be valid.

Ending Frequency
Specifies the ending frequency for a range of frequencies. Enter the frequency in Hertz (Hz).
The harmonic forces or displacements are applied at each frequency between the Starting
Frequency (on page 640) and Ending Frequency according to the value specified for
Increment (on page 640). This is an optional value.

Increment
Specifies the frequency increment used to step from Starting Frequency (on page 640) to
Ending Frequency (on page 640). The harmonic forces or displacements are applied at each
frequency along the specified increment. This is an optional value. If no value is entered, the
software uses a default increment of 1.0 Hz.
The frequencies for harmonic excitation are taken from each defined frequency range.
Individual frequencies for excitation are calculated using a "do loop" type of logic to determine
the frequencies in a specified frequency range:
X = STARTING FREQUENCY
5 CONTINUE
COMPUTE SOLUTION FOR FREQUENCY "X"
X = X + INCREMENT
IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5
The sign of the frequency increment may be modified by the software to properly step from the
starting frequency to the ending frequency. The starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the
increment may be given as a fraction.

Example
Find harmonic solutions for the following group of turbine equipment speeds:

Warm up speed: 100 rpm


Speed increments to bring turbine online: 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200
rpm. Speeds are passed through very slowly while coming up to operating speed.

Operating speed: 3600 rpm
Dynamic Analysis

Convert rotations per minute to cycles per second (Hertz) by dividing by 60:

Warm up speed: 100/60

Speed increments: 400/60 to 3200/60 by increments of 400/60

Operating speed: 3600/60
A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system at about 3 Hertz:
Approximate field-observed excitation frequency: 3 Hz
The response of the piping system when the dynamic load is applied at 3 Hz is almost zero.
This is true regardless of the magnitude of the dynamic load. The maxi\-mum varying pressure
load was applied, and there were still no appreciable dynamic displacements when the
excitation frequency was 3 Hz. Apply the dynamic load over a range of frequencies around 3
Hertz and see if any dynamic response can be observed.

Group of field-observed frequencies: "Guessed"

Excitation frequency: 3 Hz

Defined by the input below are:
(2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5)
Hz. 2.5 3.5 0.1

Load Cycles
Specifies the number of load cycles. If the harmonic load case is also subjected to fatigue
loading, enter the number of expected cycles. This is an optional value.
The load cycle value is the anticipated number of applications of the load on the system. This
value is used to determine the allowable stress from the fatigue curve for the material.
For static cases, the full range of calculated stresses is considered. For dynamic cases,
half the range (that is, the amplitude) of calculated stresses is considered.

Harmonic Forces Tab


This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis
window.
Values must be entered on either the Harmonic Forces tab or the Harmonic
Displacements tab.

Harmonic Phasing
Phasing is important if more than one force or displacement is included. The phase angle
(entered in degrees) relates the timing of one load or displacement to another. For example, if
two harmonic loads act along the same line but at different nodes, the loads can be directed
towards each other (that is, in opposite directions), producing no net dynamic imbalance on the
system. The loads can also act in the same direction (that is, to the right or to the left together),
producing a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. The
phase angle determines this relationship. For example, the follow load data is entered for in-
phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with a 0 phase at nodes 10 and 105:
Dynamic Analysis

Force Direction Phase Start Node

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 0 105

The follow load data is entered for out-of-phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with
the phase in opposite directions at nodes 10 and 105, pulling the system apart:

Force Direction Phase Start Node

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 180 105

The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and
reciprocating pumps.
Rotating equipment can have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items must be
converted into a harmonic load acting on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline. The
magnitude of the harmonic load is calculated from:
Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity)
where speed is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. This load is applied along
both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90 phase shift.
In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some
regular interval that is related to the pump valving and speed. This pressure wave moves away
from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. These pressure waves cause loads at each
bend in the piping system. The load on each subsequent elbow in the system, starting from the
first elbow, is phase-shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows,
from the first elbow to the current elbow. The amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs
produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from the
first elbow, is calculated from:
phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360
where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump, and length is the distance
from the first elbow to the current elbow under study. The magnitude of the pressure load at
each elbow is:
Harmonic Force = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (Area)
With phasing considerations, all specified loads are considered to act together at each
applied frequency.

Topics
Force............................................................................................. 643
Direction........................................................................................ 643
Phase............................................................................................ 643
Start Node..................................................................................... 643
Stop Node..................................................................................... 644
Increment...................................................................................... 644
Dynamic Analysis

Force
Specifies the magnitude of the harmonic force to be applied.
The form of the harmonic forcing function is:
F(t) = A*cosine(t-)
where "F(t)" is the force as a function of time. "A" is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic
force. "" is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and "" is the phase angle
(in radians).

Direction
Specifies the direction of the force. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction cosines, or direction
vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for
direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Phase
Specifies the phase angle of the force in degrees.
Harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to zero, or the harmonic load
can start with its maximum at any time between zero and 2*/ seconds. The phase angle f is
the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase angle is
calculated from the time shift using the equation:
(degrees) = 180t/
where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second.
The phase angle is usually entered as either zero or 90. Use the phase specification
when defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment.
A value for Phase is required. If the phase angle is zero, you must enter 0.

Start Node
Specifies the starting node number in the model at which the force is applied.
If entered without values for Stop Node and Increment, then the start node must exist in the
piping system. If entered with values for Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes
identified in the range must include at least one node in the piping system.
Dynamic Analysis

Stop Node
Specifies the ending node number in the model through which the force is applied. Used as a
part of a "range of nodes" force loading with Start Node and Increment. This value is optional.

Increment
Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Each
node that is incremented between the start and stop nodes is loaded with the value of Force.
This value is optional.

Example 1
A pressure pulse traveling in the line causes the line to shake at about 2 hertz. The magnitude
of the pressure loading is estimated to be about 460 lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to
100. The harmonic force to model this load is shown as follows. The magnitude is divided by 2
because the total variation in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from -1
to 1. To find the true response magnitudes from a positive-only harmonic load pulse, a static
solution with 460/2 lb. acting in the +X direction is superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution
to provide the constant shifting of the load axis. There is a negative load at node 95 due to the
negative sign on the cosine. The pressure pulse is always positive and a negative load never
exists. The superposition of the 460/2 static solution assures that the dynamic load (and
probably the resulting displacements) is always positive.
460 LB pressure load at 2 Hertz
460/2 X 0 95

Example 2
A pump is shaking in the X-Y plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. The magnitude of
the dynamic load is calculated to be 750 lb. from the manufacturer-provided masses and
eccentricities. Apply this rotating equipment load on the inline pump at node 350. The X and Y
loads are 90 degrees out of phase with one another. When the X load is at its maximum the Y
load is zero, and when the Y load is at its maximum the X load is zero.
Estimated eccentric load on inline pump DOH-
V33203001 750 X 0 350
750 Y 90 350
Dynamic Analysis

Harmonic Displacements Tab


This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis
window.
Values must be entered on either the Harmonic Forces tab or the Harmonic
Displacements tab.

Harmonic Phasing
Phasing is important if more than one force or displacement is included. The phase angle
(entered in degrees) relates the timing of one load or displacement to another. For example, if
two harmonic loads act along the same line but at different nodes, the loads can be directed
towards each other (that is, in opposite directions), producing no net dynamic imbalance on the
system. The loads can also act in the same direction (that is, to the right or to the left together),
producing a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. The
phase angle determines this relationship. For example, the follow load data is entered for in-
phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with a 0 phase at nodes 10 and 105:

Force Direction Phase Start Node

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 0 105

The follow load data is entered for out-of-phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with
the phase in opposite directions at nodes 10 and 105, pulling the system apart:

Force Direction Phase Start Node

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 180 105

The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and reciprocating
pumps.
Rotating equipment can have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items must be
converted into a harmonic load acting on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline. The
magnitude of the harmonic load is calculated from:
Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity)
where speed is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. This load is applied along
both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90 phase shift.
In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some
regular interval that is related to the pump valving and speed. This pressure wave moves away from
the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. These pressure waves cause loads at each bend in the
piping system. The load on each subsequent elbow in the system, starting from the first elbow, is
phase-shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows, from the first
elbow to the current elbow. The amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs
Dynamic Analysis

produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from
the first elbow, is calculated from:
phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360
where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump, and length is the distance
from the first elbow to the current elbow under study. The magnitude of the pressure load at
each elbow is:
Harmonic Force = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (Area)
With phasing considerations, all specified loads are considered to act together at each
applied frequency.

Topics
Displacement................................................................................ 646
Direction........................................................................................ 646
Phase............................................................................................ 646
Start Node..................................................................................... 647
Stop Node..................................................................................... 647
Increment...................................................................................... 647

Displacement
Specifies the magnitude of the displacement to be applied.
The form of the harmonic displacement function is:
D(t)=(A)*cosine(t-)
where "D(t)" is the displacement as a function of time, "A" is the maximum amplitude of the
dynamic displacement. "" is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and "" is
the phase angle (in radians).

Direction
Specifies the direction of the displacement. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction cosines, or
direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as (0.707,0.0,0.707). The
format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Phase
Specifies the phase angle of the displacement in degrees.
Harmonic displacement can start with its maximum displacement at time equal to zero, or the
harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacements at any time between zero
and t + 2 / seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the
dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the
equation:
(degrees) = 180t /
where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second.
A value for Phase is required. If the phase angle is zero, you must enter 0.0.
Dynamic Analysis

Start Node
Specifies the number of the starting node in the model at which the displacement is applied.
If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic displacement is assumed to act at the
support point. If the node is not sup\-ported, then the dynamic displacement is assumed to
describe the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation only becomes important
when the node is supported by a flexible restraint. For example, node 55 is supported in the Y
direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5,000 lb./in. A harmonic displacement is also
specified at node 55 in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not
describe the dis\-placement that is attached to 55. Instead, the displacement creates a load in
the Y direction at 55 equal to the harmonic displacement times 5,000 lb./in.
If Start Node has a value but Stop Node and Increment do not, then the start node must exist
in the piping system. If all three have values, then the range of nodes identified in the range
must include at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node
Specifies the number of the ending node in the model through which the displacement
is applied. Used as a part of a "range of nodes" displacement loading with Start Node
and Increment. This value is optional.

Increment
Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Each node
incremented between the start and stop nodes is displaced with the value of Displacement.
This value is optional.

Example 1
A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor flange a field-measured 8
mils in the Y direction, and 3 mils in the Z direction. The dynamic displacements are assumed
to be simultaneous with no phase shift. This is because the load causing the displacements is
believed to be from the compressor plunger moving in the X, or axial, direction. The dis\-
placements are skewed because the piping configuration entering the compressor is itself
skewed.
Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange

0.008 Y 0.0 330

0.003 Z 0.0 330

Example 2
Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example (see
"Increment" on page 644) did not produce the displacements witnessed in the field. Field personnel
have measured the dynamic displacements in the vertical (Y) and transverse (Z) directions at the
pump piping connections. The centerline of the pump, at the intersection of the horizontal suction
and vertical discharge is node 15. The magnitude of the Z displacement is
Dynamic Analysis
measured at 12 mil. The magnitude of the Y displacement is measured at 3 mils. It is assumed
that the vibration is due to the rotation of the pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be
taken to be 90 degrees out of phase.
Harmonic displacements modeling pump vibration on the inline pump DOH-V33203001:
Z magnitude of the load - zero deg. phase
shift 0.012 Z 0 15
Y magnitude of the load - 90 deg. phase shift
0.003 Y 90 15

Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab


The Spectrum Definitions tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads
(spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the
Dynamic Analysis window.
The Time History Definitions tab is available when Time History is selected for Analysis
Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Spectrum Definitions
One analysis may have multiple spectrum types and definitions. Predefined spectra are
included in the spectrum definition list. Any combination of these predefined spectra can be
used as is, deleted, or used with any other defined spectra.

You can include the basic spectrum data definitions in the comments for each ASCII spectrum
file. Select Cmt to create a comment line. For more information, see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data
(on page 713) and Examples (on page 651).

Spectrum Data Files


Special force spectrum data files are created by the DLF/Spectrum Generator (on page 714).
The response spectrum table values are entered directly or saved as a file. Data stored in a
file can be used by any analysis.

When using a file created by DLF/Spectrum Generator , you must specify the type of data
which contained in the file, because the file only contains a table of data points. This data is
always frequency versus force-multiplier with linear interpolation. A typical definition is in this
format:
Dynamic Analysis

Ordinate Range Ordinate


Name Range Type Type Interpol Interpol

#TESTFILE FREQ FORCE LIN LIN

The data in this file may also be read in directly using Enter/Edit Spectrum Data . In
this case, omit the "#" from the spectrum declaration. For more information, see Enter/Edit
Spectrum Data (on page 713).

Time History Definitions

Time history profiles are defined in a way similar to the definition of response spectra. The profile
must be given a name, time versus force data definitions, and interpolation methods. Response
spectra data must also be defined directly or from a file. The profile data may be entered with actual
forces or normalized to 1.0, depending on how the force sets are defined.
One force-time profile should be defined for each independent point load on the piping system.
The load case consists of one or more force profiles. Multiple force profiles can create a
staggered loading on the system.

Topics
Name............................................................................................ 649
Range Type................................................................................... 650
Ordinate Type................................................................................ 651
Range Interpol............................................................................... 651
Ordinate Interpol........................................................................... 651
Examples...................................................................................... 651

Name
Specifies the name of the spectrum. Names should reflect the spectrum and its intended use.
This name is used when defining the load cases. The name can be any 24-character identifier
and is associated with a particular spectrum or load profile.
Do not include spaces in the name.
The following predefined spectra are delivered with the software. No additional definitions are
required when using these spectra.

El Centro
The El Centro California N-S component, taken from Biggs, "Introduction to
Structural Dynamics," applies to systems with 5-10 percent critical damping.
Dynamic Analysis

REG. GUIDE 1.60


1.60H.5 and 1.60V.5
1.60H2 and 1.60V2
1.60H5 and 1.60V5
1.60H7 and 1.60V7
1.60H1.0 and 1.60V10
Each of these spectra defines the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10
percent critically damped systems. Associated with each of these spectra is a value for ZPA.
(Zero Period Acceleration), the maximum ground acceleration at the site. This value defaults to
0.5 g and can be changed on the Control Parameters Tab (on page 676).

Uniform Building Code


UBCSOIL1
UBCSOIL2
UBCSOIL3
These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra for three soil
types provided in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition).


The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign. The (#) sign instructs
CAESAR II to read the spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum
with no extension. Several jobs in the current folder can then access this shock data.

If data is to be entered manually, click Enter/Edit Spectrum Data , then create new rows
and enter the appropriate Range Type and Ordinate Type values. For more information,
see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data (on page 713).

The complete definition of a shock includes its name, range type, ordinate type, range
interpolation method, ordinate interpolation method, and the shock data point table.
Everything but the shock data point table can be entered on the

Range Type
Specifies the type of values on the abscissa (horizontal) axis of the spectrum/DLF curve. Select
FREQUENCY or PERIOD.
If the value is PERIOD, then the spectrum table data is in seconds. If the value is
FREQUENCY, then the data is in Hertz (cycles per second).
For Time History analysis only, select TIME. The spectrum table data is in milliseconds (ms).
The values can be abbreviated by any part of the word, but only the first letter is required.
Dynamic Analysis

Ordinate Type
Specifies the type of values on the ordinate (vertical) axis of the spectrum/DLF curve. Select
FREQUENCY , VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, G-ACCELERATION, or FORCE-MULTIPLIER.
If the value is FREQUENCY, then the spectrum table data is in Hertz (cycles per second).If the
value is VELOCITY, then the data is in length per second. If the value is ACCELERATION, then
the data is in length per second squared. If the value is G-ACCELERATION, then the data are
in g's.
For Time History analysis only, select FORCE-MULTIPLIER.
The values can be abbreviated by any part of the word, but only the first letter is required.

Range Interpol
Specifies how the values on the abscissa (horizontal) axis are interpolated. Select LINEAR or
LOGARITHMIC.
See Examples (on page 651) for additional discussion.
The values can be abbreviated as LIN and LOG.

Ordinate Interpol
Specifies how the values on the ordinate (vertical) axis are interpolated. Select LINEAR or
LOGARITHMIC.
See Examples (on page 651) for additional discussion.
The values can be abbreviated as LIN and LOG.

Examples
Example 1
The analysis requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions using a
factor of 1.0, and in the Y direction using a factor of 0.667.
No spectrum definition is required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectrum. All of
its shock data resides in the CAESAR II shock database.

Example 2
The analysis requires the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum
acceleration value of 0.25 gs, analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and
vertical components of the shock as specified in Reg. Guide 1.60.
There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Guide
1.60 shock spectra are predefined. You must only specify the maximum acceleration (ZPA) of
0.25 gs on the Control Parameters Tab (on page 676), and must use the Reg. Guide spectra
corresponding to the anticipated system damping. Lower damping values mean more
conservative results.
Dynamic Analysis

Example 3
The analysis requires a shock spectrum that is given by the client and developed for the site. A
plot of the spectrum appears as follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is
acceleration. Because of the variation of the numbers along each axis, a logarithmic
interpolation for each axis is used. Because the shock name is not preceded by a (#) sign, the
spectrum is not predefined, and you must manually enter the points for this spectrum. The
spectrum definition input for pointing to this file is:

Name Range Type Ordinate Type Range Interpol Ordinate Interpol

BENCHNO4 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG

Example 4
All analysis on a particular project requires the use of the spectrum table shown as follows.
The data points of the spectrum are entered into an ASCII file named BENCH1 in the current
folder. The file can be created using any standard editor. The spectrum definition input for
pointing to this file is:

Name Range Type Ordinate Type Range Interpol Ordinate Interpol

#BENCH1 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG

Listing of ASCII file "BENCH1":


* SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS
* TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1-130023-A03.
* FILENAME = "BENCH1"
* RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS)
* ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.)
* INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AXES = LOGARITHMIC.
PERIOD(SEC) ACCELERATION(IN/SEC/SEC)
0.1698E-02 0.1450E+03
0.2800E-01 0.3800E+03
0.5800E-01 0.7750E+03
0.7100E-01 0.7750E+03
0.9100E-01 0.4400E+03
0.1140E+00 0.1188E+04
0.1410E+00 0.1188E+04
0.1720E+00 0.7000E+03
0.2000E+00 0.8710E+03
0.8710E+03 0.2500E+00
0.3230E+00 0.4000E+03
Dynamic Analysis

Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab


The Spectrum Load Cases tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads
(spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the
Dynamic Analysis window.
The Time History Load Cases tab is available when Time History is selected for Analysis
Type in the Dynamic Analysis window. A time history analysis has only one load case.

Load cases consist of simultaneously applied spectra. Each spectrum in the case is assigned
a direction and factor.

Additional Spectrum Options


The following options are only available for the Earthquake (spectrum), Relief
Loads (spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) analysis types.
Editing Load Case - Specifies a load case to edit.
Stress Types - Specifies the stress type for the load case:

OPE - Stress from operating loads.

OCC - Stress from occasional short-term loads.


SUS - Stress from primary sustained loads.


EXP - Stress from secondary thermal expansion loads.


FAT - Stress from fatigue loads.

Fatigue Cycles - Specifies the number of fatigue cycles. This option is only available when FAT
is selected for Stress Types.
Directives - Displays the Directive Builder (on page 712) dialog box.
Add New Load Case - Adds a new load case.
Delete Current Load Case - Deletes the current load case.

Load Cases for Force Spectrum


Spectrum load cases for force spectrum analyses are set up differently than spectrum load
cases for earthquake analyses. Force spectrum analyses must link a force multiplier spectrum
to a force set.
Dynamic Analysis

A load case definition consists of one or more lines, as shown below. The direction specified on
this line does not need to be the direction of the load (which is specified in the force set). This
direction is used for labeling and designation of independent versus dependent loadings.

Spectrum Factor Dir. Force Set #

TESTFILE 1.0 Y 1

Complexity increases as the number of components in the load case goes beyond one,
and as the time history phenomena being modeled deviates from true impulse type loading.
For more information, see Examples (on page 663).

Load Cases for Earthquakes


For earthquakes, the direction defines the orientation of the uniform inertial loading.
Earthquakes typically have X, Y, and Z components. The factor is used to modify the magnitude
of the shock. For example, the seismic evaluation of a piping system includes two load cases:

1.0 times (100% of) the El Centro spectrum in the X direction and 0.67 times (67% of) the El Centro
spectrum in the Y direction
1.0 in Z and 0.67 in Y.
CAESAR II also supports options for independent support motion earthquakes, where parts of
the system are exposed to different shocks. For example, a piping system is supported from
both ground and building supports. Because the building filters the earthquake, supports
attached to the building are not exposed to the same shock as the supports attached to the
ground. Two different shock inputs are required: one for the ground supports and one for the
building supports. To specify an independent support motion shock, the node range that defines
a particular group of supports is required. The maximum displacement (seismic anchor
movements) of the support attachment point must also be specified.
The example below shows a typical uniform support earthquake specification and a typical
independent support motion earthquake:
* UNIFORM SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT
ELCENTRO 1 X
ELCENTRO 1 Z
ELCENTRO .667 Y
* INDEPENDENT SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT
HGROUND 1 X 1 100 1 0.25
HGROUND 1 Z 1 100 1 0.25
VGROUND 1 Y 1 100 1 0.167
HBUILDING 1 X 101 300 1 0.36
HBUILDING 1 Z 101 300 1 0.36
VBUILDING 1 Y 101 300 1 0.24
The uniform support motion earthquake contains only components of the El Centro
earthquake acting uniformly through all of the supports. There is a 33% reduction in the
earthquakes magnitude in the Y direction.
The independent support motion earthquake above has two different support groups: 1-100 and
101-300. The 1-100 group is exposed to a ground spectrum. The 101-300 group is exposed to a
building spectrum. Different horizontal and vertical components are used for the ground and the
Dynamic Analysis

building spectra. The last values specified are the seismic support movements (that is the
Anchor Movement).
Stress Types can be assigned to the spectrum load cases. If FAT is selected, you must
also enter a value for Fatigue Cycles, the number of anticipated load cycles.

Load Case for Time History


Only a single load case is defined for time history analysis. The direction entry (Dir.) is used only
for labeling, not as an analytic input value.

Topics
Spectrum/Time History Profile....................................................... 655
Factor............................................................................................ 655
Dir.................................................................................................. 655
Start Node..................................................................................... 656
Stop Node..................................................................................... 657
Increment...................................................................................... 657
Anchor Movement......................................................................... 657
Force Set #.................................................................................... 657
Force Sets Tab.............................................................................. 658
Examples...................................................................................... 663

Spectrum/Time History Profile


Specifies the name of a spectrum or time history pulse/shock definition applied to the load
case, as defined on the Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on page 648). More than one
definition can be listed, with one on each row. Each spectrum or time history pulse specified is
applied to the model in this load case.

Factor
Specifies a value for the spectrum shock table multiplier. This value is usually 1.0.

Dir.
Specifies the applied direction of the spectrum/DLF shock load. Select X, Y, or Z. You can also
enter direction cosines, such as (.707, 0, .707), or direction vectors, such as (1,0,1).
This value is used as follows, depending on the analysis type:
For earthquake analysis:

Direction specifies the loading direction.

Direction indicates the dependence or independence of the loads. When modal
combinations precede spatial combinations, loads with the same direction are summed
at the modal level before any spatial combination.

Direction acts as an output label for the maximum contributor, such as 3X(1), where the first
profile in direction X is reported as X(1). 3X(1) indicates that the largest contributor to the
total response is from the third mode of vibration and due to the first spectrum/shock
defined as X.
Dynamic Analysis

For force spectrum analysis, the force vector (direction) is already established:

Direction indicates the dependence or independence of the loads as discussed above.

Direction acts as an output label for the maximum contributor, as discussed above for
earthquake analysis.
For time history analysis, time history combinations are algebraic (in-phase):
Direction acts only as an output label for the maximum contributor, such as 3X(1).
To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must know what how the earthquake shock
acts from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II must also know the direction of the shock. A
shock load case is typically comprised of three shock components in the X, Y, and Z directions.
The combination of each of these components shock loads defines the earthquakes dynamic
loading of the piping system.
Skewed directions can be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction vector. Skewed
shock contributions are entered when the piping or structural system appears particularly
sensitive to a shock along a skewed line. This most often occurs when a majority of the piping
system does not lay along the X and Z axes.
Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. For example, there can be two
X direction components. This usually occurs with independent support shock contributions
where one X direction component applies to one support group and another X direction
component applies to a different support group. There can also be two shock components in the
same direction without having independent support contributions, by defining two shock
contributions in the same direction without start, stop, or increment node entries.
In the simplest form of force spectrum loading, there is only a single shock component in the
load case. For that situation, there is only a single line of input on the Load Cases tab. When
there are multiple lines of input on the load case screen, such as in analyzing a traveling
pressure wave that impacts different elbow-elbow pairs, there can be many components to the
shock load case. The combination of responses from each of these shock loading components
can be established in one of two ways. If the value of Direction is the same for each load
component, then the directional combination method is used to combine the responses from
each load component. If the value of Direction is different for each load component, then the
spatial combination method is used to combine the responses from each load component.
Directional combinations are always made before modal combinations, while spatial
combinations can be made before or after modal combinations. The default is to perform the
modal combinations before spatial combinations. Either spatial or directional combinations can
be made using the ABS or SRSS method.

Start Node
Specifies the number of the starting node of a group of restraints at which the spectrum load is
applied for independent support motion analysis (ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint
nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop Node in steps of Increment. The range of
nodes must include at least one node in the piping system.
The component of an independent support shock applies only to a group of support points. For
example, different shock spectra are generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping.
The rack supports are subject to one shock excitation, influenced by the racks response to the
earthquake. The ground level supports are subject to a different shock excitation, not
influenced by the rack. One node range is used to define the rack support shock contributions
and another is used to define the ground support shock contributions.
Dynamic Analysis

This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Stop Node
Specifies the number of the ending node of a group of restraints at which the spectrum load is
applied for independent support motion analysis (ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint
nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop Node in steps of Increment. The range of
nodes must include at least one node in the piping system. If no value is entered, the load is
applied at the start node.
This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Increment
Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node for in a
group of restraints that is loaded by this spectrum for Independent Support Motion analysis
(ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop
Node in steps of Increment. The range of nodes must include at least one node in the piping
system. If no value is entered, the load is applied at the start node.
This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Anchor Movement
Specifies the absolute displacement of the restraints included in this spectrum shock case for
independent support motion analysis (ISM). This displacement is applied to all restrained
nodes in the node group, and is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components
representing the relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If no value is entered, and
if the defined shock for this row does not encompass the entire system, this value is calculated
by the software. The value is taken from the lowest frequency entry of the response spectrum:
the specified displacement, velocity/frequency (for velocity spectra), or acceleration/frequency 2
(for acceleration spectra). Frequency is angular frequency.
This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Force Set #
Specifies the force set number corresponding to a set entered in the Force Sets tab if the
spectrum/load profile name describes a force-type spectrum (instead of displacement, velocity,
or acceleration). For more information, see Force Sets Tab (on page 658). If no value is entered,
Factor and Dir. must also have no values.
This option is not available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.
Dynamic Analysis

Force Sets Tab


The Force Sets tab is available when Relief Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow
(spectrum), and Time History are selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis
window.
Spectrum or time history analysis can have multiple force sets.

Force spectrum analyses, such as a relief valve loading, differ from earthquake analyses
because there is no implicit definition of the load distribution. For example, the loading for
earthquakes is uniform over the entire structure and proportional to the pipe mass. For relief
valves and other point loadings, the load is not uniformly distributed and is not proportional to
the mass. A water hammer load is proportional to the speed of sound and the initial velocity of
the fluid. Its point of application is at subsequent elbow-elbow pairs. Force spectrum analyses
require more information than the more common earthquake simulations: the load magnitude,
direction, and location. Forces that occur together are grouped into like-numbered force sets
and are manipulated in the analysis together. For example, the following shows two different
loading levels of the same type of load:

Force Direction Node Force Set #

-3400 Y 35 1

-1250 Y 35 2

For a skewed load, force components belong to the same force set, because the
components always occur together:

Force Direction Node Force Set #

-2134 Y 104 1

-2134 X 104 1

Force Spectrum Workflow


The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows:
1. Determine the pulse time history acting at a single node or over a group of nodes. The
pulse waveform must be the same for all nodes in a group, but the maximum pulse
amplitude may vary.
2. To convert a time history to a response spectrum, use the DLF/Spectrum Generator (on
page 714) to build a DLF versus frequency file for the time-pulse waveform. This is a
Dynamic Analysis
standard shock table file. This step is not needed for a time history analysis. The data is
automatically added to the dynamic input and can be saved to a separate file.
3. On the Spectrum Definitions tab or Time History Definitions tab, define the DLF versus
frequency file just created as a force spectrum data file with linear interpolation along the
frequency axis and linear interpolation along the ordinate axis. Begin the shock name with
a #. The software then reads the shock table from the data file.
4. Determine the maximum force magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load.
5. On the Force Sets tab, specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, the
direction, and the nodes.
If the force-time profiles are normalized to 1.0, the maximum magnitudes of the loads
are entered here. If the profiles are entered using their actual values, the force set values
are entered as 1.0.
6. On the Spectrum Load Cases tab or Time History Load Cases tab, enter the force
spectrum name (defined in the Spectrum Definitions tab), the table multiplication factor
(usually 1.0), a direction, and the Force Set # (defined on the Force Sets tab). This step
defines the link between the force spectrum and the force loading pattern.
7. Set up any other parameters needed to run the spectrum analysis. Perform error
checking, and after there are no fatal errors, run the analysis.

You can include any number of user comment lines by clicking Cmt. There can be any number
of line entries in the Force spectrum data.

If there are multiple force spectrum components in a single dynamic load case, carefully
select the combination method. The same rules that cover earthquake shocks and
components apply to force spectrum shocks and components

Topics
Force............................................................................................. 659
Direction........................................................................................ 660
Node............................................................................................. 660
Force Set #.................................................................................... 660
Examples...................................................................................... 660

Force
Specifies the magnitude of the impulse force (dynamic load) at the node. The sign of this
value is according to the CAESAR II global coordinate system
The total applied force is the product of this value, the selected force value from the
spectrum or load profile, and the factor entered for the load case.
Dynamic Analysis

Direction
Specifies the direction of the impulse force (dynamic load). Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction
cosines, or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as
(0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Node
Specifies the node at which the impulse force (dynamic load) is applied. The node must exist
in the model.

Force Set #
Specifies the numeric value associated with this row (force set). Force sets are used to construct
the dynamic load cases. Values are arbitrary, but usually start at 1 and increment by
one.
Each impulse can be assigned to a different force set, which provides the most capability
when constructing load cases. Multiple rows with the same value form a single force set.

Examples
Example 1
Nodes 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore production platform.
The dynamic load as a function of time is equal to a half sine wave. The waveform is the same
for all three nodes, but the maximum dynamic load on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is
10,370 lb., and on node 15 is 30,537 lb. Three force sets are built for this problem. One has
the dynamic loads acting in the X direction. The second has the dynamic loads acting in the Z
direction. The third has the dynamic loads acting simultaneously in the X an Z directions. The
force spectrum input data is:
X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

Force Direction Node Force Set #

5030 X 5 1

10370 X 10 1

30537 X 15 1

Z DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

Force Direction Node Force Set #

5030 Z 5 2

10370 Z 10 2
Dynamic Analysis

30537 Z 15 2

X AND Z DIRECTION WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

Force Direction Node Force Set #

5030 X 5 3

5030 Z 5 3

10370 X 10 3

10370 Z 10 3

30537 X 15 3

30537 Z 15 3

Example 2
A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for different reactor decompression conditions. The
maximum load for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. The maximum load for the
second decompression condition is 150 kips in the X direction. The third decompression condition
maximum load is 50 kips. Three different maximum force sets are defined:
REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1

Force Direction Node Force Set #

320000 X 565 1

REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 2

Force Direction Node Force Set #

150000 X 565 2

REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 3 (MOST FREQUENT)

Force Direction Node Force Set #

50000 X 565 3
Dynamic Analysis

Example 3
A startup shock wave passes through a single elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5,
10, and 15 as shown:

As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load on the anchor at 5.
When the shock wave hits the elbow at 10, the axial load in the 5-10 elements balance the
initial imbalance at node 5, and there become an axial imbalance in the 10-15 element. This
shock load is modeled as two completely separate impacts on the piping system. The first is the
dynamic anchor load at 5. If 5 is a flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic
displacements of the piping system and 5 will just be subject to the dynamic time history pulse
due to the shock. Assume the anchor at 5 is a flexible vessel nozzle. The second shock load is
the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 10-15 element that exists until the shock reaches
the node 15. Friction losses in the line reduce the shock magnitude as it travels down the line.
In the time the wave leaves the anchor at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50%
drop in the pulse strength as shown:
Dynamic Analysis

This pressure drop was calculated using a transient fluid simulator. Between nodes 10 and
15 the pulse strength drops even further as shown:

The force spectrum loads are:


X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5

Force Direction Node Force Set #

-5600 X 5 1

Z DIRECTION LOAD ON ELBOW AT 10

Force Direction Node Force Set #

2800 Z 10 2

Examples
Example 1
Define a shock load case that excites the entire piping system with a vibration of one times the
El Centro earthquake in the X direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667
times the El Centro earthquake in the Y direction.

Spectrum Factor Dir.

ELCENTRO 1 X

ELCENTRO 1 Z

ELCENTRO 0.667 Y
Dynamic Analysis

Example 2
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical
components of the Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra for a 2 percent critically damped system.
The maximum ground acceleration is 0.22 gs.
The maximum ground acceleration is set on the Control Parameters tab and has no effect on
the shock load case definitions.

Spectrum Factor Dir.

1.60H2 1 X

1.60V2 1 Y

1.60H2 1 Z

Example 3
Define a shock load case that is comprised of custom shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2.
BENCH1 acts in the X and Z directions, and BENCH2 acts in the Y direction. The scale factor
for all shocks is 1.0.

Spectrum Factor Dir.

BENCH1 1 X

BENCH2 1 Y

BENCH1 1 Z

One of the shock load cases excites the piping system along a line that is 45 degrees off of
the global axes in the horizontal plane. It is suspected that this direction of excitation yields the
worst possible results. Apply the custom shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and
BENCH2 in the vertical direction.

Spectrum Factor Dir.

BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)

BENCH1 1 (-1,0,1
)

BENCH2 1 Y

Example 4
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El
Centro earthquake in the X, Y, and Z directions. There should be two shock load cases. The
first should use an independent summation and the second a simultaneous summation.
The load cases are defined as shown. Remember that independent summation means MODAL
then SPATIAL, and simultaneous means SPATIAL then MODAL.
Dynamic Analysis

There are several ways to accomplish the same objective using parameters on other
tabs, such as the Control Parameters tab. Only the method using the explicit definition of the
load case combination method is shown in this example.
LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS
MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

Spectrum Factor Dir.

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

LOAD CASE 2 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS


SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

Spectrum Factor Dir.

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

Example 5
Define a shock case that has the custom spectrum 1DIR acting only in the Z direction. Set the
stress type for the case to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations.
Modal or spatial summations are not shown below because modal summation is the CAESAR II
default and is controlled by Spatial or Modal Combination First (on page 699) on the Control
Parameters tab.
Stress Types: OPE

Spectrum Factor Dir.

1DIR 1 Z

Example 6
The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting on concrete foundations. The
support nodes 140, 145, 157, 160, and 180 are second level rack sup\-ports, that is, pipe shoes
sitting on structural steel beams in the second level of the rack. The ground level shock
spectrum name is GROUND04, and the second level rack spectrum name is RACKLEVEL2-
04. Set up the shock load case to define these independent support excitations and omit any
relative support movement.
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION
Dynamic Analysis

Start Stop Anchor


Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

GROUND04 1 X 5 56 1 0

GROUND04 1 Y 5 56 1 0

GROUND04 1 Z 5 56 1 0

RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION

Start Stop Anchor


Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 X 140 180 1 0

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 Y 140 180 1 0

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 Z 140 180 1 0

Next, set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use the same
shock components as defined above, except assume that the pseudostatic component is
added using the SRSS combination method. Also change the modal summation method to
SRSS. This is the recommended method. When the modal summation method is SRSS it does
not matter whether modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor
when closely spaced modes are considered in the grouping, 10 percent, and DSRSS methods.
MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS)
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION

Start Stop Anchor


Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

GROUND04 1 X 5 56 1

GROUND04 1 Y 5 56 1

GROUND04 1 Z 5 56 1

RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION

Start Stop Anchor


Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 X 140 180 1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 Y 140 180 1

RACKLEVEL2-04 1 Z 140 180 1


Dynamic Analysis

Example 7
The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: BLAST contains
the DLF response spectrum for relief valve firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET #1
contains the load information and its point of application. Show the load case input that provides
the most conservative combination of modal results. Because there is only a single loading, no
consideration is given to spatial or directional combinations.
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force Set #
ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING
COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR
DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (ABS)
Click Directives to open the Directive Builder dialog box and select these values. For
more information, see Directive Builder (on page 712).
Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. This
will produce the most realistic solution.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (GROUP)

Example 8 (Force Response Spectrum)


There are two elbow-to-elbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Water hammer loads
act on the elbow at 40 in the X direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Y-direction. In the
SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET input, force set #1 is defined as the load at 40 and
force set #2 is defined as the load at 135. Add the response quantities from each load
component first, using an ABS summation, and then the resulting modal response quantities,
using the grouping summation method. Two identical methods for achieving the same results
are shown.
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force set #
BECAUSE THE "DIRECTION" INPUT IS THE SAME, THAT IS "X", FOR BOTH,
LOAD CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD
WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES
ARE COMBINED.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, X, 2
DIRECTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP)
or
BECAUSE THE "DIRECTION" INPUT IS DIFFERENT, THAT IS "X" AND "Y,"
THE SPATIAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE
HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. NOTE THAT
Dynamic Analysis

ON THE DIRECTIVE LINE THE "SPATIAL" DIRECTIVE COMES BEFORE


THE "MODAL" DIRECTIVE.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2
SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP)

Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab


The Static/Dynamic Combinations tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief
Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), and Time History are selected
for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.
Each analysis can have multiple load case combinations. Multiple static and dynamic cases
can exist:

Each static or dynamic case must be on a separate line.

The order of the load cases is not important, and has no effect on the results.


Comment lines may be included.


Static cases alone can be combined without dynamic cases.


Dynamic cases alone can be combined without static cases.


Most piping codes combine occasional dynamic stresses with sustained static stresses. This
combination is compared to the occasional allowable stress.
Each combination references static load case and dynamic load case numbers to be
combined. Any number of static or dynamic loads can be combined in a single combination
load case. Each combination is on a separate row.

Additional Options
The following options are also available:
Editing Load Case - Select a load case to edit.
Stress Types - Select the stress type for the load case:

OPE - Stress from operating loads.

OCC - Stress from occasional short-term loads.


SUS - Stress from primary sustained loads.


EXP - Stress from secondary thermal expansion loads.


FAT - Stress from fatigue loads.

This option is not available for time history analysis.


Fatigue Cycles - Specifies the number of fatigue cycles. This option is only available when FAT
is selected for Stress Types and is s not available for time history analysis.
Directives - Opens the Directive Builder (on page 712) dialog box, where you can control the
combination method parameters, using methods such as ABS and SRSS (square root of the
sum of the squares).
Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Add New Load Case - Adds a new load case.


Delete Current Load Case - Deletes the current load case.

Topics
Load Case..................................................................................... 669
Factor............................................................................................ 669
Examples...................................................................................... 669

Load Case
Specifies the static or dynamic load case to be included in the combination case. Select a load
case from the list. Static load cases start with S, and dynamic load cases are start with D. Each
is then followed by a load case number of a static or shock analysis defined on the Load Cases
tab. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab (on page 653).
The following examples are valid values: S1, STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, and
D#1. Use any length up to 24 characters. For static load case definitions, the static case must exist
and have already been run (also, the S cant refer to a spring hanger design case). For dynamic load
case definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case.

Factor
Specifies a multiplication factor to be applied to the results of the load case. The
resulting product is then used in the combination case. The default is 1.0.

Examples
Example 1
The static load cases are:
1 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)
2 = W+P1+H (SUS)
3 = L1 - L2 (EXP)
The dynamic load cases are:
1 = Operating Basis Earthquake
2 = 1/2 the Operating Basis Earthquake
Combine the operating basis earthquake stresses with the sustained static stresses:

Load Case Factor

STATIC2 1.0

DYNAMIC1 1.0

or
Dynamic Analysis

Load Case Factor

S2 1

D1 1

Example 2
The static load cases are:
1 = W + P1 (For hanger design)
2 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 (For hanger design)
3 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + H (OPE)
4 = W + P1 + H (SUS)
5 = L3 - L4 (EXP)
There is one dynamic load case. Create an occasional case that is the sum of the sustained
and the dynamic stresses using the SRSS combination method and the ABS combination
method. Additionally, combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the SRSS
combination method. This is a total of three combination load cases. The first two static hanger
design load cases cannot be used in a combination case.
* COMBINATION CASE 1:
* SRSS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

Load Case Factor

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

* COMBINATION CASE 2:
* ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(ABS)

Load Case Factor

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

* COMBINATION CASE 3:
* SRSSCOMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES
Dynamic Analysis

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

Load Case Factor

STATIC5 1

DYNAMIC1 1

Stress type and combination are defined on the Directive Builder dialog box. For more
information, see Directive Builder (on page 712).

Example 3
The static load cases are:
1 = W+T1+P+D1+H (OPE)
2 = W+P+H (SUS)
3 = U1 (OCC) Static seismic simulation
4 = L1-L2 (EXP)
5 = L2+L3 (OCC) (SCALAR)
Create an SRSS combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained and
operating static cases:
* COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION (SRSS), STRESSTYPE (OCC)

Load Case Factor

STATIC2 1

STATIC3 1

* COMBINATION CASES 2:
COMBINATION (SRSS), STRESSTYPE (OCC)

Load Case Factor

STATIC1 1

STATIC3 1

Example 4
The static load cases are:
1 = W+P1(Hanger design restrained weight case)
2 = W+T1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #1)
3 = W+T2+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #2)
Dynamic Analysis

4 = WNC+P1(Hanger design actual cold loads)


5 = W+T1+H+P1+D1 (OPE)
6 = W+P1+H(SUS)
7 = L5-L6 (EXP)
Combine the static sustained stresses with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case
2 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 3 results. The combination method is SRSS. For a
second combination case, combine the static sustained stresses with 1/2 the shock case 4
results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results.
* COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION (SRSS)

Load Case Factor

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC1 1/2

DYNAMIC2 1/2

DYNAMIC3 1.333

or
COMBINATION (SRSS)

Load Case Factor

S6 1

D1 0.5

D2 0.5

D3 1.333

* COMBINATION CASE 2:
COMBINATION (SRSS)

Load Case Factor

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC4 0.5

DYNAMIC5 0.5

DYNAMIC6 1.333
Dynamic Analysis

Lumped Masses Tab


This tab displays for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.
Adds or deletes mass from the model.
You can add extra mass, which is not considered significant in the static model (such as a
flange pair) here. You can also add weights modeled as downward-acting concentrated forces
here, because CAESAR II does not assume that concentrated forces are system weights
(that is, forces due to gravity acting on a mass).
You can also delete masses from the static mass model to economize the analysis, which is the
same as deleting degrees-of-freedom. If the system response to some dynamic load is isolated to
specific sections of the piping system, you can remove other sections of the system from the
dynamic model by removing their mass. Also, you can delete mass selectively for any of the three
global coordinate directions when you want to delete directional degrees-of-freedom.
For example, if a piping system includes a structural frame where the piping rests on the
structure and is connected to the structure only in the Y direction, these two systems are
independent of each other in the X and Z directions. You can remove the X and Z mass of the
structure without affecting the analysis results. With the X and Z masses removed,
calculations proceed much faster.

Topics
Mass............................................................................................. 673
Direction........................................................................................ 673
Start Node..................................................................................... 674
Stop Node..................................................................................... 674
Increments.................................................................................... 674

Mass
Specifies the magnitude of the concentrated mass (in current units) to be applied to the specified
node. A positive value is added to the calculated mass assigned to the node, a negative value is
subtracted from the calculated mass, and a zero value eliminates the mass.

Direction
Specifies the direction in which the mass acts. The values for translated mass are X, Y, Z, and
ALL (where ALL represents X, Y, and Z). The values for rotated mass are RX, RY, RZ, and
RALL (where RALL represents RX, RY, and RZ).
Rotational masses only apply when the consistent mass model is used. For more
information, see Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT) (on page 707) on the Control
Parameters tab.
Dynamic Analysis

Start Node
Specifies the number of the starting node at which this mass is applied.
If entered without values for Stop Node and Increment, then the start node must exist in the
piping system. If entered with values for Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes
identified in the range must include at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node
Specifies the number of the ending node in the model to which the mass is applied. Used as
part of a "range of nodes" lumped mass command with Start Node and Increment. This value
is optional.

Increments
Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Used as
part of a "range of nodes" lumped mass command. This value is optional and defaults to 1 if no
value is entered.
There can be any number of line entries on the Lumped Masses tab.
The zero mass capability is particularly useful when you are not interested in the modes for
part of the system. That part of the system is usually modeled only for its stiffness effect.

Example 1
450 is added to the assigned mass at node 40 in the X, Y, and Z directions.
450 ALL 40

Example 2
All nodes from 12 to 25 have all assigned mass removed in the X, Y, and Z directions. Some
nodes may not exist in this range but this is acceptable as long as at least one node in the
range exists in the system.
0.0 ALL 12 25 1

Example 3
375 is added in the X, Y, and Z directions for nodes 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50, if they exist. All
assigned mass is removed for all nodes from 1 and 600 in the X and Y directions.
375 A 25 50 5
0.0 X 1 600 1
0.0 Y 1 600 1
Dynamic Analysis

Snubbers Tab
This tab is available for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.
Add snubbers to the model. Snubbers are supports that only resist dynamic loading while
allowing static displacement, such as displacement from thermal growth. Snubbers must have
their stiffness defined. Snubbers are not rigid by default because they are typically not as stiff
as other types of restraints.
Snubbers may also be added in Input > Piping as part of the static model. In either the
static or dynamic analysis, a snubber is idealized as a stiffness rather than damping at a point.

Topics
Stiffness........................................................................................ 675
Direction........................................................................................ 675
Node............................................................................................. 675
CNode........................................................................................... 675

Stiffness
Specifies the stiffness of the snubber. The value must be positive. If the snubber is rigid enter a
value of 1.0E12.

Direction
Specifies the direction for the line of action of the snubber. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction
cosines, or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as
(0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Node
Specifies the node number where the snubber acts.
Connecting nodes for snubbers work in the same way as for restraints.

CNode
Specifies the second node number to which the other end of the snubber is connected. This
value is optional. If the snubber acts between the piping system and a fixed point in space,
then do not enter a value for CNode.
Connecting nodes for snubbers works in the same way as for restraints.

Example 1
Add a rigid snubber at node 150 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 150

Example 2
Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction.
Dynamic Analysis

1E12 Z 160
1E12 Z 165
1E12 Z 170

Example 3
Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 405 in the Z
direction.
1E12 Z 405 1005

Example 4
Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. The X snubber
connects to the structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber connects to the overhead line
at node 743.
* HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL
5000 X 500 1050.
* VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER
LINE
5000 Y 500 743
Dynamic Analysis

Control Parameters Tab


This tab is available for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.
The type of analysis determines the parameters available on the Control Parameters tab. The
software displays the list of applicable parameters. The control parameters available for each
analysis are shown below:

Table Notes:

X Required.

1 Required if system has nonlinear restraints or hanger design.

2 Used only where friction is defined.

3 Max. No. of Eigenvalues and Frequency Cutoff work as a pair in terminating the eigen extraction.

4 Used if modal combination method is GROUP.

5 Used if modal combination method is DSRSS.


Dynamic Analysis

6 Used if USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spectra are specified in the
shock definition.

7 Used if independent support movement (USM) loads are present or if defined shock does not include
all supports in the system.

8 Used if pseudo-static components are included.

9 Used if missing mass components are included.

10 Used if more than one spectrum load is applied in the same direction.

For modal analysis, set the number of modes of vibration to extract by specifying a
maximum number, a cutoff frequency, or both.

Topics
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Range/TimeHist).......678
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status...........................689
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated............................................. 690
Frequency Cutoff (HZ)................................................................... 692
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms).........693
Load Duration (DSRSS) (sec)....................................................... 694
Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical)............................................... 694
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC - g's) <or> # Time History Output Cases
695
Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes).......699
Spatial or Modal Combination First............................................... 699
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).................................... 700
Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS).....700
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)......703
Include Missing Mass Components............................................... 704
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS)....706
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).........................706
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).............................. 706
Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT)........................................ 707
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues..................... 707

Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Range/TimeHist)


Displays the dynamic analysis type selected for Analysis Type. For more information, see The
Dynamic Analysis Window (on page 636). Displays M (Modal), H (Harmonic), S1 (Earthquake
spectrum), S2 (Relief Loads spectrum), S3 (Water Hammer/Slug Flow spectrum), or T (Time
History).
Harmonic Analysis (on page 679)
Spectrum Analysis (on page 682)
Time History (on page 686)
Dynamic Analysis

Harmonic Analysis
The response of a system to a dynamically applied load is generally expressed through
the dynamic equation of motion:

Where:
M = system mass matrix
= acceleration vector, as a function of time
C = system damping matrix
= velocity vector, as a function of time
K = system stiffness matrix
x(t) = displacement vector, as a function of time
F(t) = applied load vector, as a function of time
The harmonic solver is most commonly used to analyze low frequency field vibrations due to
fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equipment displacements. This differential equation
cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases. Harmonic analysis looks at one of
these casesthe set of dynamic problems where the forces or displacements (such as
pulsation or vibration) acting on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. When damping is
zero under harmonic loading, the dynamic equation of the system can be reduced to
M (t) + K x(t) = F0 cos (w t + Q)
Where:
F0 = harmonic load vector
w = angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec)
t = time
Q = phase angle (radians)
This differential equation is solved directly for the nodal displacements at any time. From there
the system reactions, forces and moments, and stresses are calculated.
The equation has a solution of the form
x (t) = A cos (w t + Q)
Where:
A = vector of maximum harmonic displacements of system
Because acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time,
(t) = -A w2 cos w t
Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic
harmonic equation of motion yields,
-M A 2 cos ( t + Q) + K A cos ( t + Q) = Fo cos ( t + Q)
Dividing both sides of this equation by cos ( t + Q),
Dynamic Analysis
-M A 2 + K A = Fo
Reordering this equation,
(K - M 2) A = Fo
This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (static) piping problems.
The solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a single static solution,
and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading, the results directly give the maximum
dynamic responses. Due to the speed of the analysis, and because the solutions are so
directly applicable, you should make as much use of this capability as possible. Keep two
considerations in mind:
When damping is not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix
is defined as the sum of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh damping), that
is
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and
the constants a and b is

Where:
= Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec)
For practical problems, a is extremely small, and can be ignored. The definition of b
reduces to
= 2 Cc/
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, but two
problems exist. First, for multi-degree-of-freedom systems, there is not really a single b, but
there must be only a single b in order to get a solution of the harmonic equation. The
second problem is that the modal frequencies are not known prior to generation of the
damping matrix. Therefore the w used in the calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the
load, instead of the natural frequency of a mode. When the forcing frequency of the load is
in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the true damping.
If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously and are not in phase, system response is the sum
of the responses due to the individual loads
x(t) = S Ai cos ( t + Qi)
Where:
Ai = displacement vector of system under load i
Qi = phase angle of load i
In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Solutions for each load, and the
sum of these, must be found at various times in the load cycle. These combinations are then
reviewed in order to determine which one causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II
can select the frequency/phase pairs which maximize the system displacement.
Damped harmonics always cause a phased response.
Dynamic Analysis

The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field
vibrations resulting from either fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equipment
displacements. The approach typically used is described briefly below:
1. A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field. Large cyclic vibrations or high
stresses (fatigue failure) are present in an existing piping system, raising questions of
whether this represents a dangerous situation. As many symptoms of the problem (such as
quantifiable displacements or overstress points) are identified as possible for future use in
refining the dynamic model.
2. A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as
possible, because system and load characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed
response. In the area where the vibration occurs, you should accurately represent valve
operators, flange pairs, orifice plates, and other in-line equipment. You may also want to add
additional nodes in the area of the vibration.
3. Assume the cause of the load, and estimate the frequency, magnitude, point, and direction
of the load. This is difficult because dynamic loads can come from many sources. Dynamic
loads may be due to factors such as internal pressure pulses, external vibration, flow
shedding at intersections, and two-phase flow. In almost all cases, there is some frequency
content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical
natural frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably
some multiple of the operating frequency. If the load is due to acoustic flow problems, then
the forcing frequency can be estimated through the use of Strouhals equations (from fluid
dynamics). Use the best assumptions available to estimate the magnitudes and points of
application of the dynamic load.
4. Model the loading using harmonic forces or displacements, normally depending upon
whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration. Perform several harmonic
analyses, sweeping the frequencies through a range centered about the target frequency to
account for uncertainty. Examine the results of each of the analyses for signs of large
displacements, indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, compare the
results of the analysis to the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar, or if
there is no resonance, this indicates that the dynamic model is not a good one. It must then
be improved, either in terms of a more accurate system (static) model, a better estimate of
the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range. After the model has been refined,
repeat this step until the mathematical model behaves just like the actual piping system in
the field.
5. At this point, the model is a good representation of the piping system, the loads and
the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics.
6. Evaluate the results of this run in order to determine whether they indicate a problem.
Because harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evaluated against the endurance
limit of the piping material. Displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or
esthetic guidelines.
7. If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified. The cause is
normally the excitation of a single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load
Factor for a single damped mode of vibration, with a harmonic load applied is

Where:
Dynamic Analysis

DLF = dynamic loading factor


Cc = ratio of system damping to "critical damping,"
where "critical damping" =
f = forcing frequency of applied harmonic load
n = natural frequency of mode of vibration
A modal extraction of the system is done; one or more of these modes should have a
natural frequency close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The problem mode can
be further identified as having a shape very similar to the shape of the total system
vibration. This mode shape has been dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes
and predominates in the final vibrated shape.
8. The problem mode must be eliminated. You typically want to add a restraint at a high point
and in the direction of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode may also be
altered by changing the mass distribution of the system. If no modification of the system is
possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequency of the load. If the dynamic load
was assumed to be due to internal acoustics, you should reroute the pipe to change the
internal flow conditions. This may resolve or amplify the problem, but in either case avoids
CAESAR IIs "good model" of the system. After modifying the system, the harmonic problem
is re-run using the single forcing frequency determined as a "good model." The stresses and
displacements are then re-evaluated.
9. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now re-analyzed
statically to determine the effects of any modifications on the static loading cases.
Adding restraint normally increases expansion stresses, while adding mass
increases sustained stresses.
Process output from a harmonic analysis in two ways:
Use the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either
graphically or in report form.
Animate the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases.
The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/Dynamic
Combination option.

Spectrum Analysis
Spectrum analysis attempts to estimate the maximum response developed in a system during
a transient load. The results are a statistical summation of the maxi\-mum displacements,
forces, reactions, and stresses. The individual responses do not represent an actual physical
loading case because the maxima may all occur at different times. Spectrum analyses are
especially useful when the loading profile is random, or not exactly known, such as with seismic
loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to perform two types of spectrum analyses which may be
combined: seismic and force spectra. Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over
the entire system, or applied through individual support groups with corresponding anchor
movements. Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze impulse loadings, such as those
due to relief valve, fluid hammer, or slug flow.
Dynamic Analysis

Seismic Spectrum Analysis


Seismic loads cannot be solved through time history analyses, because earthquakes cause
random motion which may be different for each earthquake, even those occurring at the same
site. To simplify the analytical definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected
random waveform of acceleration (or velocity or displacement) versus time into a simple
frequency-content plot. The most predominantly used frequency-content plot is the response
spectrum. A response spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by placing a series
of single degree-of-freedom oscillators on a mechanical shake table and feeding a typical (for a
specific site) earthquake time history through it, measuring the maximum response
(displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each oscillator.
The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are different, similar ones should produce the
same maximum responses, even though the time at which they occur differs with each individual
occurrence. Responses are based on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the
dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the pre\-dominant harmonic frequencies of the
earthquake to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping. Response spectra for
a number of damping values can be generated by plotting the maximum response for each
oscillator. A plot of a set of typical response spectra is shown below:

Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, because seismic
loads indicate strong harmonic tendencies. As the damping value increases, the system
response approaches ground motion. Seismic spectra also usually show strong evidence of
flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the
building and/or piping system. Multiple peaks are usually enveloped in order to account for
uncertainties in the analysis. Seismic response spectra peaks are typically spread to account
for inaccuracies as well.
The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that the modes of vibration of a system
respond to the load in the exact same manner as a single degree-of-freedom oscillator.
Dynamic Analysis

System response may be plotted in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration, because


these terms of the spectra are all related by the frequency:
d = v / = a / 2
Where:
d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency v
= velocity from response spectrum at frequency
= angular frequency at which response spectrum parameters are taken
a = acceleration from response spectrum at frequency
Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the following steps:
Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Eigensolver algorithm. Each
mode has a characteristic frequency and mode shape.
1. The maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from
the spectrum value corresponding to the natural frequency of the mode.
2. The total system response is determined by summing the individual modal responses,
using methods that reflect the time independence of the responses and the portion of
system mass allocated to each mode.
There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available in CAESAR II:
El Centro
This predefined data is taken from J. Biggs Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is based
on the north-south component of the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthquake. The
recorded maximum acceleration was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here is intended to apply
to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent critical damping.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60
The predefined spectrum names are:
1.60H.5 1.60V.5 - Horizontal/vertical, 0.5% damping
1.60H2 1.60V2 - Horizontal/vertical, 2.0% damping
1.60H5 1.60V5 - Horizontal/vertical, 5.0% damping
1.60H7 1.60V7 - Horizontal/vertical ,7.0% damping
1.60H10 1.60V10 - Horizontal/vertical, 10.0% damping
These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for
seismic design of nuclear plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum
ground acceleration (ZPAzero period acceleration), specified in the CAESAR II control
parameter spreadsheet.
Uniform Building Code
The pre\-defined spectrum names are:
UBCSOIL1 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils
UBCSOIL2 Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils
UBCSOIL3 Spectrum for soft to medium clays and sands
Dynamic Analysis

These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes for three soil types provided
in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled
by the ZPA, which is the product of Z and I, where Z is the seismic zone coefficient and I is the
earthquake importance factor, from UBC Tables 23-I and 23-L. The ZPA can be specific using
the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.
User defined spectra
User defined spectra may be entered with period or frequency as the range, and displacement,
velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file or entered
directly into a spectrum table during dynamic input processing.

Independent Support Motion Applications


Earthquake ground motions are caused by the passing of acoustic shock waves through the
soil. These waves are usually hundreds of feet long. If supports having foundations in the soil
are grouped together within a several hundred foot radius, they typically see exactly the same
excitation from the earthquake. If all of the supports for a particular piping system are attached
directly to ground type supports, each support is excited by an essentially identical time
waveform. This type of excitation is known as uniform support excitation. Often pipe is
supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These
intermediate structures sometimes filter or accentuate the effect of the earthquake. In this
situation, the supports attached to the intermediate structure are not exposed to the same
excitation as those that are attached directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these
systems, different shocks must be applied to different parts of the piping system. This type of
excitation is known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the different support
groups are exposed to different shocks, there are also relative movements between support
groups that dont exist for uniform support excitation. The movement of one support group
relative to another is termed pseudostatic displacement, or seismic anchor movements. For
uniform support excitation, there are spatial and modal response components available for
combination. For independent support excitation, there are spatial and modal response
components available for each different support group, plus pseudostatic components of the
earthquake that must also be added into the dynamic response.
The major difference when running ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock
load cases. In the uniform excitation case, the shock acts implicitly over all of the supports in
the system. In the ISM case different shocks act on different groups of supports. The Spectrum
Load Cases tab appears, with the following parameters:

Spectrum (name)

Factor

Dir (direction)

Start Node

Stop Node

Increment

Anchor Movement

Name, Factor, and Dir are all that is required for uniform support excitations. For ISM type
shocks, the group of nodes over which the shock acts must be specified as well, using Start
Node, Stop Node, and Increment. Anchor Movement is used to explicitly define the seismic
displacement of the restraint set. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load
Dynamic Analysis

components. If omitted, the software defaults to the displacement derived from the
response spectrum entry corresponding to the lowest frequency.

Force Spectrum Analysis


A similar method can be followed for non-random loads, such as an impulse load for which
the force versus time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem
explains why the force spectrum solution is very similar to the earthquake solution:

The term on the right hand side is a dynamic force acting on the piping system, such as F =
Ma, so the analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:

Where:
F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)
Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a
Dynamic Load Factor spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum gives
the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement.
The earthquake response spectrum analysis method starts with the time history of an
earthquake excitation. The force spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same way,
except that the analysis starts with the force versus time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this
time history loading is applied to a shake table of single degree-of-freedom bodies. A response
spectrum (DLF versus natural frequency) is generated by dividing the maximum oscillator
displacements by the static displacements expected under the same load. An alternate means
of generating a response spectrum for an impulse load is to numerically integrate the dynamic
equation of motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load. Use Tools >
DLF Spectrum Generator.
Process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways:

Use the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation
factors, included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report
form. Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and
shock load responsible for that contribution.

Animate the individual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis.

Time History
Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analytical method than
response spectrum analysis. It is best suited to impulse loadings or other transient loadings
where the profile is known. This method of analysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic
equation of motion throughout the duration of the applied load and subsequent system
vibration, providing a true simulation of the system response.
As noted in Harmonic Analysis (on page 679), the dynamic equation of motion for a system is

This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated using numeric
techniques by slicing the duration of the load into many small time steps. Assuming that the
Dynamic Analysis

change in acceleration between time slices is linear, the system accelerations, velocities,
displacements, and corresponding reactions, internal forces, and stresses are calculated
at successive time steps.
Because the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual
modes of vibration, the above equation can be simplified assuming that the damping matrix C is
orthogonal. Use the transformation x = FX, to be expressed in modal coordinates:

Where:

= acceleration vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time


C = diagonal damping matrix, where entry Ci = wi ci
i = angular frequency of mode i
ci = ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i
(t) = velocity vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
x(t) = displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
= diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry i = i2
This transformation represents N uncoupled second order differential equations, where N is the
number of modes of vibration extracted. N can then be integrated and summed, using the in-
phase, algebraic summation method to give the total system response. CAESAR II uses the
Wilson method (an extension of the Newmark method) to integrate the equations of motion,
providing an unconditionally stable algorithm regardless of time step size chosen.
Only one dynamic load can be defined for a time history analysis. This dynamic load case can
be used in as many static/dynamic combination load case as necessary. The single load case
may consist of multiple force profiles applied to the system simultaneously or sequentially. Each
force versus time profile is entered as a spectrum with an ordinate of Force (in current units)
and a range of Time (in milliseconds). The profiles are defined by entering the time and force
coordinates of the corner points defining the profile.
A time can only be entered once. A time with zero force outside of the defined profile
need not be entered explicitly.
For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as:

Time (MS) Force Time (MS) Force

0.0 0.0 20.0 1000.0

10.0 300.0 60.0 1000.0

20.0 1000.0 30.0 0.0


Dynamic Analysis

The load profiles are linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, direction, and location of the
applied load) in the shock case. The magnitude of the applied load is determined by the product
of the profile force, the force set magnitude, and the scale in the shock case.
You can enter only forces, not moments or restraint displacements, in the time history load
profile. Model moments using force couples, and simulate restraint displacements by
entering forces equal to the displacement multiplied by the restraint stiffness in the direction
of the displacement.
Process output from a Time History analysis in three ways:

Use the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,
included mass/force, displacements, and restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form.
CAESAR IIs implementation of time history analysis provides two types of results.
One results case contains the maximum individual components (such as axial stress, X-
displacement, and MZ reaction) of the system response, along with the time at which it
occurred. Several results cases represent the actual system response at specific times.
Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient
load responsible for that contribution.

Animate the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the
displacements, forces, moments, stresses, and other data associated with individual
elements are displayed at every time step and for the dynamic load alone, or for any of the
static/dynamic combinations.

Animate the individual mode shapes included in the time history response.
Dynamic Analysis

Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status


(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, Range, and Time History)
Specifies the static load case as described below. Select a load case from the list.
CAESAR II cannot perform a dynamic analysis on nonlinear systems. For dynamic analyses, a
one-directional restraint must be modeled as either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a
gap must be either open (inactive) or closed (active). This process is automated when the static
load case is selected. CAESAR II automatically sets the linear condition at the non-linear
restraints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case. Think of this as
being the loading condition of the system (such as operating load) at the time at which the
dynamic load occurs. This automated linearization does not always provide an appropriate
dynamic model, and you may need to select other static load cases or manually alter the
restraint condition in order to simulate the correct dynamic response.
A static load case must precede the dynamics job whenever:

There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The static runs must be made in order to
determine the spring rate to be used in the dynamic model.

There are non-linear restraints in the system, such as one-directional restraints, large-
rotation rods, bi-linear restraints, or gaps. The static analysis must be made in order to
determine the active status of each of the restraints for linearization of the dynamic model.

There are frictional restraints in the job, such as any restraints with a nonzero (mu)
value. The most common static load cases during a typical CAESAR II analysis are:

Example 1: Analyses containing no hanger design


1 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)
2 = W+P1+H (SUS)
3 = L1-L2 (EXP)
If the operating condition is likely to exist throughout the duration of the dynamic transient, use
parameter 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during the transient, use parameter 2. It
is extremely unlikely that expansion case 3 is correct, because it does not represent the system
status at any given time, but represents the difference between the first two cases.

Example 2: Analyses containing hanger design


1 = W+P1(For hanger design)
2 = W+P1+D1+T1(For hanger design)
3 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)
4 = W+P1+H (SUS)
5 = L3-L4 (EXP)
The correct static load cases to use are those in which the selected spring hangers have
been included. If the operating condition is the correct load case, use parameter 3. For the
installed condition, use parameter 4.
Dynamic Analysis

Stiffness Factor for Friction


(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, Range, and Time History)
Specifies the friction stiffness factor as described below. Enter a value greater than zero to
consider friction stiffness in the analysis. Enter 0.0 to ignore friction in the analysis.
Dynamic analyses in CAESAR II act only on linear systems, so any non-linearities must be
linearized prior to analysis. Modeling of friction in dynamic models presents a special case,
because friction actually impacts the dynamic response in two ways. Static friction (before
breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system by providing additional restraint. Kinetic friction
(after breakaway) affects the damping component of dynamic response. Due to mathematical
constraints, damping is ignored for all analyses except time history and harmonics, for which it
is only considered on a system-wide basis.
CAESAR II allows friction to be taken into account through the use of this friction stiffness
factor. The software approximates the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including
stiffnesses transverse to the direction of the restraint at which friction was specified. The
stiffness of these "frictional" restraints is calculated as:
Kfriction = (F) () (Fact)
Where:
Kfriction = Stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II.
F = The load at the restraint taken from the selected static solution.
= Friction coefficient at restraint, as defined in the static
model. Fact = Friction stiffness factor entered here.
This factor should be adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the
actual dynamic response of the system. The factor does not correspond to any actual dynamic
parameter, but is actually an adjustment factor to modify system stiffness. Entering a friction
factor greater than zero causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into the dynamic
analysis. Increasing this factor correspondingly increases the effect of the friction. Values such
as 1000 are typical. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any frictional effect in the
dynamic analysis.

Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated


(Available for: Modal, Spectrum, and Time History)
Specifies the number of modal responses to be included in the system results through a
mode number cutoff. Enter a value for Setting. Enter 0 to limit modes extracted to the value
of Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692). Enter higher values as described below.
The first stage of the spectrum and time history analyses (and the only step for modal
analysis) is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm to extract piping system natural frequencies
and mode shapes. For the spectrum and time history analyses, the response under loading is
calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being the sum of the individual
modal responses. The more modes that are extracted, the more the sum of those modal
responses resembles the actual system response. This algorithm uses an iterative method for
finding successive modes, so extraction of a large number of modes usually requires much
more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to extract
sufficient modes to get a suitable solution, without straining computational resources.
Dynamic Analysis
This parameter is used, in combination with Frequency Cutoff (HZ), to limit the maximum
number of modes of vibration to be extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this parameter
is entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is limited only by the frequency cutoff and
the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system model.

Example
A system has the following natural frequencies:

Mode Number Frequency (Hz)


1 0.6

2 3.0

3 6.1

4 10.7

5 20.3

6 29.0

7 35.4

8 40.7

9 55.6

The modes extracted for different values of Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated and
Frequency Cutoff are:

Max. No. of Number of


Eigenvalues Frequency Modes
Calculated Cutoff extracted
0 33 7

0 50 9

3 33 3

9 60 9

If you are more interested in providing an accurate representation of the system displacements,
request the extraction of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time. However, if an
accurate estimate of the forces and stresses in the system is the objective, calculation time
grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more modes. This is particularly true when solving
a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axial restraints. Often modes with natural
frequencies of up to 300 Hz are large contributors to the solution.
To determine how many modes are sufficient, extract a certain number of modes and review the
results. Repeat the analysis by extracting five to ten additional modes and comparing the new results
to the old. If there are significant changes between the results, repeat the analysis again,
Dynamic Analysis

adding five to ten more modes. This iterative process continues until the results taper
off, becoming asymptotic.
This procedure has two drawbacks. First is the time involved in making the multiple analyses
and the time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The second
drawback, occurring with spectrum analysis, is less obvious. A degree of conservatism is
introduced when combining the contributions of the higher order modes. Possible spectral mode
summation methods include methods that combine modal results as same-sign (positive)
values: SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUP. Theory states that the rigid modes act in phase with
each other, and should be combined algebraically, permitting the response of some rigid modes
to cancel the effect of other rigid modes. This is what occurs in a time history analysis. Because
of this conservatism, it is possible to get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite
the fact that the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load cannot be greater than 2.0.

Frequency Cutoff (HZ)


(Available for: Modal, Spectrum, and Time History)
Specifies a frequency cutoff point in Hertz as described below.
When extracting modes to be used in dynamic analysis, you can specify a value for either Max.
No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (on page 690) or a frequency cutoff. Modal extraction ceases
when the Eigensolver extracts either the number of modes requested, or extracts a mode with
a frequency above the cutoff, whichever comes first.
You can select a frequency cutoff point for modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized "rigid"
frequency, and then include the missing mass correction For more information, see Include
Missing Mass Components (on page 704). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the
resonant peak of the response spectrum provides a non-conservative result, because resonant
responses may be missed. During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right of the
peak, but still in the resonant range, yields either over- or under-conservative results, depending
upon the method used to extract the ZPA from the response spectrum. For time history
analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range,
usually yields non-conservative results. The missing mass force is applied with a dynamic load
factor of 1.0. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response
may be conservative in the case of spectrum analysis, because all spectral modal combination
methods (such as SRSS, GROUP, and ABS) give conservative results versus the algebraic
combination method used during time history analysis. This gives a more realistic
representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum
shown below, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction is about 33 Hz.
1. Non-conservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range)
2. Conservative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF1.6)
3. Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF1.05for missing
mass contribution, minimizes combination of rigid modes)
Dynamic Analysis
4. Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using non-conservative summation
methods)

When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or Max.
No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (on page 690) must have a value.

Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms)


(Available for: Spectrum/GROUP and Time History)
Specifies a frequency or time-slice spacing as described below. The usage of this parameter
varies with the analysis type.

Spectrum Analysis
For a spectrum analysis with the GROUP Modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC
Regulatory Guide 1.92), this value specifies the frequency spacing defining each modal group,
that is, the percentage of the base frequency between the lowest and highest frequency of the
group. Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing criteria as 10%, or 0.1. This is the
default value in CAESAR II. For more information, see Modal Combination Method
(Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).

Time History Analysis


For a time history analysis, this value is the length of the time slice, in milliseconds. The
software uses the value during its step-by-step integration of the equations of motion for each of
the extracted modes. CAESAR II uses the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration method
where any size time step provides a solution. A smaller step provides greater accuracy but more
strain on computational resources. The time step should be sufficiently small that it can
accurately map the force versus time load profile (that is, the time step should be smaller than
typical force ramp times). Additionally, the time step must be small enough that the contribution
of the higher order modes is not filtered from the response. For this reason, the time step
should be selected so that time step (in seconds) times maximum modal frequency (in Hz) is
less than 0.1. For example, if Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692) is 50 Hz, this value should
be set to a maximum of 2 milliseconds:
Dynamic Analysis

0.002 sec x 50 Hz = 0.1

Load Duration (DSRSS) (sec)


(Available for: Spectrum/DSRSS and Time History)
Specifies the duration of the applied dynamic load, as described below.

Spectrum Analysis
For a time history analysis, this parameter specifies the total length of time over which the
dynamic response is simulated. The load duration divided by the time step size from Closely
Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693) gives the total number of
integration steps making up the solution. CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to 5000 or
as permitted by available memory and system size. The duration should be at least equal to the
maximum duration of the applied load plus the period of the first extracted mode. This allows
simulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the external load, plus one full
cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the response dies out according to the
damping value used. For example, if the applied load is expected to last 150 milliseconds and
the lowest extracted frequency is 3 Hz, set the load duration to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3, or
0.483 seconds.

Time History Analysis


For a spectrum analysis using the double sum (DSRSS) modal combination method (as
defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this value specifies the duration of the earthquake.
This duration is used to calculate the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data.
For more information, see Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on
page 700).

Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical)


(Available for: Spectrum/DSRSS, Harmonics, and Time History)
Specifies the ratio of critical damping as described below. Typical values for piping systems, as
recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N-411, range from 0.01 to
0.05, based upon pipe size, earthquake severity, and the natural frequencies of the system.
Damping is not generally considered in the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or
harmonic analysis. It is ignored or solved as specialized cases in most analyses, and must be
instead considered through adjustment of the applied loads (by generation of the response
spectrum) and/or system stiffness.
For a time history analysis, damping is used explicitly, because this method uses a numeric
solution to integrate the dynamic equations of motion.
For a spectrum analysis using the double sum (DSRSS) modal combination method (as defined
by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), the damping value is used in the calculation of the modal
correlation coefficients. CAESAR II does not permit the specification of damping values for
individual modes. For more information, see Modal Combination Method
(Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).
For a harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix
can be expressed as multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices:
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
Dynamic Analysis

On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping C c and the constants
and are given as:

Where:
= undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec)
For many practical problems, is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing
the relationships to:
=0
= 2 Cc /
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with the exception
that a single is calculated for the multi-degree-of-freedom system, and the used is that of the
load forcing frequency. When the forcing frequency is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this
gives an accurate estimate of the true damping value.

ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC - g's) <or> # Time History Output


Cases
(Available for: Spectrum/1.60/UBC and Time History)
Specifies an acceleration factor or distinct times as described below. The usage of this
parameter varies with the analysis type.
Dynamic Analysis

Normalized Response Spectra


For specific pre-defined normalized response spectra, this value is the acceleration factor (in g's) by
which the spectrum is scaled. For example, when a spectrum analysis uses one of the pre-defined
spectra names beginning with "1.60" (such as 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II constructs an
earthquake spectrum according to the instructions given in USNRC (formerly USAEC) Regulatory
Guide 1.60. This guide requires that the shape of the response spectrum be chosen from the curves
shown in the following figures, based upon the system damping value. The last number in the default
CAESAR II spectrum name indicates the percent critical damping. For example, 1.60H.5 indicates
0.5% critical damping, while 1.60V7 indicates 7%. If the analysis uses one of the pre-defined spectra
names beginning with "UBC" (such as UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic
response spectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991
Edition). Reg Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized to represent a ground acceleration
(ZPA or zero period acceleration) of 1g. The true value is actually site dependent. Therefore, using
the ZPA value appropriately scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building Code
response spectra.
Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Time History Analysis


For a time history analysis, this value is the number of distinct times at which the results of the
load cases (the dynamic load as well as all static/dynamic combinations) are generated. In
addition, CAESAR II generates one set of results for each load case containing the maximum of
each output value (such as displacement, force, or stress) along with the time at which it
occurred. The times for which results are generated are determined by dividing as evenly as
possible the load duration by the number of output times. For example, if the load duration is
one second and five output cases are requested, results are available at 200, 400, 600, 800,
and 1000 milliseconds, in addition to the maximum case. The total number of results cases
generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one dynamic case plus
the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per load
(one maxima case plus the requested number of output cases). The total number of results
cases is limited to 999:
Dynamic Analysis

(1 + # Static/Dynamic Combinations) x (1 + # Output Cases) 999


At least one output case, in addition to the automatically generated maxima case, must be
requested. More than one is not necessary, because the worst case results are reflected in
the maxima case and individual results at every time step are available through the ELEMENT
command when animating time history results.

Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes)


(Available for: Spectrum and Time History)
Specifies the handling of the previous eignesolution when repeating a dynamic analysis. Select
N (for no) to perform a new eigensolution. Select Y (for yes) to skip the eigensolution and reuse
the results of the earlier analysis, and only perform calculations for displacements, reactions,
forces, and stresses. This option is only valid after an initial eigensolution is performed and is
still available. The mass and stiffness parameters of the model must be unchanged or the
previous eigensolution is invalid.

Spatial or Modal Combination First


(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining load case results as described below. Select Spatial to first
combine spatial components of the load case. Select Modal to first combine modal components
of the load case.
In a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if multiple
shocks have been applied to the structure in multiple directions, the results must be combined,
such as spatially combining the X-direction, Y-direction, and Z-direction results. A difference in
the final results (spatial first versus modal first) arises whenever different methods are used for
the spatial and modal combinations. The combination of spatial components first implies that
the shock loads are dependent, while the combination of modal components first implies that
the shock loads are independent.
Dependent and independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components
of the earthquake. With a dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake
have a direct relationship. A change in the shock along one direction produces a corresponding
change in the other directions. For example, an earthquake acts along a specific direction
having components in more than one axis, with a fault at a 30 angle between the X- and Z-
axes. The Z-direction load is scaled by a factor of tan 30, but the identical version of the X-
direction load is used. In this example, spatial combinations should be made first.
An independent shock has X, Y, and Z time histories producing related frequency spectra but
completely unrelated time histories. The Independent type of earthquake is far more
common, so in most cases the modal components should be combined first.
For example, IEEE 344-1975 (IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of
Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations) states:
"Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by simultaneous but
statistically INDEPENDENT horizontal and vertical components."
Dynamic Analysis

This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations. Normally there are no separate
spatial components to combine because X- Y- and Z-shocks are not acting simultaneously.
When there is more than one potential force load, the spatial combination method may be used
to indicate the independence of the loadings. For example, select Modal if two independent
relief valves may or may not fire simultaneously and the two shocks are defined as being in
different directions (such as X and Y). If the two valves are dependent and will definitely open
simultaneously, select Spatial. Otherwise, the direction defined for a force spectrum loading has
no particular meaning.


Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requirements for
combining spatial components when performing seismic response spectra analysis for
nuclear power plants.

Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), this option has no effect on
time history results.

Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)


(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a single spectrum
load case. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method.
Select ABS for an absolute combination method.
This option is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation direction.
Because directional forces are usually combined vectorially, SRSS is usually the best
selection. ABS is provided for additional conservatism.
Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this option has
no effect on time history results.

Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)


(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining individual modes into the total system response.
GROUP - Grouping Method (on page 701)
10% - Ten Percent Method (on page 701)
DSRSS - Double Sum Method (on page 702)
SRSS - Square Root of the Sum of the Squares Method (on page 702)
ABS - Absolute Method (on page 703)

The response spectrum yields the maximum response at any time during the course of the
applied load, and each of the modes of vibration usually have different frequencies .As a result,
the peak responses of all modes do not occur simultaneously and an appropriate means of
summing the modal responses must be considered.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the requirements for
combining modal responses when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear
power plants. The four options presented there are available, along with one other, for modal
combinations under non-nuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses.
Dynamic Analysis

Grouping Method
This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The grouping method attempts to
eliminate the drawbacks of the Absolute and SRSS methods. It assumes that modes are
completely correlated with any modes with similar closely spaced frequencies, and are
completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies. The total
system response is calculated as

Where:
R = total system response of the element
N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination R k
= the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode
P = number of groups of closely-spaced modes (where modes are considered to be
closely-spaced if their frequencies are within 10% of the base mode in the group),
excluding individual separated modes. No mode can be in more than one group.
i = number of first mode in group q
j = number of last mode in group q
Rlq = response of mode l in group q
Rmq = response of mode m in group
q
The responses of any modes which have frequencies within 10% of each other are added
together absolutely, and the results of each of these groups are combined with the
remaining individual modal results using the SRSS method.
The 10% value controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies can be changed
by using the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693)
parameter.

Ten Percent Method


This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The ten percent method is
similar to the grouping method. It assumes that modes are completely correlated with any
modes with similar closely spaced frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those
modes with widely different frequencies. The grouping method assumes that modes are only
correlated with those that fall within the group (within a 10% band). This method assumes that
modes are correlated with those that fall within 10% of the subject model, effectively creating a
20% band (10% up and approximately 10% down). The total system response is calculated as

Where:
Ri, Rj = the peak value of the response of the element due to the i th and jth mode,
respectively, where mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of the each other,
Dynamic Analysis

The 10% value controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies can be changed
by using the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693)
parameter.

Double Sum Method


This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination method is the most
technically correct for earthquake loads, because it attempts to estimate the actual intermodal
correlation coefficient based upon empirical data. The total system response is calculated as:

Where:
Rs = the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s
eks = intermodal correlation coefficient = [ 1 + {( k' - s') /(k' k + s' s)}2 ]-1
k' = k [ 1 - k2 ]1/2
2 1/2
s' = s [ 1 - s ]
k' = k + 2 / ( td k )
s' = s + 2 / ( td s )
k = frequency of mode k, rad/sec
s = frequency of mode s, rad/sec
k = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode k,
dimensionless s = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode
s, dimensionless td = duration of earthquake, sec
The load duration (td) and the damping ratio () can be specified by using the Load
Duration (DSRSS) (sec) (on page 694) and Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical) (on page
694) parameters.

Square Root of the Sum of the Squares Method


This method defines the total system response as the square root of the sum of the squares
of the individual modal responses. This is effectively the same as using the double sum
method with all correlation coefficients equal to 0.0, or the grouping method with none of the
modes being closely spaced. The total system response is calculated as:

This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses are completely
independent, with the maxima following a relatively uniform distribution throughout the duration
of the applied load. This is usually non-conservative, especially if there are any modes with very
Dynamic Analysis

close frequencies, because those modes will usually experience their maximum DLF
at approximately the same time during the load profile.
Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), this modal
combination method has no effect on time history results.

Absolute Method
This method defines the total system response as the sum of the absolute values of the
individual modal responses. This is effectively the same as using the double sum method
with all correlation coefficients equal to 1.0, or the grouping method, with all modes being
closely spaced. The total system response is calculated as:

This method gives the most conservative result, because it assumes that the all maximum
modal responses occur at exactly the same time during the course of the applied load. This
is usually overly-conservative, because modes with different natural frequencies will probably
experience their maximum DLF at different times during the load profile.

Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)


(Available for: Spectrum with ISM included)
Specifies the inclusion of independent support motion (anchor movement) components as part
of a shock load case and independent support spectral loadings, as described below. Select Y
(for yes) to include the components or N (for no) to ignore them.
The excitation of a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static
response. The static response is due to the movement of one group of supports or anchors
relative to another group of supports or anchors. These static components of the dynamic
shock loads are called pseudostatic components. USNRC recommendations (August 1985)
suggest the following procedure for pseudostatic components:
1. For each support group, calculate the maximum absolute response for each input direction.
2. Combine same direction responses using the absolute sum method.
3. Combine directional responses using the SRSS method.
4. Obtain the total response by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using
the SRSS method.
Dynamic Analysis

Include Missing Mass Components


(Available for: Spectrum and Time History)
Specifies the inclusion of a correction representing the contribution of higher order modes
not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, providing greater accuracy without
additional calculation time. Select Y (for yes) or N (for no).
During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a
system under a dynamic load is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the
advantages of this type of modal analysis is that only a limited number of modes are excited
and need to be included in the analysis. The drawback to this method is that although
displacements may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few of the lowest frequency
modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require extraction of far more modes
(possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.
This option automatically calculates the net (in-phase) contribution of all non-extracted modes
and combines it with the modal contributions, avoiding the long calculation time and excessively
conservative summation methods. For more information, see Inclusion of Missing Mass
Correction (on page 919).
Use Included Missing Mass Components on the Control Parameters tab as an alternative
method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model. This report is
compiled for all spectrum and time history shock cases, whether missing mass is to be
included or not. It displays the percentage of system mass along each of the three global axes
and the percentage of total force which has been captured by the extracted modes. For more
information, see Include Missing Mass Components (on page 704).
The percentage of system mass active along each of the three global axes (X-, Y-, and Z-) is
calculated by summing the modal mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degree-
of-freedom) attributed to the extracted modes and dividing that sum by the sum of the system
mass acting in the same direction:
Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X-direction degrees of freedom):

% Active Massx

Summed over 1 = 2 to n, by 6 (Y-direction degrees of freedom):

% Active MassY

Summed over 1 = 3 to n, by 6(Z-direction degrees of freedom):

% Active Massz

Where:
Me = vector (by degree-of-freedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective
modal masses
M = vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass matrix
Dynamic Analysis
The maximum possible percentage of active mass that is theoretically possible is 100%, with
90-95% usually indicating that a sufficient number of modes have been extracted to provide
a good dynamic model.
The percentage of active force is calculated by the following factors:

Separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three
directional degrees-of-freedom

Combining them algebraically

Doing the same for the applied load

Taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load

Examples
Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X - Direction degrees of freedom):
Fex = Fe[i]
Fx = F[i]
Summed over i = 2 to n, by 6 (Y - Direction degrees of freedom):
Fey = Fe[i]
Fy = F[i]
Summed over i = 3 to n, by 6 (Z - Direction degrees of freedom):
Fez = Fe[i]
Fz = F[i]
Where:
FeX,FeY,FeZ = effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting along the global X-, Y-,
and Z-axes, respectively
Fr = vector of effective forces (allocated to extracted modes)
FX,FY,FZ = total system forces acting along the global X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively
F = vector of total system forces
The maximum possible percentage which is theoretically possible for this value is also 100%.
In practice it may be higher, indicating an uneven distribution of the load and mass in the
system model. There is nothing inherently wrong with an analysis where the included force
exceeds 100%. If the missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings are adjusted to
automatically conform to the applied loading. The percentage of included force can often be
brought under 100% by extracting a few more modes. At other times, the situation can be
remedied by improving the dynamic model through a finer element mesh, or, more importantly,
equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.
Dynamic Analysis

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb.


Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining pseudostatic responses with dynamic (inertial)
responses. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method.
Select ABS for an absolute combination method.
This option is applicable only when there is at least one independent support motion excitation
component in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are performed after all directional,
spatial, and modal combinations. Select SRSS for pseudostatic combinations, as
recommended by USNRC. ABS gives conservative results. For more information, see Include
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) (on page 703).

Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)


(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining the missing mass/force correction components with the
modal (dynamic) results. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination
method. Select ABS for an absolute combination method.
Research suggests that the modal and rigid portions of the response are statistically
independent, so SRSS is usually most accurate. ABS provides a more conservative result,
based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the maximum
ground acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal
combination. For more information, see Include Missing Mass Components (on page 704).
Even though missing mass components may be included during time history analyses, all
time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), so this parameter has no effect on
time history results.

Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)


(Available for: Spectrum)
Specifies the method for combining shock components acting in the same direction.
Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method. Select
ABS for an absolute combination method.
This option is typically used with independent support motion load cases, where responses from
different support groups caused by excitation in the same direction are combined. It also combines
the rare case of multiple uniform shock spectra acting in the same direction. Select ABS for
directional combinations of pseudostatic responses, as recommended by USNRC. Select SRSS for
force spectrum loads when several loads are all defined with the same shock direction. The loads
are then modeled as independent loads. ABS always models as dependent loads. For more
information, see Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)
(on page 703).
Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter
has no effect on time history results.
Dynamic Analysis

Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT)


(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, and Time History)
Specifies a mass model type. Select CONSISTENT or LUMPED.
A lumped mass model makes very coarse simplifications that often result in correspondingly
coarse results. The benefit is that it does not require a lot of memory for data storage.
The consistent mass model is well documented. Most texts on the subject, such as Structural
Dynamics - Theory and Computation by Mario Paz, describe how to build the mass matrix.
The consistent mass matrix takes into consideration the effects of bending and other rotational
effects of the beam on its mass distribution, gives a more realistic result, but requires much
more data storage.


If mass is added at a degree of freedom, CAESAR II assumes that it is a concentrated mass,
and puts it on the on-diagonal term, effectively treating it as a lumped mass.

If mass is zeroed at a degree of freedom, CAESAR II assumes that you want to eliminate
consideration of that DOF and zero out all elements on that row/column.

Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues


(Available for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
Specifies usage of the Sturm sequence calculation as described below. Select Y (for yes) or N
(for no). Y is the default value.
In most cases, the eigensolver detects modal frequencies from the lowest to the highest
frequency. When there is a strong directional dependency in the system, the modes may
converge in the wrong order. This could cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff
number of modes, but has not found the modes with the lowest frequency.
This procedure determines the number of modes that should have been found between the
highest and lowest frequencies, and compares that against the actual number of modes
extracted. If those numbers are different, a warning appears. For example, if 22 natural
frequencies are extracted for a system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33.5 Hz, the
Sturm sequence checks that there are exactly 22 natural frequencies in the model between
zero and 33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical tolerance found from:

The Sturm sequence check fails where there are two identical frequencies at the last
frequency extracted. For example, consider a system with the following natural frequencies:

0.6637 1.2355 1.5988 4.5667 4.5667

If you only ask for the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm sequence failure occurs
because there are five frequencies that exist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p
(where p is 0.0041). To correct this problem, you can:
Increase the frequency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported
by the Sturm sequence check.)
Dynamic Analysis
Increase the value of Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692) by some small amount, if the
frequency cutoff terminated the eigensolution. This usually allows the lost modes to fall
into the solution frequency range.
Fix the subspace size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation
vectors improves the possibility that at least one of them contains some component of the
missing modes, allowing the vector to properly converge.

Advanced Tab
This tab is available when Modal, Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads (spectrum), Water
Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), and Time History are selected for Analysis Type in the
Dynamic Analysis window.
The values on this tab rarely need to be changed.

Topics
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues..............708
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance............................................................... 709
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance............................................ 709
Subspace Size (0-Not Used)......................................................... 709
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used).................... 710
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed).............................. 710
% of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization........................711
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)........................711
Use Out-of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N)............................................... 711
Frequency Array Spaces............................................................... 711

Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues


Specifies the approximate number of significant figures in the calculated eigenvalues (2,
where is the angular frequency in rad/sec). The default value is 6. For example, if a
calculated eigenvalue is 44032.32383 using the default value of 6, then the first digit to the right
of the decimal is usually the last accurately computed figure.
The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are calculated to half as many significant figures as are
the eigenvalues. If the eigenvalues have six significant figures of accuracy, then the
eigenvectors have three.
This number should not be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unusual but result in
slower solutions with little change in response results.
Dynamic Analysis

Jacobi Sweep Tolerance


Specifies the Jacobi sweep tolerance in scientific notation. The default value is 1.0E-12.
Eigen analyses use an NxN subspace to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for
a reduced problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subspace.
Iterations are performed until the off-diagonal terms of the matrix are approximately zero. Off-
diagonal terms are considered to be close enough to zero when their ratio to the on-diagonal
term in the row is smaller the Jacobi sweep tolerance.
Do not change the default value unless you understand the IEEE-488 double precision
word (of approximately 14 significant figures) on the IBM PC and the approximate size of the
on-diagonal coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved (which may be
estimated from simple beam expressions).

Decomposition Singularity Tolerance


Specifies the decomposition singularity tolerance for the eigensolver in scientific notation. The
default value is 1E10.
During the decomposition of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, the eigensolver performs
a singularity check to make sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be
calculated. If a singular condition is detected, a new shift, not quite as aggressive as the last
one, is calculated and a new decomposition is attempted. If the new composition fails, a fatal
error is reported. Increasing the singularity tolerance may eliminate this fatal error, but do not
enter a value greater than 1E13. Singularity problems may also exist when very light, small
diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter piping, or when very short lengths of
pipe are adjacent to very long lengths of pipe.

Subspace Size (0-Not Used)


Specifies the subspace size as described below. The default value is 0 and usually does
not need to be changed. The software then selects an expected optimal subspace size.
The eigensolution reduces the NDOFxNDOF problem to an NxN problem during each subspace
iteration, where N is the subspace size.
For the default value of 0, CAESAR II uses the square root of the bandwidth as the subspace
size, with a minimum of 4, resulting in sizes of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations.
Increasing the subspace size slows the eigensolution but increases the numerical stability.
Values in the range between 12 and 15 are appropriate when unusual geometries or dynamic
properties are encountered, or when a job is large (having 100 elements or more, and/or
requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracted).
Dynamic Analysis

No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used)


Specifies the shifting strategy for the eigen problem to be solved as described below.
For a value of 0, CAESAR II selects an estimated optimal shifting strategy. Improving the
convergence characteristics increases the speed of the eigensolution. The convergence rate for
the lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to 1/2, where 1 is the lowest
eigenvalue in the current subspace and 2 is the next lowest eigenvalue in the current
subspace. A slow convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of one, and a fast
convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is employed to get the
convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of
the system set of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus
90 percent of the difference between this value and the lowest estimated nonconverged
eigenvalue in the subspace. As 1 shifts closer to zero, the ratio 1/2 becomes increasingly
smaller and the convergence rate increases. When eigenvalues are very closely spaced,
shifting can result in eigenvalues being lost (as checked by the Sturm sequence check).
A large value entered for this parameter effectively disables shifting so that no eigenvalues are
missed, but the solution takes longer to run. When the system to be analyzed is very large,
shifting the set of equations can be very time consuming. In these cases, set the value
between 4 and 8.

No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed)


Specifies the number of subspace iterations per shift as described below.
For a value of 0, CAESAR II calculates an estimated optimal number of iterations. This
parameter and % of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization (on page 711) control solution
shifting by limiting the number of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalizations. Trying to limit this number is
very dangerous for small subspace problems, but less dangerous when the subspace size is
large, at around 10-20 percent of the total number of eigenpairs required.
Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is by default performed once during each subspace iteration.
The orthogonalization assures that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already
found eigenpair. A large number of repeated eigenpairs calculations can appreciably slow down
the extraction of the highest eigenpairs. Proper setting of these two parameters limits the
orthogonalization in the eigensolution, such as to every second, third, or fourth iteration, and
increases the solution speed. The subspace may still converge to earlier eigenpairs during
subsequent non-orthogonalized subspace iteration passes.
Use caution when setting these parameters. Select Y as the value for Force
Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) (on page 711) if the frequency of orthogonalization
is slowed.
Dynamic Analysis

% of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization


Specifies the decimal equivalent of the needed percentage, as described below.
For a value of 0, CAESAR II calculates a number of iterations per shift to be performed. A maximum
of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the subspace size
(although this is highly unlikely). By default a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is performed for each
subspace pass. This parameter and No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed) (on page 710)
control solution shifting by limiting the number of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalizations. For example, if
12 is the number of iterations, and this parameter is 50 percent (entered as 0.50), the Gram-Schmidt
orthogonalization is performed every six iterations.

Use caution when setting these parameters. Select Y as the value for Force
Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) (on page 711) if the frequency of orthogonalization
is slowed.

Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)


Specifies whether CAESAR II forces orthogonalization after eigenpair convergence. Select Y
(for yes) or N (for no).
Select Y for eigensolutions when % of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization (on page
711) is set to a non-zero value. When a subspace pass completes and sees at least one
eigenpair convergence, a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is performed even if the specified
percentage of iterations has not been completed.

Use Out-of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N)


Specifies use of the out-of-core eigensolver. Select Y (for yes) or N (for no).
This out-of-core eigensolver is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. Select Y
to automatically run the out-of-core eigensolver on any problem size. Using this solver can take
considerably more time than the in-core solver, but always produce exactly the same results.
A problem may be too big to fit into the in-core solver because the capacity is based upon the
amount of available extended memory. The out-of-core solver then runs automatically. This
parameter does not need to be changed to Y to have this automatic switch occur.

Frequency Array Spaces


Specifies the maximum number of eigenpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The
default value of 100 is arbitrary. Increase the value as needed.
Dynamic Analysis

Directive Builder
Click Directives on the Spectrum Load Cases or Static/Dynamic Combinations tabs to open
the Directive Builder dialog box and select parameters for the current load case. These
parameters are load-case-specific changes to the global parameters set for all dynamic analysis
load cases. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab (on page 653)
and Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668).
For most analyses, the global parameters apply and you do not need to specify the
parameters on this dialog box.

Directional Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).
Modal Combination Method - Select GROUP, 10%, DSRSS, SRSS, or ABS. For more
information, see Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).
Spatial Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 700).
Spatial or Modal Combination First - Select SPATIAL or MODAL. For more information, see
Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes) (on page 699).
Pseudostatic Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).
Missing Mass Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see Missing
Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).
Static/Dynamic Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS to define how the load case is
combined. The ABS method takes the absolute value of all displacement, force, and stress data
for each load case and adds them. The SRSS method sums the square of all displacement,
force, and stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of the result. This is the
only parameter available on the Static/Dynamic Combinations tab.
Dynamic Analysis

Enter/Edit Spectrum Data


Enter/Edit Spectrum Data and Tools > Spectrum Data Points allow you to view and edit
spectrum data for manually-entered or ASCII-file-based spectrum definitions.
The command is available when entering values on the Spectrum Definitions tab or the Time
History Definitions tab. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on
page 648).
Click the command, make a selection in the Select a Spectrum Name dialog box, and click OK.
The spectrum name dialog box appears. You can add, edit, or delete rows, or add ASCII data.
Enter a sufficient number of data points to fully describe the spectrum.

Add Row - Adds a new row after the selected row.


Delete Row - Deletes the selected row.
Read From File - Reads data from an ASCII text file.

Range
Specifies a spectrum range value. The range/ordinate pairs define the spectrum/DLF curve.
Dynamic Analysis

Ordinate
Specifies a spectrum ordinate value. The range/ordinate pairs define the spectrum/DLF curve.
Valid formats are:

Exponents, such as 0.3003E+03, 0.3423E-03, or 0.3003E3.

Explicit multiplication or division, such as 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12.

DLF/Spectrum Generator
DLF/Spectrum Generator and Tools > DLF Spectrum Generator converts spectrum time
waveform excitation data into a frequency domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. DLF data
is automatically referenced in the Spectrum Definitions tab. For more information, see
Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on page 648).
The DLF curve can also be saved to a file and later referenced by CAESAR II as a FORCE
response spectrum curve.

Spectrum Name
Displays the name of the selected value of Spectrum Type. You can type a different name.
For UBC, ASCE7, IBC, and CFE Diseno por Sismo:
This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that is generated here. A suffix
of H and V is added to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum, respectively. After it has
been properly entered, these names are listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be
used to build load cases on the Spectrum Load Cases tab.
For B31.1 Relief & User Defined Time History Waveform:
This is the name given to the Force Response Spectrum created from the time history
load defined here. After it has been properly entered, this name is listed in the Spectrum
Definitions tab and can be used to build load cases on the Spectrum Load Cases tab.
Dynamic Analysis

Spectrum Type
Specifies the name of the spectrum. The data from this spectrum is used to generate the
DLF curve.

UBC
Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the 1997
Uniform Building Code.
The horizontal design response spectrum is based on UBC Figure 16-3 shown below.
Dynamic Analysis

Ts=Cv/2.5Ca & T0=Ts/5

The vertical spectrum is to 50% of ICa across the entire period range.
Dynamic Analysis

Importance Factor
Specifies the seismic importance factor, I, as defined in Table 16-K. The calculated spectrum
accelerations are multiplied by this value to generate the horizontal shock spectrum. Values
range from 1.0 to 1.25 based on the function of the structure.
For this code, the vertical shock spectrum is also multiplied by the importance factor.

Seismic Coefficient Ca
Specifies the zero period acceleration, Ca, for the site as defined in Table 16-Q. The value is
based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, and ranges from 0.06 to 0.66.

Seismic Coefficient Cv
Specifies the ground acceleration at higher periods (lower frequencies), Cv, for the site as
defined in Table 16-R. The value is based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, and
ranges from 0.06 to 1.92.

ASCE7
Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the ASCE 7 standard.
The horizontal design response spectrum is based on ASCE 7. Figure 9.4.1.2.6 (ASCE 7-2010)
is shown below.
Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5.
Above a period of four seconds, the horizontal spectrum acceleration changes.

The vertical spectrum is set to 20% of SDS (from 9.5.2.7.1) across the entire period
range. Neither I nor R affects the vertical spectrum.
Dynamic Analysis

Importance Factor
Specifies the occupancy importance factor, based on the function of the structure. The
calculated spectrum accelerations are multiplied by this value to generate the horizontal
shock spectrum.

ASCE 7 - The occupancy importance factor is I, as defined in Table 11.5. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5
and applied according to paragraph 12.9.2.

IBC - The occupancy importance factor is IE, as defined in Section 1616.2 and shown in Table
1604.5. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5.

Site Coefficient Fa
Specifies the acceleration-based site coefficient Fa. This value adjusts the mapped short
period acceleration and is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period
maximum considered earthquake acceleration (Ss). Values range from 0.8 to 2.5.

ASCE 7 - Fa is listed in Table 11.4-1.

IBC - Fa is listed in Table 16.15.1.2(1).

Site Coefficient Fv
Specifies the velocity-based site coefficient Fv. This value adjusts the mapped one-second
period acceleration and is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped one-second
period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (S1). Values range from 0.8 to 3.5.

ASCE 7 - Fv is listed in Table 11.4-2.

IBC - Fv is listed in Table 1615.1.2(2).

Mapped MCESRA at Short Periods (Ss)


Specifies the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at
short periods, Ss. This is the mapped ground acceleration at the system location for a structure
having a period of 0.2 second and 5% critical damping.

ASCE 7 - Ss values are mapped in Chapter 22.

IBC - Ss values are mapped in Section 1615.1.

Mapped MCESRA at One Second (S1)


Specifies the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at a
period of one second, S1.This is the mapped ground acceleration at the system location for
a structure having a period of one second and 5% critical damping.

ASCE 7 - S1 values are mapped in Chapter 22.

IBC - S1 values are mapped in Section 1615.1.


Dynamic Analysis

Response Modification R
Specifies the response modification coefficient, R. This coefficient reflects system ductility. The
calculated spectrum accelerations are divided by this value to generate the horizontal shock
spectrum. Values range from 3.0 to 8.0 for most plant structures. A value of 3.5 for piping is
common.

ASCE 7 - R is defined in Table 12.2-1 and applied according to paragraph 12.9.2.

IBC - R is defined in Table 1617.6 and used according to equation 16-53.

Long-Period Transition Period TL


Specifies the period of time for a longer-period structure when generating an ASCE 7
Spectrum Type in Dynamic Analysis. TL is determined from new maps, which are similar to
zone maps, for all 50 states. The ASCE standard provides these maps in Figures 22-12
through 22-16 (ASCE 7-2010). In addition, Section 11.4.5 of ASCE 7-2010, discussions the
constant-displacement branch of the code.

IBC
Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the
International Building Code, 2000.
The horizontal design response spectrum is based on IBC 2000, Fig. 1615.1.4 shown below.
Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5

The vertical spectrum is set to 20% of SDS (from 1617.1.2) across the entire period range.
IBC generally uses the same spectrum data parameters as ASCE7 (on page 717).
Dynamic Analysis

CFE Diseno por Sismo


Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the
Mexico's Earthquake Resistant Design code.
As with every other earthquake loading analysis, the object is to calculate the shear force at
the center of mass of each vessel element. After the shear force at each elevation is known,
the moments are accumulated to the base, leg or lug support.
You should begin the analysis by calculating the weights and centroidal distances of all of the
vessel elements. It is very important to model the structure in sections that are appropriate in
length. For cylinders, this value is about 10 or 12 feet (3 m). This ensures that the software
has enough information to calculate the natural period of vibration with sufficient accuracy.
Using the input data and calculated earthquake weights and natural frequency, CAESAR II
determines the values from table 3.1 of the Mexican Seismic Code.
The values are:

ao Spectral coordinate used in computing a

c Spectral coordinate used in computing a

Ta(s) Period value used in computing a

Tb(s) Period value used in computing a

r Exponent used in computing a

For group A structures, the values of the spectral ordinates a o and c are multiplied by 1.5.

Seismic Zone
Specifies the seismic zone. Select A, B, C, or D. The zones are described in Manual de
Diseno por Sismo for Mexico. The map on page 1.3.29 shows the seismic zones.

Soil Type
Specifies the soil type.

I - Hard Soil - Ground deposits formed exclusively by layers with propagation velocity b0 = 700 m/s
or modulus of rigidity 85000.

II - Medium Soil - Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity
of propagation which meets the condition Bc Ts + Bs Tc > Bc Tc.

III - Soft Soil - Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity of
propagation which meets the condition Bc Ts + Bs Tc < Bc Tc.
Dynamic Analysis

Structural Group
Specifies the structural group based on the degree of safety. Select A - High Safety, B -
Intermediate Safety, or C - Low Safety.
Towers and tanks are examples of group A structures requiring a high degree of safety in
their design

Increase Factor
Specifies a value for the increased factor of safety, as required by some facilities. The default
value is 1.0. This value directly multiplies the spectrum values. This value is traditionally 1.118
and should always be greater than or equal to 1.0.

B31.1 Appendix II (Safety Valve) Force Response Spectrum


Selecting to create a normalized force response spectrum for loads from a safety valve
discharge into an open system according to the nonmandatory rules of B31.1, Appendix II -
Rules for the Design of Safety Valve Installations.
The spectrum is based on B31.1 Appendix II, Fig. II-3-2.

Opening Time
Specifies the opening time of the relief value in milliseconds.
Dynamic Analysis

User Defined Time History Waveform


Select to create a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor or DLF) spectrum based
on manually entered load versus time history.

Maximum Table Frequency


Specifies the maximum frequency in the table to be used to generate the DLF curve. This value
is usually no more than 100 Hz and is commonly 40 to 60 Hz for relief valves. For other types of
impulse loadings, a larger maximum may be needed.
If piping frequencies greater than this value are found in the system and included in the
spectrum analysis, then the spectrum value at the maximum table frequency is used. You can
decide which frequencies are important and how high the frequency must go by looking at the
solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes. Only the lower frequencies
typically contribute to the system displacements, forces, and stresses.

Number of Points
Specifies the number of points to be generated for the spectrum table. Fifteen to twenty points are
usually sufficient. These points are distributed in a cubic relationship starting at zero hertz.

Enter Pulse Data


Specifies time and force pulse data for the waveform. Click Enter Pulse Data to enter the Time
and Force values as shown below. This command is available only for User Defined Time
History Waveform.

Figure 2: Input Table Dialog

Save/Continue - Saves the force spectrum values to an ASCII file.


Dynamic Analysis

Time
Specifies time waveform values in milliseconds for the points to be modeled.

Force
Specifies forces corresponding to the points on the force/time curve.
The absolute magnitude of the force is not important, but the form of the time history
loading is important. The actual maximum value of the dynamic load is taken from the force
pattern defined on the Force Sets Tab (on page 658). There can be any number of line entries in
the excitation frequency data.

Generate Spectrum
Displays the Spectrum Table Values dialog box with the force spectrum values based on
entered spectrum data.
This command is available for all values of Spectrum Type except User Defined Time History
Waveform.

Save To File - Saves the force spectrum values to an ASCII file. For seismic spectra, two files
are saved: horizontal (with H appended to the file name) and vertical (with V appended to the
file name). Use this command if you want to reuse the spectrum values in other analyses. Click
OK if you only want to use the values in the current analysis.
OK - Loads the spectrum data into the current analysis.
Cancel - Closes the window without loading the spectrum data into the current analysis.
Dynamic Analysis

Relief Load Synthesis


Relief Load Synthesis and Tools > Relief Load Synthesis calculates the magnitudes of
relieving thrust forces. Dynamic forces associated with relieving devices can cause
considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. There are two types of
destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devices that must be evaluated:

Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface.

Acoustic shock due to the sudden change in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure
waves.
The first step in performing a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the
relieving thrust forces. For open-type vent systems, use Relief Load Synthesis . Results
are calculated for liquids and for gases greater than 15 psig.
This command is only available when Relief Loads (spectrum) and Time History are
selected as Analysis Type.
The discussion here concerns only the thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface. Acoustic
traveling pressure waves can be addressed similar to water hammer. For more information, see
Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis (on page 638).

Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig


Click Gas to enter gas properties. CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent
stack/relief system design maintains the following gas properties:
Dynamic Analysis

Line Temperature
Specifies the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved. This is typically the
gas temperature upstream of the relief valve.

Pressure (abs)
Specifies the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved. This is typically the gas
pressure upstream of the relief valve. This value is the absolute pressure.
Stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity in
the line is high.

ID of Relief Valve Orifice


Specifies the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief valve
throat. This information is typically provided by the relief valve manufacturer.

ID of Relief Valve Piping


Specifies the flow passage inside diameter of the relief valve piping.

ID of Vent Stack Piping


Specifies the inside diameter of the vent stack piping. If CAESAR II is sizing the vent stack, or
if the vent stack piping is the same size as the relief valve piping, then do not enter a value.

Length of the Vent Stack


Specifies the length of the vent stack. Add double the lengths of fittings and elbows or
calculate the appropriate equivalent lengths for non-pipe fittings and add the lengths. Typical
values for these constants are shown below:

Ratio of Gas-Specific (k) Gas Constant (R) (ft. lbf./lbm./deg. R


Heats

Superheated Steam 1.300 Nitrogen 55.16

Saturated Steam 1.100 Carbon Dioxide 35.11

Nitrogen 1.399 Acetylene 59.35

Carbon Dioxide 1.288 Ammonia 90.73

Acetylene 1.232 n-Butane 26.59

Ammonia 1.304 Ethane 51.39

n-Butane 1.093 Ethylene 55.09


Dynamic Analysis

Ratio of Gas-Specific (k) Gas Constant (R) (ft. lbf./lbm./deg. R


Heats

Ethane 1.187 Methane 96.33

Ethylene 1.240 Propane 35.05

Methane 1.226

Propane 1.127

This value is a required.

Ratio of Gas Specific Heats (k)


Specifies the ratio of gas specific heats, k. The value for air is 1.4.

Gas Constant (R)


Specifies the gas constant, R. The value for air is 53.0.

Does the Vent Pipe have an Umbrella Fitting (Y/N)


Specifies whether or not the vent pipe has an umbrella fitting. Select Y (for yes) if the vent stack slips
inside of the piping system, or N (for no) if the vent stack is connected to the piping system.

Umbrella Fitting Example


The vent stack pipe is not hard-piped to the relief valve pipe. The relief valve pipe slips inside
of the vent pipe.

CAESAR II User's Guide 726


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Non-Umbrella Fitting Example


The vent stack pipe is hard-piped to the relief valve pipe.

Should CAESAR II Size the Vent Stack (Y/N)


Specifies whether or not the software sizes the vent stack. Select Y (for yes) for CAESAR II to
calculate the length and diameter of the vent stack. The software sizing algorithm searches
through a table of available inside pipe diameters starting at the smallest diameter until a vent
stack ID is found that satisfies the thermodynamic criteria. The calculated inside diameter is
automatically inserted into the input.

Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids


Click Liquid to enter liquid properties. CAESAR II assumes that a liquid vent system has one
of the following configurations:

CAESAR II User's Guide 727


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Relief Valve or Rupture Disk


Specifies whether a relief valve or rupture disk is used. Select RV for a relief valve. The software sets
the nozzle coefficient, k, to 0.80. Select RD for a rupture disk. The software sets the nozzle
coefficient, k, to 0.67. You can also enter the relieving device nozzle coefficient k if it is known.

Supply Press. (abs)


Specifies the stagnation, or zero velocity, pressure of the supply line.

ID Relief Orifice or Rupture Disk Opening


Specifies the inside diameter of the contracted opening in the relieving device. This
information is typically provided by the relief valve manufacturer.
For special purpose calculations, this ID may be equal to the ID of the relief exit piping.

ID Relief Exit Piping


Specifies the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve.

ID Manifold Piping
Specifies the insider diameter of the manifold if the relief exit piping runs into a manifold. Do
not enter a value if there is not a manifold.

ID Supply Header
Specifies the inside diameter of the supply header.

Fluid Density (Specific Gravity)


Specifies the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved.

Length of Relief Exit Piping


Specifies the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping length for fittings
and elbows, or the calculated fitting equivalent length.

CAESAR II User's Guide 728


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Length of Manifold Piping


Specifies the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. Add twice the piping length for
fitting and elbows. Enter 0 or do not enter a value if there is not a manifold system or if the
manifold is not filled by the relieving fluid.

Fluid Bulk Modulus


Specifies the bulk modulus of the fluid. If no value is entered, a default valve of 250,000 psi is
used. See Example Output - Liquid Relief Load Synthesis (on page 734) for typical values.
These are the values for an iso\-thermal compression as taken from Marks Standard
Handbook for Engineers, p. 3-35, 8th edition.

Supply Header Pipe Wall Thickness


Specifies the wall thickness of the supply header.


The error message "NUMERICAL ERROR OR NO FLOW CONDITION DETECTED," means
that a physically impossible configuration was described.

Flashing of volatile relief liquids is not considered in this analysis. If the relieving liquid
flashes in the exhaust piping as its pressure drops to atmospheric, then use another method
to calculate the resulting gas properties and thrust loads.

CAESAR II User's Guide 729


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Example Output - Gas Relief Load Synthesis

Figure 3: Relief Load Synthesis Output (Gas)

Topics
Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas)........................................... 731
Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface....................................... 731
Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit........................................................... 731
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening................................... 732
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing.................................... 732
Thermodynamic Entropy Limit/Subsonic Vent Exit Limit...............732
Valve Orifice Gas Conditions/Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions/Subsonic
Velocity Gas Conditions................................................................ 733

CAESAR II User's Guide 730


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas)


The calculated gas mass flow rate, based on choked conditions at the relief orifice. If
greater mass flow rates are expected, then investigate the error in either the approach used
by CAESAR II or in the expected mass flow rate.

Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface


The thrust load acting back on the relief valve piping if there is an umbrella fitting between the
vent stack and the relief valve piping.
If the vent stack is hard piped to the relief valve piping, then this intermediate thrust is
balanced by tensile loads in the pipe and can be ignored.

Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack
interface thrust acts in this
configuration.

Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit


The thrust load acting on the elbow just before the pipe opens into the atmosphere when there
is an elbow in the vent stack piping.

CAESAR II User's Guide 731


Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening


The estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that is superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave moves back through the
relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer
type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the
stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header
piping.

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing


The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that is superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief device slams shut. This positive pressure wave moves back through
the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water
hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid
density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.

Thermodynamic Entropy Limit/Subsonic Vent Exit Limit


The thermodynamic entropy limit or subsonic vent exit limit. These values should always be
greater than one. If either value falls below 1.0, then the thermodynamic assumptions
made regarding the gas properties are incorrect and the calculated thrust values should be
disregarded.

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Valve Orifice Gas Conditions/Vent Pipe Exit Gas


Conditions/Subsonic Velocity Gas Conditions
The thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in the relief system.

The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is based on an ideal gas equation of state. If the
pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being vented are outside of the range
where the ideal gas laws apply, then some alternate source should be sought for the calculation of
the thrust loads of the system. In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the
gas saturation line. When the exit gas conditions become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load
can be reduced significantly. In this case, consult the manufacturer.

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Example Output - Liquid Relief Load Synthesis


Computed Mass Flow Rate
The calculated exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the
necessary pressure drop calculations between the stagnation pressure upstream of the
relief device and atmospheric conditions at the exit of the manifold.

Thrust at the End of the Exit Piping


The calculated thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold,
then this is the external thrust load acting on the piping system. If there is a manifold, then this
thrust is opposed by tension in the pipe wall at the junction of the exit piping and manifold. For
more information, see the graphics in Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow
Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions (on page 735).

Thrust at the End of the Manifold Piping


The calculated thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If there is no
manifold system, then this thrust is equal to the thrust at the end of the exit piping. See the
figures that follow for clarification. For more information, see the graphics in Orifice Flow
Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions (on page 735).

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening


The estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that is superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave moves back through the
relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer
type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the
stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header
piping.

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing


The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that is superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief device slams shut. This positive pressure wave moves back through
the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water
hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid
density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow


Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions
The calculated fluid properties at the three critical cross-sections in the relief piping. If
pressures or velocities here do not seem reasonable, then some characteristic of the relief
model is in error.

If the L dimensions are significant (by several feet), then unbalanced thrust loads acting
between the elbow-elbow pairs are very similar to a water hammer load. Water hammer pulses
travel at the speed of sound in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface pulses travel at the
velocity of the flowing fluid. These unbalanced loads can cause significant piping
displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads is equivalent to the
calculated thrust and the duration may be found from the calculated fluid velocity and distance
between each elbow-elbow pair.

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Analysis Results
Each type of dynamic analysis has its own procedure for producing results, but all start in
the same way:
1. Save and check the dynamic input.
2. Run the analysis.
3. The account number is requested (if accounting is active).
4. The ESL is accessed (limited run ESLs are decremented).
5. The element and system stiffness matrices are assembled.
6. Load vectors are created where appropriate.
7. The system mass matrix is generated.
From this point the processing progresses according to the type of analysis selected.
After calculations are complete, control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. For more
information, see Dynamic Output Processing (on page 740).

Topics
Modal............................................................................................ 737
Harmonic....................................................................................... 738
Spectrum....................................................................................... 738
Time History.................................................................................. 739

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Modal
After dynamic initialization and basic equation assembly are completed, CAESAR II opens
the Dynamic Eigensolver, which calculates natural frequencies and modes of vibration.

Each natural frequency appears as it is calculated, along with the lapsed time of the analysis.
The processor searches for the natural frequencies, starting with the lowest, and continues
until the frequency cutoff is exceeded or the mode count reaches its limit. Both the frequency
cutoff and mode cutoff are dynamic analysis control parameters. The amount of time to
calculate or find these frequencies is a function of the system size, the grouping of the
frequencies and the cutoff settings.
Eigensolution may be canceled at any time, with the analysis continuing using the mode shapes
calculated up to that point. After the last frequency is calculated, the software uses the Sturm
Sequence Check to confirm that no modes were skipped. If the check fails, you can return to the
dynamic input or continue with the spectral analysis. Sturm Sequence Check failures are usually
satisfied if the frequency cutoff is set to a value greater than the last frequency calculated.
After calculations are complete, control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. You can
review natural frequencies and mode shapes in text format. You can also display the node
shapes in and animated format.

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Harmonic
For each forcing frequency listed in the dynamic input, CAESAR II performs a separate
analysis. These analyses are similar to static analyses and take the same amount of time to
complete. At the completion of each solution, the forcing frequency, its largest calculated
deflection, and the phase angle associated with it are listed. The root results for each frequency,
and the system deflections, are saved for further processing. Only twenty frequencies may be
carried beyond this point and into the output processor. When all frequencies are analyzed, the
software presents the frequencies. You can then select the frequencies and phase angles
needed for further analysis. This choice can be made after checking deflections at pertinent
nodes for those frequencies.

Selecting Phase Angles


Phased solutions are generated when damping is considered or when you enter phase angles
in the dynamic input.
For all phased harmonic analyses, you can select separate phase angle solutions, including the
cycle maxima and minima, for each excitation frequency. Each separate phase angle solution
represents a point in time during one complete cycle of the system response. For a solution
without phase angles, you know when the maximum stresses, forces, and displacements occur.
When phase angles are entered, you do not know when the maximum stresses, forces, and
displacements are going to occur during the cycle. For this reason, the displacements and
stresses are often checked for a number of points during the cycle for each excitation frequency.
You must select these points interactively when the harmonic solution ends.
There is a complete displacement, force, moment, and stress solution for each
frequency/phase selected for output. You have the option of letting the software select the
frequency/phase pairs offering the largest displacements on a system basis. The largest
displacement solution usually represents the largest stress solution, but this is not always
guaranteed. The displaced shapes for the remaining frequencies are processed like static
cases, with local force, moment, and stress calculations. Control then shifts to the Dynamic
Output Processor, which provides an animated display of the harmonic results.
All harmonic results are amplitudes. For example, if a harmonic stress is reported as 15,200
psi, then the stress due to the dynamic load, which is superimposed onto any steady state
component of the stress, can be expected to vary between +15,200 psi and -15,200 psi. The
total stress range due to this particular dynamic loading is 30,400 psi.

Spectrum
The spectrum analysis procedure can be broken down into:

Calculating the systems natural frequencies, mode shapes, and mass participation factors

Pulling the corresponding response amplitudes from the spectrum table and calculating the system
response for each mode of vibration

Combining the modal responses and directional components of the shock.
The first part of the analysis proceeds exactly as in modal analysis.
After natural frequencies are calculated, system displacements, forces, moments, and stresses are
calculated and combined on the modal level. After all the results are collected, the Dynamic

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Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

Output Processor appears. You can review spectral results, natural frequencies, and animated
mode shapes.

Time History
Modal time history analysis follows steps similar to a spectrum analysis. The modes of
vibration of the system are calculated. The dynamic equation of motion is solved through
numeric integration techniques for each mode at a number of successive time steps. The
modal results are then summed, yielding system responses at each time step.
The Dynamic Output Processor displays one load case (and optionally, one load combination)
with the maximum loads developed throughout the load application. You can also request
snap-shot cases at different load levels.

CAESAR II User's Guide 739