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- Static & Dynamic analysis of piping system
- Caesar
- Structural Trunnion
- Local Stress Analysis by Chris Hinnant
- Dynamic Behavior of Torsionally Sensitive RC Frames
- Condition Assessment Based on PMS
- Pipe Support Standard Specification
- trunnion.
- Rolls-Royce M250-C20R SERIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 720000_4
- 40 MHz Frequency Meter
- Spring
- Vibration Analysis SDOF.
- Prac2 Balance
- research paper
- Report
- Investigation of the effects of geometry and boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of beams
- Ods
- Viber_A[1]
- Ejercicios_Dinámica
- MCT 4311-4328 Final Sem2!12!13-V5-With Solutions

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S ECTION 10

Dynamic Analysis

Performs dynamic analysis on a piping model. This section introduces dynamic analysis

concepts and describes data input for each of the options available. The command is also

available from Analysis > Dynamics.

In This Section

Dynamic Loads in Piping Systems................................................ 628

Model Modifications for Dynamic Analysis.................................... 634

Dynamic Analysis Workflow.......................................................... 635

The Dynamic Analysis Window..................................................... 636

Excitation Frequencies Tab........................................................... 639

Harmonic Forces Tab.................................................................... 641

Harmonic Displacements Tab........................................................ 645

Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab......................................... 648

Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab....................................... 653

Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab................................................. 668

Lumped Masses Tab..................................................................... 673

Snubbers Tab................................................................................ 675

Control Parameters Tab................................................................ 676

Advanced Tab............................................................................... 708

Directive Builder............................................................................ 712

Enter/Edit Spectrum Data.............................................................. 713

DLF/Spectrum Generator.............................................................. 714

Relief Load Synthesis................................................................... 724

Analysis Results............................................................................ 736

A piping system can respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of

the same magnitude. Static loads are those which are applied slowly enough that the system

has time to react and internally distribute the loads, thus remaining in equilibrium. In

equilibrium, all forces and moments are resolved (that is, the sum of the forces and moments

are zero) and the pipe does not move.

A dynamic load changes quickly with time. The piping system does not have time to internally

distribute the loads. Forces and moments are not always resolved, resulting in unbalanced

loads and pipe movement. Because the sum of forces and moments are not in equilibrium, the

internally-induced loads can be differenteither higher or lowerthan the applied loads.

The software provides several methods for analyzing different types of system response under

dynamic loads. Each method provides a trade-off of accuracy versus computing requirements.

The methods include modal natural frequency calculations, harmonic analysis, response

spectrum analysis, and time history analysis.

Modal natural frequency analysis measures the tendency of a piping system to respond to dynamic

loads. The modal natural frequencies of a system typically should not be too close to

Dynamic Analysis

equipment operating frequencies. As a general rule, higher natural frequencies usually cause

less trouble than low natural frequencies. CAESAR II provides calculation of modal natural

frequencies and animated plots of the associated mode shapes.

Harmonic analysis addresses dynamic loads that are cyclic in nature, such as fluid pulsation in

reciprocating pump lines or vibration due to rotating equipment. These loads are modeled as

concentrated forces or displacements at one or more points in the system. To provide the

proper phase relationship between multiple loads, a phase angle can also be used. Any number

of forcing frequencies can be analyzed for equipment start-up and operating modes. Harmonic

responses represent the maximum dynamic amplitude the piping system undergoes and have

the same form as a static analysis: node deflections and rotations, local forces and moments,

restraint loads, and stresses. For example, if the results show an X displacement of 5.8 cm at a

node, then the dynamic motion due to the cyclic excitation is from +5.8 cm. to -5.8 cm. at that

node. The stresses shown are one half of, or one amplitude of, the full cyclic stress range.

Response spectrum analysis allows an impulse-type transient event to be characterized by

response versus frequency spectra. Each mode of vibration of the piping system is related to

one response on the spectrum. These modal responses are summed together to produce the

total system response. The stresses for these analyses, summed with the sustained stresses,

are compared to the occasional stress allowables defined by the piping code. Spectral analysis

can be used in a wide variety of applications. For example, in uniform inertial loading, ground

motion associated with a seismic event is supplied as displacement, velocity, or acceleration

response spectra. The assumption is that all supports move with the defined ground motion and

the piping system catches up to the supports. It is this inertial effect which loads the system.

The shock spectra, which define the ground motion, can vary between the three global

directions and can even change for different groups of supports (such as independent or

uniform support motion). Another example is based on single point loading. CAESAR II uses

this technique to analyze a wide variety of impulse-type transient loads. Relief valve loads,

water hammer loads, slug flow loads, and rapid valve closure type loads all cause single

impulse dynamic loads at various points in the piping system. The response to these dynamic

forces can be predicted using the force spectrum method.

Time history analysis is one of the most accurate methods, because it uses numeric

integration of the dynamic equation of motion to simulate the system response throughout the

load duration. This method can solve any type of dynamic loading, but due to its exact solution,

requires more resources (such as computer memory, calculation speed and time) than other

methods. Time history analysis is not appropriate when, for example, the spectrum method

offers sufficient accuracy.

Force versus time profiles for piping are usually one of three types: Random (on page 630),

Harmonic (see Newsletter Index - http://www.coade.com/Mechanical%20Engineering

%20News%20Index.shtml), or Impulse (on page 632). Each profile has a preferred solution

method. These profiles and the load types identified with them are described below.

Dynamic Analysis

Random

With this type of profile, the load unpredictably changes direction or magnitude with time. Even

with the unpredictability, some load characteristics can predominate. Loads with random

force/time profiles are best solved using a spectrum method or a static equivalent.

The major types of loads with random time profiles are wind and earthquake.

Wind

Wind velocity causes forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe

creating an equivalent pressure on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they can have

predominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are subject to gusting, such as

sudden changes in direction and velocity. As the time period lengthens, the number of wind

changes also increases in an unpredictable manner, eventually encompassing nearly all

directions and a wide range of velocities.

Earthquake

Seismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random ground motion, such

as accelerations, velocities, and displacements and corresponding inertia loads (the mass of

the system times the acceleration) into a structure through the structure-to-ground anchorage.

Random ground motion is the sum of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic) ground

motions. Two earthquakes can be similar in terms of predominant direction (for example, along

a fault), predominant harmonic frequencies (if some underlying cyclic motions tend to

dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their exact behavior at any given time can be

quite different and unpredictable.

Harmonic

With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic

profile, ranging from its minimum to its maximum over a fixed time period. For example, the

load can be described by a function of the form:

F(t) = A + B cos( t + )

Where:

F(t) = force magnitude as a function of time

A = mean force

B = variation of maximum and minimum force from mean

= angular frequency (radian/sec)

= phase angle (radians)

t = time (sec)

Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using a harmonic method. The major

types of loads with harmonic time profiles are equipment vibration, acoustic vibration, and

pulsation.

Dynamic Analysis

Equipment Vibration

If rotating equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out-of-tolerance (for example, when a drive

shaft is out-of-round), it can impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of

attachment. This is the location where the displacement cycle most likely corresponds to the

operating cycle of the equipment. The displacement at the pipe connection can be

imperceptibly small, but could cause significant dynamic-loading problems. Loading versus time

is easily predicted after the operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.

Acoustic Vibration

If fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example, when flow conditions change

from laminar to turbulent as the fluid passes through an orifice), slight lateral vibrations may be

set up within the pipe. These vibrations often fit harmonic patterns, with predominant

frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example, Strouhals

equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an

orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec)

and D is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements

as well (a phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency of approximately

0.18 V/D, where V is the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe.

Pulsation

During the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the fluid is compressed by

pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic change over time in the fluid pressure at

any specified location in the system. Unequal fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or

closures create an unbalanced pressure load in the system. Because the pressure balance

changes with the cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force also changes. The frequency

of the force cycle is likely to be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, because

multiple pistons cause a corresponding number of force variations during each shaft rotation.

The pressure variations continue to move along through the fluid. In a steady state flow

condition, unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at any number of elbow pairs in

the system. Load magnitudes can vary. Load cycles may or may not be in phase with each

other, depending upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the compressor,

and the length of the piping legs between the elbow pairs.

For example, if the pressure at elbow a is Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b is Pb(t), then the

unbalanced force acting along the pipe between the two elbows is:

F(t) = (Pa(t) - Pb(t)) A

Where:

A = internal area of the pipe

Assuming that the pressure peak hits the elbow "a" at time t = 0, Pa(t) is:

Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos t

Where:

Pavg = average pressure in the line

dP = alternating component of the pressure

= driving angular frequency of pulse

Dynamic Analysis

If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse reaches elbow

bts after it has passed elbow a:

ts = L / c

Where:

c = speed of sound in the fluid

Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is:

Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( t - Q)

Where:

= ts

Combining these equations, the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair is:

F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos t - cos (t - L/c) ]

Under steady-state conditions, a similar situation exists at all elbow pairs throughout the

piping system.

Impulse

With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains

relatively constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For rapid ramping times, this

type of profile resembles a rectangle. Loads with impulse force/time profiles are best solved

using time history or force spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse time profiles

are relief valve, fluid hammer, and slug flow.

Relief Valve

When system pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to vent

fluid and reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on

the piping system. This force ramps up from zero to its full value over the opening time of the

valve. The relief valve remains open (and the jet force remains relatively constant) until

sufficient fluid is vented to relieve the over-pressure condition. The valve then closes, ramping

down the jet force over the closing time of the valve.

Fluid Hammer

When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted through valve closure or a pump trip,

the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped instantaneously. As fluid continues

to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses causing

a high pressure situation. On the other side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the

stoppage point, creating a low pressure (vacuum) situation. Fluid at the next elbow or closure

along the pipeline is still at the original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure

force acting on the valve seat or the elbow.

The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of

flow stoppage, causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the

pulse moves past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run,

leading to a balanced (that is, zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. The unbalanced

Dynamic Analysis

pressure, by passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure

load continues to rise and fall in sequential legs as the pressure pulse travels back to the

source, or forward to the sink.

The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low

flow, such as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Because the leading edge of

the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse travels through the system, the

ramp-down time is the same. The duration of the load from initiation through the beginning of

the down ramp is equal to the time required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the

pipe leg.

Slug Flow

Most piping systems are designed to handle single-phase fluids (that is, fluids that are uniformly

liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, the fluid may have multiple phases. For example,

slurry systems transport solid materials in liquids and gases may condense, creating pockets of

liquid in otherwise gaseous media. Systems carrying multi-phase fluids are susceptible to slug

flow.

In general, fluid changes direction in a piping system through the application of forces at

elbows. This force is equal to the change in momentum with respect to time, or

Fr = dp / dt = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]1/2

Where:

dp = change in momentum

dt = change in time

= fluid density

v = fluid velocity

A = internal area of pipe

= inclusion angle at elbow

With constant fluid density, this force is normally constant and is small enough that it can be

easily absorbed through tension in the pipe wall. The force is then passed on to adjacent

elbows with equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net load on the system. Therefore these

types of momentum loads are usually ignored in analysis. If the fluid velocity or density changes

with time, this momentum load will also change with time, leading to a dynamic load which may

not be canceled by the load at other elbows.

Dynamic Analysis

For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is

insignificant because the fluid density of a gas is effectively zero. The liquid suddenly slug hits

the elbow, increasing the momentum load by orders of magnitude. This load lasts only as long

as it takes for the slug to traverse the elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero again with

the exact profile of the slug load depending upon the shape of the slug. The time duration of the

load depends upon the length of the slug divided by the velocity of the fluid.

Where:

F1 = v2 A(1 - cos )

Fr = v2 A [2(1 - cos )]

F2 = v2 A sin

To perform a dynamic analysis, the static model must first be created and error checked. The

model is also usually run through static analysis before the dynamic analysis begins, but this is

not required unless nonlinear supports or hanger selections are included in the model. If

nonlinear supports are present, the static analysis must be run and the results made available

before the dynamic analysis can be performed.

The dynamic analysis techniques used by CAESAR II require strict linearity in the piping and

structural systems. Dynamic responses associated with nonlinear effects are not addressed. An

example of a nonlinear effect is slapping, such as when a pipe lifts off the rack at one moment

and impacts the rack the next. For the dynamic model, the pipe must be either held down or

allowed to move freely. Nonlinear restraints used in the static analysis must be set to active or

inactive for the dynamic analysis. CAESAR II allows you to set the nonlinear restraints to any

configuration found in the static results by specifying the value of Static Load Case for

Nonlinear Restraint Status (on page 689) on the Control Parameters tab. You usually select

the operating case to set the nonlinear restraint configuration. For example, if a +Y

support is active in the static operating case and the operating case is used to set the

status of the nonlinear supports for dynamics, CAESAR II installs a double-acting Y

support at that location for the dynamic analysis. The pipe does not move up or down at

that point regardless of the dynamic load.

Another nonlinear effect is friction. Friction effects must also be linearized for use in dynamic

analysis. By default, CAESAR II excludes the effects of friction from the dynamic analysis. If

requested, CAESAR II can approximate the friction resistance to movement in the dynamic model by

including spring stiffness normal to the restraint line of action. For a Y restraint with

Dynamic Analysis

friction, the friction stiffness is added in the X and Z directions. You define the stiffness of these

springs as a function of the friction load calculated in the static analysis. CAESAR II calculates

the friction stiffness by multiplying the resultant force on the restraint from the selected static

case results, the friction coefficient, and the Stiffness Factor for Friction defined on the

Control Parameters tab. For example, if a normal force on the restraint from the static analysis

is 1000 lb and the friction coefficient (mu) is 0.3, then the total friction load is 300 lb. If Stiffness

Factor for Friction is 500, then springs having a stiffness of SQRT(1000^2 +

300^2)*0.3*500=156605 lb./in are inserted into the dynamic model in the two directions

perpendicular to the line of action of the friction restraint. Converting friction damping into

stiffness is not mathematically legitimate, but serves as a good engineering approximation for

dynamic friction in a wide variety of situations.

Before starting and error checking a dynamic analysis, develop dynamic analysis data using the

following steps. The steps can occur in any order.

You do not need to specify dynamic loads if only natural frequencies are to be counted or

calculated. Harmonic analysis requires the driving frequencies and forces or displacements to

define and locate the sinusoidally varying point loads.

Creating the dynamic loads for spectra or time history analysis requires the most attention. The

response spectra or time history profile must be defined, built, or selected. Force sets are built

for force response spectra and time history analysis. Response spectra/time history and force

sets are combined with other data to build the load cases to be analyzed. Finally, additional

load cases may be constructed by combining shock results with static results to check code

compliance on occasional stresses. The software provides methods to simplify many of these

tasks.

For dynamic analysis, CAESAR II converts each piping element from a continuous beam

element between two nodes to a stiffness between two masses. Additional stiffness is added at

the node points to model anchors, restraints, hangers, and other supports in the static analysis

model. The masses assigned to each node are one half the sum of all element masses framing

into the node. These masses are used as translational inertias only. Rotational moments of

inertia are ignored in the dynamic mass model. Their inclusion in the analysis would cause a

large increase in solution time without a corresponding improvement in the general accuracy of

the analysis.

In many instances, the mass and stiffness established in the static model is used without

modification in the dynamic analysis. Some situations, however, can be improved by the

deletion of mass points or degrees of freedom. This usually occurs in models with unnecessary

masses far from the area of interest or unnecessary degrees of freedom that do not act in the

direction of interest. Some piping systems have supports that are installed to suppress vibration

and do not affect the static analysis. If these shock absorbers or snubbers were not part of the

static model, they can be added to the dynamic model as additional stiffness.

Dynamic Analysis

Options on the Control Parameters tab set the type of analysis to be performed: calculation of

natural frequencies and mode shapes, harmonic analysis, spectral analysis, or time history.

General settings for the analysis are also defined, such as maximum frequency cutoff, mode

summation methods, static configuration for nonlinear restraints, and the friction factor for

including friction in the dynamic analysis. The Advanced tab allows you to change the

parameters governing the eigensolution which does the modal extraction. These parameters

should only be altered under special circumstances.

For more information, see Control Parameters Tab (on page 676) and Advanced Tab (on page

708).

After the basic model has been constructed, click Analysis > Dynamics or Dynamic Analysis

to perform a dynamic analysis. The Dynamic Analysis window opens.

Toolbar Commands

Analysis Specifies the type of analysis. Select Modal, Harmonic, Earthquake (spectrum),

Type Relief Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), or Time History.

The window tabs change for each analysis.

Save Input and File > Save Input - Saves entered values to the CAESAR II file.

Check Input and File > Check Input - Opens the Dynamic Syntax Check dialog

box to check entered values for errors.

Dynamic Analysis

Run the Analysis and File > Run Analysis - Performs the error check and, if no

errors are found, performs the analysis the dynamic analysis for the selected

Analysis Type and the entered values. Analysis results are then available for

review. For more information, see Analysis Results (on page 736).

Add Entry and Edit > Add Entry - Adds a row to the table.

Delete Entry and Edit > Delete Entry - Deletes a row from the table.

Enter/Edit Spectrum Data and Tools > Spectrum Data Points - Specifies

spectrum data for manually-entered or ASCII-file-based spectrum definitions. For

more information, see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data (on page 713).

spectrum time waveform excitation data into a frequency domain dynamic load

factor (DLF) curve or other response spectrum. For more information, see

DLF/Spectrum Generator (on page 714).

Relief Load Synthesis and Tools > Relief Load Synthesis - Calculates the

magnitudes of relieving thrust forces. For more information, see Relief Load

Synthesis (on page 724).

Cmt Changes the selected row in the table to a comment line. You can add comment

lines anywhere in the table.

Harmonic Analysis (on page 638)

Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis (on page 638)

Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis (on page 638)

Time History Analysis (on page 639)

Dynamic analysis uses the units from the piping input file or from the configuration file of a structural-

only analysis. For more information on dynamic load cases, data, and procedures, see

Interfaces (see "External Interfaces" on page 1039).

If the model contains spring hangers selected by the software or nonlinear boundary

conditions (such as single directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction), then a static analysis

must be performed before the dynamic analysis to determine how the nonlinear supports are

acting.

Modal Analysis

Enter values on the following tabs when Modal is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic

Analysis window.

Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)

Snubbers Tab (on page 675)

Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Advanced Tab (on page 708)

Dynamic Analysis

Modal analysis extracts natural frequencies and shapes for the modes of vibration of the

pipe system. No loads are specified.

Harmonic Analysis

Enter values on the following tabs when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the

Dynamic Analysis window.

Excitation Frequencies Tab (on page 639)

Harmonic Forces Tab (on page 641)

Harmonic Displacements Tab (on page 645)

Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)

Snubbers Tab (on page 675)

Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Enter values on the following tabs when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type

in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Spectrum Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)

Spectrum Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)

Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)

Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)

Snubbers Tab (on page 675)

Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Advanced Tab (on page 708)

For earthquake loads, you define one or more response spectra and apply them in a

specified direction over part or all of the piping system.

Enter values on the following tabs when Relief Loads (spectrum) or Water Hammer/Slug

Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Spectrum Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)

Force Sets Tab (on page 658)

Spectrum Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)

Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)

Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)

Snubbers Tab (on page 675)

Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Advanced Tab (on page 708)

Relief Loads

This method solves relief valve loading on a piping system through force spectrum analysis.

The force-time profile is estimated using relief load synthesis and then converted to a force

multiplier (dynamic load factor, or DLF) spectrum. The force is then applied in conjunction with

this spectrum.

Dynamic Analysis

This method solves water hammer or slug problems. It is similar to the force spectrum analysis

used for relief valve loadings, except that relief load synthesis is not required. The force-time

profile is estimated and then converted to a force multiplier spectrum. This is linked to force

sets in the load cases.

Force-time profile estimation methods are shown in the CAESAR II Applications Guide.

Steps proceed as described for relief loads.

Enter values on the following tabs when Time History is selected for Analysis Type in the

Dynamic Analysis window.

Time History Definitions Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab" on page 648)

Force Sets Tab (on page 658)

Time History Load Cases Tab (see "Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab" on page 653)

Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668)

Lumped Masses Tab (on page 673)

Snubbers Tab (on page 675)

Control Parameters Tab (on page 676)

Advanced Tab (on page 708)

Time history analysis solves the dynamic equation of motion for extracted nodes of vibration.

The results are then summed to find the system results. Loadings are specified in terms of

force-time profiles and force sets. The force-time profile defines the load timing. The force set

defines the load direction and location. Either the profile or the force set can be used to define

the magnitude.

This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis

window.

One or more individual frequencies or frequency ranges can be specified, one to a

row. CAESAR II performs a separate analysis for each frequency.

A frequency range has values for Starting Frequency, Ending Frequency, and Increment.

You can enter the number of anticipated load cycles for each frequency range. Load cases are

then calculated with a fatigue stress type. Otherwise, the load cases are calculated with an

occasional stress type.

Harmonic loads may be specified on the Harmonic Forces Tab (on page 641) or the

Harmonic Displacements Tab (on page 645).

Topics

Starting Frequency........................................................................ 640

Ending Frequency......................................................................... 640

Increment...................................................................................... 640

Load Cycles.................................................................................. 641

Dynamic Analysis

Starting Frequency

Specifies the starting frequency for the analysis in Hertz (Hz). This is the frequency at which

the harmonic forces or displacements are applied.

Harmonic displacements and forces have the

form: A*cosine(t+ )

where A is the amplitude of the force or displacement, is the phase angle, and is the

frequency of the loading.

Real and imaginary solutions are developed for each frequency in the defined range, from

which any phased solution can be calculated. There must be a starting frequency for a

frequency range to be valid.

Ending Frequency

Specifies the ending frequency for a range of frequencies. Enter the frequency in Hertz (Hz).

The harmonic forces or displacements are applied at each frequency between the Starting

Frequency (on page 640) and Ending Frequency according to the value specified for

Increment (on page 640). This is an optional value.

Increment

Specifies the frequency increment used to step from Starting Frequency (on page 640) to

Ending Frequency (on page 640). The harmonic forces or displacements are applied at each

frequency along the specified increment. This is an optional value. If no value is entered, the

software uses a default increment of 1.0 Hz.

The frequencies for harmonic excitation are taken from each defined frequency range.

Individual frequencies for excitation are calculated using a "do loop" type of logic to determine

the frequencies in a specified frequency range:

X = STARTING FREQUENCY

5 CONTINUE

COMPUTE SOLUTION FOR FREQUENCY "X"

X = X + INCREMENT

IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5

The sign of the frequency increment may be modified by the software to properly step from the

starting frequency to the ending frequency. The starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the

increment may be given as a fraction.

Example

Find harmonic solutions for the following group of turbine equipment speeds:

Warm up speed: 100 rpm

Speed increments to bring turbine online: 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200

rpm. Speeds are passed through very slowly while coming up to operating speed.

Operating speed: 3600 rpm

Dynamic Analysis

Convert rotations per minute to cycles per second (Hertz) by dividing by 60:

Warm up speed: 100/60

Speed increments: 400/60 to 3200/60 by increments of 400/60

Operating speed: 3600/60

A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system at about 3 Hertz:

Approximate field-observed excitation frequency: 3 Hz

The response of the piping system when the dynamic load is applied at 3 Hz is almost zero.

This is true regardless of the magnitude of the dynamic load. The maxi\-mum varying pressure

load was applied, and there were still no appreciable dynamic displacements when the

excitation frequency was 3 Hz. Apply the dynamic load over a range of frequencies around 3

Hertz and see if any dynamic response can be observed.

Group of field-observed frequencies: "Guessed"

Excitation frequency: 3 Hz

Defined by the input below are:

(2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5)

Hz. 2.5 3.5 0.1

Load Cycles

Specifies the number of load cycles. If the harmonic load case is also subjected to fatigue

loading, enter the number of expected cycles. This is an optional value.

The load cycle value is the anticipated number of applications of the load on the system. This

value is used to determine the allowable stress from the fatigue curve for the material.

For static cases, the full range of calculated stresses is considered. For dynamic cases,

half the range (that is, the amplitude) of calculated stresses is considered.

This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis

window.

Values must be entered on either the Harmonic Forces tab or the Harmonic

Displacements tab.

Harmonic Phasing

Phasing is important if more than one force or displacement is included. The phase angle

(entered in degrees) relates the timing of one load or displacement to another. For example, if

two harmonic loads act along the same line but at different nodes, the loads can be directed

towards each other (that is, in opposite directions), producing no net dynamic imbalance on the

system. The loads can also act in the same direction (that is, to the right or to the left together),

producing a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. The

phase angle determines this relationship. For example, the follow load data is entered for in-

phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with a 0 phase at nodes 10 and 105:

Dynamic Analysis

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 0 105

The follow load data is entered for out-of-phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with

the phase in opposite directions at nodes 10 and 105, pulling the system apart:

1500 X 0 10

The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and

reciprocating pumps.

Rotating equipment can have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items must be

converted into a harmonic load acting on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline. The

magnitude of the harmonic load is calculated from:

Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity)

where speed is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. This load is applied along

both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90 phase shift.

In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some

regular interval that is related to the pump valving and speed. This pressure wave moves away

from the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. These pressure waves cause loads at each

bend in the piping system. The load on each subsequent elbow in the system, starting from the

first elbow, is phase-shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows,

from the first elbow to the current elbow. The amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs

produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from the

first elbow, is calculated from:

phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360

where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump, and length is the distance

from the first elbow to the current elbow under study. The magnitude of the pressure load at

each elbow is:

Harmonic Force = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (Area)

With phasing considerations, all specified loads are considered to act together at each

applied frequency.

Topics

Force............................................................................................. 643

Direction........................................................................................ 643

Phase............................................................................................ 643

Start Node..................................................................................... 643

Stop Node..................................................................................... 644

Increment...................................................................................... 644

Dynamic Analysis

Force

Specifies the magnitude of the harmonic force to be applied.

The form of the harmonic forcing function is:

F(t) = A*cosine(t-)

where "F(t)" is the force as a function of time. "A" is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic

force. "" is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and "" is the phase angle

(in radians).

Direction

Specifies the direction of the force. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction cosines, or direction

vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for

direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Phase

Specifies the phase angle of the force in degrees.

Harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to zero, or the harmonic load

can start with its maximum at any time between zero and 2*/ seconds. The phase angle f is

the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase angle is

calculated from the time shift using the equation:

(degrees) = 180t/

where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second.

The phase angle is usually entered as either zero or 90. Use the phase specification

when defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment.

A value for Phase is required. If the phase angle is zero, you must enter 0.

Start Node

Specifies the starting node number in the model at which the force is applied.

If entered without values for Stop Node and Increment, then the start node must exist in the

piping system. If entered with values for Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes

identified in the range must include at least one node in the piping system.

Dynamic Analysis

Stop Node

Specifies the ending node number in the model through which the force is applied. Used as a

part of a "range of nodes" force loading with Start Node and Increment. This value is optional.

Increment

Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Each

node that is incremented between the start and stop nodes is loaded with the value of Force.

This value is optional.

Example 1

A pressure pulse traveling in the line causes the line to shake at about 2 hertz. The magnitude

of the pressure loading is estimated to be about 460 lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to

100. The harmonic force to model this load is shown as follows. The magnitude is divided by 2

because the total variation in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from -1

to 1. To find the true response magnitudes from a positive-only harmonic load pulse, a static

solution with 460/2 lb. acting in the +X direction is superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution

to provide the constant shifting of the load axis. There is a negative load at node 95 due to the

negative sign on the cosine. The pressure pulse is always positive and a negative load never

exists. The superposition of the 460/2 static solution assures that the dynamic load (and

probably the resulting displacements) is always positive.

460 LB pressure load at 2 Hertz

460/2 X 0 95

Example 2

A pump is shaking in the X-Y plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. The magnitude of

the dynamic load is calculated to be 750 lb. from the manufacturer-provided masses and

eccentricities. Apply this rotating equipment load on the inline pump at node 350. The X and Y

loads are 90 degrees out of phase with one another. When the X load is at its maximum the Y

load is zero, and when the Y load is at its maximum the X load is zero.

Estimated eccentric load on inline pump DOH-

V33203001 750 X 0 350

750 Y 90 350

Dynamic Analysis

This tab is available when Harmonic is selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis

window.

Values must be entered on either the Harmonic Forces tab or the Harmonic

Displacements tab.

Harmonic Phasing

Phasing is important if more than one force or displacement is included. The phase angle

(entered in degrees) relates the timing of one load or displacement to another. For example, if

two harmonic loads act along the same line but at different nodes, the loads can be directed

towards each other (that is, in opposite directions), producing no net dynamic imbalance on the

system. The loads can also act in the same direction (that is, to the right or to the left together),

producing a net dynamic imbalance in the system equal to the sum of the two forces. The

phase angle determines this relationship. For example, the follow load data is entered for in-

phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with a 0 phase at nodes 10 and 105:

1500 X 0 10

1500 X 0 105

The follow load data is entered for out-of-phase loading of 1500 lbf in the X direction with

the phase in opposite directions at nodes 10 and 105, pulling the system apart:

1500 X 0 10

The two most common phased loadings are those due to rotating equipment and reciprocating

pumps.

Rotating equipment can have an eccentricity, a speed, and a mass. These items must be

converted into a harmonic load acting on the rotor at the theoretical mass centerline. The

magnitude of the harmonic load is calculated from:

Fn = (mass)(speed)2(eccentricity)

where speed is the angular velocity of the shaft in cycles per second. This load is applied along

both axes perpendicular to the shaft axis and at a 90 phase shift.

In the case of a reciprocating pump, the pump introduces a pressure wave into the line at some

regular interval that is related to the pump valving and speed. This pressure wave moves away from

the pump at the speed of sound in the fluid. These pressure waves cause loads at each bend in the

piping system. The load on each subsequent elbow in the system, starting from the first elbow, is

phase-shifted by an amount that is a function of the distance between the elbows, from the first

elbow to the current elbow. The amount of phase shift between elbow-elbow pairs

Dynamic Analysis

produces the net unbalanced dynamic load in the piping. The phase shift, in degrees from

the first elbow, is calculated from:

phase = [(frequency)(length) / (speed of sound)]360

where frequency is the frequency of wave introduction at the pump, and length is the distance

from the first elbow to the current elbow under study. The magnitude of the pressure load at

each elbow is:

Harmonic Force = 0.5 (Pressure variation) (Area)

With phasing considerations, all specified loads are considered to act together at each

applied frequency.

Topics

Displacement................................................................................ 646

Direction........................................................................................ 646

Phase............................................................................................ 646

Start Node..................................................................................... 647

Stop Node..................................................................................... 647

Increment...................................................................................... 647

Displacement

Specifies the magnitude of the displacement to be applied.

The form of the harmonic displacement function is:

D(t)=(A)*cosine(t-)

where "D(t)" is the displacement as a function of time, "A" is the maximum amplitude of the

dynamic displacement. "" is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and "" is

the phase angle (in radians).

Direction

Specifies the direction of the displacement. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction cosines, or

direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as (0.707,0.0,0.707). The

format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Phase

Specifies the phase angle of the displacement in degrees.

Harmonic displacement can start with its maximum displacement at time equal to zero, or the

harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacements at any time between zero

and t + 2 / seconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the

dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the

equation:

(degrees) = 180t /

where t is given in seconds and is given in radians per second.

A value for Phase is required. If the phase angle is zero, you must enter 0.0.

Dynamic Analysis

Start Node

Specifies the number of the starting node in the model at which the displacement is applied.

If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic displacement is assumed to act at the

support point. If the node is not sup\-ported, then the dynamic displacement is assumed to

describe the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation only becomes important

when the node is supported by a flexible restraint. For example, node 55 is supported in the Y

direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5,000 lb./in. A harmonic displacement is also

specified at node 55 in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not

describe the dis\-placement that is attached to 55. Instead, the displacement creates a load in

the Y direction at 55 equal to the harmonic displacement times 5,000 lb./in.

If Start Node has a value but Stop Node and Increment do not, then the start node must exist

in the piping system. If all three have values, then the range of nodes identified in the range

must include at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node

Specifies the number of the ending node in the model through which the displacement

is applied. Used as a part of a "range of nodes" displacement loading with Start Node

and Increment. This value is optional.

Increment

Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Each node

incremented between the start and stop nodes is displaced with the value of Displacement.

This value is optional.

Example 1

A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor flange a field-measured 8

mils in the Y direction, and 3 mils in the Z direction. The dynamic displacements are assumed

to be simultaneous with no phase shift. This is because the load causing the displacements is

believed to be from the compressor plunger moving in the X, or axial, direction. The dis\-

placements are skewed because the piping configuration entering the compressor is itself

skewed.

Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange

Example 2

Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example (see

"Increment" on page 644) did not produce the displacements witnessed in the field. Field personnel

have measured the dynamic displacements in the vertical (Y) and transverse (Z) directions at the

pump piping connections. The centerline of the pump, at the intersection of the horizontal suction

and vertical discharge is node 15. The magnitude of the Z displacement is

Dynamic Analysis

measured at 12 mil. The magnitude of the Y displacement is measured at 3 mils. It is assumed

that the vibration is due to the rotation of the pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be

taken to be 90 degrees out of phase.

Harmonic displacements modeling pump vibration on the inline pump DOH-V33203001:

Z magnitude of the load - zero deg. phase

shift 0.012 Z 0 15

Y magnitude of the load - 90 deg. phase shift

0.003 Y 90 15

The Spectrum Definitions tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads

(spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the

Dynamic Analysis window.

The Time History Definitions tab is available when Time History is selected for Analysis

Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Spectrum Definitions

One analysis may have multiple spectrum types and definitions. Predefined spectra are

included in the spectrum definition list. Any combination of these predefined spectra can be

used as is, deleted, or used with any other defined spectra.

You can include the basic spectrum data definitions in the comments for each ASCII spectrum

file. Select Cmt to create a comment line. For more information, see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data

(on page 713) and Examples (on page 651).

Special force spectrum data files are created by the DLF/Spectrum Generator (on page 714).

The response spectrum table values are entered directly or saved as a file. Data stored in a

file can be used by any analysis.

When using a file created by DLF/Spectrum Generator , you must specify the type of data

which contained in the file, because the file only contains a table of data points. This data is

always frequency versus force-multiplier with linear interpolation. A typical definition is in this

format:

Dynamic Analysis

Name Range Type Type Interpol Interpol

The data in this file may also be read in directly using Enter/Edit Spectrum Data . In

this case, omit the "#" from the spectrum declaration. For more information, see Enter/Edit

Spectrum Data (on page 713).

Time history profiles are defined in a way similar to the definition of response spectra. The profile

must be given a name, time versus force data definitions, and interpolation methods. Response

spectra data must also be defined directly or from a file. The profile data may be entered with actual

forces or normalized to 1.0, depending on how the force sets are defined.

One force-time profile should be defined for each independent point load on the piping system.

The load case consists of one or more force profiles. Multiple force profiles can create a

staggered loading on the system.

Topics

Name............................................................................................ 649

Range Type................................................................................... 650

Ordinate Type................................................................................ 651

Range Interpol............................................................................... 651

Ordinate Interpol........................................................................... 651

Examples...................................................................................... 651

Name

Specifies the name of the spectrum. Names should reflect the spectrum and its intended use.

This name is used when defining the load cases. The name can be any 24-character identifier

and is associated with a particular spectrum or load profile.

Do not include spaces in the name.

The following predefined spectra are delivered with the software. No additional definitions are

required when using these spectra.

El Centro

The El Centro California N-S component, taken from Biggs, "Introduction to

Structural Dynamics," applies to systems with 5-10 percent critical damping.

Dynamic Analysis

1.60H.5 and 1.60V.5

1.60H2 and 1.60V2

1.60H5 and 1.60V5

1.60H7 and 1.60V7

1.60H1.0 and 1.60V10

Each of these spectra defines the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10

percent critically damped systems. Associated with each of these spectra is a value for ZPA.

(Zero Period Acceleration), the maximum ground acceleration at the site. This value defaults to

0.5 g and can be changed on the Control Parameters Tab (on page 676).

UBCSOIL1

UBCSOIL2

UBCSOIL3

These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra for three soil

types provided in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition).

The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign. The (#) sign instructs

CAESAR II to read the spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum

with no extension. Several jobs in the current folder can then access this shock data.

If data is to be entered manually, click Enter/Edit Spectrum Data , then create new rows

and enter the appropriate Range Type and Ordinate Type values. For more information,

see Enter/Edit Spectrum Data (on page 713).

The complete definition of a shock includes its name, range type, ordinate type, range

interpolation method, ordinate interpolation method, and the shock data point table.

Everything but the shock data point table can be entered on the

Range Type

Specifies the type of values on the abscissa (horizontal) axis of the spectrum/DLF curve. Select

FREQUENCY or PERIOD.

If the value is PERIOD, then the spectrum table data is in seconds. If the value is

FREQUENCY, then the data is in Hertz (cycles per second).

For Time History analysis only, select TIME. The spectrum table data is in milliseconds (ms).

The values can be abbreviated by any part of the word, but only the first letter is required.

Dynamic Analysis

Ordinate Type

Specifies the type of values on the ordinate (vertical) axis of the spectrum/DLF curve. Select

FREQUENCY , VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, G-ACCELERATION, or FORCE-MULTIPLIER.

If the value is FREQUENCY, then the spectrum table data is in Hertz (cycles per second).If the

value is VELOCITY, then the data is in length per second. If the value is ACCELERATION, then

the data is in length per second squared. If the value is G-ACCELERATION, then the data are

in g's.

For Time History analysis only, select FORCE-MULTIPLIER.

The values can be abbreviated by any part of the word, but only the first letter is required.

Range Interpol

Specifies how the values on the abscissa (horizontal) axis are interpolated. Select LINEAR or

LOGARITHMIC.

See Examples (on page 651) for additional discussion.

The values can be abbreviated as LIN and LOG.

Ordinate Interpol

Specifies how the values on the ordinate (vertical) axis are interpolated. Select LINEAR or

LOGARITHMIC.

See Examples (on page 651) for additional discussion.

The values can be abbreviated as LIN and LOG.

Examples

Example 1

The analysis requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions using a

factor of 1.0, and in the Y direction using a factor of 0.667.

No spectrum definition is required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectrum. All of

its shock data resides in the CAESAR II shock database.

Example 2

The analysis requires the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum

acceleration value of 0.25 gs, analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and

vertical components of the shock as specified in Reg. Guide 1.60.

There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Guide

1.60 shock spectra are predefined. You must only specify the maximum acceleration (ZPA) of

0.25 gs on the Control Parameters Tab (on page 676), and must use the Reg. Guide spectra

corresponding to the anticipated system damping. Lower damping values mean more

conservative results.

Dynamic Analysis

Example 3

The analysis requires a shock spectrum that is given by the client and developed for the site. A

plot of the spectrum appears as follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is

acceleration. Because of the variation of the numbers along each axis, a logarithmic

interpolation for each axis is used. Because the shock name is not preceded by a (#) sign, the

spectrum is not predefined, and you must manually enter the points for this spectrum. The

spectrum definition input for pointing to this file is:

Example 4

All analysis on a particular project requires the use of the spectrum table shown as follows.

The data points of the spectrum are entered into an ASCII file named BENCH1 in the current

folder. The file can be created using any standard editor. The spectrum definition input for

pointing to this file is:

* SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS

* TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1-130023-A03.

* FILENAME = "BENCH1"

* RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS)

* ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.)

* INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AXES = LOGARITHMIC.

PERIOD(SEC) ACCELERATION(IN/SEC/SEC)

0.1698E-02 0.1450E+03

0.2800E-01 0.3800E+03

0.5800E-01 0.7750E+03

0.7100E-01 0.7750E+03

0.9100E-01 0.4400E+03

0.1140E+00 0.1188E+04

0.1410E+00 0.1188E+04

0.1720E+00 0.7000E+03

0.2000E+00 0.8710E+03

0.8710E+03 0.2500E+00

0.3230E+00 0.4000E+03

Dynamic Analysis

The Spectrum Load Cases tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads

(spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) are selected for Analysis Type in the

Dynamic Analysis window.

The Time History Load Cases tab is available when Time History is selected for Analysis

Type in the Dynamic Analysis window. A time history analysis has only one load case.

Load cases consist of simultaneously applied spectra. Each spectrum in the case is assigned

a direction and factor.

The following options are only available for the Earthquake (spectrum), Relief

Loads (spectrum) and Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum) analysis types.

Editing Load Case - Specifies a load case to edit.

Stress Types - Specifies the stress type for the load case:

OPE - Stress from operating loads.

OCC - Stress from occasional short-term loads.

SUS - Stress from primary sustained loads.

EXP - Stress from secondary thermal expansion loads.

FAT - Stress from fatigue loads.

Fatigue Cycles - Specifies the number of fatigue cycles. This option is only available when FAT

is selected for Stress Types.

Directives - Displays the Directive Builder (on page 712) dialog box.

Add New Load Case - Adds a new load case.

Delete Current Load Case - Deletes the current load case.

Spectrum load cases for force spectrum analyses are set up differently than spectrum load

cases for earthquake analyses. Force spectrum analyses must link a force multiplier spectrum

to a force set.

Dynamic Analysis

A load case definition consists of one or more lines, as shown below. The direction specified on

this line does not need to be the direction of the load (which is specified in the force set). This

direction is used for labeling and designation of independent versus dependent loadings.

TESTFILE 1.0 Y 1

Complexity increases as the number of components in the load case goes beyond one,

and as the time history phenomena being modeled deviates from true impulse type loading.

For more information, see Examples (on page 663).

For earthquakes, the direction defines the orientation of the uniform inertial loading.

Earthquakes typically have X, Y, and Z components. The factor is used to modify the magnitude

of the shock. For example, the seismic evaluation of a piping system includes two load cases:

1.0 times (100% of) the El Centro spectrum in the X direction and 0.67 times (67% of) the El Centro

spectrum in the Y direction

1.0 in Z and 0.67 in Y.

CAESAR II also supports options for independent support motion earthquakes, where parts of

the system are exposed to different shocks. For example, a piping system is supported from

both ground and building supports. Because the building filters the earthquake, supports

attached to the building are not exposed to the same shock as the supports attached to the

ground. Two different shock inputs are required: one for the ground supports and one for the

building supports. To specify an independent support motion shock, the node range that defines

a particular group of supports is required. The maximum displacement (seismic anchor

movements) of the support attachment point must also be specified.

The example below shows a typical uniform support earthquake specification and a typical

independent support motion earthquake:

* UNIFORM SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT

ELCENTRO 1 X

ELCENTRO 1 Z

ELCENTRO .667 Y

* INDEPENDENT SUPPORT MOTION EARTHQUAKE INPUT

HGROUND 1 X 1 100 1 0.25

HGROUND 1 Z 1 100 1 0.25

VGROUND 1 Y 1 100 1 0.167

HBUILDING 1 X 101 300 1 0.36

HBUILDING 1 Z 101 300 1 0.36

VBUILDING 1 Y 101 300 1 0.24

The uniform support motion earthquake contains only components of the El Centro

earthquake acting uniformly through all of the supports. There is a 33% reduction in the

earthquakes magnitude in the Y direction.

The independent support motion earthquake above has two different support groups: 1-100 and

101-300. The 1-100 group is exposed to a ground spectrum. The 101-300 group is exposed to a

building spectrum. Different horizontal and vertical components are used for the ground and the

Dynamic Analysis

building spectra. The last values specified are the seismic support movements (that is the

Anchor Movement).

Stress Types can be assigned to the spectrum load cases. If FAT is selected, you must

also enter a value for Fatigue Cycles, the number of anticipated load cycles.

Only a single load case is defined for time history analysis. The direction entry (Dir.) is used only

for labeling, not as an analytic input value.

Topics

Spectrum/Time History Profile....................................................... 655

Factor............................................................................................ 655

Dir.................................................................................................. 655

Start Node..................................................................................... 656

Stop Node..................................................................................... 657

Increment...................................................................................... 657

Anchor Movement......................................................................... 657

Force Set #.................................................................................... 657

Force Sets Tab.............................................................................. 658

Examples...................................................................................... 663

Specifies the name of a spectrum or time history pulse/shock definition applied to the load

case, as defined on the Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on page 648). More than one

definition can be listed, with one on each row. Each spectrum or time history pulse specified is

applied to the model in this load case.

Factor

Specifies a value for the spectrum shock table multiplier. This value is usually 1.0.

Dir.

Specifies the applied direction of the spectrum/DLF shock load. Select X, Y, or Z. You can also

enter direction cosines, such as (.707, 0, .707), or direction vectors, such as (1,0,1).

This value is used as follows, depending on the analysis type:

For earthquake analysis:

Direction specifies the loading direction.

Direction indicates the dependence or independence of the loads. When modal

combinations precede spatial combinations, loads with the same direction are summed

at the modal level before any spatial combination.

Direction acts as an output label for the maximum contributor, such as 3X(1), where the first

profile in direction X is reported as X(1). 3X(1) indicates that the largest contributor to the

total response is from the third mode of vibration and due to the first spectrum/shock

defined as X.

Dynamic Analysis

For force spectrum analysis, the force vector (direction) is already established:

Direction indicates the dependence or independence of the loads as discussed above.

Direction acts as an output label for the maximum contributor, as discussed above for

earthquake analysis.

For time history analysis, time history combinations are algebraic (in-phase):

Direction acts only as an output label for the maximum contributor, such as 3X(1).

To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must know what how the earthquake shock

acts from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II must also know the direction of the shock. A

shock load case is typically comprised of three shock components in the X, Y, and Z directions.

The combination of each of these components shock loads defines the earthquakes dynamic

loading of the piping system.

Skewed directions can be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction vector. Skewed

shock contributions are entered when the piping or structural system appears particularly

sensitive to a shock along a skewed line. This most often occurs when a majority of the piping

system does not lay along the X and Z axes.

Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. For example, there can be two

X direction components. This usually occurs with independent support shock contributions

where one X direction component applies to one support group and another X direction

component applies to a different support group. There can also be two shock components in the

same direction without having independent support contributions, by defining two shock

contributions in the same direction without start, stop, or increment node entries.

In the simplest form of force spectrum loading, there is only a single shock component in the

load case. For that situation, there is only a single line of input on the Load Cases tab. When

there are multiple lines of input on the load case screen, such as in analyzing a traveling

pressure wave that impacts different elbow-elbow pairs, there can be many components to the

shock load case. The combination of responses from each of these shock loading components

can be established in one of two ways. If the value of Direction is the same for each load

component, then the directional combination method is used to combine the responses from

each load component. If the value of Direction is different for each load component, then the

spatial combination method is used to combine the responses from each load component.

Directional combinations are always made before modal combinations, while spatial

combinations can be made before or after modal combinations. The default is to perform the

modal combinations before spatial combinations. Either spatial or directional combinations can

be made using the ABS or SRSS method.

Start Node

Specifies the number of the starting node of a group of restraints at which the spectrum load is

applied for independent support motion analysis (ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint

nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop Node in steps of Increment. The range of

nodes must include at least one node in the piping system.

The component of an independent support shock applies only to a group of support points. For

example, different shock spectra are generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping.

The rack supports are subject to one shock excitation, influenced by the racks response to the

earthquake. The ground level supports are subject to a different shock excitation, not

influenced by the rack. One node range is used to define the rack support shock contributions

and another is used to define the ground support shock contributions.

Dynamic Analysis

This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Stop Node

Specifies the number of the ending node of a group of restraints at which the spectrum load is

applied for independent support motion analysis (ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint

nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop Node in steps of Increment. The range of

nodes must include at least one node in the piping system. If no value is entered, the load is

applied at the start node.

This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Increment

Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node for in a

group of restraints that is loaded by this spectrum for Independent Support Motion analysis

(ISM). The spectrum is applied to all restraint nodes in the group between Start Node and Stop

Node in steps of Increment. The range of nodes must include at least one node in the piping

system. If no value is entered, the load is applied at the start node.

This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Anchor Movement

Specifies the absolute displacement of the restraints included in this spectrum shock case for

independent support motion analysis (ISM). This displacement is applied to all restrained

nodes in the node group, and is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components

representing the relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If no value is entered, and

if the defined shock for this row does not encompass the entire system, this value is calculated

by the software. The value is taken from the lowest frequency entry of the response spectrum:

the specified displacement, velocity/frequency (for velocity spectra), or acceleration/frequency 2

(for acceleration spectra). Frequency is angular frequency.

This option is only available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Force Set #

Specifies the force set number corresponding to a set entered in the Force Sets tab if the

spectrum/load profile name describes a force-type spectrum (instead of displacement, velocity,

or acceleration). For more information, see Force Sets Tab (on page 658). If no value is entered,

Factor and Dir. must also have no values.

This option is not available when Earthquake (spectrum) is selected for Analysis Type.

Dynamic Analysis

The Force Sets tab is available when Relief Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow

(spectrum), and Time History are selected for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis

window.

Spectrum or time history analysis can have multiple force sets.

Force spectrum analyses, such as a relief valve loading, differ from earthquake analyses

because there is no implicit definition of the load distribution. For example, the loading for

earthquakes is uniform over the entire structure and proportional to the pipe mass. For relief

valves and other point loadings, the load is not uniformly distributed and is not proportional to

the mass. A water hammer load is proportional to the speed of sound and the initial velocity of

the fluid. Its point of application is at subsequent elbow-elbow pairs. Force spectrum analyses

require more information than the more common earthquake simulations: the load magnitude,

direction, and location. Forces that occur together are grouped into like-numbered force sets

and are manipulated in the analysis together. For example, the following shows two different

loading levels of the same type of load:

-3400 Y 35 1

-1250 Y 35 2

For a skewed load, force components belong to the same force set, because the

components always occur together:

-2134 Y 104 1

-2134 X 104 1

The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows:

1. Determine the pulse time history acting at a single node or over a group of nodes. The

pulse waveform must be the same for all nodes in a group, but the maximum pulse

amplitude may vary.

2. To convert a time history to a response spectrum, use the DLF/Spectrum Generator (on

page 714) to build a DLF versus frequency file for the time-pulse waveform. This is a

Dynamic Analysis

standard shock table file. This step is not needed for a time history analysis. The data is

automatically added to the dynamic input and can be saved to a separate file.

3. On the Spectrum Definitions tab or Time History Definitions tab, define the DLF versus

frequency file just created as a force spectrum data file with linear interpolation along the

frequency axis and linear interpolation along the ordinate axis. Begin the shock name with

a #. The software then reads the shock table from the data file.

4. Determine the maximum force magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load.

5. On the Force Sets tab, specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, the

direction, and the nodes.

If the force-time profiles are normalized to 1.0, the maximum magnitudes of the loads

are entered here. If the profiles are entered using their actual values, the force set values

are entered as 1.0.

6. On the Spectrum Load Cases tab or Time History Load Cases tab, enter the force

spectrum name (defined in the Spectrum Definitions tab), the table multiplication factor

(usually 1.0), a direction, and the Force Set # (defined on the Force Sets tab). This step

defines the link between the force spectrum and the force loading pattern.

7. Set up any other parameters needed to run the spectrum analysis. Perform error

checking, and after there are no fatal errors, run the analysis.

You can include any number of user comment lines by clicking Cmt. There can be any number

of line entries in the Force spectrum data.

If there are multiple force spectrum components in a single dynamic load case, carefully

select the combination method. The same rules that cover earthquake shocks and

components apply to force spectrum shocks and components

Topics

Force............................................................................................. 659

Direction........................................................................................ 660

Node............................................................................................. 660

Force Set #.................................................................................... 660

Examples...................................................................................... 660

Force

Specifies the magnitude of the impulse force (dynamic load) at the node. The sign of this

value is according to the CAESAR II global coordinate system

The total applied force is the product of this value, the selected force value from the

spectrum or load profile, and the factor entered for the load case.

Dynamic Analysis

Direction

Specifies the direction of the impulse force (dynamic load). Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction

cosines, or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as

(0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Node

Specifies the node at which the impulse force (dynamic load) is applied. The node must exist

in the model.

Force Set #

Specifies the numeric value associated with this row (force set). Force sets are used to construct

the dynamic load cases. Values are arbitrary, but usually start at 1 and increment by

one.

Each impulse can be assigned to a different force set, which provides the most capability

when constructing load cases. Multiple rows with the same value form a single force set.

Examples

Example 1

Nodes 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore production platform.

The dynamic load as a function of time is equal to a half sine wave. The waveform is the same

for all three nodes, but the maximum dynamic load on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is

10,370 lb., and on node 15 is 30,537 lb. Three force sets are built for this problem. One has

the dynamic loads acting in the X direction. The second has the dynamic loads acting in the Z

direction. The third has the dynamic loads acting simultaneously in the X an Z directions. The

force spectrum input data is:

X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING

5030 X 5 1

10370 X 10 1

30537 X 15 1

5030 Z 5 2

10370 Z 10 2

Dynamic Analysis

30537 Z 15 2

5030 X 5 3

5030 Z 5 3

10370 X 10 3

10370 Z 10 3

30537 X 15 3

30537 Z 15 3

Example 2

A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for different reactor decompression conditions. The

maximum load for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. The maximum load for the

second decompression condition is 150 kips in the X direction. The third decompression condition

maximum load is 50 kips. Three different maximum force sets are defined:

REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1

320000 X 565 1

150000 X 565 2

50000 X 565 3

Dynamic Analysis

Example 3

A startup shock wave passes through a single elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5,

10, and 15 as shown:

As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load on the anchor at 5.

When the shock wave hits the elbow at 10, the axial load in the 5-10 elements balance the

initial imbalance at node 5, and there become an axial imbalance in the 10-15 element. This

shock load is modeled as two completely separate impacts on the piping system. The first is the

dynamic anchor load at 5. If 5 is a flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic

displacements of the piping system and 5 will just be subject to the dynamic time history pulse

due to the shock. Assume the anchor at 5 is a flexible vessel nozzle. The second shock load is

the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 10-15 element that exists until the shock reaches

the node 15. Friction losses in the line reduce the shock magnitude as it travels down the line.

In the time the wave leaves the anchor at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50%

drop in the pulse strength as shown:

Dynamic Analysis

This pressure drop was calculated using a transient fluid simulator. Between nodes 10 and

15 the pulse strength drops even further as shown:

X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5

-5600 X 5 1

2800 Z 10 2

Examples

Example 1

Define a shock load case that excites the entire piping system with a vibration of one times the

El Centro earthquake in the X direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667

times the El Centro earthquake in the Y direction.

ELCENTRO 1 X

ELCENTRO 1 Z

ELCENTRO 0.667 Y

Dynamic Analysis

Example 2

Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical

components of the Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra for a 2 percent critically damped system.

The maximum ground acceleration is 0.22 gs.

The maximum ground acceleration is set on the Control Parameters tab and has no effect on

the shock load case definitions.

1.60H2 1 X

1.60V2 1 Y

1.60H2 1 Z

Example 3

Define a shock load case that is comprised of custom shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2.

BENCH1 acts in the X and Z directions, and BENCH2 acts in the Y direction. The scale factor

for all shocks is 1.0.

BENCH1 1 X

BENCH2 1 Y

BENCH1 1 Z

One of the shock load cases excites the piping system along a line that is 45 degrees off of

the global axes in the horizontal plane. It is suspected that this direction of excitation yields the

worst possible results. Apply the custom shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and

BENCH2 in the vertical direction.

BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)

BENCH1 1 (-1,0,1

)

BENCH2 1 Y

Example 4

Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El

Centro earthquake in the X, Y, and Z directions. There should be two shock load cases. The

first should use an independent summation and the second a simultaneous summation.

The load cases are defined as shown. Remember that independent summation means MODAL

then SPATIAL, and simultaneous means SPATIAL then MODAL.

Dynamic Analysis

There are several ways to accomplish the same objective using parameters on other

tabs, such as the Control Parameters tab. Only the method using the explicit definition of the

load case combination method is shown in this example.

LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS

MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST

ELCENTRO 2 X

ELCENTRO 2 Y

ELCENTRO 2 Z

Example 5

Define a shock case that has the custom spectrum 1DIR acting only in the Z direction. Set the

stress type for the case to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations.

Modal or spatial summations are not shown below because modal summation is the CAESAR II

default and is controlled by Spatial or Modal Combination First (on page 699) on the Control

Parameters tab.

Stress Types: OPE

1DIR 1 Z

Example 6

The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting on concrete foundations. The

support nodes 140, 145, 157, 160, and 180 are second level rack sup\-ports, that is, pipe shoes

sitting on structural steel beams in the second level of the rack. The ground level shock

spectrum name is GROUND04, and the second level rack spectrum name is RACKLEVEL2-

04. Set up the shock load case to define these independent support excitations and omit any

relative support movement.

GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION

Dynamic Analysis

Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

GROUND04 1 X 5 56 1 0

GROUND04 1 Y 5 56 1 0

GROUND04 1 Z 5 56 1 0

Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

Next, set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use the same

shock components as defined above, except assume that the pseudostatic component is

added using the SRSS combination method. Also change the modal summation method to

SRSS. This is the recommended method. When the modal summation method is SRSS it does

not matter whether modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor

when closely spaced modes are considered in the grouping, 10 percent, and DSRSS methods.

MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS)

GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION

Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

GROUND04 1 X 5 56 1

GROUND04 1 Y 5 56 1

GROUND04 1 Z 5 56 1

Spectrum Factor Dir. Node Node Increment Movement

Dynamic Analysis

Example 7

The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: BLAST contains

the DLF response spectrum for relief valve firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET #1

contains the load information and its point of application. Show the load case input that provides

the most conservative combination of modal results. Because there is only a single loading, no

consideration is given to spatial or directional combinations.

Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force Set #

ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING

COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR

DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS.

BLAST, 1, X, 1

MODAL (ABS)

Click Directives to open the Directive Builder dialog box and select these values. For

more information, see Directive Builder (on page 712).

Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. This

will produce the most realistic solution.

BLAST, 1, X, 1

MODAL (GROUP)

There are two elbow-to-elbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Water hammer loads

act on the elbow at 40 in the X direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Y-direction. In the

SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET input, force set #1 is defined as the load at 40 and

force set #2 is defined as the load at 135. Add the response quantities from each load

component first, using an ABS summation, and then the resulting modal response quantities,

using the grouping summation method. Two identical methods for achieving the same results

are shown.

Shock Name, Factor, Direction, and Force set #

BECAUSE THE "DIRECTION" INPUT IS THE SAME, THAT IS "X", FOR BOTH,

LOAD CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD

WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES

ARE COMBINED.

HAMMER40, 1, X, 1

HAMMER135, 1, X, 2

DIRECTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP)

or

BECAUSE THE "DIRECTION" INPUT IS DIFFERENT, THAT IS "X" AND "Y,"

THE SPATIAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE

HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. NOTE THAT

Dynamic Analysis

THE "MODAL" DIRECTIVE.

HAMMER40, 1, X, 1

HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2

SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP)

The Static/Dynamic Combinations tab is available when Earthquake (spectrum), Relief

Loads (spectrum), Water Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), and Time History are selected

for Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Each analysis can have multiple load case combinations. Multiple static and dynamic cases

can exist:

Each static or dynamic case must be on a separate line.

The order of the load cases is not important, and has no effect on the results.

Comment lines may be included.

Static cases alone can be combined without dynamic cases.

Dynamic cases alone can be combined without static cases.

Most piping codes combine occasional dynamic stresses with sustained static stresses. This

combination is compared to the occasional allowable stress.

Each combination references static load case and dynamic load case numbers to be

combined. Any number of static or dynamic loads can be combined in a single combination

load case. Each combination is on a separate row.

Additional Options

The following options are also available:

Editing Load Case - Select a load case to edit.

Stress Types - Select the stress type for the load case:

OPE - Stress from operating loads.

OCC - Stress from occasional short-term loads.

SUS - Stress from primary sustained loads.

EXP - Stress from secondary thermal expansion loads.

FAT - Stress from fatigue loads.

Fatigue Cycles - Specifies the number of fatigue cycles. This option is only available when FAT

is selected for Stress Types and is s not available for time history analysis.

Directives - Opens the Directive Builder (on page 712) dialog box, where you can control the

combination method parameters, using methods such as ABS and SRSS (square root of the

sum of the squares).

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Delete Current Load Case - Deletes the current load case.

Topics

Load Case..................................................................................... 669

Factor............................................................................................ 669

Examples...................................................................................... 669

Load Case

Specifies the static or dynamic load case to be included in the combination case. Select a load

case from the list. Static load cases start with S, and dynamic load cases are start with D. Each

is then followed by a load case number of a static or shock analysis defined on the Load Cases

tab. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab (on page 653).

The following examples are valid values: S1, STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, and

D#1. Use any length up to 24 characters. For static load case definitions, the static case must exist

and have already been run (also, the S cant refer to a spring hanger design case). For dynamic load

case definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case.

Factor

Specifies a multiplication factor to be applied to the results of the load case. The

resulting product is then used in the combination case. The default is 1.0.

Examples

Example 1

The static load cases are:

1 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)

2 = W+P1+H (SUS)

3 = L1 - L2 (EXP)

The dynamic load cases are:

1 = Operating Basis Earthquake

2 = 1/2 the Operating Basis Earthquake

Combine the operating basis earthquake stresses with the sustained static stresses:

STATIC2 1.0

DYNAMIC1 1.0

or

Dynamic Analysis

S2 1

D1 1

Example 2

The static load cases are:

1 = W + P1 (For hanger design)

2 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 (For hanger design)

3 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + H (OPE)

4 = W + P1 + H (SUS)

5 = L3 - L4 (EXP)

There is one dynamic load case. Create an occasional case that is the sum of the sustained

and the dynamic stresses using the SRSS combination method and the ABS combination

method. Additionally, combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the SRSS

combination method. This is a total of three combination load cases. The first two static hanger

design load cases cannot be used in a combination case.

* COMBINATION CASE 1:

* SRSS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

* COMBINATION CASE 2:

* ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(ABS)

STATIC4 1

DYNAMIC1 1

* COMBINATION CASE 3:

* SRSSCOMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES

Dynamic Analysis

STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)

STATIC5 1

DYNAMIC1 1

Stress type and combination are defined on the Directive Builder dialog box. For more

information, see Directive Builder (on page 712).

Example 3

The static load cases are:

1 = W+T1+P+D1+H (OPE)

2 = W+P+H (SUS)

3 = U1 (OCC) Static seismic simulation

4 = L1-L2 (EXP)

5 = L2+L3 (OCC) (SCALAR)

Create an SRSS combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained and

operating static cases:

* COMBINATION CASE 1:

COMBINATION (SRSS), STRESSTYPE (OCC)

STATIC2 1

STATIC3 1

* COMBINATION CASES 2:

COMBINATION (SRSS), STRESSTYPE (OCC)

STATIC1 1

STATIC3 1

Example 4

The static load cases are:

1 = W+P1(Hanger design restrained weight case)

2 = W+T1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #1)

3 = W+T2+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #2)

Dynamic Analysis

5 = W+T1+H+P1+D1 (OPE)

6 = W+P1+H(SUS)

7 = L5-L6 (EXP)

Combine the static sustained stresses with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case

2 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 3 results. The combination method is SRSS. For a

second combination case, combine the static sustained stresses with 1/2 the shock case 4

results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results.

* COMBINATION CASE 1:

COMBINATION (SRSS)

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC1 1/2

DYNAMIC2 1/2

DYNAMIC3 1.333

or

COMBINATION (SRSS)

S6 1

D1 0.5

D2 0.5

D3 1.333

* COMBINATION CASE 2:

COMBINATION (SRSS)

STATIC6 1

DYNAMIC4 0.5

DYNAMIC5 0.5

DYNAMIC6 1.333

Dynamic Analysis

This tab displays for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Adds or deletes mass from the model.

You can add extra mass, which is not considered significant in the static model (such as a

flange pair) here. You can also add weights modeled as downward-acting concentrated forces

here, because CAESAR II does not assume that concentrated forces are system weights

(that is, forces due to gravity acting on a mass).

You can also delete masses from the static mass model to economize the analysis, which is the

same as deleting degrees-of-freedom. If the system response to some dynamic load is isolated to

specific sections of the piping system, you can remove other sections of the system from the

dynamic model by removing their mass. Also, you can delete mass selectively for any of the three

global coordinate directions when you want to delete directional degrees-of-freedom.

For example, if a piping system includes a structural frame where the piping rests on the

structure and is connected to the structure only in the Y direction, these two systems are

independent of each other in the X and Z directions. You can remove the X and Z mass of the

structure without affecting the analysis results. With the X and Z masses removed,

calculations proceed much faster.

Topics

Mass............................................................................................. 673

Direction........................................................................................ 673

Start Node..................................................................................... 674

Stop Node..................................................................................... 674

Increments.................................................................................... 674

Mass

Specifies the magnitude of the concentrated mass (in current units) to be applied to the specified

node. A positive value is added to the calculated mass assigned to the node, a negative value is

subtracted from the calculated mass, and a zero value eliminates the mass.

Direction

Specifies the direction in which the mass acts. The values for translated mass are X, Y, Z, and

ALL (where ALL represents X, Y, and Z). The values for rotated mass are RX, RY, RZ, and

RALL (where RALL represents RX, RY, and RZ).

Rotational masses only apply when the consistent mass model is used. For more

information, see Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT) (on page 707) on the Control

Parameters tab.

Dynamic Analysis

Start Node

Specifies the number of the starting node at which this mass is applied.

If entered without values for Stop Node and Increment, then the start node must exist in the

piping system. If entered with values for Stop Node and Increment, then the range of nodes

identified in the range must include at least one node in the piping system.

Stop Node

Specifies the number of the ending node in the model to which the mass is applied. Used as

part of a "range of nodes" lumped mass command with Start Node and Increment. This value

is optional.

Increments

Specifies the node number increment used to step from Start Node to Stop Node. Used as

part of a "range of nodes" lumped mass command. This value is optional and defaults to 1 if no

value is entered.

There can be any number of line entries on the Lumped Masses tab.

The zero mass capability is particularly useful when you are not interested in the modes for

part of the system. That part of the system is usually modeled only for its stiffness effect.

Example 1

450 is added to the assigned mass at node 40 in the X, Y, and Z directions.

450 ALL 40

Example 2

All nodes from 12 to 25 have all assigned mass removed in the X, Y, and Z directions. Some

nodes may not exist in this range but this is acceptable as long as at least one node in the

range exists in the system.

0.0 ALL 12 25 1

Example 3

375 is added in the X, Y, and Z directions for nodes 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50, if they exist. All

assigned mass is removed for all nodes from 1 and 600 in the X and Y directions.

375 A 25 50 5

0.0 X 1 600 1

0.0 Y 1 600 1

Dynamic Analysis

Snubbers Tab

This tab is available for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

Add snubbers to the model. Snubbers are supports that only resist dynamic loading while

allowing static displacement, such as displacement from thermal growth. Snubbers must have

their stiffness defined. Snubbers are not rigid by default because they are typically not as stiff

as other types of restraints.

Snubbers may also be added in Input > Piping as part of the static model. In either the

static or dynamic analysis, a snubber is idealized as a stiffness rather than damping at a point.

Topics

Stiffness........................................................................................ 675

Direction........................................................................................ 675

Node............................................................................................. 675

CNode........................................................................................... 675

Stiffness

Specifies the stiffness of the snubber. The value must be positive. If the snubber is rigid enter a

value of 1.0E12.

Direction

Specifies the direction for the line of action of the snubber. Valid entries are X, Y, Z, direction

cosines, or direction vectors. The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy, cz), such as

(0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz), such as (1,0,1).

Node

Specifies the node number where the snubber acts.

Connecting nodes for snubbers work in the same way as for restraints.

CNode

Specifies the second node number to which the other end of the snubber is connected. This

value is optional. If the snubber acts between the piping system and a fixed point in space,

then do not enter a value for CNode.

Connecting nodes for snubbers works in the same way as for restraints.

Example 1

Add a rigid snubber at node 150 in the Z direction.

1E12 Z 150

Example 2

Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction.

Dynamic Analysis

1E12 Z 160

1E12 Z 165

1E12 Z 170

Example 3

Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 405 in the Z

direction.

1E12 Z 405 1005

Example 4

Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. The X snubber

connects to the structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber connects to the overhead line

at node 743.

* HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL

5000 X 500 1050.

* VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER

LINE

5000 Y 500 743

Dynamic Analysis

This tab is available for any selection of Analysis Type in the Dynamic Analysis window.

The type of analysis determines the parameters available on the Control Parameters tab. The

software displays the list of applicable parameters. The control parameters available for each

analysis are shown below:

Table Notes:

X Required.

3 Max. No. of Eigenvalues and Frequency Cutoff work as a pair in terminating the eigen extraction.

Dynamic Analysis

6 Used if USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spectra are specified in the

shock definition.

7 Used if independent support movement (USM) loads are present or if defined shock does not include

all supports in the system.

10 Used if more than one spectrum load is applied in the same direction.

For modal analysis, set the number of modes of vibration to extract by specifying a

maximum number, a cutoff frequency, or both.

Topics

Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/Range/TimeHist).......678

Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status...........................689

Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated............................................. 690

Frequency Cutoff (HZ)................................................................... 692

Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms).........693

Load Duration (DSRSS) (sec)....................................................... 694

Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical)............................................... 694

ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC - g's) <or> # Time History Output Cases

695

Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes).......699

Spatial or Modal Combination First............................................... 699

Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).................................... 700

Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS).....700

Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)......703

Include Missing Mass Components............................................... 704

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS)....706

Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).........................706

Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS).............................. 706

Mass Model (LUMPED/CONSISTENT)........................................ 707

Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues..................... 707

Displays the dynamic analysis type selected for Analysis Type. For more information, see The

Dynamic Analysis Window (on page 636). Displays M (Modal), H (Harmonic), S1 (Earthquake

spectrum), S2 (Relief Loads spectrum), S3 (Water Hammer/Slug Flow spectrum), or T (Time

History).

Harmonic Analysis (on page 679)

Spectrum Analysis (on page 682)

Time History (on page 686)

Dynamic Analysis

Harmonic Analysis

The response of a system to a dynamically applied load is generally expressed through

the dynamic equation of motion:

Where:

M = system mass matrix

= acceleration vector, as a function of time

C = system damping matrix

= velocity vector, as a function of time

K = system stiffness matrix

x(t) = displacement vector, as a function of time

F(t) = applied load vector, as a function of time

The harmonic solver is most commonly used to analyze low frequency field vibrations due to

fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equipment displacements. This differential equation

cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases. Harmonic analysis looks at one of

these casesthe set of dynamic problems where the forces or displacements (such as

pulsation or vibration) acting on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. When damping is

zero under harmonic loading, the dynamic equation of the system can be reduced to

M (t) + K x(t) = F0 cos (w t + Q)

Where:

F0 = harmonic load vector

w = angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec)

t = time

Q = phase angle (radians)

This differential equation is solved directly for the nodal displacements at any time. From there

the system reactions, forces and moments, and stresses are calculated.

The equation has a solution of the form

x (t) = A cos (w t + Q)

Where:

A = vector of maximum harmonic displacements of system

Because acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time,

(t) = -A w2 cos w t

Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic

harmonic equation of motion yields,

-M A 2 cos ( t + Q) + K A cos ( t + Q) = Fo cos ( t + Q)

Dividing both sides of this equation by cos ( t + Q),

Dynamic Analysis

-M A 2 + K A = Fo

Reordering this equation,

(K - M 2) A = Fo

This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (static) piping problems.

The solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a single static solution,

and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading, the results directly give the maximum

dynamic responses. Due to the speed of the analysis, and because the solutions are so

directly applicable, you should make as much use of this capability as possible. Keep two

considerations in mind:

When damping is not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix

is defined as the sum of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh damping), that

is

[C] = a [M] + b [K]

On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and

the constants a and b is

Where:

= Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec)

For practical problems, a is extremely small, and can be ignored. The definition of b

reduces to

= 2 Cc/

CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, but two

problems exist. First, for multi-degree-of-freedom systems, there is not really a single b, but

there must be only a single b in order to get a solution of the harmonic equation. The

second problem is that the modal frequencies are not known prior to generation of the

damping matrix. Therefore the w used in the calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the

load, instead of the natural frequency of a mode. When the forcing frequency of the load is

in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the true damping.

If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously and are not in phase, system response is the sum

of the responses due to the individual loads

x(t) = S Ai cos ( t + Qi)

Where:

Ai = displacement vector of system under load i

Qi = phase angle of load i

In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Solutions for each load, and the

sum of these, must be found at various times in the load cycle. These combinations are then

reviewed in order to determine which one causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II

can select the frequency/phase pairs which maximize the system displacement.

Damped harmonics always cause a phased response.

Dynamic Analysis

The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field

vibrations resulting from either fluid pulsation or out-of-round rotating equipment

displacements. The approach typically used is described briefly below:

1. A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field. Large cyclic vibrations or high

stresses (fatigue failure) are present in an existing piping system, raising questions of

whether this represents a dangerous situation. As many symptoms of the problem (such as

quantifiable displacements or overstress points) are identified as possible for future use in

refining the dynamic model.

2. A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as

possible, because system and load characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed

response. In the area where the vibration occurs, you should accurately represent valve

operators, flange pairs, orifice plates, and other in-line equipment. You may also want to add

additional nodes in the area of the vibration.

3. Assume the cause of the load, and estimate the frequency, magnitude, point, and direction

of the load. This is difficult because dynamic loads can come from many sources. Dynamic

loads may be due to factors such as internal pressure pulses, external vibration, flow

shedding at intersections, and two-phase flow. In almost all cases, there is some frequency

content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical

natural frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably

some multiple of the operating frequency. If the load is due to acoustic flow problems, then

the forcing frequency can be estimated through the use of Strouhals equations (from fluid

dynamics). Use the best assumptions available to estimate the magnitudes and points of

application of the dynamic load.

4. Model the loading using harmonic forces or displacements, normally depending upon

whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration. Perform several harmonic

analyses, sweeping the frequencies through a range centered about the target frequency to

account for uncertainty. Examine the results of each of the analyses for signs of large

displacements, indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, compare the

results of the analysis to the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar, or if

there is no resonance, this indicates that the dynamic model is not a good one. It must then

be improved, either in terms of a more accurate system (static) model, a better estimate of

the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range. After the model has been refined,

repeat this step until the mathematical model behaves just like the actual piping system in

the field.

5. At this point, the model is a good representation of the piping system, the loads and

the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics.

6. Evaluate the results of this run in order to determine whether they indicate a problem.

Because harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evaluated against the endurance

limit of the piping material. Displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or

esthetic guidelines.

7. If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified. The cause is

normally the excitation of a single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load

Factor for a single damped mode of vibration, with a harmonic load applied is

Where:

Dynamic Analysis

Cc = ratio of system damping to "critical damping,"

where "critical damping" =

f = forcing frequency of applied harmonic load

n = natural frequency of mode of vibration

A modal extraction of the system is done; one or more of these modes should have a

natural frequency close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The problem mode can

be further identified as having a shape very similar to the shape of the total system

vibration. This mode shape has been dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes

and predominates in the final vibrated shape.

8. The problem mode must be eliminated. You typically want to add a restraint at a high point

and in the direction of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode may also be

altered by changing the mass distribution of the system. If no modification of the system is

possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequency of the load. If the dynamic load

was assumed to be due to internal acoustics, you should reroute the pipe to change the

internal flow conditions. This may resolve or amplify the problem, but in either case avoids

CAESAR IIs "good model" of the system. After modifying the system, the harmonic problem

is re-run using the single forcing frequency determined as a "good model." The stresses and

displacements are then re-evaluated.

9. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now re-analyzed

statically to determine the effects of any modifications on the static loading cases.

Adding restraint normally increases expansion stresses, while adding mass

increases sustained stresses.

Process output from a harmonic analysis in two ways:

Use the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either

graphically or in report form.

Animate the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases.

The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/Dynamic

Combination option.

Spectrum Analysis

Spectrum analysis attempts to estimate the maximum response developed in a system during

a transient load. The results are a statistical summation of the maxi\-mum displacements,

forces, reactions, and stresses. The individual responses do not represent an actual physical

loading case because the maxima may all occur at different times. Spectrum analyses are

especially useful when the loading profile is random, or not exactly known, such as with seismic

loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to perform two types of spectrum analyses which may be

combined: seismic and force spectra. Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over

the entire system, or applied through individual support groups with corresponding anchor

movements. Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze impulse loadings, such as those

due to relief valve, fluid hammer, or slug flow.

Dynamic Analysis

Seismic loads cannot be solved through time history analyses, because earthquakes cause

random motion which may be different for each earthquake, even those occurring at the same

site. To simplify the analytical definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected

random waveform of acceleration (or velocity or displacement) versus time into a simple

frequency-content plot. The most predominantly used frequency-content plot is the response

spectrum. A response spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by placing a series

of single degree-of-freedom oscillators on a mechanical shake table and feeding a typical (for a

specific site) earthquake time history through it, measuring the maximum response

(displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each oscillator.

The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are different, similar ones should produce the

same maximum responses, even though the time at which they occur differs with each individual

occurrence. Responses are based on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the

dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the pre\-dominant harmonic frequencies of the

earthquake to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping. Response spectra for

a number of damping values can be generated by plotting the maximum response for each

oscillator. A plot of a set of typical response spectra is shown below:

Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, because seismic

loads indicate strong harmonic tendencies. As the damping value increases, the system

response approaches ground motion. Seismic spectra also usually show strong evidence of

flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the

building and/or piping system. Multiple peaks are usually enveloped in order to account for

uncertainties in the analysis. Seismic response spectra peaks are typically spread to account

for inaccuracies as well.

The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that the modes of vibration of a system

respond to the load in the exact same manner as a single degree-of-freedom oscillator.

Dynamic Analysis

these terms of the spectra are all related by the frequency:

d = v / = a / 2

Where:

d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency v

= velocity from response spectrum at frequency

= angular frequency at which response spectrum parameters are taken

a = acceleration from response spectrum at frequency

Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the following steps:

Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Eigensolver algorithm. Each

mode has a characteristic frequency and mode shape.

1. The maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from

the spectrum value corresponding to the natural frequency of the mode.

2. The total system response is determined by summing the individual modal responses,

using methods that reflect the time independence of the responses and the portion of

system mass allocated to each mode.

There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available in CAESAR II:

El Centro

This predefined data is taken from J. Biggs Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is based

on the north-south component of the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthquake. The

recorded maximum acceleration was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here is intended to apply

to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent critical damping.

Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60

The predefined spectrum names are:

1.60H.5 1.60V.5 - Horizontal/vertical, 0.5% damping

1.60H2 1.60V2 - Horizontal/vertical, 2.0% damping

1.60H5 1.60V5 - Horizontal/vertical, 5.0% damping

1.60H7 1.60V7 - Horizontal/vertical ,7.0% damping

1.60H10 1.60V10 - Horizontal/vertical, 10.0% damping

These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for

seismic design of nuclear plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum

ground acceleration (ZPAzero period acceleration), specified in the CAESAR II control

parameter spreadsheet.

Uniform Building Code

The pre\-defined spectrum names are:

UBCSOIL1 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils

UBCSOIL2 Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils

UBCSOIL3 Spectrum for soft to medium clays and sands

Dynamic Analysis

These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes for three soil types provided

in Figure 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled

by the ZPA, which is the product of Z and I, where Z is the seismic zone coefficient and I is the

earthquake importance factor, from UBC Tables 23-I and 23-L. The ZPA can be specific using

the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.

User defined spectra

User defined spectra may be entered with period or frequency as the range, and displacement,

velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file or entered

directly into a spectrum table during dynamic input processing.

Earthquake ground motions are caused by the passing of acoustic shock waves through the

soil. These waves are usually hundreds of feet long. If supports having foundations in the soil

are grouped together within a several hundred foot radius, they typically see exactly the same

excitation from the earthquake. If all of the supports for a particular piping system are attached

directly to ground type supports, each support is excited by an essentially identical time

waveform. This type of excitation is known as uniform support excitation. Often pipe is

supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These

intermediate structures sometimes filter or accentuate the effect of the earthquake. In this

situation, the supports attached to the intermediate structure are not exposed to the same

excitation as those that are attached directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these

systems, different shocks must be applied to different parts of the piping system. This type of

excitation is known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the different support

groups are exposed to different shocks, there are also relative movements between support

groups that dont exist for uniform support excitation. The movement of one support group

relative to another is termed pseudostatic displacement, or seismic anchor movements. For

uniform support excitation, there are spatial and modal response components available for

combination. For independent support excitation, there are spatial and modal response

components available for each different support group, plus pseudostatic components of the

earthquake that must also be added into the dynamic response.

The major difference when running ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock

load cases. In the uniform excitation case, the shock acts implicitly over all of the supports in

the system. In the ISM case different shocks act on different groups of supports. The Spectrum

Load Cases tab appears, with the following parameters:

Spectrum (name)

Factor

Dir (direction)

Start Node

Stop Node

Increment

Anchor Movement

Name, Factor, and Dir are all that is required for uniform support excitations. For ISM type

shocks, the group of nodes over which the shock acts must be specified as well, using Start

Node, Stop Node, and Increment. Anchor Movement is used to explicitly define the seismic

displacement of the restraint set. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load

Dynamic Analysis

components. If omitted, the software defaults to the displacement derived from the

response spectrum entry corresponding to the lowest frequency.

A similar method can be followed for non-random loads, such as an impulse load for which

the force versus time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem

explains why the force spectrum solution is very similar to the earthquake solution:

The term on the right hand side is a dynamic force acting on the piping system, such as F =

Ma, so the analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:

Where:

F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)

Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a

Dynamic Load Factor spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum gives

the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement.

The earthquake response spectrum analysis method starts with the time history of an

earthquake excitation. The force spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same way,

except that the analysis starts with the force versus time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this

time history loading is applied to a shake table of single degree-of-freedom bodies. A response

spectrum (DLF versus natural frequency) is generated by dividing the maximum oscillator

displacements by the static displacements expected under the same load. An alternate means

of generating a response spectrum for an impulse load is to numerically integrate the dynamic

equation of motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load. Use Tools >

DLF Spectrum Generator.

Process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways:

Use the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation

factors, included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report

form. Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and

shock load responsible for that contribution.

Animate the individual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis.

Time History

Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analytical method than

response spectrum analysis. It is best suited to impulse loadings or other transient loadings

where the profile is known. This method of analysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic

equation of motion throughout the duration of the applied load and subsequent system

vibration, providing a true simulation of the system response.

As noted in Harmonic Analysis (on page 679), the dynamic equation of motion for a system is

This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated using numeric

techniques by slicing the duration of the load into many small time steps. Assuming that the

Dynamic Analysis

change in acceleration between time slices is linear, the system accelerations, velocities,

displacements, and corresponding reactions, internal forces, and stresses are calculated

at successive time steps.

Because the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual

modes of vibration, the above equation can be simplified assuming that the damping matrix C is

orthogonal. Use the transformation x = FX, to be expressed in modal coordinates:

Where:

C = diagonal damping matrix, where entry Ci = wi ci

i = angular frequency of mode i

ci = ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i

(t) = velocity vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time

x(t) = displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time

= diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry i = i2

This transformation represents N uncoupled second order differential equations, where N is the

number of modes of vibration extracted. N can then be integrated and summed, using the in-

phase, algebraic summation method to give the total system response. CAESAR II uses the

Wilson method (an extension of the Newmark method) to integrate the equations of motion,

providing an unconditionally stable algorithm regardless of time step size chosen.

Only one dynamic load can be defined for a time history analysis. This dynamic load case can

be used in as many static/dynamic combination load case as necessary. The single load case

may consist of multiple force profiles applied to the system simultaneously or sequentially. Each

force versus time profile is entered as a spectrum with an ordinate of Force (in current units)

and a range of Time (in milliseconds). The profiles are defined by entering the time and force

coordinates of the corner points defining the profile.

A time can only be entered once. A time with zero force outside of the defined profile

need not be entered explicitly.

For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as:

Dynamic Analysis

The load profiles are linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, direction, and location of the

applied load) in the shock case. The magnitude of the applied load is determined by the product

of the profile force, the force set magnitude, and the scale in the shock case.

You can enter only forces, not moments or restraint displacements, in the time history load

profile. Model moments using force couples, and simulate restraint displacements by

entering forces equal to the displacement multiplied by the restraint stiffness in the direction

of the displacement.

Process output from a Time History analysis in three ways:

Use the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,

included mass/force, displacements, and restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form.

CAESAR IIs implementation of time history analysis provides two types of results.

One results case contains the maximum individual components (such as axial stress, X-

displacement, and MZ reaction) of the system response, along with the time at which it

occurred. Several results cases represent the actual system response at specific times.

Dynamic results also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient

load responsible for that contribution.

Animate the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the

displacements, forces, moments, stresses, and other data associated with individual

elements are displayed at every time step and for the dynamic load alone, or for any of the

static/dynamic combinations.

Animate the individual mode shapes included in the time history response.

Dynamic Analysis

(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, Range, and Time History)

Specifies the static load case as described below. Select a load case from the list.

CAESAR II cannot perform a dynamic analysis on nonlinear systems. For dynamic analyses, a

one-directional restraint must be modeled as either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a

gap must be either open (inactive) or closed (active). This process is automated when the static

load case is selected. CAESAR II automatically sets the linear condition at the non-linear

restraints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case. Think of this as

being the loading condition of the system (such as operating load) at the time at which the

dynamic load occurs. This automated linearization does not always provide an appropriate

dynamic model, and you may need to select other static load cases or manually alter the

restraint condition in order to simulate the correct dynamic response.

A static load case must precede the dynamics job whenever:

There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The static runs must be made in order to

determine the spring rate to be used in the dynamic model.

There are non-linear restraints in the system, such as one-directional restraints, large-

rotation rods, bi-linear restraints, or gaps. The static analysis must be made in order to

determine the active status of each of the restraints for linearization of the dynamic model.

There are frictional restraints in the job, such as any restraints with a nonzero (mu)

value. The most common static load cases during a typical CAESAR II analysis are:

1 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)

2 = W+P1+H (SUS)

3 = L1-L2 (EXP)

If the operating condition is likely to exist throughout the duration of the dynamic transient, use

parameter 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during the transient, use parameter 2. It

is extremely unlikely that expansion case 3 is correct, because it does not represent the system

status at any given time, but represents the difference between the first two cases.

1 = W+P1(For hanger design)

2 = W+P1+D1+T1(For hanger design)

3 = W+P1+D1+T1+H (OPE)

4 = W+P1+H (SUS)

5 = L3-L4 (EXP)

The correct static load cases to use are those in which the selected spring hangers have

been included. If the operating condition is the correct load case, use parameter 3. For the

installed condition, use parameter 4.

Dynamic Analysis

(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, Range, and Time History)

Specifies the friction stiffness factor as described below. Enter a value greater than zero to

consider friction stiffness in the analysis. Enter 0.0 to ignore friction in the analysis.

Dynamic analyses in CAESAR II act only on linear systems, so any non-linearities must be

linearized prior to analysis. Modeling of friction in dynamic models presents a special case,

because friction actually impacts the dynamic response in two ways. Static friction (before

breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system by providing additional restraint. Kinetic friction

(after breakaway) affects the damping component of dynamic response. Due to mathematical

constraints, damping is ignored for all analyses except time history and harmonics, for which it

is only considered on a system-wide basis.

CAESAR II allows friction to be taken into account through the use of this friction stiffness

factor. The software approximates the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including

stiffnesses transverse to the direction of the restraint at which friction was specified. The

stiffness of these "frictional" restraints is calculated as:

Kfriction = (F) () (Fact)

Where:

Kfriction = Stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II.

F = The load at the restraint taken from the selected static solution.

= Friction coefficient at restraint, as defined in the static

model. Fact = Friction stiffness factor entered here.

This factor should be adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the

actual dynamic response of the system. The factor does not correspond to any actual dynamic

parameter, but is actually an adjustment factor to modify system stiffness. Entering a friction

factor greater than zero causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into the dynamic

analysis. Increasing this factor correspondingly increases the effect of the friction. Values such

as 1000 are typical. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any frictional effect in the

dynamic analysis.

(Available for: Modal, Spectrum, and Time History)

Specifies the number of modal responses to be included in the system results through a

mode number cutoff. Enter a value for Setting. Enter 0 to limit modes extracted to the value

of Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692). Enter higher values as described below.

The first stage of the spectrum and time history analyses (and the only step for modal

analysis) is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm to extract piping system natural frequencies

and mode shapes. For the spectrum and time history analyses, the response under loading is

calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being the sum of the individual

modal responses. The more modes that are extracted, the more the sum of those modal

responses resembles the actual system response. This algorithm uses an iterative method for

finding successive modes, so extraction of a large number of modes usually requires much

more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to extract

sufficient modes to get a suitable solution, without straining computational resources.

Dynamic Analysis

This parameter is used, in combination with Frequency Cutoff (HZ), to limit the maximum

number of modes of vibration to be extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this parameter

is entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is limited only by the frequency cutoff and

the number of degrees-of-freedom in the system model.

Example

A system has the following natural frequencies:

1 0.6

2 3.0

3 6.1

4 10.7

5 20.3

6 29.0

7 35.4

8 40.7

9 55.6

The modes extracted for different values of Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated and

Frequency Cutoff are:

Eigenvalues Frequency Modes

Calculated Cutoff extracted

0 33 7

0 50 9

3 33 3

9 60 9

If you are more interested in providing an accurate representation of the system displacements,

request the extraction of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time. However, if an

accurate estimate of the forces and stresses in the system is the objective, calculation time

grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more modes. This is particularly true when solving

a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axial restraints. Often modes with natural

frequencies of up to 300 Hz are large contributors to the solution.

To determine how many modes are sufficient, extract a certain number of modes and review the

results. Repeat the analysis by extracting five to ten additional modes and comparing the new results

to the old. If there are significant changes between the results, repeat the analysis again,

Dynamic Analysis

adding five to ten more modes. This iterative process continues until the results taper

off, becoming asymptotic.

This procedure has two drawbacks. First is the time involved in making the multiple analyses

and the time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The second

drawback, occurring with spectrum analysis, is less obvious. A degree of conservatism is

introduced when combining the contributions of the higher order modes. Possible spectral mode

summation methods include methods that combine modal results as same-sign (positive)

values: SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUP. Theory states that the rigid modes act in phase with

each other, and should be combined algebraically, permitting the response of some rigid modes

to cancel the effect of other rigid modes. This is what occurs in a time history analysis. Because

of this conservatism, it is possible to get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite

the fact that the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load cannot be greater than 2.0.

(Available for: Modal, Spectrum, and Time History)

Specifies a frequency cutoff point in Hertz as described below.

When extracting modes to be used in dynamic analysis, you can specify a value for either Max.

No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (on page 690) or a frequency cutoff. Modal extraction ceases

when the Eigensolver extracts either the number of modes requested, or extracts a mode with

a frequency above the cutoff, whichever comes first.

You can select a frequency cutoff point for modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized "rigid"

frequency, and then include the missing mass correction For more information, see Include

Missing Mass Components (on page 704). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the

resonant peak of the response spectrum provides a non-conservative result, because resonant

responses may be missed. During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right of the

peak, but still in the resonant range, yields either over- or under-conservative results, depending

upon the method used to extract the ZPA from the response spectrum. For time history

analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range,

usually yields non-conservative results. The missing mass force is applied with a dynamic load

factor of 1.0. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response

may be conservative in the case of spectrum analysis, because all spectral modal combination

methods (such as SRSS, GROUP, and ABS) give conservative results versus the algebraic

combination method used during time history analysis. This gives a more realistic

representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum

shown below, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction is about 33 Hz.

1. Non-conservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range)

2. Conservative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF1.6)

3. Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF1.05for missing

mass contribution, minimizes combination of rigid modes)

Dynamic Analysis

4. Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using non-conservative summation

methods)

When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or Max.

No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (on page 690) must have a value.

(Available for: Spectrum/GROUP and Time History)

Specifies a frequency or time-slice spacing as described below. The usage of this parameter

varies with the analysis type.

Spectrum Analysis

For a spectrum analysis with the GROUP Modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC

Regulatory Guide 1.92), this value specifies the frequency spacing defining each modal group,

that is, the percentage of the base frequency between the lowest and highest frequency of the

group. Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing criteria as 10%, or 0.1. This is the

default value in CAESAR II. For more information, see Modal Combination Method

(Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).

For a time history analysis, this value is the length of the time slice, in milliseconds. The

software uses the value during its step-by-step integration of the equations of motion for each of

the extracted modes. CAESAR II uses the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration method

where any size time step provides a solution. A smaller step provides greater accuracy but more

strain on computational resources. The time step should be sufficiently small that it can

accurately map the force versus time load profile (that is, the time step should be smaller than

typical force ramp times). Additionally, the time step must be small enough that the contribution

of the higher order modes is not filtered from the response. For this reason, the time step

should be selected so that time step (in seconds) times maximum modal frequency (in Hz) is

less than 0.1. For example, if Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692) is 50 Hz, this value should

be set to a maximum of 2 milliseconds:

Dynamic Analysis

(Available for: Spectrum/DSRSS and Time History)

Specifies the duration of the applied dynamic load, as described below.

Spectrum Analysis

For a time history analysis, this parameter specifies the total length of time over which the

dynamic response is simulated. The load duration divided by the time step size from Closely

Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693) gives the total number of

integration steps making up the solution. CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to 5000 or

as permitted by available memory and system size. The duration should be at least equal to the

maximum duration of the applied load plus the period of the first extracted mode. This allows

simulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the external load, plus one full

cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the response dies out according to the

damping value used. For example, if the applied load is expected to last 150 milliseconds and

the lowest extracted frequency is 3 Hz, set the load duration to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3, or

0.483 seconds.

For a spectrum analysis using the double sum (DSRSS) modal combination method (as

defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this value specifies the duration of the earthquake.

This duration is used to calculate the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data.

For more information, see Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on

page 700).

(Available for: Spectrum/DSRSS, Harmonics, and Time History)

Specifies the ratio of critical damping as described below. Typical values for piping systems, as

recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N-411, range from 0.01 to

0.05, based upon pipe size, earthquake severity, and the natural frequencies of the system.

Damping is not generally considered in the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or

harmonic analysis. It is ignored or solved as specialized cases in most analyses, and must be

instead considered through adjustment of the applied loads (by generation of the response

spectrum) and/or system stiffness.

For a time history analysis, damping is used explicitly, because this method uses a numeric

solution to integrate the dynamic equations of motion.

For a spectrum analysis using the double sum (DSRSS) modal combination method (as defined

by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), the damping value is used in the calculation of the modal

correlation coefficients. CAESAR II does not permit the specification of damping values for

individual modes. For more information, see Modal Combination Method

(Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).

For a harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix

can be expressed as multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices:

[C] = a [M] + b [K]

Dynamic Analysis

On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping C c and the constants

and are given as:

Where:

= undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec)

For many practical problems, is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing

the relationships to:

=0

= 2 Cc /

CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with the exception

that a single is calculated for the multi-degree-of-freedom system, and the used is that of the

load forcing frequency. When the forcing frequency is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this

gives an accurate estimate of the true damping value.

Cases

(Available for: Spectrum/1.60/UBC and Time History)

Specifies an acceleration factor or distinct times as described below. The usage of this

parameter varies with the analysis type.

Dynamic Analysis

For specific pre-defined normalized response spectra, this value is the acceleration factor (in g's) by

which the spectrum is scaled. For example, when a spectrum analysis uses one of the pre-defined

spectra names beginning with "1.60" (such as 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II constructs an

earthquake spectrum according to the instructions given in USNRC (formerly USAEC) Regulatory

Guide 1.60. This guide requires that the shape of the response spectrum be chosen from the curves

shown in the following figures, based upon the system damping value. The last number in the default

CAESAR II spectrum name indicates the percent critical damping. For example, 1.60H.5 indicates

0.5% critical damping, while 1.60V7 indicates 7%. If the analysis uses one of the pre-defined spectra

names beginning with "UBC" (such as UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic

response spectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 23-3 of the Uniform Building Code (1991

Edition). Reg Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized to represent a ground acceleration

(ZPA or zero period acceleration) of 1g. The true value is actually site dependent. Therefore, using

the ZPA value appropriately scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building Code

response spectra.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

For a time history analysis, this value is the number of distinct times at which the results of the

load cases (the dynamic load as well as all static/dynamic combinations) are generated. In

addition, CAESAR II generates one set of results for each load case containing the maximum of

each output value (such as displacement, force, or stress) along with the time at which it

occurred. The times for which results are generated are determined by dividing as evenly as

possible the load duration by the number of output times. For example, if the load duration is

one second and five output cases are requested, results are available at 200, 400, 600, 800,

and 1000 milliseconds, in addition to the maximum case. The total number of results cases

generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one dynamic case plus

the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per load

(one maxima case plus the requested number of output cases). The total number of results

cases is limited to 999:

Dynamic Analysis

At least one output case, in addition to the automatically generated maxima case, must be

requested. More than one is not necessary, because the worst case results are reflected in

the maxima case and individual results at every time step are available through the ELEMENT

command when animating time history results.

(Available for: Spectrum and Time History)

Specifies the handling of the previous eignesolution when repeating a dynamic analysis. Select

N (for no) to perform a new eigensolution. Select Y (for yes) to skip the eigensolution and reuse

the results of the earlier analysis, and only perform calculations for displacements, reactions,

forces, and stresses. This option is only valid after an initial eigensolution is performed and is

still available. The mass and stiffness parameters of the model must be unchanged or the

previous eigensolution is invalid.

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining load case results as described below. Select Spatial to first

combine spatial components of the load case. Select Modal to first combine modal components

of the load case.

In a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if multiple

shocks have been applied to the structure in multiple directions, the results must be combined,

such as spatially combining the X-direction, Y-direction, and Z-direction results. A difference in

the final results (spatial first versus modal first) arises whenever different methods are used for

the spatial and modal combinations. The combination of spatial components first implies that

the shock loads are dependent, while the combination of modal components first implies that

the shock loads are independent.

Dependent and independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components

of the earthquake. With a dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake

have a direct relationship. A change in the shock along one direction produces a corresponding

change in the other directions. For example, an earthquake acts along a specific direction

having components in more than one axis, with a fault at a 30 angle between the X- and Z-

axes. The Z-direction load is scaled by a factor of tan 30, but the identical version of the X-

direction load is used. In this example, spatial combinations should be made first.

An independent shock has X, Y, and Z time histories producing related frequency spectra but

completely unrelated time histories. The Independent type of earthquake is far more

common, so in most cases the modal components should be combined first.

For example, IEEE 344-1975 (IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of

Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations) states:

"Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by simultaneous but

statistically INDEPENDENT horizontal and vertical components."

Dynamic Analysis

This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations. Normally there are no separate

spatial components to combine because X- Y- and Z-shocks are not acting simultaneously.

When there is more than one potential force load, the spatial combination method may be used

to indicate the independence of the loadings. For example, select Modal if two independent

relief valves may or may not fire simultaneously and the two shocks are defined as being in

different directions (such as X and Y). If the two valves are dependent and will definitely open

simultaneously, select Spatial. Otherwise, the direction defined for a force spectrum loading has

no particular meaning.

Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requirements for

combining spatial components when performing seismic response spectra analysis for

nuclear power plants.

Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), this option has no effect on

time history results.

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a single spectrum

load case. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method.

Select ABS for an absolute combination method.

This option is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation direction.

Because directional forces are usually combined vectorially, SRSS is usually the best

selection. ABS is provided for additional conservatism.

Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this option has

no effect on time history results.

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining individual modes into the total system response.

GROUP - Grouping Method (on page 701)

10% - Ten Percent Method (on page 701)

DSRSS - Double Sum Method (on page 702)

SRSS - Square Root of the Sum of the Squares Method (on page 702)

ABS - Absolute Method (on page 703)

The response spectrum yields the maximum response at any time during the course of the

applied load, and each of the modes of vibration usually have different frequencies .As a result,

the peak responses of all modes do not occur simultaneously and an appropriate means of

summing the modal responses must be considered.

Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the requirements for

combining modal responses when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear

power plants. The four options presented there are available, along with one other, for modal

combinations under non-nuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses.

Dynamic Analysis

Grouping Method

This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The grouping method attempts to

eliminate the drawbacks of the Absolute and SRSS methods. It assumes that modes are

completely correlated with any modes with similar closely spaced frequencies, and are

completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies. The total

system response is calculated as

Where:

R = total system response of the element

N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination R k

= the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode

P = number of groups of closely-spaced modes (where modes are considered to be

closely-spaced if their frequencies are within 10% of the base mode in the group),

excluding individual separated modes. No mode can be in more than one group.

i = number of first mode in group q

j = number of last mode in group q

Rlq = response of mode l in group q

Rmq = response of mode m in group

q

The responses of any modes which have frequencies within 10% of each other are added

together absolutely, and the results of each of these groups are combined with the

remaining individual modal results using the SRSS method.

The 10% value controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies can be changed

by using the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693)

parameter.

This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The ten percent method is

similar to the grouping method. It assumes that modes are completely correlated with any

modes with similar closely spaced frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those

modes with widely different frequencies. The grouping method assumes that modes are only

correlated with those that fall within the group (within a 10% band). This method assumes that

modes are correlated with those that fall within 10% of the subject model, effectively creating a

20% band (10% up and approximately 10% down). The total system response is calculated as

Where:

Ri, Rj = the peak value of the response of the element due to the i th and jth mode,

respectively, where mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of the each other,

Dynamic Analysis

The 10% value controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies can be changed

by using the Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) (on page 693)

parameter.

This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination method is the most

technically correct for earthquake loads, because it attempts to estimate the actual intermodal

correlation coefficient based upon empirical data. The total system response is calculated as:

Where:

Rs = the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s

eks = intermodal correlation coefficient = [ 1 + {( k' - s') /(k' k + s' s)}2 ]-1

k' = k [ 1 - k2 ]1/2

2 1/2

s' = s [ 1 - s ]

k' = k + 2 / ( td k )

s' = s + 2 / ( td s )

k = frequency of mode k, rad/sec

s = frequency of mode s, rad/sec

k = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode k,

dimensionless s = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode

s, dimensionless td = duration of earthquake, sec

The load duration (td) and the damping ratio () can be specified by using the Load

Duration (DSRSS) (sec) (on page 694) and Damping (DSRSS) (ratio of critical) (on page

694) parameters.

This method defines the total system response as the square root of the sum of the squares

of the individual modal responses. This is effectively the same as using the double sum

method with all correlation coefficients equal to 0.0, or the grouping method with none of the

modes being closely spaced. The total system response is calculated as:

This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses are completely

independent, with the maxima following a relatively uniform distribution throughout the duration

of the applied load. This is usually non-conservative, especially if there are any modes with very

Dynamic Analysis

close frequencies, because those modes will usually experience their maximum DLF

at approximately the same time during the load profile.

Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), this modal

combination method has no effect on time history results.

Absolute Method

This method defines the total system response as the sum of the absolute values of the

individual modal responses. This is effectively the same as using the double sum method

with all correlation coefficients equal to 1.0, or the grouping method, with all modes being

closely spaced. The total system response is calculated as:

This method gives the most conservative result, because it assumes that the all maximum

modal responses occur at exactly the same time during the course of the applied load. This

is usually overly-conservative, because modes with different natural frequencies will probably

experience their maximum DLF at different times during the load profile.

(Available for: Spectrum with ISM included)

Specifies the inclusion of independent support motion (anchor movement) components as part

of a shock load case and independent support spectral loadings, as described below. Select Y

(for yes) to include the components or N (for no) to ignore them.

The excitation of a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static

response. The static response is due to the movement of one group of supports or anchors

relative to another group of supports or anchors. These static components of the dynamic

shock loads are called pseudostatic components. USNRC recommendations (August 1985)

suggest the following procedure for pseudostatic components:

1. For each support group, calculate the maximum absolute response for each input direction.

2. Combine same direction responses using the absolute sum method.

3. Combine directional responses using the SRSS method.

4. Obtain the total response by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using

the SRSS method.

Dynamic Analysis

(Available for: Spectrum and Time History)

Specifies the inclusion of a correction representing the contribution of higher order modes

not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, providing greater accuracy without

additional calculation time. Select Y (for yes) or N (for no).

During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a

system under a dynamic load is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the

advantages of this type of modal analysis is that only a limited number of modes are excited

and need to be included in the analysis. The drawback to this method is that although

displacements may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few of the lowest frequency

modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require extraction of far more modes

(possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.

This option automatically calculates the net (in-phase) contribution of all non-extracted modes

and combines it with the modal contributions, avoiding the long calculation time and excessively

conservative summation methods. For more information, see Inclusion of Missing Mass

Correction (on page 919).

Use Included Missing Mass Components on the Control Parameters tab as an alternative

method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model. This report is

compiled for all spectrum and time history shock cases, whether missing mass is to be

included or not. It displays the percentage of system mass along each of the three global axes

and the percentage of total force which has been captured by the extracted modes. For more

information, see Include Missing Mass Components (on page 704).

The percentage of system mass active along each of the three global axes (X-, Y-, and Z-) is

calculated by summing the modal mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degree-

of-freedom) attributed to the extracted modes and dividing that sum by the sum of the system

mass acting in the same direction:

Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X-direction degrees of freedom):

% Active Massx

% Active MassY

% Active Massz

Where:

Me = vector (by degree-of-freedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective

modal masses

M = vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass matrix

Dynamic Analysis

The maximum possible percentage of active mass that is theoretically possible is 100%, with

90-95% usually indicating that a sufficient number of modes have been extracted to provide

a good dynamic model.

The percentage of active force is calculated by the following factors:

Separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three

directional degrees-of-freedom

Taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load

Examples

Summed over i = 1 to n, by 6 (X - Direction degrees of freedom):

Fex = Fe[i]

Fx = F[i]

Summed over i = 2 to n, by 6 (Y - Direction degrees of freedom):

Fey = Fe[i]

Fy = F[i]

Summed over i = 3 to n, by 6 (Z - Direction degrees of freedom):

Fez = Fe[i]

Fz = F[i]

Where:

FeX,FeY,FeZ = effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting along the global X-, Y-,

and Z-axes, respectively

Fr = vector of effective forces (allocated to extracted modes)

FX,FY,FZ = total system forces acting along the global X-, Y-, and Z-axes, respectively

F = vector of total system forces

The maximum possible percentage which is theoretically possible for this value is also 100%.

In practice it may be higher, indicating an uneven distribution of the load and mass in the

system model. There is nothing inherently wrong with an analysis where the included force

exceeds 100%. If the missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings are adjusted to

automatically conform to the applied loading. The percentage of included force can often be

brought under 100% by extracting a few more modes. At other times, the situation can be

remedied by improving the dynamic model through a finer element mesh, or, more importantly,

equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.

Dynamic Analysis

Method (SRSS/ABS)

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining pseudostatic responses with dynamic (inertial)

responses. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method.

Select ABS for an absolute combination method.

This option is applicable only when there is at least one independent support motion excitation

component in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are performed after all directional,

spatial, and modal combinations. Select SRSS for pseudostatic combinations, as

recommended by USNRC. ABS gives conservative results. For more information, see Include

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) (on page 703).

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining the missing mass/force correction components with the

modal (dynamic) results. Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination

method. Select ABS for an absolute combination method.

Research suggests that the modal and rigid portions of the response are statistically

independent, so SRSS is usually most accurate. ABS provides a more conservative result,

based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the maximum

ground acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal

combination. For more information, see Include Missing Mass Components (on page 704).

Even though missing mass components may be included during time history analyses, all

time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase), so this parameter has no effect on

time history results.

(Available for: Spectrum)

Specifies the method for combining shock components acting in the same direction.

Select SRSS for a square root of the sum of the squares combination method. Select

ABS for an absolute combination method.

This option is typically used with independent support motion load cases, where responses from

different support groups caused by excitation in the same direction are combined. It also combines

the rare case of multiple uniform shock spectra acting in the same direction. Select ABS for

directional combinations of pseudostatic responses, as recommended by USNRC. Select SRSS for

force spectrum loads when several loads are all defined with the same shock direction. The loads

are then modeled as independent loads. ABS always models as dependent loads. For more

information, see Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)

(on page 703).

Because all time history combinations are done algebraically (in-phase) this parameter

has no effect on time history results.

Dynamic Analysis

(Available for: Modal, Harmonic, Spectrum, and Time History)

Specifies a mass model type. Select CONSISTENT or LUMPED.

A lumped mass model makes very coarse simplifications that often result in correspondingly

coarse results. The benefit is that it does not require a lot of memory for data storage.

The consistent mass model is well documented. Most texts on the subject, such as Structural

Dynamics - Theory and Computation by Mario Paz, describe how to build the mass matrix.

The consistent mass matrix takes into consideration the effects of bending and other rotational

effects of the beam on its mass distribution, gives a more realistic result, but requires much

more data storage.

If mass is added at a degree of freedom, CAESAR II assumes that it is a concentrated mass,

and puts it on the on-diagonal term, effectively treating it as a lumped mass.

If mass is zeroed at a degree of freedom, CAESAR II assumes that you want to eliminate

consideration of that DOF and zero out all elements on that row/column.

(Available for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)

Specifies usage of the Sturm sequence calculation as described below. Select Y (for yes) or N

(for no). Y is the default value.

In most cases, the eigensolver detects modal frequencies from the lowest to the highest

frequency. When there is a strong directional dependency in the system, the modes may

converge in the wrong order. This could cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff

number of modes, but has not found the modes with the lowest frequency.

This procedure determines the number of modes that should have been found between the

highest and lowest frequencies, and compares that against the actual number of modes

extracted. If those numbers are different, a warning appears. For example, if 22 natural

frequencies are extracted for a system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33.5 Hz, the

Sturm sequence checks that there are exactly 22 natural frequencies in the model between

zero and 33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical tolerance found from:

The Sturm sequence check fails where there are two identical frequencies at the last

frequency extracted. For example, consider a system with the following natural frequencies:

If you only ask for the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm sequence failure occurs

because there are five frequencies that exist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p

(where p is 0.0041). To correct this problem, you can:

Increase the frequency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported

by the Sturm sequence check.)

Dynamic Analysis

Increase the value of Frequency Cutoff (HZ) (on page 692) by some small amount, if the

frequency cutoff terminated the eigensolution. This usually allows the lost modes to fall

into the solution frequency range.

Fix the subspace size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation

vectors improves the possibility that at least one of them contains some component of the

missing modes, allowing the vector to properly converge.

Advanced Tab

This tab is available when Modal, Earthquake (spectrum), Relief Loads (spectrum), Water

Hammer/Slug Flow (spectrum), and Time History are selected for Analysis Type in the

Dynamic Analysis window.

The values on this tab rarely need to be changed.

Topics

Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues..............708

Jacobi Sweep Tolerance............................................................... 709

Decomposition Singularity Tolerance............................................ 709

Subspace Size (0-Not Used)......................................................... 709

No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0 - Not Used).................... 710

No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed).............................. 710

% of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization........................711

Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)........................711

Use Out-of-Core Eigensolver (Y/N)............................................... 711

Frequency Array Spaces............................................................... 711

Specifies the approximate number of significant figures in the calculated eigenvalues (2,

where is the angular frequency in rad/sec). The default value is 6. For example, if a

calculated eigenvalue is 44032.32383 using the default value of 6, then the first digit to the right

of the decimal is usually the last accurately computed figure.

The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are calculated to half as many significant figures as are

the eigenvalues. If the eigenvalues have six significant figures of accuracy, then the

eigenvectors have three.

This number should not be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unusual but result in

slower solutions with little change in response results.

Dynamic Analysis

Specifies the Jacobi sweep tolerance in scientific notation. The default value is 1.0E-12.

Eigen analyses use an NxN subspace to calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes for

a reduced problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subspace.

Iterations are performed until the off-diagonal terms of the matrix are approximately zero. Off-

diagonal terms are considered to be close enough to zero when their ratio to the on-diagonal

term in the row is smaller the Jacobi sweep tolerance.

Do not change the default value unless you understand the IEEE-488 double precision

word (of approximately 14 significant figures) on the IBM PC and the approximate size of the

on-diagonal coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved (which may be

estimated from simple beam expressions).

Specifies the decomposition singularity tolerance for the eigensolver in scientific notation. The

default value is 1E10.

During the decomposition of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, the eigensolver performs

a singularity check to make sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be

calculated. If a singular condition is detected, a new shift, not quite as aggressive as the last

one, is calculated and a new decomposition is attempted. If the new composition fails, a fatal

error is reported. Increasing the singularity tolerance may eliminate this fatal error, but do not

enter a value greater than 1E13. Singularity problems may also exist when very light, small

diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter piping, or when very short lengths of

pipe are adjacent to very long lengths of pipe.

Specifies the subspace size as described below. The default value is 0 and usually does

not need to be changed. The software then selects an expected optimal subspace size.

The eigensolution reduces the NDOFxNDOF problem to an NxN problem during each subspace

iteration, where N is the subspace size.

For the default value of 0, CAESAR II uses the square root of the bandwidth as the subspace

size, with a minimum of 4, resulting in sizes of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations.

Increasing the subspace size slows the eigensolution but increases the numerical stability.

Values in the range between 12 and 15 are appropriate when unusual geometries or dynamic

properties are encountered, or when a job is large (having 100 elements or more, and/or

requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracted).

Dynamic Analysis

Specifies the shifting strategy for the eigen problem to be solved as described below.

For a value of 0, CAESAR II selects an estimated optimal shifting strategy. Improving the

convergence characteristics increases the speed of the eigensolution. The convergence rate for

the lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to 1/2, where 1 is the lowest

eigenvalue in the current subspace and 2 is the next lowest eigenvalue in the current

subspace. A slow convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of one, and a fast

convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is employed to get the

convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of

the system set of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus

90 percent of the difference between this value and the lowest estimated nonconverged

eigenvalue in the subspace. As 1 shifts closer to zero, the ratio 1/2 becomes increasingly

smaller and the convergence rate increases. When eigenvalues are very closely spaced,

shifting can result in eigenvalues being lost (as checked by the Sturm sequence check).

A large value entered for this parameter effectively disables shifting so that no eigenvalues are

missed, but the solution takes longer to run. When the system to be analyzed is very large,

shifting the set of equations can be very time consuming. In these cases, set the value

between 4 and 8.

Specifies the number of subspace iterations per shift as described below.

For a value of 0, CAESAR II calculates an estimated optimal number of iterations. This

parameter and % of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization (on page 711) control solution

shifting by limiting the number of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalizations. Trying to limit this number is

very dangerous for small subspace problems, but less dangerous when the subspace size is

large, at around 10-20 percent of the total number of eigenpairs required.

Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is by default performed once during each subspace iteration.

The orthogonalization assures that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already

found eigenpair. A large number of repeated eigenpairs calculations can appreciably slow down

the extraction of the highest eigenpairs. Proper setting of these two parameters limits the

orthogonalization in the eigensolution, such as to every second, third, or fourth iteration, and

increases the solution speed. The subspace may still converge to earlier eigenpairs during

subsequent non-orthogonalized subspace iteration passes.

Use caution when setting these parameters. Select Y as the value for Force

Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) (on page 711) if the frequency of orthogonalization

is slowed.

Dynamic Analysis

Specifies the decimal equivalent of the needed percentage, as described below.

For a value of 0, CAESAR II calculates a number of iterations per shift to be performed. A maximum

of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the subspace size

(although this is highly unlikely). By default a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is performed for each

subspace pass. This parameter and No. of Iterations Per Shift (0 - Pgm computed) (on page 710)

control solution shifting by limiting the number of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalizations. For example, if

12 is the number of iterations, and this parameter is 50 percent (entered as 0.50), the Gram-Schmidt

orthogonalization is performed every six iterations.

Use caution when setting these parameters. Select Y as the value for Force

Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) (on page 711) if the frequency of orthogonalization

is slowed.

Specifies whether CAESAR II forces orthogonalization after eigenpair convergence. Select Y

(for yes) or N (for no).

Select Y for eigensolutions when % of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization (on page

711) is set to a non-zero value. When a subspace pass completes and sees at least one

eigenpair convergence, a Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization is performed even if the specified

percentage of iterations has not been completed.

Specifies use of the out-of-core eigensolver. Select Y (for yes) or N (for no).

This out-of-core eigensolver is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. Select Y

to automatically run the out-of-core eigensolver on any problem size. Using this solver can take

considerably more time than the in-core solver, but always produce exactly the same results.

A problem may be too big to fit into the in-core solver because the capacity is based upon the

amount of available extended memory. The out-of-core solver then runs automatically. This

parameter does not need to be changed to Y to have this automatic switch occur.

Specifies the maximum number of eigenpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The

default value of 100 is arbitrary. Increase the value as needed.

Dynamic Analysis

Directive Builder

Click Directives on the Spectrum Load Cases or Static/Dynamic Combinations tabs to open

the Directive Builder dialog box and select parameters for the current load case. These

parameters are load-case-specific changes to the global parameters set for all dynamic analysis

load cases. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Load Cases Tab (on page 653)

and Static/Dynamic Combinations Tab (on page 668).

For most analyses, the global parameters apply and you do not need to specify the

parameters on this dialog box.

Directional Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see

Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).

Modal Combination Method - Select GROUP, 10%, DSRSS, SRSS, or ABS. For more

information, see Modal Combination Method (Group/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS) (on page 700).

Spatial Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see

Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 700).

Spatial or Modal Combination First - Select SPATIAL or MODAL. For more information, see

Re-use Last Eigensolution (Frequencies and Mode Shapes) (on page 699).

Pseudostatic Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see

Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).

Missing Mass Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS. For more information, see Missing

Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) (on page 706).

Static/Dynamic Combination Method - Select SRSS or ABS to define how the load case is

combined. The ABS method takes the absolute value of all displacement, force, and stress data

for each load case and adds them. The SRSS method sums the square of all displacement,

force, and stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of the result. This is the

only parameter available on the Static/Dynamic Combinations tab.

Dynamic Analysis

Enter/Edit Spectrum Data and Tools > Spectrum Data Points allow you to view and edit

spectrum data for manually-entered or ASCII-file-based spectrum definitions.

The command is available when entering values on the Spectrum Definitions tab or the Time

History Definitions tab. For more information, see Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on

page 648).

Click the command, make a selection in the Select a Spectrum Name dialog box, and click OK.

The spectrum name dialog box appears. You can add, edit, or delete rows, or add ASCII data.

Enter a sufficient number of data points to fully describe the spectrum.

Delete Row - Deletes the selected row.

Read From File - Reads data from an ASCII text file.

Range

Specifies a spectrum range value. The range/ordinate pairs define the spectrum/DLF curve.

Dynamic Analysis

Ordinate

Specifies a spectrum ordinate value. The range/ordinate pairs define the spectrum/DLF curve.

Valid formats are:

Exponents, such as 0.3003E+03, 0.3423E-03, or 0.3003E3.

Explicit multiplication or division, such as 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12.

DLF/Spectrum Generator

DLF/Spectrum Generator and Tools > DLF Spectrum Generator converts spectrum time

waveform excitation data into a frequency domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. DLF data

is automatically referenced in the Spectrum Definitions tab. For more information, see

Spectrum/Time History Definitions Tab (on page 648).

The DLF curve can also be saved to a file and later referenced by CAESAR II as a FORCE

response spectrum curve.

Spectrum Name

Displays the name of the selected value of Spectrum Type. You can type a different name.

For UBC, ASCE7, IBC, and CFE Diseno por Sismo:

This is the group name for the pair of seismic shock spectra that is generated here. A suffix

of H and V is added to indicate the horizontal and vertical spectrum, respectively. After it has

been properly entered, these names are listed in the Spectrum Definitions tab and can be

used to build load cases on the Spectrum Load Cases tab.

For B31.1 Relief & User Defined Time History Waveform:

This is the name given to the Force Response Spectrum created from the time history

load defined here. After it has been properly entered, this name is listed in the Spectrum

Definitions tab and can be used to build load cases on the Spectrum Load Cases tab.

Dynamic Analysis

Spectrum Type

Specifies the name of the spectrum. The data from this spectrum is used to generate the

DLF curve.

UBC

Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the 1997

Uniform Building Code.

The horizontal design response spectrum is based on UBC Figure 16-3 shown below.

Dynamic Analysis

The vertical spectrum is to 50% of ICa across the entire period range.

Dynamic Analysis

Importance Factor

Specifies the seismic importance factor, I, as defined in Table 16-K. The calculated spectrum

accelerations are multiplied by this value to generate the horizontal shock spectrum. Values

range from 1.0 to 1.25 based on the function of the structure.

For this code, the vertical shock spectrum is also multiplied by the importance factor.

Seismic Coefficient Ca

Specifies the zero period acceleration, Ca, for the site as defined in Table 16-Q. The value is

based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, and ranges from 0.06 to 0.66.

Seismic Coefficient Cv

Specifies the ground acceleration at higher periods (lower frequencies), Cv, for the site as

defined in Table 16-R. The value is based on soil profile type and seismic zone factor, and

ranges from 0.06 to 1.92.

ASCE7

Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the ASCE 7 standard.

The horizontal design response spectrum is based on ASCE 7. Figure 9.4.1.2.6 (ASCE 7-2010)

is shown below.

Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5.

Above a period of four seconds, the horizontal spectrum acceleration changes.

The vertical spectrum is set to 20% of SDS (from 9.5.2.7.1) across the entire period

range. Neither I nor R affects the vertical spectrum.

Dynamic Analysis

Importance Factor

Specifies the occupancy importance factor, based on the function of the structure. The

calculated spectrum accelerations are multiplied by this value to generate the horizontal

shock spectrum.

ASCE 7 - The occupancy importance factor is I, as defined in Table 11.5. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5

and applied according to paragraph 12.9.2.

IBC - The occupancy importance factor is IE, as defined in Section 1616.2 and shown in Table

1604.5. Values range from 1.0 to 1.5.

Site Coefficient Fa

Specifies the acceleration-based site coefficient Fa. This value adjusts the mapped short

period acceleration and is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped short period

maximum considered earthquake acceleration (Ss). Values range from 0.8 to 2.5.

Site Coefficient Fv

Specifies the velocity-based site coefficient Fv. This value adjusts the mapped one-second

period acceleration and is based on site class (soil profile) and the mapped one-second

period maximum considered earthquake acceleration (S1). Values range from 0.8 to 3.5.

Specifies the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at

short periods, Ss. This is the mapped ground acceleration at the system location for a structure

having a period of 0.2 second and 5% critical damping.

Specifies the mapped maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at a

period of one second, S1.This is the mapped ground acceleration at the system location for

a structure having a period of one second and 5% critical damping.

Dynamic Analysis

Response Modification R

Specifies the response modification coefficient, R. This coefficient reflects system ductility. The

calculated spectrum accelerations are divided by this value to generate the horizontal shock

spectrum. Values range from 3.0 to 8.0 for most plant structures. A value of 3.5 for piping is

common.

Specifies the period of time for a longer-period structure when generating an ASCE 7

Spectrum Type in Dynamic Analysis. TL is determined from new maps, which are similar to

zone maps, for all 50 states. The ASCE standard provides these maps in Figures 22-12

through 22-16 (ASCE 7-2010). In addition, Section 11.4.5 of ASCE 7-2010, discussions the

constant-displacement branch of the code.

IBC

Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the

International Building Code, 2000.

The horizontal design response spectrum is based on IBC 2000, Fig. 1615.1.4 shown below.

Ts=SD1/SDS & T0=Ts/5

The vertical spectrum is set to 20% of SDS (from 1617.1.2) across the entire period range.

IBC generally uses the same spectrum data parameters as ASCE7 (on page 717).

Dynamic Analysis

Select to create earthquake spectra (horizontal and vertical) according to the

Mexico's Earthquake Resistant Design code.

As with every other earthquake loading analysis, the object is to calculate the shear force at

the center of mass of each vessel element. After the shear force at each elevation is known,

the moments are accumulated to the base, leg or lug support.

You should begin the analysis by calculating the weights and centroidal distances of all of the

vessel elements. It is very important to model the structure in sections that are appropriate in

length. For cylinders, this value is about 10 or 12 feet (3 m). This ensures that the software

has enough information to calculate the natural period of vibration with sufficient accuracy.

Using the input data and calculated earthquake weights and natural frequency, CAESAR II

determines the values from table 3.1 of the Mexican Seismic Code.

The values are:

For group A structures, the values of the spectral ordinates a o and c are multiplied by 1.5.

Seismic Zone

Specifies the seismic zone. Select A, B, C, or D. The zones are described in Manual de

Diseno por Sismo for Mexico. The map on page 1.3.29 shows the seismic zones.

Soil Type

Specifies the soil type.

I - Hard Soil - Ground deposits formed exclusively by layers with propagation velocity b0 = 700 m/s

or modulus of rigidity 85000.

II - Medium Soil - Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity

of propagation which meets the condition Bc Ts + Bs Tc > Bc Tc.

III - Soft Soil - Ground deposits with fundamental period of vibration and effective velocity of

propagation which meets the condition Bc Ts + Bs Tc < Bc Tc.

Dynamic Analysis

Structural Group

Specifies the structural group based on the degree of safety. Select A - High Safety, B -

Intermediate Safety, or C - Low Safety.

Towers and tanks are examples of group A structures requiring a high degree of safety in

their design

Increase Factor

Specifies a value for the increased factor of safety, as required by some facilities. The default

value is 1.0. This value directly multiplies the spectrum values. This value is traditionally 1.118

and should always be greater than or equal to 1.0.

Selecting to create a normalized force response spectrum for loads from a safety valve

discharge into an open system according to the nonmandatory rules of B31.1, Appendix II -

Rules for the Design of Safety Valve Installations.

The spectrum is based on B31.1 Appendix II, Fig. II-3-2.

Opening Time

Specifies the opening time of the relief value in milliseconds.

Dynamic Analysis

Select to create a normalized force response (Dynamic Load Factor or DLF) spectrum based

on manually entered load versus time history.

Specifies the maximum frequency in the table to be used to generate the DLF curve. This value

is usually no more than 100 Hz and is commonly 40 to 60 Hz for relief valves. For other types of

impulse loadings, a larger maximum may be needed.

If piping frequencies greater than this value are found in the system and included in the

spectrum analysis, then the spectrum value at the maximum table frequency is used. You can

decide which frequencies are important and how high the frequency must go by looking at the

solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes. Only the lower frequencies

typically contribute to the system displacements, forces, and stresses.

Number of Points

Specifies the number of points to be generated for the spectrum table. Fifteen to twenty points are

usually sufficient. These points are distributed in a cubic relationship starting at zero hertz.

Specifies time and force pulse data for the waveform. Click Enter Pulse Data to enter the Time

and Force values as shown below. This command is available only for User Defined Time

History Waveform.

Dynamic Analysis

Time

Specifies time waveform values in milliseconds for the points to be modeled.

Force

Specifies forces corresponding to the points on the force/time curve.

The absolute magnitude of the force is not important, but the form of the time history

loading is important. The actual maximum value of the dynamic load is taken from the force

pattern defined on the Force Sets Tab (on page 658). There can be any number of line entries in

the excitation frequency data.

Generate Spectrum

Displays the Spectrum Table Values dialog box with the force spectrum values based on

entered spectrum data.

This command is available for all values of Spectrum Type except User Defined Time History

Waveform.

Save To File - Saves the force spectrum values to an ASCII file. For seismic spectra, two files

are saved: horizontal (with H appended to the file name) and vertical (with V appended to the

file name). Use this command if you want to reuse the spectrum values in other analyses. Click

OK if you only want to use the values in the current analysis.

OK - Loads the spectrum data into the current analysis.

Cancel - Closes the window without loading the spectrum data into the current analysis.

Dynamic Analysis

Relief Load Synthesis and Tools > Relief Load Synthesis calculates the magnitudes of

relieving thrust forces. Dynamic forces associated with relieving devices can cause

considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. There are two types of

destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devices that must be evaluated:

Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface.

Acoustic shock due to the sudden change in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure

waves.

The first step in performing a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the

relieving thrust forces. For open-type vent systems, use Relief Load Synthesis . Results

are calculated for liquids and for gases greater than 15 psig.

This command is only available when Relief Loads (spectrum) and Time History are

selected as Analysis Type.

The discussion here concerns only the thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface. Acoustic

traveling pressure waves can be addressed similar to water hammer. For more information, see

Relief Loads and Water Hammer/Slug Flow Spectra Analysis (on page 638).

Click Gas to enter gas properties. CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent

stack/relief system design maintains the following gas properties:

Dynamic Analysis

Line Temperature

Specifies the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved. This is typically the

gas temperature upstream of the relief valve.

Pressure (abs)

Specifies the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved. This is typically the gas

pressure upstream of the relief valve. This value is the absolute pressure.

Stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity in

the line is high.

Specifies the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief valve

throat. This information is typically provided by the relief valve manufacturer.

Specifies the flow passage inside diameter of the relief valve piping.

Specifies the inside diameter of the vent stack piping. If CAESAR II is sizing the vent stack, or

if the vent stack piping is the same size as the relief valve piping, then do not enter a value.

Specifies the length of the vent stack. Add double the lengths of fittings and elbows or

calculate the appropriate equivalent lengths for non-pipe fittings and add the lengths. Typical

values for these constants are shown below:

Heats

Dynamic Analysis

Heats

Methane 1.226

Propane 1.127

Specifies the ratio of gas specific heats, k. The value for air is 1.4.

Specifies the gas constant, R. The value for air is 53.0.

Specifies whether or not the vent pipe has an umbrella fitting. Select Y (for yes) if the vent stack slips

inside of the piping system, or N (for no) if the vent stack is connected to the piping system.

The vent stack pipe is not hard-piped to the relief valve pipe. The relief valve pipe slips inside

of the vent pipe.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

The vent stack pipe is hard-piped to the relief valve pipe.

Specifies whether or not the software sizes the vent stack. Select Y (for yes) for CAESAR II to

calculate the length and diameter of the vent stack. The software sizing algorithm searches

through a table of available inside pipe diameters starting at the smallest diameter until a vent

stack ID is found that satisfies the thermodynamic criteria. The calculated inside diameter is

automatically inserted into the input.

Click Liquid to enter liquid properties. CAESAR II assumes that a liquid vent system has one

of the following configurations:

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Specifies whether a relief valve or rupture disk is used. Select RV for a relief valve. The software sets

the nozzle coefficient, k, to 0.80. Select RD for a rupture disk. The software sets the nozzle

coefficient, k, to 0.67. You can also enter the relieving device nozzle coefficient k if it is known.

Specifies the stagnation, or zero velocity, pressure of the supply line.

Specifies the inside diameter of the contracted opening in the relieving device. This

information is typically provided by the relief valve manufacturer.

For special purpose calculations, this ID may be equal to the ID of the relief exit piping.

Specifies the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve.

ID Manifold Piping

Specifies the insider diameter of the manifold if the relief exit piping runs into a manifold. Do

not enter a value if there is not a manifold.

ID Supply Header

Specifies the inside diameter of the supply header.

Specifies the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved.

Specifies the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping length for fittings

and elbows, or the calculated fitting equivalent length.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Specifies the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. Add twice the piping length for

fitting and elbows. Enter 0 or do not enter a value if there is not a manifold system or if the

manifold is not filled by the relieving fluid.

Specifies the bulk modulus of the fluid. If no value is entered, a default valve of 250,000 psi is

used. See Example Output - Liquid Relief Load Synthesis (on page 734) for typical values.

These are the values for an iso\-thermal compression as taken from Marks Standard

Handbook for Engineers, p. 3-35, 8th edition.

Specifies the wall thickness of the supply header.

The error message "NUMERICAL ERROR OR NO FLOW CONDITION DETECTED," means

that a physically impossible configuration was described.

Flashing of volatile relief liquids is not considered in this analysis. If the relieving liquid

flashes in the exhaust piping as its pressure drops to atmospheric, then use another method

to calculate the resulting gas properties and thrust loads.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Topics

Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas)........................................... 731

Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface....................................... 731

Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit........................................................... 731

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening................................... 732

Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing.................................... 732

Thermodynamic Entropy Limit/Subsonic Vent Exit Limit...............732

Valve Orifice Gas Conditions/Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions/Subsonic

Velocity Gas Conditions................................................................ 733

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

The calculated gas mass flow rate, based on choked conditions at the relief orifice. If

greater mass flow rates are expected, then investigate the error in either the approach used

by CAESAR II or in the expected mass flow rate.

The thrust load acting back on the relief valve piping if there is an umbrella fitting between the

vent stack and the relief valve piping.

If the vent stack is hard piped to the relief valve piping, then this intermediate thrust is

balanced by tensile loads in the pipe and can be ignored.

Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack

interface thrust acts in this

configuration.

The thrust load acting on the elbow just before the pipe opens into the atmosphere when there

is an elbow in the vent stack piping.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

The estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that is superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave moves back through the

relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer

type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the

stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header

piping.

The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that is superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief device slams shut. This positive pressure wave moves back through

the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water

hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid

density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.

The thermodynamic entropy limit or subsonic vent exit limit. These values should always be

greater than one. If either value falls below 1.0, then the thermodynamic assumptions

made regarding the gas properties are incorrect and the calculated thrust values should be

disregarded.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Conditions/Subsonic Velocity Gas Conditions

The thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in the relief system.

The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is based on an ideal gas equation of state. If the

pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being vented are outside of the range

where the ideal gas laws apply, then some alternate source should be sought for the calculation of

the thrust loads of the system. In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the

gas saturation line. When the exit gas conditions become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load

can be reduced significantly. In this case, consult the manufacturer.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Computed Mass Flow Rate

The calculated exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the

necessary pressure drop calculations between the stagnation pressure upstream of the

relief device and atmospheric conditions at the exit of the manifold.

The calculated thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold,

then this is the external thrust load acting on the piping system. If there is a manifold, then this

thrust is opposed by tension in the pipe wall at the junction of the exit piping and manifold. For

more information, see the graphics in Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow

Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions (on page 735).

The calculated thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If there is no

manifold system, then this thrust is equal to the thrust at the end of the exit piping. See the

figures that follow for clarification. For more information, see the graphics in Orifice Flow

Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions (on page 735).

The estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that is superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave moves back through the

relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer

type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated as (Po-Pa)*Ap, where Po is the

stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header

piping.

The estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that is superimposed on the line

pressure when the relief device slams shut. This positive pressure wave moves back through

the relief system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water

hammer type system. The magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the fluid

density, c is the speed of sound in the fluid and dv is the change in the velocity of the fluid.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions

The calculated fluid properties at the three critical cross-sections in the relief piping. If

pressures or velocities here do not seem reasonable, then some characteristic of the relief

model is in error.

If the L dimensions are significant (by several feet), then unbalanced thrust loads acting

between the elbow-elbow pairs are very similar to a water hammer load. Water hammer pulses

travel at the speed of sound in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface pulses travel at the

velocity of the flowing fluid. These unbalanced loads can cause significant piping

displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads is equivalent to the

calculated thrust and the duration may be found from the calculated fluid velocity and distance

between each elbow-elbow pair.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Analysis Results

Each type of dynamic analysis has its own procedure for producing results, but all start in

the same way:

1. Save and check the dynamic input.

2. Run the analysis.

3. The account number is requested (if accounting is active).

4. The ESL is accessed (limited run ESLs are decremented).

5. The element and system stiffness matrices are assembled.

6. Load vectors are created where appropriate.

7. The system mass matrix is generated.

From this point the processing progresses according to the type of analysis selected.

After calculations are complete, control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. For more

information, see Dynamic Output Processing (on page 740).

Topics

Modal............................................................................................ 737

Harmonic....................................................................................... 738

Spectrum....................................................................................... 738

Time History.................................................................................. 739

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Modal

After dynamic initialization and basic equation assembly are completed, CAESAR II opens

the Dynamic Eigensolver, which calculates natural frequencies and modes of vibration.

Each natural frequency appears as it is calculated, along with the lapsed time of the analysis.

The processor searches for the natural frequencies, starting with the lowest, and continues

until the frequency cutoff is exceeded or the mode count reaches its limit. Both the frequency

cutoff and mode cutoff are dynamic analysis control parameters. The amount of time to

calculate or find these frequencies is a function of the system size, the grouping of the

frequencies and the cutoff settings.

Eigensolution may be canceled at any time, with the analysis continuing using the mode shapes

calculated up to that point. After the last frequency is calculated, the software uses the Sturm

Sequence Check to confirm that no modes were skipped. If the check fails, you can return to the

dynamic input or continue with the spectral analysis. Sturm Sequence Check failures are usually

satisfied if the frequency cutoff is set to a value greater than the last frequency calculated.

After calculations are complete, control is passed to the Dynamic Output Processor. You can

review natural frequencies and mode shapes in text format. You can also display the node

shapes in and animated format.

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Harmonic

For each forcing frequency listed in the dynamic input, CAESAR II performs a separate

analysis. These analyses are similar to static analyses and take the same amount of time to

complete. At the completion of each solution, the forcing frequency, its largest calculated

deflection, and the phase angle associated with it are listed. The root results for each frequency,

and the system deflections, are saved for further processing. Only twenty frequencies may be

carried beyond this point and into the output processor. When all frequencies are analyzed, the

software presents the frequencies. You can then select the frequencies and phase angles

needed for further analysis. This choice can be made after checking deflections at pertinent

nodes for those frequencies.

Phased solutions are generated when damping is considered or when you enter phase angles

in the dynamic input.

For all phased harmonic analyses, you can select separate phase angle solutions, including the

cycle maxima and minima, for each excitation frequency. Each separate phase angle solution

represents a point in time during one complete cycle of the system response. For a solution

without phase angles, you know when the maximum stresses, forces, and displacements occur.

When phase angles are entered, you do not know when the maximum stresses, forces, and

displacements are going to occur during the cycle. For this reason, the displacements and

stresses are often checked for a number of points during the cycle for each excitation frequency.

You must select these points interactively when the harmonic solution ends.

There is a complete displacement, force, moment, and stress solution for each

frequency/phase selected for output. You have the option of letting the software select the

frequency/phase pairs offering the largest displacements on a system basis. The largest

displacement solution usually represents the largest stress solution, but this is not always

guaranteed. The displaced shapes for the remaining frequencies are processed like static

cases, with local force, moment, and stress calculations. Control then shifts to the Dynamic

Output Processor, which provides an animated display of the harmonic results.

All harmonic results are amplitudes. For example, if a harmonic stress is reported as 15,200

psi, then the stress due to the dynamic load, which is superimposed onto any steady state

component of the stress, can be expected to vary between +15,200 psi and -15,200 psi. The

total stress range due to this particular dynamic loading is 30,400 psi.

Spectrum

The spectrum analysis procedure can be broken down into:

Calculating the systems natural frequencies, mode shapes, and mass participation factors

Pulling the corresponding response amplitudes from the spectrum table and calculating the system

response for each mode of vibration

Combining the modal responses and directional components of the shock.

The first part of the analysis proceeds exactly as in modal analysis.

After natural frequencies are calculated, system displacements, forces, moments, and stresses are

calculated and combined on the modal level. After all the results are collected, the Dynamic

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Output Processor appears. You can review spectral results, natural frequencies, and animated

mode shapes.

Time History

Modal time history analysis follows steps similar to a spectrum analysis. The modes of

vibration of the system are calculated. The dynamic equation of motion is solved through

numeric integration techniques for each mode at a number of successive time steps. The

modal results are then summed, yielding system responses at each time step.

The Dynamic Output Processor displays one load case (and optionally, one load combination)

with the maximum loads developed throughout the load application. You can also request

snap-shot cases at different load levels.

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