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APRIL, OVER

20 CTS. Electrical ILLUST.


|/76-

Experimenter
AND INVENTION
SCIENCE

INEW INVENTION
NOT X-RAYS
f0\ -^

SE.. PAGE 860


BE A CERTlFICAtED
ELECTRICIAN

A Real Position
Like This For You
The country needs thousands of trained, Certificated
I give each of my students personal attention and a
Electricians to fill good positions
and at big pay. It's
all a matter of knowing how. and I will teach you bv complete and thorough training. I give him a SPLEN-
up-to-date, modern instruction. You can learn at home, DID ELECTRICAL OUTFIT FREE, and much of the
without interfering with your regular work, by my highly is done by actual work.
training When my students
successful method of Home Instruction in Practical graduate and receive their Certificate, they are ready for
Electricity. a real position. But still more, at any time you wish you
can come to our splendidly equipped Electrical Shops for
special training. No other school can give you this.
Prepare NOW and be ready
A Real Opportunity for YOU
in a few months to earn your Wishing is never going to make your dreams come
$46 to $100 A WEEK true.
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Send for this Book his neck up.
My book. "HOW TO BECOME AN EXPERT ELEC- A trained mind is what gets the big pay. It is this
training that you need, and I can train you in a few
TRICI.AX." has started thousands of young men on the
months. Are you ambitious to make a real success
way to splendid success. A new edition of this has just then send me the coupon today.
been printed. I want every young man interested
in Electricity to have a copy, and will send vou Electrical Outfit FREE
one, ABSOLUTELY FREE and PREPAID. To every student who answers this ad I am giving a Splendid
W'rite me today. Electrical Outfit of standard size Klectrical Tools, Instruments,
Materials, etc., absolutely free. Furthermore, to every Electrical
How I Train My Student I give a truly vuluable surprise that I cannot explain here.

Students Free Employment Service


I am
continually receiving Requests from employers to send them
AsChief Engineer of the Chicago trained Electrical men. I assist my students to secure good posi-
Engineering Works I know ex- tions. I keep in touch with them for years, helping and advising

actly the kind of training a them in every possible way.


man needs to enable him to
get and hold good posi-
Write Now Don't Delay
Delay never got you anything. Action is what counts. Get
-Ir.
tions, and to earn big
started and get started now. Write me, or send me the coupon,
'SL ^<-'-<. pay. I have trained right NOW.
Cj.
hundreds of m e n
who are holding
splendid electri-
L. L. COOKE, Chief Engineer
CHICAGO ENGINEERING WORKS
\ cal jobs.
441 Cass Street Oept 24 Chicago, lit.

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April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 849

for all Practical Men and Electrical Students


iSee review of this book by Editor in December issue of your Electrical Experimenter page 568)

I have prepared a pocket-size note book especially for the


practical man and those who are taking up the study of elec-
tricity. It contains drawings and diagrams of electrical ma-

chinery and connections, over two hundred formulas for


calculations, and problems worked out showing how the
formulas are used. This data is taken from my personal note
book, which was made while on different kinds of work, and
1 am sure it will be found of value to anyone engaged in the

electrical business.

The drawings of connections for electrical apparatus tions, Calculating Unkn


include Motor Starters and Starting Boxes, Overload Current in Branches of
and Underload Release Boxes, Reversible Types, Eleva- Weight of Wire, Wire Gauge Rules, Ohm's Law, Watt's
tor Controllers, Tank Controllers, Starters for Printing Law, Information regarding Wire used for Electrical
Press Motors, Automatic Controllers, Variable Field Purposes, Wire Calculations, Wiring Calculations, Illu-
Type, Controllers for Mine Locomotives, Street Car mination Calculations, Shunt Instruments and How to
Controllers, Connections for Reversing Switches, Motor Calculate Resistance of Shunts, Power Calculations,
and Dynamo Rules and Rules for Speed Regulation. Efficiency Calculations, Measuring Unknown Resis-
Also, Connections for Induction Motors and Starters, tances, Dynamo and Dynamo Troubles, Motors and
Delta and Star Connections and Connections for Auto Motor Troubles, and Calculating Size of Pulleys.
Transformers, and Transformers for Lighting and Power Also Alternating Current Calculations in finding Im-
Purposes. The drawings also show all kinds of light- pedance, Reactance, Inductance, Frequency, Alterna-
ing circuits, including special controls where Three and tions, Speed of Alternators and Motors, Number of
Four Way Switches are used. Poles in Alternators or Motors, Conductance, Suscep-
The work on Calculations consists of Simple Electri- tance. Admittance, Angle of Lag and Power Factor, and
cal Mathematics, Electrical Units, Electrical Connec- formulas for use with Line Transformers.

WHAT PRACTICAL MEN SAY ABOUT THE "BURGESS BLUE BOOK"


Received your "Blue Book" and must say it is the best book 1 am enclosing three dollars for which please send me three
I ever saw. I to a friend of mine and he refused to
showed it copies of the "Burgess Blue Book". I showed the copy I got
give it back to me but he paid me a dollar and told me to get last week to gome friends and three of them asked me to get
another. Rather than be without this book I am sending Money them one. Very truly yours,
Order for three of them so I can show them to two more of my CHAS. H. DAVIS,
friends and have one left for myself. Wishing you would mail Lo3 Angeles, Cal.
them at once. 1 am Yours very truly,
JOSEPH BRAITH. Electrician. I received your "Blue Book" and after I looked over it 1 see
Madison, Wisconsin. that it is a very useful book. After I showed it to some fellows
they wanted a copy also and I am enclosing Money Order for
Your "Blue Book" received and it is just the book I have which please send me three at once. Yours very truly,
been looking for. Please mail me three more by return mail for
which 1 am enclosing Money Order. Respectfully, R. S. SWANSON.
V. E. JOHNSON, Western Union Tel. Co.. St. Paul, Minn.
Marion. Ohio.
received the three books sent for and the next day sold
Have received the copy of the "Burgess Blue Book" and am 1 I 1

them. The fellows think they are well worth the price. Please
very well pleased with the easily fownd formulas and data con- send me three more for which am enclosing Money Order.
1
tained in it. 1 am enclosing Money Order for four additional
Yours very truly,
copies. Very truly yours,
THURE C. ANDERSON. R. S. SWANSON.
Ridgeway, Penn. St. Paul. Minn.

AN OPPORTUNITY FOR YOU TO MAKE SOME MONEY


To help get the "Burgess Blue Book" to the men who need it the most, we have established a resale '

discount to which those who have purchased a book from us are entitled. The "Burgess Blue Book
is not sold through the regular book dealers so we offer the regular book dealers'
discount to men
who will take orders and send them in to us. In this way the "Blue Book" is only sold by those who
know its value and we feel that this arrangement is much more satisfactory to the purchaser, than if
he bought it through the regular book-selling channels. The book practically sells on sight, as a man
engaged in practical work realizes when he sees it, that it contains information which is extremely
useful and which is difficult to obtain in any other way.

The Burgess BLUE BOOK Will Be Shipped, Postpaid, on Receipt of $1.00


Send dollar bill, money order or check. / guaranlee satisfaction or will
return your money if you decide not to keep the book after using it for five days

YORKE BURGESS, Consulting Engineer


BURGESS ENGINEERING CO., 747 East 42nd Street Chicago, Illinois

^iAilfr;ffi?^;ifr^ffi?'ai7^{IVr^^

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:

ctrical Expenmeoter
FULTON STREET, NEW YORK
233
Pabliabt br Experimenter Publishing Company, Inc. (H. Gtmsbick, Pretident; S. Gemsback, Treaiurer;) 233 Fulton Street, New York

Vol. VI. Whole No. 72 APRIL, 1919 No. 12


GRAND OPER.\ IX YOUR HOME Bv H, Gernsback S.S5 THE OPINION OF RADIO EXPERTS ON RADIO WAVE
NEW YORK TO CHICAGO VIA THE AIR IN 12 IIOCRS 856 TR.\NSMISSION 873
GLIDING AIRSHIPS WITH THE RADIO BARR.\GE' 857 THE HOW AND WHY OF RADIO APPARATUS HOW TO
By Dr. Lee de Forest MAKE A DIRECT-READING WAVE METER AND DECREM-
HOW ELECTRICITY' SERVES WORLDS LARGEST HOTELS.. 858 ETER By H. Winfield Secor 874
By H. WinfieUi Secor GERMAN RADIO APPARATUS USED AT METZ 876
SEEING THRU YOU WITHOUT X KAYS.... By C. Battell Loomis 860
A TIMELY REINFORCEMENT A COPPER-PLATED STOMACH 877
By Thomas Reed
CATCHING DIAMOND THIEVES WITH THE X RAY 862
THE ALKALINE STORAGE BATTERY By J. F. Springer 878
GREAT BRITAIN'S NEW MONITOR-SUBMARINE WITH 12-
EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS -THEORY OF TWIST DRILLS 879
INCH GUN 862 By Samuel D. Cohen
MY I.NVENTIONS. By Nikola Tesla. No. 3. "My Discovery of PRACTICAL CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS BUTTER AND BUT-
the Rotating Magnetic Field" 864 TER SUBSTITUTES By Albert W. Wilsdon 880
THE MOONS ROTATION By Nikola Tesla 866 HOWTOMAKE IT DEPARTMENT PRIZE CONTEST 881
EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS SCIENCE IN THE WAR 867
WRINKLES, RECIPES AND FORMULAS. .Edited by S. Gernsback 882
Bv John J. Furia, A.B.. M.A.. (Columbia University) LATEST PATENTS DIGEST 883
POPULAR ASTRONOMY. THE PLANET EARTH AS OTHERS WITH THE AMATEURS PRIZE PHOTO CONTEST 884
SEE US Bv IsaW M. Lewis, of the U. S. Naval Observatory 868
SCIENCE IN SLANG NO. 2 TAZZ STOKES ON WIRELESS
RADIOPHONV TO AIRPLANES A GREAT SUCCESS 870
DOPE
DO RADIO WAVES TR.WEL ABOVE THE EARTH OR THRU By Emerson Easterling 885
IT "'
By Dr. Lee de Forest sr2 "THE ORACLE"OUESTION AND ANSWER BOX 886

InnteirpSaini
>5^f FEWweek.-, a^o Marconi startled the world thirty years ago. We
could never have received them,
by stating that he had often received strong for we then had no means of recording them. Detectors
wireless signals which seemed to come and audions were undreamt of.
from beyond the earth. In a recent inter- In all this warped logic, we presuppose wireless sig-
view publisht in the New York Evening nals. But why should a civilization so far ahead of ours
Post Xikola Tesla, too, reminds us that he
use to them obsolete radio waves, which, like as not, can
had made known to the world years ago never hope to bridge 35 million miles! If the Martians
llie fact that extra-planelar>- signals were recorded in his are signaling to us, you may be certain that they use an
Colorado Laboratory. That was in 1899, before the world entirely different means than Radio. To be sure, it may
dreamt of wireless. turn out to be one of the many wave forms of the
Even today announcements such as the above are made ether, but we can only tuakc a poor guess at it today.
light of by editorial writers and others of limited sci- Meanwhile Martian signals probably fly about our heads
entific perception. For the earth-bound layman still day and night, as they may have for thousands of years,
persists that intelligence can only exist on Earth. Such but we are still deaf and blind to them. The Martian
childish reasoning shows what sort of "intelligence" Wave Detector still remains uninvented. At that the
blossoms on this planet. It never occurs to these review- Martians probably have used many methods on us. It is
ers to question why Nature in her Wisdom should have not even impossible that they may have used reflected
singled out the little speck called Earth, on which to sun rays. Bell and Tainter in 1880 demonstrated a "wire-
plant beings endowed with reason. Why should there less" telephone
the Pholophone by making use of a
be such an exception? Life in some form or other is vibrating light ray falling upon a selenium cell. Speech
certain of being found on myriads of worlds thruout was transmitted over many miles this way. With neces-
the Universe. And if one world dies, all life does not die sary refinements such a system might bridge interplaneta-
with it. Svante .-^rrhenius shows us how life-bearing rian space.
spores are carried by the pressure of light thru inter- As to one planet understanding the other, that is of
stellar space, notwithstanding the absolute zero which course child's play. Still, many humorous editorial writ-
prevails there. ers have misgivings on that score. They arc afraid that
In our planetarv- system, conditions for life, such as we
know it, probably only e.xists on two planets Mars and
on Mars 2 +
2 might equal, perhaps, 5 or 3, so how
: could we get together, they ask.
\'enus. Life on the latter being more or less doubtful, A simple example might serve as an illustration. Sup-
due to its heavy water-laden atmosphere, there remains pose an American and a Frenchman, neither knowing the
Mars, a body much older in evolution than the earth. other's language, were comiected by a long telegraph line.
Conditions on Mars we know by direct observation as Both are ignorant of the code. But both have enough
well as deduction are favorable for life, and we may sense to tap the key. Suppose both have the desire to
be certain that it exists there. And if we once grant enter into communication, what will they do? Tap out
this, we must also grant that it must have existed for dots from one to ten, of course. Thus
hundreds of thousands of years prior to that on Earth etc. It will not take them many months, if they keep at
consequently Martian civilization must be thousands of it, to work out a sort of "international" language by
years ahead of ours. means of dots. And the higher their intelligence, the
From this we must deduce again that the Martians quicker will they understand each other.
probably signaled to us ages ago, when prehistoric man That is the basis of interplanetarian communication.
still roamed the forests. But why go so far back? Sup-
pose the Martians had sent us radio messages only H. Gernsback.

) m
The ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER h i'Ub1i5ht on the ISth of pach momti iit 233 poitaKc ha-i been included.
tions cannot he returned iinlfs?! fill] ALL accepted contribu-
Pulton Street. New York Thero are 12 numbers per year. Subscription price la J2.00 a tions are paid for on publication. A special rate is paid for novel experiments; good
Tsar In V. S. and pos54'wions. Tantda and tntfign countries, $2.50 a year. U. S. com as pholoKraph^ acromranviiie them are hlBhlv desirable,
well as T' S stamp* ar^^rted (no forpian mins or stamps*. Pinel* ropies. 20 cents eacn, EI-ETTRICAI. KXI'ERIMENTER. MontHy. Entered as second-class matter at the
A sample copy will be s^nt (rrati.t on rp<jUMl. Checks and monor orders should be drawn Now York Post Offlce under Ad of Conitrcss of March 3. 1879. Title reitistered U. 3.
to order of EXPKRBrENTER CrBMSHTNO CO.. TS*\ If you change your luJdress Patent Offlre. Copvricht. IfllO, by B. P. Co.. Inc.. New York. The Contents of this
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The ELFXTRICAI, EXPERIMENTER Is for sale at all newsstands In the United States
romrlbuttons to this Journal should be addrest to: Editor. and Canada: also at Brentano's, 37 Avenue de I'Opera, Paris. *
All cnmmunlcatlnn" an'I
ELECTRICAL EXJ'EBIilEXTEB. 233 Fulton Street. New York. Unaccepted contribu- Member of the Audit Bureau of Circulation,

850
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April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 851

RemarkaUe.ffliZ'
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852 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

PR ACTI C AL
*^
As exp erts Know it
Sent Free for Inspection
Learn electricity as you would in actual
PRACTICE in accordance with the methods
employed by the highest paid electrical experts
in America. The New McGraw-Hill Library
of Practical Electricity contains the actual work-
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A New Standard in Electrical Literature
The New Library of Practical Electricity by Terrell
Croft marks a new era in electrical literature.
The great field of electrical engineering, with its limit-
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A lelfer that means something to YOU


8 Volumes
Flexibly bound McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc.
239 West 39th Street, New York.^N.Y.
Pocket size Gentlemen: In an attempt to express
3000 pages myself about CROFT'S NEW LIBRARY OF
PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY, I have never
2100 illustra- seen, and do not believe there was ever
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for a complete you must know the expert, because it is all practice.
Respectfully,
Electrical about electri-
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Payable $2
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Per month Learn


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get Croft*s
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April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 855

ELECTRICITY
Records of actual Work *
NOT One Penny in Advance
You have always wanted a compact set
of books containing the solution to all your
electrical problems.
it were
Vou have wondered
possible for any author to place
himself in your shoes, and explain the very
if
READ THIS-
problems that face you every day. You McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
have picked up books that covered the other
fellow's problems, but not yours. These 239 West 39lh St., New York.
books seemed to touch on everything except
Gentlemen;
the matters that pertained to your own
work. I am enclosing money order for $2.00, whidi

I believe is my last payment on Library of


These books were not complete. They
were probably out of date. They were Practical Electricity. I wish to say just a word
probably not practical. about the books. I want to go on record with
the statement that they are absolutely the best
You have said yourself and heard others set of books ever published for the man on the
say, want books that fit into my work.
*'I
The man who writes those books must un-
job. To have these books and get familiar with
derstand my
work, and know what he is them makes one want to meet and talk with Mr.
talking about. I like to go into theory and Croft. As a rule books which claim to be self
the higher spheres of electricity occasionally. educational are very incomplete and well padded
but not while I am on the job. Then I with tables, etc., which one may find at any
want plain facts, plainly stated. I want time in catalogues, but I will say Mr. Croft has
books that have anticipated my problems
and figured them out for me." certainly gotten away from this. man who A
cannot read these books understandingly is hope-
Your wants have been anticipated and less. There never was a correspondence course
met in the new Croft Library. It is a even with the aid of person2j letters, that could
seven-year undertaking recently completed
by a man whose experience covers the whole give a man
real knowledge as these books do.
field of electrical practice. I am Chief Electrician at a State Institution here
and have use for these books every day. I fear
Meet Terrell Croft
Be guided in your study of electricity by
Examination will show why Croft's Li- no job because I know that if I cannot solve the an experienced Electrical Engineer of high
brary is now
the accepted standard. Why professional standing. Terrell Croft, author
it is used by the highest authority as well
problem, I've a friend at home in Mr. Croft's
of 7 of these volumes, climbed from the
as the lowest beginner. Examination will books, who will come to my
aid. ranks to Electrical Engineer with the
show how it is revolutionizing the methods Westinghouse Company. He gained his
of teaching the practical side of electricity. Yours truly, knowledge with his sleeves rolled up and
has met your problems in advance. He
Examination is absolutely free. Merely E. E. CONYER, tells in plain, understandable language how
return the coupon below. to proceed by the best and most practical
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Now the time to master Electricity Now


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ten by practical men, teach you accurately and rapidly There see fit for ten days. McGraw.Htll
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Terrell Croft tells you the secrets of success in electricity Stick a couple of the volumes in your NEW YORK
in pockets, and refer to them during the day.
plain words, figures and illustrations. Nothing is left to the Figure out in an instant the problems that Gentlemen:
imagination. There is no guesswork. There is no theory
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me the Library
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you ing by returning the attached If nut wanted I will write you
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road to
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ACT NOW Name.

Hornt' Address.

City and State

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Nanu! nf Emplciyer. . .

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854 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

Master Electricity By
Actual Practice
The only way you can become an expert is by doing the
very work under competent instructors, which you will be
called upon to do later on. In other words, learn by doing.
That is the method of the New York Electrical School.

Five minutes of actual practice properly directed is worth


more to a man than years and years of book study. Indeed,
Actual Practice is the only training of value, and graduates
of New York Electrical School have proved themselves to
be the only men that are fully qualified to satisfy EVERY
demand of the Electrical Profession.

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actual conditions.

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29 W. 17th St., New York, N. Y. Let us explain this course to you in person. If you can't
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Please send FREE and without obligation to
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. ... (NAME) New York Electrical School


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Vol. VI. Whole No. 72 APRIL, 1919 Number 12

Grand Opera in Your Home


By H. GERNSBACK

MANY thousands of people music-


ally inclined are deprived of hear-
ing our great operatic stars
limited income prefer such seats and, there-
fore, the gallery is usually made up entirely
of really music-loving Italians.
one great technical difficulty at that time
which only during the past two years has
been overcome.
mainly on account of the high Suppose that all you had to do was to step While it is a comparatively simple thing
price of admission, also because to the telephone at 8.30 in the evening, no to place sensitive microphones about the
of the limited seating capacity of even our matter if you lived in New
York or any- stage and on the other end of the line con-
largest opera houses. Take for instance a where else in the country, and immediately nect a loud speaking telephone in order to

Due to the Invention of the Audion, It Is Now Feasible From a Technical Standpoint to Connect to One Stage As Many As Fifty
Thousand Telephone Subscribers, All of Which Can Listen Simultaneously to Our Great Opera Stars. The Invention of the Loud Talking
Telephone Also Has Made It Possible for the Entire Family to Hear the Music As Pictured Above.

"star" performance at the Metropolitan had the whole room filled with Caruso's listen to the transmitted music, it is quite
Opera House, New York City.. It is neces- voice. Would not appeal to you. pro-
this a different problem to connect say twenty
sary to secure tickets weeks ahead if one viding of course that you were musically or forty thousand subscribers' lines to these
wishes a good seat in the house, otherwise All this is now possible, and. we
inclined.'' microphones and then reproduce the music
it is often impossible to make a reservation believe, shortly come about.
will While at the end of all these thousands of cir-
at all. of course the idea itself is nothing new cuits. The reason is that heretofore we had
While seats may be bought at low prices it having been tried thirty years ago to no satisfactory instrument whereby the
''up in heaven", only our Italian friends of transmit music in this manner, there was (.Continued on page 924)

855
: :

856 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

New York to Chicago Via the Air


in Twelve Hours
A IF
IRLINE TICKET

A for Chicago, It is proposed to form a company with


( Balance and altitude will be adjusted by
Please." "Yes. sir : five hundred four dirigibles and two main terminals, one expansion or compression of the gas.
and twenty dollars. Please. The at New York, the other at Chicago. The The crew will consist of the captain,
next 'liner' leaves in half an hour dirigibles are to be of the Zeppelin type, navigator, chief and two assistant engi-
for Chicago and way stations," with rigid housing and multiple conpart- neers, wireless operators, steward, cook,
replied the ticket agent of the Trai:s- ment structure. The U. S. War Depart- waiter and maid.
Continental Airline Company on a bright ment's wonderful new discovery, Heliinn In regard to the landing places, which

Regular Air Line Passenger and F


Become an Accomplish* '---' ^^- '-
Conveniences Will Be
Not to Mention the Mo

June morning in the year 1919. At least gas, will be used, thus removing the danger with dirigibles is a great problem,
that is a fair sample of the conversation we of fire. The airship will be 425 feet in McElroy says
may find quite common in a few months length and forty-five feet in diameter. Its "It ifc reasonable to believe that hill
or so, if the plans of one of the largc-t engines will have a horsepower of 1,200. walled landing zones could be located, or
aerial transportation organizations material- The bag will have a capacity of 650,000 natural depressions in the earth could be
ize in any such manner as their originators cubic feet of gas, providing a gross lifting enlarged to offer breakairs to permit the
predict. Complete arrangements for the power of twenty tons at sea level. This air liner to come down safely. 'The termi-
construction and operation of a line of would mean a practical net lift of ten tons. nals at either end of the New York-Chi-
passenger carrying dirigibles between New It is estimated by Mr. McElroy that a cago route could be floating piers secured
York and Chicago at an initial charge of speed of seventy miles an hour can be at one end, so as to swing with the wind
sixty-five cents a mile for each passenger maintained and that the trip from New to permit easy housing of the ship."
have been made by J. M. McElroy, chief York to Chicago could be made in comfort With regard to the possibility of trans-
engineer of the Sturtevant Aeroplane Com- in less than twelve hours. Atlantic flight, Mr. McElroy says
pany, of Boston, in collaboration with Noble "The cost per mile, roughly speaking," "When we have put the New York-Chi-
Foss, one of the officials of the corporation says Mr. McElroy, "w'ould approach sixty-
cago route into successful operation then
and a son of former Governor Foss, of five cents per passenger, or $520 for the
it is time to throw a line across the pond
Massachusetts. entire trip in either direction. There is
and do a real job."
Announcement of the big undertaking was no doubt but that after the line is run
made recently by the Massachusetts Air- for some time, it will be possible to cut Apropos of transcontinental aerial trans-
portation we find much food for thought
craft Association, which held its annual down the rate considerably."
aeronautical exposition at Madison Square in a speech recently made by Allan R. Haw-
Each dirigible will have accommodations
Garden and the Sixty-ninth Regiment Ar- for twenty-five passengers. The power ley, president of the Aero CIul) of Amer-
mory from March ica, before the National Rivers and Har-
1 to 15, inclusive, in co- plant will consist of two engines, side by
operation with the War and Navy Depart- side, driving thru gears a central stub bors Congress, at Washington, D. C, on
ments. shaft mounting a variable pitch air screw. (Continued on page 915)
;

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 857

Guiding Airships With the "Radio Barrage"


Invisible Walls of the Ether
By DR. LEE de FOREST
at this lime, when our army and pilots in case of fog, cloud or other inter- with extraordinarily tall buildings with con-
JUST
navy officials, and many airplane ferences. Will it not be necessary, for ex- sequent air pockets.
builders, are t.aking steps for the ample, to establish a regular "traffic squad By arrangement of antenna or reflectors
commercial development of the air- of the air," for those cities in the principal not unlike those used behind large search-
plane and dirigible, along industrial lines of communication? The use of the lights, a beam, or narrow zone of wireless
and governmental lines, is it not prac- human voice in sounding a warning, with- waves, invisible to the eye of course, could
ticable, as well as advisable for radio in- out wires, is already an accomplished fact be set up. This would necessitate the use
ventors and engineers, as well as others at Point Judith Light, where the Radio- of very short wave lengths, of only a few
concerned, to give thought to those essen- I'lwrc, at regular intervals, calls out to the meters, far shorter than the wave lengths
tial safety devices which come within the ship operator: "Point Judith Light," and used today in radio-communication. This
scope of radio-communication and con- then in a weaker voice "You are getting
: feature would also have the advantage that
trol?
closer Keep off." these short wave lengths would not inter-
I venture to say that if there was any By means of a number of wireless sta- fere at all with existing radio-communica-
one device used in the European war which tions placed around any given city, why can- tion. All this short wave vertical radia-
contributed to the success of the Allies in not we do likewise in the matter of our tion would be controlled by the automatic-
their supremacy of the air, it was radio- radio traffic squad of the air? So that when ally repeating phonograph, similar to the
communication, both telephone and tele- a pilot comes within range, he would re- Radiophare arrangement at Point Judith
graph. By means of it the fighters in the ceive a message such as the following: Light.
air were at all times able to talk and sig-
"Buffalo Office Turn West by South, and The pilot of the airplane,, his 'phone

CopjTiglit-iOlS-ljyE. P. Co.

The Airships of Tomorrow Will be Guided by Wireless Telephone Signals, Possibly Arranged in "Barrages" or Walls, as Here Illustrated.
This is the Only Feasible Way of Signaling Location and Weather Data to Aerial Craft in Stormy and Especially Foggy Weather. Prof.
Walter I. Schlichter, of Columbia University, Has Also Recently Advocated the Use of Powerful Wireless Signaling Stations for Guiding
Trans-Atlantic Seaplanes in Their Proposed Trips Across the Ocean.

nal with their commanding officers at head- Pick up Cleveland," or again such warn- clamped to his head in the helmet, would
quarters, and after a personal examination ings as, for example, it will be necessary hear these safety signals as he flies thru
of the various kinds of apparatus used by to inform the pilot of weather changes: these invisible walls of etheric warning, in
the different countries, all of which pay high
"Weather Warning Your are nearing a ample time to govern his course accord-
tribute to American genius, I feel I am
storm area Cyclone Ahead,'" etc., etc. ingly.
fully justified in predicting an even greater There should be, no doubt, a continual With the mastery of the air for govern-
use of radio control and communication for "radio barrage," or zone of automatic mental, and for commercial purposes, al-
peace purposes. warnings thru which airplanes must pass ready at hand, certainly the question of
One of the first questions to be taken in approaching regions where air traffic radio control, and of traffic regulation, is
up, it seems to me, when wc have reached is dense namely, around landing stations,
: of prime importance, worthy of the imme-
the point of regular passenger and freight and especially so near steep mountain diate interest, and of the best thought in
traffic by air, is that of proper warning to ranges and peaks, or cities like New York, the radio world.
:

858 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

How Electricity Serves World's Largest


Hotels
Do you kiiozi' that lite two largest hotels in the world have just opened in Nezi' i'ork City, each one :i-ith over 2,000 guest rooms and
a bath in cz'ery room? One of these hotels has, among other startling nen' features, an ele'etrie automobile elevator, 'a'liich carries the
guests' motor cars up to the grand ball room floor, so that milady and her escort do not have to pass thru any chilling winds when
arrizing at the hotel. These hotels arc veritable cities in themselves, and either of them has more telephones than the entire nation of
Greece. One hotel has the largest electric laundry in the world, not to mention the gigantic dining rooms, hall rooms, kitchens, swimming
pools, children's open-air playgrounds, and a whole regiment of employees.

By H. WINFIELD SECOR
THE two largest hotels in the world
recently opened in New York City,
one, the "Hotel Pennsylvania." op-
and most important conveniences of the
hotel are at once available. Among
appointments immediately accessible and
other
very lavish in their telautograph equipment.
The Hotel Pennsylvania has at present some
200 telautographs, and more will undoubt-
posite the Pennsylvania Railroad available from the lobby are the main Din- edly be added later as demands require
Terminal at 33rd Street and 7th Ave- ing Room, the Palm Room, used for after- them. The telautograph equipment at this
nue, and the other, the "Hotel Commodore," noon teas, etc., the men's cafe, the men's hostelry has been very carefully worked out
located adjacent to the Grand Central Ter- bar, the grill room, and in the basement the by skilled engineers, and it undoubtedly is
minal, and built directly over both the most attractive barber shop imaginable, re- one of tlie best that the writer has ever seen
Queensboro and Lexington Avenue sub- splendent in handsome tile and marble with put into operation. More" will be said with
ways. There are so many hundreds of in- leather lounges, and adjacent to these the reference to the telautograph system anon,
novations and conveniences which have been handsomest array of lady manicurists ever and for the present it will be of interest

developed and applied to these the last seen this side of Paris. While dining in the to the reader to note what happens when a

word in Hoteldom that one can hardly grill room, you may, if you wish, have a guest is to be paged. In most hotels, at
judge of the undoubted value of all of these one-step or two with your guest on the least in the smaller hotels, a guest is not
important and elaborate appointments with- highly polished dancing floor in the center paged except in the main lobby and dining
out having actually visited such an estab- of the room, while the Original Dixy Jazz room, but at the "Pennsylvania", when an
lishment in person. Take, for example, the Band turns loose the jazziest jazz you ever outside party or a guest calls up the tele-
gigantic proportions of the Hotel Pennsyl- shook a foot to. Considering for the mo- phone exchange, and the operator writes
vania with its 2,200 rooms and bath. This ment that some rainy afternoon you might down the name of the person who is
hotel can accommodate 3,500 registered happen to pop in at the "Pennsylvania" from wanted, the following operations ensue
guests with rooms, not to mention several the water-proof subway, and that you might the telephone operator,
(and they are all
dozen additional small-town populations, find at arriving in the royally appointed good looking, take it from your Uncle Dud-
which it can easily entertain in the grand lobby that your capital was limited to the ley, for he had the good luck to actually
ball room and its six well appointed res- large sum of 15c, due perliaps to the effi- visit this "holy of holies", past the door
taurants, also numerous private banquet cient activities of an unknown pickpocket of which no man may enter, excepting that
rooms and private dining rooms, not on your ride up to the hotel, you can still he has a pass signed by the powers that be
forgetting the roof garden, which is one
of the most beautiful and perhaps the larg-
enjoy yourself ostentatiously by repairing
to the basement floor, where there is a
in the teleplione world),
proceeds to write
the name on the transmitting platen of her
est in the world, Besides a capacity of "Quick Lunch Restaurant," which will ac- telautograph, there being a telautograph
3,500 guests with rooms, 3,000 additional commodate several hundred guests, who for each of the 23 telephone operators, and
guests may be entertained in the several may for one reason or another wish to en- simultaneously the written name appears in
restaurants including the roof garden, or joy a 15c or 2Sc meal. That is what you the main dining room, grill, bar, roof gar-
the total capacity of 6.500 guests, which is call real service, and both of these hotels den and tlie office, as well as at the bell
a respectable little city all by itself. are out for service with a capital "S," captain's office in the main lobby, so that
If you haven't already visited one of these first, last and always. Later, when you are when the name is called out by one of the
magnificent and beautifully appointed 20th assigned to the guests' floors and see the bellhops in your vicinity, you can rest as-
centur>' hotels, you will probably wish to layout of the rooms, you will find that sured that the same name is being called
know what conveniences are provided for these hotels undoubtedly count on a heavy, simultaneously in about ten other parts of
the guest, and with that very object in transient traffic, the suites in most cases the building. This of course, serves two
mind, the writer paid a special visit to consisting of from one to three rooms and purposes; it promotes speed in locating the
these establishments and enjoyed an after- a bath. guest, which is sometimes a very important
noon off from the editorial rub-dub, amid The lowxr part of the hotel is well shown factor, and also owing to the multiplicity
the flowering palms and the aroma of one in the accompanying illustration, and of of the system, it renders trebly certain the
dollar Havana perfectos arising from the course there are many rooms and conve- locating of the desired party, which -would
"loungees," reclining luxuriously on the niences not shown for obvious reasons, ow- not be the case under ordinary conditions.
thousand dollar leather settees, which grace ng to their location on other parts of the The total amount of electric power, not
the main lobby. This w-onderful lobby is mezzanine floors, et cetera, which cannot to mention the steam used for heating, is
furnished in handsome imported marble and be brought out in the limited size of our truly enormous in a building of this size,
is lighted by reflected beams passing thru illustration. The mezzanine floors, just which covers a whole city block, and while
a richly designed leaded glass ceiling. Both above the main or street floors, contain the talking to the chief engineer of the build-
the Hotel Pennsylvania as well as the Hotel private offices, and also there are sleeping ing, it was ascertained that the total light
Commodore have the same transit facilities, and living quarters on these floors for the and power load for the hotel would require
i.e.,both have subway as v.dl as railroad employees. On the first mezzanine floor as much as 1400 K.W. or about 1900 horse-
service, the one the Pennsylvania Railroad, ther; are exhibition rooms for business power. Electricity is used in a general
and the other New York Central Lines. purposes, and on the second and third mez- way for many purposes and important oper-
There are underground passagewavs in zanines; dining rooms for the employees. ations conducive to the efficient operation
cither case leading from the railroad ter- On the third mezzanine we find the "Grand of the hotel, which the average guest never
minals directly into the hotels, and special Ball Room," which is most beautifully sees or even dreams of. For instance, how
elevators for this service to carry the guests decorated in pleasing colors which do do you suppose the ventilation of such a
to the floor of the main lobby or vcsliliule. not jar or irritate the eye as do some of large hotel as this is taken care of? The
If one arrives by subway from up or down- these large public rooms in similar estab- chief engineer answers this question by tak-
town New York, he finds the same conven- lishments. The general decorative scheme ing yo'u down to the sub-basement two sto-
iences awaiting him, and is whisked from thruout the hotel, it may be said, is one of ries underground, where you see one of the
the subterranean passageway to the splen- good taste and extremely homelike. The largest electric motor-driven blower rooms
dor of the main lobby by elevator, which is service is carefully worked out to give in the world, covering a quarter of a square
operated by young women nattily attired in this feeling at even,' turn. city block. Here dozen of powerful elec-
spic and span uniforms. There is even a The largest private telephone exchange tric motors rated at anywh.'re from 25 to

woman "elevator starter" and speaking of extant, with capacity for 3.340 extensions. 50 horse-power each, drive gigantic blowers
elevators, the Hotel Pennsylvania boasts of 200 trunk lines antl 23 operators is con- or fans, each of which is coiuiccted up with
a total of 27. In the following description nected to the varif)us rooms and other certain air ducts leading to various parts
of the hotel features, as the writer found parts of the hotel, and this is located on the of the building. Thru these ducts, air is
them, the Hotel Pennsylvania is inferred, second mezzanine floor. pumped which promotes the proper circula-
except where otherwise mentioned. In the telephone exchange are also lo- tion thru the hallways, and the rooms of
On arriving on the floor of the main cated a large battery of "Telautographs" the building. Neither of these inonster
lobby, which is certainly a magnificent piece
the electric machines that w-rite and both hotels has a large power plant of its
of architecture, one finds that the principal of these recently opened hotels have been (Conlinucd on page 915)
1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 859
April.

FULL STORY OF THIS LATEST NEW YORK HOTEL A VERITABLE CITY IN ITSELF ON OPPOSITE PAGE.
! W :

860 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

Seeing Thru You Without X-Rays


The New Shadow Photography
Bv BATTELL LOOMIS
WHAT of the infra-red ray in pho-
tography ? Is its penetrative power
the equivalent of the uhra-violet,
holder,and squeezed his bulb for a half
second exposure. The result was tlie ex-
cellent bone picture shown herewith.
or actuating principle of the X- This picture was iahcn entirely with a
ray? Has Dr. Paull S. Hunter,
former State Secretary of Health for Colo-
filtered tight
the light that passes most
easily of all visible light, thru blood. The
rado, and hailing from the city of Denver, discoverer has made nothing new exceit
stumbled on something he didiVt know and his camera, which is not essential to suc-
doesn't know yet, in looking for somethitig cess He has merely combined a stock
he had guest? That is a question it may Eastman panchromatic photo plate brushed
take time and development to answer, but with eosiit solution to intensify its sensi-
which the writer is content only to raise by tiveness, with an F ray filter and a line
way of introduction to a story which has point of light to do simply what Rontgcn
its clement of humor because tho it relates earned his fame for doin.g in a more round-
a serious discovery, worth thousands of about and costly way. He has made a dis-
dollars to society at large, the discoverj' coverv' which he prophesies every school-
will not realize its discoverer one penny. boy will at once begin to play with, and
In which it is not unlike many other im- every doctor to Use in his business.
portant scientific discoveries. .^nd he has given his discovery freely to
One night Dr. Hunter was waiting for the world. He does not intend to secure
a car. He held a flashlight in his hand, Hold Your Hand Before a Flashlight in the patents either on his combination of ma-
and covering the ray, was attracted by the Dark
You Can See the Bone Outlines
Dimly. This Is the Basis of the New X-Ray- terials or on his novel folding cainera,
marked red glow of his flesh. He noted ess Bone Photography Here Describsd. which may be made in any size and open
the dim shadows of the bones in his fingers. at both ends to fit different portions of the
"Hm." said he, "the red rays come thru. cured a Wratten F or extreme red ra\ filter limbs. Whether the rays will penetrate
I f the rays were more vivid, the shadow of
and placed it above his lenseless shutter and trunk for abdominal and intercostal
the
the bones would be sharper. I can inten- diafram. He placed his hand over the examinations he does not know from prac-
sify them and I'll bet I tise, altho from theory
can photograph that." ^^^^m^
~^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^ he contends they might
The idea took hold. be made to do so by im-
The doctor was a user TF you are old enough, you tvill probably remember !he time when the proved technique, such
of the X-ray, but he -* X-ray uas first announced. We all thought it one of the most marvelous as a more intense ray
found it easier in ordi- intentions ever conceived by the human mind, and so it was indeed. But of light and a more
nary practise to bring noiv Dr. Paull S. Hunter announces a strikingly simple way to perform the sensitive plate.
a patient to the ray same experiment which Dr. Ri'mtgen performed in a very difficult, round- Further Dr. Hunter
than to take the weighty about way. Where Prof. Riintgen used a complicated electrical apparatus has to say
apparatus with its cells in order to take shadowgraphs of the human body. Dr. Hunter uses nothing "My claim is ai^t
and coils to the patient. but plain light rays. There is no doubt in our minds that if sufficiently with a box fitted out in
What a boon to the powerful light rays are used in connection with a heat filter in order that this tnanner and a box
country doctor it would the patient does not sustain burns, it should become possible in the near of panchromatic plates
be if he could make a future for physicians to actually see every bone in the human body. Not a physician can tell
fracture diagnosis with only this, but we predict that by using certain color rays, it should be possi- whether a broken arm
an Ordinary camera ble to bring out every organ in the human body as well, such as heart, is set right before leav-
The X-ray is of value liver, blood vessels, etc., which are notv very difficult of observation by the ing the house, and that
only to the rich and the X-ray. it will undoubtedly be
very poor who receive Our front cover shows what is already possible today if you will drape the used all over the coun-
free treatment. The humart body in such a way as to cut off all the direct glare, and then by try for th.it purpose.
middle class must pay exposing strong electric arc-lights from behind, it becomes possible to see "The machine can be
more than it can afford the bones of the body clearly. Dr. Hunter, who is an American physician, improved by using a
or go without. deserves great credit for bringing about this extraordinary result, as simple roll of film if the manu-
So Dr. Hunter seized as it is efficient. The accompanying article explains the system and methods facturers would make
the first opportunity to fully. EDITOR. it, and so do away with
lay his hand on a naked glass plates ; the devel-
panchromatic photo ^^^^^^^^^^ oping tank at the bot-
plate and expose it to tom wou'd be adapted
the electric light for a moment. He secured plate, tieda black cloth at the open end to films. The whole outfit s, loreover,
a picture of his bones with his first try. It about hiselbow, turned on the electric made to fold up flat and occupy very little
was not ver>' sharp, but it was a good light, removed the slide from the plate- space.
beginning. He reasoned it "These pictures could also
out "It wants only a con-
:
be made with a camera
centrated light from a point using a powerful arc lamp
to cast a clearer shadow. to throw the rays thru
This ray must go thru a the human body, and if
camera which protects the plates could be made sensi-
plate from random rays and HIGH C/INDLE POWeH
TUNGSTEN LAMP tive enough, pictures of the
I have a good bone picture." heart's action could be made
he argued. SHUTTEH MS on celluloid rolls, giving
SHUTTER BULB
Accordingly he employed moving pictures of the heart
his mechanical knack to con-
R/}Y FILTER \ action and other organs of
struct a black box with an the body. So far I have
BUJCK CLOTH
opening at one end large only used it for extremity
enough to receive his hand work and it has proved very-
or foot. See illustration of OPENING FOP satisfactory in fact,
; the
the apparatus used by Dr. LEG OP /7PM firstpictures are as good if
Hunter, herewith. He made WITH DP/I not better than the first ones
it collapsible so it would fit STRING made by the X-ray.
in a physician's grip. He "I give the idea to the
fitted an iris diafram in the world with the hope that
top of his box and fastened BLfICK METAL OK PUITE 3UDING someone will further de-
a plate-holder on the bot- mODEN BOX OftFILM PL/ITE
velop its usefulness and by
tom with a developing box HOLDER DEVELOPING
T/INK improved design and more
beneath that, into which the sensitive plates be able to
plate might fall the instant make pictures as well with
of its exposure, for speedy Diagram this $2.00 outfit as with a
of the Actual Bone-Photography Apparatus Used by Dr. Hunter
developing. He then se- in Successfully Photographing the Bones of the Limbs. $1,000 X-ray machine."
:

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 861

The front cover picture, showing the built, and to operate these lines it has 244 and material from the United States, with
bone structure of gives us a
a wnuian, stations, and 102 telegraph offices. the single exception of poles, most of which
clear idea of how the full figure wcnild ap- The long-distance telegraph and tele- were obtained in France.
pear, using, of course, a sufficiently
strong light 30urce, such as an arc- THE JOHN FRITZ MEDAL FOR
lamp. A
frisket or template would GENERAL GOETHALS.
be cut cut to just fit the outer contour The John Fritz Aledal Board of
of the body, thus giving the maximum Award, composed of represenlatives of
X-raying power available in any case. the National Societies of Civil, Mining,
The llcshy portions of the body would ^lechanical and Electrical Engineers,
appear red just as our artist has shown held their annual meeting for 1919 at
them, in contradistinction to the usual the Engineers' Club, January 17, and
X-ray image observed in a rtuoroscope, awarded their gold medal to George W.
where the outline of the Hesh is just (joethals, the builder of the Panama
discernible. It would seem that this Canal.
new direct light system of bone pho- The medal has previously been
tography would be much less harmful awarded to Lord Kelvin, George West-
to the patient, as the \-ra\s exert a inghouse, Alexander Graham Bell.
detrimental effect when applied in rea- Thomas A. Edison, Charles T. Porter,
sonably large dosages, and in some Alfred Noble, Sir William Henry
cases cause growths and burns which White, Robert W. Hunt, John Edson
are incurable. Sweet, James Douglas, Elihu Thom-
son, tienry M. Howe and J. Waldo
WAR ACHIEVEMENTS OF U. S. Smith.
SIGNAL CORPS. Col. John J. Carty, now in France.
When the .\merican forces came to has been Chairman of the Board, but
France "communication" was one of in his absence .'Xmbrose Swasey, of
the first efforts to which American in- Cleveland, presided.
genuity and invention was directed and George H. Pegram has been elected
the Signal Corps, under which coin- Chairman for 1919 and W. F. M. Goss,
munications fall, met it as have the Treasurer, in place of Prof. F. R. Hut-
organizations of the American Expe- ton, who died during the year.
ditionary Force. Existing French tele-
graph and telephone systems were NEW MARCONI INVENTION
overburdened. There was little left EXPLAINED.
for Uncle Sam and Brig. Gen. E. Rus- meeting of the Institute of A joint
sell, chief signal officer, and his staff Radio Engineers and the New York
of experts tackled the job. Electrical Society was held on Wednes-
What they have done in construction Actual Bone Picture of the Hand Taken by the In- day evening, March 5, at the Engineer-
ventor of the New System of X-Ray-less Bone Pho-
is shown in the following statistics
tography Dr. Paull S. Hunter, with a Strong Electric ing Societies Building, at which Roy
The Signal Corps has built approxi- Light, a Red Ray Filter and a Photographic Plate. A. Weagant, chief engineer of the Mar-
mately 1,750 miles of poles on which coni Wireless Telegraph Company of
it has strung 4,175 miles of wire. In addi- phone system constructed by the Signal America, read a paper on "Reception thru
tion about 2.000 miles of American wire has Corps is entirely maintained by its own Strays and Interference."
been strung on existing systems for our personnel, and in addition some 3,000 miles The recent announcement of Mr. Wea-
use, and it has leased and operates more of leased wires are maintained by it. gant's discoveries and inventions in connec-
than 3,000 miles of French wire. Exchange AH this construction has been made by tion with wireless telegraphy created wide
lines to the extent of 12,750 miles have been Signal Corps battalions with implements sensation.

THE AERIAL PASSENGER LEFT Twenty minutes later, the fast little air- method might be more or less fraught with
BEHIND. flhi'cr have overtaken the big air
will danger. Mr. H. Gernsback suggests that the

WE down
know
of the taxicab clattering
all
the street at breakneck speed
with the belated passenger making a
monster and after depositing the be-
lated passenger on the upper deck of the
European bound flier, not to forget the
transfer of the passenger might be accom-
plished
tration.
much easier, as shown in our illus-
The taxiplane would fly about
bee-line for the dock and just arriving in violent language of our businessman who twenty feet above the deck of the big flyer,
time to see the gang plank pulled in and thinks he has been overcharged by the mod- in the same direction of course, and also at
missing the Liverpool steamer. But the
ern bandit of the air, he will go to his the same sf'ced as that of the large machine.
American business man, nothing daunted, deck chair and begin perusing the latest The passenger could then descend from a
by such a occurrence promptly char-
trivial edition of the Elfxtrical Experimenter. rope ladder and drop to the deck with ease,
ters a harbor boat and races the
fast While the taxiplane might land directly as well as without danger.
steamer down the bay, overtakes it and is on the big European-bound flyer, such a
hoisted up to the YOU CAN WHIT-
deck in time for TLE THIS IRON.
lunch. It is well known
A few years from that rapid cooling of
now humanity prob- hot metals hardens
ably will not have them. That the op-
changed much, and posite is true has re-
we will still have cently been demon-
with us the late pas- strated in striking
senger, only this fashion by the Gen-
time he will not race eral Electric Co.
down to the dock One of their scien-
but up a 30-or 40- tists annealed .Amer-
story elevator trying ican ingot iron sur-
to catch the Trans- rounded by hydro-
Atlantic Flier, but gen gas for three
just in time to see hours at a tempera-
the big bird "take ture above l.f)0O F.
the air." The product was
Will the .\merican very little harder
business man of 1925 than the softest cop-
bewail his lot and per, and could be
return dejectedly to whittled with a jack
his home? Not if he knife.
can help it ! He will
signal a passing One of the largest
taxiplanc which will electric plants in the
come down on the world is being plan-
huge platform which ned to supply power
a few minutes ago for nearly all the
The Giant Airplanes of To-morrow May Slip Away from London or New York and Leave mines Johannes-
at
harbored the great You Behind. Then What Would You do? Easy Board a "Taxiplane" and Chase the "Sky-
Trans-Atlantic flier. hound" Down the Bay. burg, South Africa.

862 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

stance, and it has certain fluorescent prop-


Locating Stolen Diamonds by X-Rays erties which render the facility of its de-
tection all the more possible under an ex-
Possibly you will remember having read body in a few seconds. This system of de- amination by X-ray, as it has a tendency to
from time to time of the remarkable tricks tecting the presence of a diamond, no mat- fluoresce or glow slightly when under the
resorted to by the native diamond miners ter whether it is buried in the flesh, resting influence of X-rays, which phenomenon is
in the great Kimberly diamond region in in a throat cavity, or even in the stomach readily detected on a sensitive fluorscope or
South Africa and other parts of the world. an almost unbelievable practise resorted to X-ray screen.
So great has the temptation often become in several instances on record
the X-ray The X-ray machine here shown is con-
nected to battery of four
a
powerful X-ray tubes of the
latest Coolidge type, as other-
wise if the tube had to be
moved up and down behind
the sul)ject, considerable time
would be lost in performing
this operation, and where sev-
eral hundred subjects have to
be examined in a very short
space of time, it can readily be
imagined that such a device as
here shown is imperative.

GIANT SUBMARINES
HAVE 12-INCH GUNS
AND STEAM PRO-
PULSION.
We now able to publish a
are
photograph of one of the most
jealously guarded secrets of
the British Navy. While the
Germans were boasting of the
huge under-sea cruisers with
which they proposed to gain
the control of the seas, the
British Admiralty were con-
structing submarines capable of
matching the largest destroy-
ers afloat and of fighting even
cruisers in a surface contest.
The Tricks Resorted to by the Native Diamond Miners in Kimberly, South Africa, and Other Mines, The secret of these boats was
Pass All Human Belief and Imagination at Times. Cases Have Been Known Where the Lucky Finder their great size and speed and
of a Particularly Fine Specimen Even Swallowed the Stone, Intending Presumably to Regain the Dia- the fact that while on the sur-
mond Later. In Some Instances Diamonds Have Been Secreted in Self-inflicted Wounds or Incisions
In the Leg. But the X-Ray Spoiled All These Clever Ruses as Soon as It Was Adopted for Examining face they used steam as their
the Miners Every Day, Before They left the Mines. The Eye of the X-Ray Sees All. propelling power, carrying two
funnels like an ordinary sur-
to steal diamonds, especially when an ex- examination quickly indicates the presence face warship. One photo shows a British
tra large one may have been suddenly un- of the diamond. "K" class, two funnel submarine "steam-
earthed, that these natives have been known Of course, the logical question that arises ing" on the surface at sea. This is the
to resort to the most unbelievable tactics is How can the X-ray detect the presence largest class submarine produced by any
in order to carrj- the diamonds out of tho of a diamond inside of the body; especially nation and is 340 feet in length. It out-
mine and to withstand inspection even when when it may be temporarily lodged by the classes any U-boat built by Germany. Great
stript, as practically all of them are, before clever thief in proximity to large or fairly Britain has a whole fleet of these sea ter-
they leave the mine at the end of the day's large bone structures, which would seem to rors. Storage batteries and motors are used
labor. jireclude any possibility of detecting the while running submerged.
One of the successful schemes which has precious stone? However, a perusal of a The other photo shows a new British
been worked out by the superintendent of table showing the various transparencies of monitor submarine with a 12-inch gun, ca-
a large South .-Xfrican diamond mine is different materials under the X-ray will pable of giving battle to most any class of
shown in the accompanying illustration, and give the solution to the problem. It has armed ship under favorable conditions. So
it involves the use of a powerful X-ray been found that the diamond has a different far as known this is the first photograph to
machine having several X-ray bulbs ex- transparency than any ordinary materials, be received in this country showing Great
cited simultaneously. As each miner passes including the bone and flesh of the body, Britain's combination of the U-boat and
before the X-ray bulbs, the examiner looks which might happen to be in proximity to coast defense vessel. The 12-inch gun is
thru his flnoroscope and rapidly swings it it at the time of such an X-ray examination. the largest that was ever mounted on a sub-
up and down, so as to take in the entire Also the diamt)nd is a most peculiar sub- marine.

The Latest British Style In Submarines. It Is Capable of a Speed of 24 Knots on the Surface, When Propelled by Its Steam Power Plant.
The Two Smoke Stacks Fold Down When the Submarine Submerges, and It Is Then Propelled by Storage Batteries Previously Charged
While Running Awash. This Giant Cr-ft Is 340 Feet in Length, and Is Armed with Three 4-Inch Guns, Two Forward and One Aft, as
the Photo Shows. The Displacement of This Boat When Submerged Is 2,700 Tons and the Speed 10 Knots.
April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 863

GERMAN RADIO FOR HOLLAND


STATION.
of the tnant wireless telegraph
Details
Stereoscopic Movies
station to be erected in Holland by Ger-
man interests for the purpose of facili- The accompanying illustration shows a then undoubtedly it will be necessary for the
tating communication between Holland and possible later-day development of the pres- theater proprietor to provide or make read-
her East Indian possessions, according to ent moving picture, which, altho it has been ily accessible, by means of slot machines
a contract recently concluded between the greatly perfected in the past few years, arranged on the back of the theater chairs,
Dutch Government and the Telefunken leaves considerable detail yet to be worked etc., a special small size stereoscope similar
Company of Berlin, are found in a recent out. No matter how clear or flickerless a in appearance to a pair of opera glasses,
issue of Commerce Reports. motion picture may be when viewed on the thru which the duplicate moving images on
Paul L. Edwards, Commer-
cial Attache at The Hague, re-
ports that the receiving station
of the new plant, whicli is ex-
pected to cost about $2,000,(XX),
will be at Boxmeer, in the
Province of North Brabant,
and the sending station will be
located on a hill at Kootwijk,
Province of Gelderland, near
Apeldoom, some thirt^'-five
miles from the receiving sta-
tion. The sending station will
consist of six steel towers, each
200 meters (about 688 feet) in
height. The Radio-Nicuzi's
saj-s that the Kootwijk send-
ing station will have the same
range as the German station at
Nauen. The installation will
be able easily to transmit to and
receive from a station of like
dimensions and capacit\- which
is shortly to be built at Ban-
doeng, Java. The distance be-
tween the Kootwijk and the
Bandoeng station is about 6,830
miles.
It is understood that an en-
gineer representing the Tele-
funken Company is in Java
with a view of supervising the
construction of the station at Of All the "Movie" Inventions That Have Past OurWay, Have Yet to See Exploited, at Least Com- We
Bandoeng. De Nieuwe
Cour- mercially, the "Stereoscopic Movie." If You Have Ever Used a Parlor Stereoscope Then You Will Ap-
preciate What a Wonderful Improvement This Idea Would Make in the "Movie" Show, for Then the
ant stated some time ago that Figures Would Actually Stand Out in Relief. A Special "Stereoscope" Would Be Placed on Every Seat.
all of the apparatus and raw
Try This Experiment Hold a Small White Card Vertically Between the Two Similar Views Here Shown,
material for the construction Move the Page Up and Down Until the Images Appear in Relief.
of the Bandoeng station were
in Berlin ready for shipment at the first op- screen as projected by modern moving pic- the screen could be properly viewed and
portunity. ture machines, it would still be one hundred focust. These would of course be fitted
per cent more perfect to our vision, if it with proper lenses for the purpose.
INSTRUMENT DISCOVERS COM- could be thrown on the screen in duplicate It might seem off-hand that this latter
ING STORMS AT SEA. refinement would be unnecessary, but it is
A barocyclunometer, whicli locates the ^iiiMririiimintJlllllllMllililllllllllllliMlllllliililiil

I The names
liililllllllilllllllllllillllllllllltllllliriiiliiiliiitiMilliili^

of the manufacturers of new |


really one of the great marvels of science
center of typhoons and other storms, and I devices and appliances in which readers |
that causes us to see the images stand out,
also indicates when they are due, and from I are interested will be furnished free of | as it were, from the picture, when we look
what direction, has been invented by Father I charge by addressing our TECHNICAL =
thru a stereoscope at the photographs or
I INFORMATION BUREAU. I
Jose Algue, director of the Manila Weather other views mounted in duplicate. The ste-
Bureau, and, according to Capt. A. W. Nel- reoscope operates on a very simple and yet
son, of the Pacific mail steamship Ecuador, or stereoscopic fashion a similar manner m peculiar physiological arrangement, based
isbeing used in safeguarding from storms to the parlor stereoscopes which we have on the inter-action of the optical powers of
numerous vessels plying in Chinese and all seen and used. Of course, if we ever the two eyes when they are focust on two
Japanese waters. do get to the stage of stereoscopic movies. properly made and similar images.

Here's the New British "Monitor-Submarine." It Sports a Dangerous Looking 12-Inch, 50-Ton Gun, Which Can be Traversed 6 Degrees.
It Was Bombarding the Forts at the Dardanelles Straits. This Is the Famous "M-1." a 1,700-Ton Subsea Craft That Would
Built for
Make Any Light Cruiser or Similar Warship, Not to Mention a Dozen or So Armed Merchantmen, Scratch as They Never Scratched
Before. She Carries, Besides the 12-Inch Gun, Two Torpedo Tubes and an Anti-aircraft Gun, and Several Other Surprises Which Heinie
Never Ever? Dreamed About.
864 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

yyyyuijyyLai^iyiiyiiyi'^MMjytMJUi'Mjyijyj iSsH'iyityi i
i
^ ^
a(aatss(sa(ssi3aaiisa3siaaiaa(siaaiaisai3ai^^i3si3iS

J mvQmhomB
By Nikola Tesla
IIL MY LATER EMDEAVORS
The Discovery of tho Ro U.UL! |\;i
ic Field
iasf^ixsxravssxitrsrtrartjsflfisflwrttrwiris ffY<:yri:g^?yffl}ra,gy.i.yrt!gT,itTr.fi7TtigT-'ff^a?^

Gymnasium which was closed by a partition so that the cylindrical segment

A
T the age of ten 1 entered the Real the trough is

a new and fairly well equipt institution. In the depart- within the enclosure divides the latter into two compartments en-
ment of physics were various models of classical scien- tirely separated from each other by air-tight sliding joints. One
tific apparatus, electrical and mechanical. The demon- of these compartments being sealed and once for all exhausted,
strations and experiments performed from time to time the other remaining open, a perpetual rotation of the cylinder
by the instructors fasci- would result, at least, I

nated me and were un- thought so. A wooden


doubtedly a powerful in- model was constructed and
centive to invention. I fitted with infinite care and

was also passionately fond when I applied the pump


of mathematical studies on one side and actually
and often won the profess- observed that there was a
or's praise for rapid cal- tendency to turning, I was
culation. This was due to delirious with joy. Me-
my acquired facility of chanical flight was the one
visualizing the figures and thing I wanted to accom-
performing the operations, plish altho still under
not in the usual intuitive the discouraging recollec-
manner, but as in actual tion of a bad fall I sus-
life. Up to a certain de- tained by jumping with an
gree of complexity it was umbrella from the top of
absolutely the same to me a building. Every day I

whether I wrote the sym- used to transport myself


bols on the board or con- thru the air to distant

jured them before my regions but could not un-


mental vision. But free- derstand just how I man-
hand drawing, to which aged to do it. Now I had
many hours of the course something concrete a fly-
were devoted, was an ing machine with nothing
annoyance I could not en- more than'a rotating shaft,
dure. This was rather re- flapping wings, and a
markable as most of the vacuum of unlimited
members of the family ex- power From that time on
!

celled in it. Perhaps my I made my daily aerial ex-

aversion was simply due cursions in a vehicle of


to the predilection I found comfort and luxury as
in undisturbed thought. might have befitted King
Had it not been for a few Solomon. It took years
exceptionally stupid boys, before I understood that
who could not do anything the atmospheric pressure
at all. my record would acted at right angles to

have been the worst. It the surface of the cylinder


was a serious handicap as and that the slight rotary
under the then existing effort I observed was due

educational regime, draw- to a leak. Tho this knowl-

ing being obligatory, this edge came gradually it


deficiency threatened to Nikola Tesla at 60. A Very Recent Portrait of the Great Inventor. gave me a painful shock.
An Excellent Likeness.
spoil my whole career and I had hardly completed

my father had considerable trouble in railroading me from one my course at the Real Gymnasium when I was prostrated with a
class to another. dangerous illness or rather, a score of them, and my condition be-

In the second year at that institution I became obsest with the came so desperate that I was given up by physicians. During this
idea of producing continuous motion thru steady air pressure. The period I was permitted to read constantly, obtaining books from
pump incident, of which I have told, had set afire my youthful the Public Library which had been neglected and entrusted to me
imagination and imprest me with the boundless
of possibilities works and preparation of the catalogues.
for classification of the

a vacuum. I grew frantic in my desire to harness this inexhaust- One day was handed a few volumes of new literature unlike
I

ible energy but for a long time I was groping in the dark. Finally, anything I had ever read before and so captivating rs to make
however, my endeavors crystallized in an invention which was to me utterly forget my hopeless state. They were the earlier works
enable me to achieve what no other mortal ever attempted. Imagine of Mark Twain and to them might have been due the miraculous
a cylinder freely rotatable on two bearings and partly surrounded recovery which followed. Twenty-five years later, when I met
by a rectangrular trough which fits it perfectly. The open side of Mr. Clements and we formed a friendship between us, I told
Copyriehl. 1919, by E. P. Co, All rights reserved

Mr. Tesla's articles started in our February issue


April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 865

him of the experience and was amazed to sec that great man of a few days later learned that the cholera was raging in that dis-
I

laughter burst into tears. trict and, taking advantage of an opportunity,


I returned to Gospic
My were continued at the higher Real Gymnasium in
studies in disregard of my parents' wishes. It is incredible how abso-
Carlstadt, Croatia, where one of my aunts resided. She was a dis- lutely ignorant people were as to the causes of this scourge which
tinguished lady, the wife of a Colonel who was an old war-horse visited the country in intervals of from fifteen to twenty years.
having participated in many battles. I never can forget the three They thought that the deadly agents were transmitted thru the
years I past at their home. No fortress in time of war was under air and filled it with pungent odors and smoke. In the meantime
a more rigid discipline. I was fed like a canary bird. All the they drank the infected water and died in heaps. I contracted the
meals were of the highest quality and deliciously prepared but awful disease on the very day of my arrival and altho surviving
short in quantity by a thousand percent. The slices of ham cut the crisis, I was confined to bed for nine months with scarcely any
by my aunt were like tissue paper. When the Colonel would put ability to move. My energj' was completely e.xhausted and for
something substantial
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the second time I found
on my plate she would myself at death's door.
snatch it away and say
excitedly to him "Be :
THIS
installment, no doubt the most interesting of the three published
so far, reieals many extraordinary occurrences and experiences in the
In one of the sinking
spells which was
careful, Niko is very world's greatest inventor's life experiences such as do not fall to the thought to be the last,
delicate.'" I had a vo- lot of ordinary mortals. And Tesla, the many sided, aside of inventing, my father rushed into
racious appetite and knows the rare art of painting ivord-pictures. He does so here in a masterly the room. I still see his
suffered like Tantalus. fashion. He tells us how he
finally conceived the induction motor perhaps pallid face as he tried
But I lived in an at- his greatest discovery the
invention ivhich changed the face of the globe, to cheer me in tones
mosphere of refine- the invention ivhich made possible the street car, the subway, the electric belying his assurance.
ment and artistic taste train, power transmission, the harnessing of tvater falls and countless others. "Perhaps," I said, "I
quite unusual for those But let Tesla tell you himself how it all came about. It is a classic worth may get well if you will
times and conditions. reading. EDITOR. let me study engineer-
The land was low and ing." "You will go to
marshy and malaria
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^
the best technical in-
fever never left me while there despite of the enormous amounts stitution in the world." he solemnly replied, and I knew that he
of quinin I consumed. Occasionally the river would rise and meant it. A heavy weight was lifted from my mind but the relief
drive an army of rats into the buildings, devouring everything would have come too late had it not been for a marvelous cure
even to the bundles of the fierce paprika. These pests were to me brought about thru a bitter decoction of a peculiar bean. I came
a welcome diversion. I thinned their ranks by all sorts of means, to life like another Lazarus to the utter amazement of everybody.
which won me the unenviable distinction of rat-catcher in the My father insisted that I spend a year in healthful physical out-
community. At last, however, my course was completed, the misery door exercises to which I reluctantly consented. For mo.st of this
ended, and I obtained the certificate of maturity which brought term I roamed in the mountains, loaded with a hunter's outfit and
me to the cross-roads. a bundle of books, and this contact with nature made me stronger
During all those years my parents never wavered in their re- in body as well as in mind. I thought and planned, and conceived
solve to make me embrace the clergy, the mere thought of which many ideas almost as a rule delusive. The vision was clear enough
filled me with dread. I had become intensely interested in elec- but the knowledge of principles was very limited. In one of my
tricity under the stimu- inventions proposed to
I
lating influence of my convey letters and pack-
Professor of Physics, who ages across the seas, thru
was an ingenious man and a submarine tube, in sphe-
often demonstrated the rical containers of suffi-
principles by apparatus of cient strength to resist the
his own invention. A.mong hydraulic pressure. The
these I recall a device in pumping plant, intended to
the shape of a freely ro- force the water 'thru the
tatable bulb, with tinfoil tube, was accurately fig-
coatings, which was made ured and designed and all
to spin rapidly when con- other particulars carefully
nected to a static machine. worked out. Only one
It is impossible for me to trifling detail, of no con-
convey an adequate idea of sequence, was lightly dis-
the intensity of feeling I mist. I assumed an arbi-
experienced in witnessing trary velocity of the water
his exhibitions of these and, what is more, took
mysterious phenomena. pleasure in making it high,
Every impression produced thus arriving at a stupen-
a thousand echoes in my dous performance sup-
mind. I wanted to know ported by faultless calcu-
more of this wonderful lations. Subsequent reflec-
force : I longed for ex- tions, however, on the re-
periment and investigation sistance of pipes to fluid
and resigned myself to the Tesla's First Induction Motor. This Historic IModel is One of the Two First
Presented Before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. flow detefmined me to
inevitable with aching make this invention public
heart.
WHAT IS THE INDUCTION MOTOR? property.
Just as I was making The induction motor operates on alternating current. It has no commutator Another one of my pro-
ready for the long journey like a direct current motor, nor slip rings like an alternating current motor. jects was to construct a
home I received word that Contrary to the two types just cited the "field" current is not steady, but the ring around the equator
my father W'ished me to current itself rotates constantly pulling around with it by induction the which would, of course,
go on a shooting expedi-

only moving part of the motor the rotor or armature. Having no arma- float freely and could be
tur nor slip rings, the induction motor never sparks. It consequently knows
tion. It was a strange re- no "brush" trouble. It needs no attention because of its ruggedness. Only arrested in its spinning
quest as he had been al- the bearings wear out. Its efficiency too is higher. On account of all this motion by reactionary
ways strenuously opposed the induction motor is used in a prepondering proportion in street cars,
electric trains, factories,
forces, thus enabling
etc.
to this kind of sport. But (Continued on f^a/c 905)
:

866 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

The Moon's Rotation


By NIKOLA TESLA
my In this case a much more rapid
SINCE entitled the
the appearance of article
"Famous
Scientific Illu-
conclusions I have drawn. It is well
known, of course, that the two bodies
sling.
rotation is imparted to it in the of'po-
sions" in your February issue, I have revolve around a common center of sitc sense. There is no true analogy to
received a number of letters criticiz- gravity, which is at a distance of a these in the motion of the moon. //
ing the views I exprest regarding little over 2,899 miles from the earth's the graz'itatioiial string, as it zvere,
the nioon's "axial rotation." These have center. n'ould snap, the satellite would go oif
been partly answered by my state- in a tangent zvitlwut the slightest
ment to the -Vcu' York Tribune of Feb- szcerzting or rotation, for there is
ruarj- 23, which allow me to quote no motnent about the axis and,
In your issue of February 2. Mr. consequently, no tendency whatever
Charles E. Manierre, commenting to spinning motion.
upon my article in the Electrical Mr. Manierre is mistaken in his
Exferimenler for February which surmise as to what would happen i
appeared in the Tribune of Janu- the earth were suddenly eliminated.
arj' 26, suggests that I give a defi- Let us suppose that this would oc-
nition of axial rotation. cur at the instant when the moon
I intended to be explicit on this is in opposition. Then it would
point as may be judged from the continue on its eliptical path around
following quotation "The unfail- : the sun, presenting to it steadily
ing test of the spinning of a mass the face which was always exposed
is, however, the existence of energy to the earth. If, on the other hand,
of motion. The moon is not posest the latter would disappear at the
of such vis viva." By this I meant moment of conjunction, the moon
that "axial rotation" is not simply would gradually swing around thru
"rotation upon an axis nonchalantly 180 and, after a number of oscilla-
defined in dictionaries, but is a cir- tions, revolve, again with the same
cular motion in the true physical face to the sun. In either case

sense that is, one in which half there would be no periodic changes
the product of the mass with the but eternal day and night, respec-
square of velocity is a definite and tively, on the sides turned towards,
positive quantity. The moon is a and away from, the luminary.
nearly spherical body, of a radius Some of the arguments advanced
of about 1,087.5 miles, from which by the correspondents are ingenious
I calculate its volume to be approx- If You still Think That the Moon Rotates on Its Axis,
and not a few comical. None, how-
imately 5,300,216.300 cubic miles. Look at This Diagram and Follow Closely the Successive ever, are valid.
Since its mean density is 3.27, one Positions Taken by One of the Balls M XA/hile It Is Ro- One of the writers imagines the
tated by a Spoke of the Wheel. Substitute Gravity for
earth in the center of a circular or-
cubic foot of material composing the Spoke and the Analogy Solves the Moon Rotation
it weighs close on 205 lbs. Accord- Riddle. bital plate, having fixedly attached
ingly, the total weight of the satel- to its periperal portion a disk-shaped
lite is about 79,969,000,000,000,000,000, Another mistake in books on astron- moon, in frictional or geared engagement
and its mass 2,483,500,000,000.000,000 omy is made in considering this motion with another disk of the same diameter and
terrestrial short tons. Assuming that equivalent to that of a weight whirled freely rotatable on a pivot projecting from
the moon does physically rotate upon on a string or in a sling. In the first an arm entirely independent of the plane-
its axis, it performs one revolution in place there is an essential difference be- tary system. The arm being held continu-
27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and 11 sec- tween these two devices tho involving ously parallel to itself, the pivoted disk, of
onds, or 2,360,591 seconds. If, in con- the same mechanical principle. If a course, is made to turn on its axis as the
formity with mathematical principles, metal ball, attached to a string, is orbital plate is rotated. This is a well-
we imagine the entire mass concen- whirled around and the latter breaks, known drive, and the rotation of the
trated at a distance from the center an axial rotation of the missile results pivoted disk is as palpable a fact as that
equal to two-fifths of the radius, then which is definitely related in magnitude of the orbital plate. But, the moon in this
the calculated rota- model only revolves
tional velocity is 3.04 ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^H
about the center of the
feet per second, at system withottt the
which
would
the globe
contain
474,000,000,000,000,OOC
11,- rE believe the accompanying illustration and its explanation
will dispel all doubts as to whether the moon rotates on its
slightest angular dis-
placement on
axis. The same
its
is
own
true
short foot tons of axis or not. Each of the balls, as M, depicts a different position of a cart-wheel to
energy sufficient which writer
of, and rotates exactly like, the moon keeping always the same
this re-
to run1,000,000,000 fers. So long as it ad-
horsepower for a face turned towards the center O, representing the earth. vances on the earth's
period of 1,323 years. But as you study this diagram, can you conceive that any of surface it turns on the
Now, I say, that there the balls turn on their axisy Plainly this is rendered physically axle in the true physi-
is not enough of that
impossible by the spokes. But if you are .'still unconvinced, cal sense when one of
;

energy in the moon its spokes is always


to run a delicate
Mr. Tesla's experimental proof will surely satisfy you. A body kept in a perpendicular
watch. rotating on its a.xis must contain rotational energy. Now it is a position the wheel still

In astronomical fact, as Mr. Tesla shoivs, that no such energy is imparted to the r c V o Ives about the
e a r t h's center, but
treatisies usually the ball as, for instance, to a projectile discharged from a gun. It is
argument advanced axial rotation has
is
therefore evident that the moon, in which the gravitational at- ceased. Those
who
that "if the lunar
globe did not turn
traction is substituted for a spoke, cannot rotate on its axis or, in think that it then still
upon its axis it would other words, contain rotational energy. If the earth's attraction exists are laboring un-
der an illusion.
expose parts
all to would suddenly cea-ie and cause it to fly off in a tangent, the An obvious fallacy
terrestrial view. As moon would have no other energy except that of translatory
only a
half is
little
visible
over one-
it must movement, and it would not spin like the ball. Editor. is involved in the fol-
lowing abstract rcason-
iiig. The orbital plate
rotate." But this in- ^^^^^^^_^_
^^"^^^^^"^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^" is assumed to gradually
ference is erroneous,
shrink, so that finally the
for it only admits of
one alternative. There are an infinite and direction to the motion preceding. centers of the earth and the satellite coin-
number of axis besides its own in each By way of illustration the ball is
if cide when the latter revolves simultaneously
may We
of which the moon might turn and still whirled on the string clockwise ten about its own and the earth's axis.
exhibit the same peculiarity. times per second, then when it flies off, reduce the earth to a matliematical point
I have stated in my article that the it will rotate on its axis ten times per and the distance between the two planets to
moon rotates about an axis passint? thru second, likewise in the direction of a the radius of the moon without affecting the
the center of the earth, w-hich is not clock. Quite different are the condi- system in principle, but a further diminution
strictly true, but it does not vitiate the tions when the ball is thrown from a of the distance is mani- {Cont. on p, 892)
; )

ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 867


April. 1919

Experimental Physics
By JOHN J. FURIA, M. A. (Columbia
A. B., University)

LESSON TWENTY (Conclusion)


tation, having received his degree of Ph.D.
PHYSICS AND THE WORLD WAR. airplane, balloon, etc. Thus airplaine raids
in Physics at Johns Hopkins University.
were eliminated, submarine attacks were
AS a fitting conclusion to this series of The rest of our Physicists served in civilian
ended, and the war was over. These fool
/\ articles, let us consider to what ex- capacities.
inventions were coming in so fast that the
/~\ tent Physics helped to beat the
Board in self-defence determined not to Let us now see how our war needs af-
-i- -m- Huns. The bulk of the wonder- fected scientificresearch. It is a well-
branches of consider any inventions sent in by these
ful work done by all
known property of charcoal that it has a
wonder-workers unless a "working model"
science has as yet not been disclosed to the high absorbing
accompanied the papers. It was evident
general public
but the follow- that the road to a successful termination of power for
ing material the war lay in bringing together men pos- many gases.
sessing scientific knowledge, and equipt with When the Huns
disclosed by brought forth
Professor scientific methods. In ordinary peace times
the college professor is at a disadvantage their little sur-
Ames, of Johns
Hopkins Uni- he is usually ignorant of, or not inter- prise of "poi-
sonous gas," the
versity, in his ested in commercial development, and does
gas mask was
address at the lllilliillllllllllilillllllllllllllllllllilllllllH i m m e diately
University o f evolved. Re-
V'irginia, by Dr.
m IN THE'^MAY" EXPERIMENTER J
Hale in his ad-
search devel-
oped that a spe-
dress before
the New York
H The Editors have interesting
preparation
J
arti- =
in c i a 1 treatment

Wireless Telegraphy En g neering


It
M some exceptionally of charcoal, The Submarine A Terror
Often Proved the Only
Communication Societies, by
M eles for i
the May number of the ^ made in certain of the Seas, with a Range

Professor H
Reliable Electrical Experimenter, among ^ sizes from spe- of 4,000 Miles.
Battle.
in
B which are the following: J cial kinds of
Millikan, of the
M The Latest in Ai^rial Railways.
^ wood had an increased absorbing power.
University of Chicago, in his address at m "My Inventions"No. by Dr. g 4, The Physicist knew that charcoal had this
the Philadelphia meeting of the American B
Institute of Electrical Engineers, and by
Nikola Tesla.
Electricity and Dynamite How
J absorbing power, and when the problem
Major-General Squier in his address at the s they help the farmer irrigate land, ^
g
g
of increasing this power to make the com-
bating of gas warfare more efficient was
New York meeting of the A. E. E.,
^ divert streams, loosen hard soil, and g
I. is
proposed, the problem was solved. Air-
more than sufficient to make evident to
M
M Recording Our Thoughts Electri- j
clear land of stumps and stones.
it
plane engines have been manufactured for
us that Science in general and Physics in m manv years, but never before has the ne-
particular, deserves a lion's share of the
glory accruing from the victory of
M cally, by H. Gernsback. J cessity arisen for high speed quantity pro-
H New York to New Jersey
_
the Via g duction. The problem arose and was solved,
Allies. H Wagon and Auto Tunnel A g
_

Gigan- the Libertv engine was designed, develop-


The Atnerican public at the beginning of
war held its scientific men in insig- H ticEngineering Problem. ^ ing 400 horse-power and weighing only 800
. the
nificant regard, and was very much sur-
B France, by Jacques Boyer, Paris Cor- g
The Latest Electrical News^ from pounds ; about 2,000 per month were manu-
H The
3 respondent of the "E. E." Electric g
factured.
prised to learn
of the high de- M Springtime J ^ r' resistance offer-

gree of mobili-
Fashions
Fans Several dozen new wrinkles J
in
g ed by the wings
of different sec-
zation of Ger-
m with these useful devices that wnll in-
g tions, the sta-
many's scien-
men for war M terest the wJiole family. m bility of the air-
tific
The m X-Raying Our Teeth dis-
have been M
m
Hois.' plane, the char-
ivork. "fool
was
g case and mental ailments a c t e r of the
professor"
destined to g
= infections of the teeth. Written by g
actually traced ordinarily
to invisible covering sur-

m the Medical Director of a Prominent ^


faces, etc., have
:ome before the
On ^
m
all been inves-
public eye.
m State Hospital. ^
tigated in de-
our entering the
m How Build
to a Professional Medi-
Coil Outfit, by H. Win- m
g tail. The in-
war our wizard
M cal Induction struments of
inventors
their
with
Machine Guns Another
M fieldSecor. g _ Tanks by the Thousand navigation and
efficient
agents Weapon Science,
of M Some Interesting Facts Concerning g Frequently Turned the of signaling are
press
won war
Worked Havoc to Both H the Electron, by L. R. Jeivelt.
j Tide of Battle
Allies.
for the
perhaps every

forusover
the Sides Night and Day. M How Build to an Efficient Open- ^ Ijitas important

night by their epoch-making inventions.


8 core Step-up Transformer, by Wil-
g
= as the airplane itself, Instruments for

Days went by, but our epoch-making in- m Choke


'ia'"Holladay.
indicating speed, direction, height, dis-

ventions did ' not appear, and gradually


m Coils Hozi< compute
to their
g tance travelled, etc., have all required ex-
the usual murder and divorce cases ap-
H dimensions withE. data on actual ^ coils, tended and careful research by the Phys-
peared in the papers again, displacing the
M by Prof. F. Austin, Instructor g icist. In all airplane work, whether in ob-

names and ideas of our wondrous news-


of Electrical Engineering, Dartmouth m servations or in making attacks, it is neces-

paper wizards. An Inventions Board re-


H College. in Slang" Installment g sary for the men in the machines and the
cei\xd some 1,600 inventions from our in-
M "Science ^ men on the ground to be in constant com-
ventors and found about half a dozen of B No. by Emerson Easterling.
3, g munication. The wireless telephone is the
Wireless telephony has
obvious solution.
them were worth considering, ^vlagncts of
tremendous size were proposed, which when no doubt made more progress in one month
of war than in one year of peace. The
placed in the bottom of the sea would at- not come in contact with the technical
However, his researches in pure sci- modifications and improvements made in
tract all shells, etc., and thus stop the war. trades.
wireless e e-
Others pro- ence are eventually commercialized and be-
t

appara-
1

posed magnets come of vast technical importance. In bring- phony


of various ing together eminent scientists, presenting tus in Amer-
forms, which them with problems, showing them the con- ica's physical
on trailing laboratories by
ditions, having them perform their researches
J 1 o n g beneath under the best of conditions and immedi- her scientists
an airplane atelv making use of the fruit of their toil
(most of which
would drag up this' proved the way to victory. In Wash- have as yet not
any submerged ington, London, Paris and Rome, some of been disclosed
the public
invisible sub- the foretnost of the Allied scientists were to
Tiarine. An- gathered. Among the Physicists we have are positively
Dther proposed Millikan, Ames, Mendenhall, Gale, Wood, epoch - making.
generating a Duff, Hubbard and others, all in uniforrii Our improve-
wind so strong and commissioned as officers in the U. S. men t s have
made possible Portable L o n g Range
Giant Bombing Planes that it would .Army or Navy. G. O.
Major-General "7: it
^ Guns Routed the Enemy
Were Threatening to
.

push away any Squier, the Chief Signal Officer of our (ton. on page and Leveled His Cities as
Wipe Out Berlin When Well as Fortifications.
the Armistice Was Signed. a p p roaching army, is a Physicist of considerable repu- 926)
868 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

Popular Astronomy
The Planet Earth
ai6 Others See Us

By ISABEL M. LEWIS
OF THE U. S. NAVAL OBSERVATOR\

Copjriglit, 1913. Ijy E. V. Co.

The Earth As It Appears to an Observer Stationed At the Moon, One of the Most Wonderful and Awe-lnsplring Objects of the Heavens. On
the Moon, the Earth Appears Sixteen Times Larger Than the Moon Appears to Us On the Earth. The Sun Shown At the Right Illumi-
nates Only Part of the Earth, Which Therefore Appears In Crescent Form. It Is, However, Not In Total Darkness for Some of the Light
Is Reflected By the Moon Onto the Earth and Back to the Moon. Hence the Darkened Portion Is Not Entirely Dark. But the Continents Can
Be Faintly Seen. There Being No Atmosphere On the Moon, the Sky Appears Dead Black In Day Time. The Sun Will Be Seen With Its
Corona and Streamers Somewhat as Shown in This Illustration.

WERE it possible for us to view the

heavens from the planet Mars we


might see in the hours just follow-
imagination to conceive that this tiny point
of light, glowing by the reflected light of
the sun, has been for ages upon ages the
earth's orbit lies between Mars' orbit and
the sun, just as the orbit of Venus lies be-
tween us and the sun. As we will see later,
ing sunset or preceding dawn a abode of species and forms of life of well Venus has a decided advantage over Mars
most beautiful star of first magni- nigh infinite variety that have existed under for observations of the planet Earth. On
tude rivaling and at times surpassing the widely different conditions of temperature V'enus and on our own planet. Mars can be
great star Sirius in brilliancy, closely at- and pressure not only on the surface of the seen in opposition to the sun that is on the
tended by a small companion star consider- planet but in the depths of the seas that Meridian at midnight, with its disk 'fully
ably less brilliant. The smaller body is evi- cover three-fourths of its surface. illuminated like the full moon. To Mars,
dently a satellite of the brighter one, as its We can imagine conservative scientists on the contrary, all the inner planets, Mer-
position relative to the larger body changes of Mars frowning at the flights of fancy cury, Venus and Earth, appear as half or
in such a way as to show it is revolving of the Martians in regard to the nature of crescent moons telescopically when they are
around it. It appears now to the east, now the inhabitants of this other w-orld in space. in the best position for observation and
to the west of the chief star. At their Yet in their wildest speculations the Mar- they never appear with fully illuminated
widest separations the two form a very tians could hardly exaggerate the wonders disks.
distinct double star, unique in the heavens of our planet Earth or the strength of the When the earth is nearest to Mars, in posi-
of the Martians. As the little star travels conflicting forces for good and evil to be tion Ex, see Fig. 1, it is invisible to the Mar-
from one side to the other of the bright star found upon it. tians, just as Venus is invisible to us in the
it usually goes above or below it tho occa- Let us consider for a moment how our corresponding position, owing to the fact
sionally it passes directly in front of or planet Earth and its satellite would appear that it is then in line with the stin and lost
behind the brighter body and at such times were we able to examine it telescopically in the glare of its light. This position is
only one star is then visible to our Martian from Mars. Most of the difficulties that known as the planet's inferior conjunction
observers. beset us here on earth in our attempts to with the sun. Just before and after the
This lustrous double star, the morning observe Venus telescopically would be ex- earth is in this position it would show a
or evening star of the Martians, is our perienced in attempting to view the planet very thin crescent if viewed telescopically
planet Earth and its satellite the moon. Earth from Mars. .'\ reference to Fig. 1, from Mars.
Were we observing our planet from Mars which shows the relative positions of the In the position E: the earth is once more
it would be quite beyond our powers of three planets, will make this clear. The in line with the sun and Mars in what is
April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 869

known as superior conjunclion, and is planet would fre-


again invisible. Just before and after it is quently hide tempor-
in tliis position its disk is like a gibbons arily some of the
moon almost entirely illuminated, but it is m a r k n g s on our
i

unfavorably situated for observations from planetary disk.


!Mars because it is so near the sun and on W'e can imagine the
the far side of its orbit from Mars. In Martians puzzling
position Ei and E3 the earth is at its great- over our seas and con-
est distance from the sun, spoken of as its tinents and largest
greatest eastern and western elongations, as islands and lakes, our
seen from Mars. It is then a half-moon in polar snow caps and
the telescope, is at its liighest elevation tropical vegetation
above the horizon and evening or morn-
is showing green and
in
ing star to the Martians, according as it is grey-green splatches,
east or west of the sun. \Ve might expect our reddish - tinted
that it would now be in its most favorable deserts, our o u n- m
position for observation, but this is not so. tains and our great
Looking at Fig. 1 we see that as the earth level plains just as we
passes from the position Es toward inferior puzzle over the canal-
conjunction with the sun at E.], its distance system and the desert
from Mars dccrcasL's and therefore the ap- and marshy tracts on
parent size of its disk increases. The form the planet Mars.
Fig. 4. The Earth As Seen from Mars. At the Time of Its Greatest
of the illuminated portion now changes The fact that our Brilliancy the Earth Appears As a Crescent to the Martians. To
from half moon to crescent but the total planet rotates on its Better Understand This See Figs. 2 and 5. To the Martians the
area of the illuminated portion increases axis in twenty-four
Planet Earth Can Never Be Viewed As a Full Disc Only In Cres-
cent Form. When Entirely Illuminated By the Sun, It Is Lost In
up to a certain point. When the area of the hours and has marked
Its Rays and Is Therefore Invisible to the Martians
illuminated portion of the planet has its seasonable changes
greatest value the brightness of the planet could be as readily de-
is at a maximum. The exact time when termined from the distance of Alars as the planet appears to any other planet as mag-
this will occur can be worked out mathe-
seasonal changes and rotation of Mars on nificent as the Earth-Moon system does to
matically. The best observations of the its axis have been determined by us. We \'enus at the time of nearest approach. The
can imagine the interest that our large sat- brilliancy of the earth seen from Venus at
earth seen from Mars would be obtained
ellite would arouse and the speculations this time is twice that of Venus as it ap-
when the planet is in this position and the
that would be made concerning its in- pears to us at its best. As the earth's
corresponding one lying between inferior
distinct surface markings. In one respect disk is then fully illuminated the inhabi-
conjunction and western elongation. (See
the Martians would ha\e an advantage over tants of Venus would have a great ad-
positions E' and E" in Fig. 1.) VVe can
therefore imagine the Martians observing vantage over the inhabitants of Mars in
tjieir study of the surface markings of
our planet at its best in the morning or eve-
ning twilight. The brilliancy of the earth in our planet. Objects on the earth's sur-
face fifty miles in diameter could be made
Martian skies at this time usually surpasses
out easily by the inhabitants of Venus witi'.
that of all other planets. Mercury and \'enus.
the assistance of such telescopes as we em-
tho also evening and morning stars to the
Martians, appear considerably less brilliant ploy for the observations of the planets.
than they do to us. The earth appears to When Mars is most favorably situated for
the Martians much as Venus does to the observation from the earth the diameter of
its disk is between fifteen and twenty-five
earth, tho less brilliant, owing to the fact
that Venus comes nearer to the earth than
seconds of arc, according to its distance
the earth does to Alars. The only planet from the earth at the time of opposition.
that may rival the earth at the time of its
When the earth is most favorably situated
maximum brightness is the giant planet Ju- for observations from Venus the diameter
piter, which appears at times brighter to
of its disk is sixty-three seconds of arc and
the Martians than does our own planet. that of the moon is seventeen seconds of
In their telescopic observations of the arc. So even the disk of our moon ap-
earth the Martians would experience the pears at certain times as large seen from
same difficulty that we experience in our \'enus as the disk of Mars seen from the
observations of \"enus. When the planet is earth. The markings on the earth itself
in its most favorable positions for obser-
seen from Venus stand out more distinctly
at opposition than the markings on Mars
vation the greater part of its disk is dark-
ened, owing to the fact that the phase is The Planet Earth and Its Satellite the tvioon do to us at the most favorable opposition of
the same as that of the crescent moon. As It Appears Among the Stars When In Mars as we are nearer to Venus than to
Opposition to the Sun, Viewed from the Mars.
The Martians, however, would not be Planet Venus
It is when we take our station on our
handicapped by a dense cloud-ladened at-
mosphere such as surrounds Venus and own. little satellite, however, that we behold
makes it so difficult for us to observe. As us in their observations of the tnoon. They our planet earth as the ancients wished to
the earth's diameter twice that of Mars,
is would be able to examine one side of the
consider it the most wonderful and awe-
moon that we have never seen. The side of inspiring object in the heavens. To the in-
our surface markings would appear con-
the moon that is never turned toward the habitants of the moon, were there such, the
siderably more extensive to the Martians
earth would be visible frequently to the earth's disk would appear four times
than the markings on Mars appear to us,
JNIartians. greater in diameter and sixteen times
tho drifting clouds and snow storms on our
Let us now consider greater in area than the moon's disk ap-
how our planet would pears to us. Since the moon, in its revolu-
appear we were sta-
if
tions around the planet Earth, always keeps
tioned on the planet the same face turned toward it, the position
Venus, assuming that of the earth, for any one point of observa-
it is possible at times tion on the moon, remains immovable in
to see the beauties of the heavens, and it goes thru the various
the starry heavens phases of its illumination by the sun in the
thru occasional rifts reverse order to that followed by the moon.
in dense clouds that When the moon appears to us to pass from
MOON apparently shut the new to full the earth appears to the moon
surface of this inter- to pass from full to new and vice versa.
esting planet almost The rotation of the earth on its axis is
completely away from plainly visible from the moon even to the
the universe be\'ond. naked eye. A distinctive marking will ap-
Seen telescopically pear at the western edge of the earth's disk,
at the time of its op- say the Black Sea or Central America. It
j^' position to the sun. will be carried gradually eastward by the
..** EARTH the planet Earth and rotation of the planet and will finally dis-
its satellite the moon appear twelve hours later at the eastern
would be for the in- edge.
habitants of Venus Oceans and continents and polar caps
the most beautiful and appear in their general outlines and con-
Fig. 6. The Earth and the Moon As Seen from Planet Venus Thru interesting object in trasting shades, visible easily to the raked
the Telescope At the Time of Its Opposition to the Sun the heavens. No {Continued on page 911)
870 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

Radiophony to Airplanes a Great Success


CONSIDERABLE

A time before the


L'nited States entered the world war
the Bell Telephone system supplied
the American Navy with a wireless
telephone outfit designed for com-
munication between an airplane and a sta-
"AU this sounds ven,- simple, but it would
take volumes to describe the innumerable
experiments and heart-breaking failures be-
fore the first real successes. So far as the
radio part of the equipment was concerned
we had an answer in a short time. We had
densers and other apparatus that
the transmitting and receiving
W'orking this apparatus under
conditions on the ground, and in
moving and tremendously noisy
were two entirely dilTerent
comprise
elements.
ordinary
a swift-
airplane,
propositions.
The noise of the engine and rushing air
was such that it was impossible to hear
one's own voice, to say nothing of the weak
signals of the telephone receiver," stated
Edward B. Craft, Assistant Chief Engineer
of the Western Electric Co.
One of the first problems was to design a
head set which would exclude these noises,.
and at the same time permit of the reception
of the telephone talk. A
form of aviator's
helmet was devised with telephone receivers
inserted to fit the ears of the pilot or ob-
server. See accompanying illustration of
the helmet with 'phones complete. Cush-
ions and pads were provided for adjusting"
the receivers to the ears and the helmet
fitted close to the face so as to prevent as
far as possible, the sound being heard either
thru the ear passage or thru the bony struc-
ture of the head, which acts as a sort of a.
sounding board. Ahelmet, such as that
illustrated, was finally developed and was.
found to solve this portion of the problem.
The earpiece linally adopted was made of
sponge rubber (made so by blowing air
thru it while molten), recnforced by tinfoil,
and the receivers themselves embedded
therein. These were mounted in a thick
leather helmet, to be clamped over the flier's
head and cars. It effectually muffles bone
transmission also, besides permitting the use
of oxygen or gas masks.
Everyone knows how sensitive the ordi-
nary telephone transmitter is to extraneous
noises, and it does not require a wide
U. S. Army Airplane Pilot and Observer Equipt with Wireless Teleplione Sets for Transmit- stretch of the imagination to picture how
ting as well as Receiving Speech. These Sets Are Provided with a Change-over Switch Which this would act alongside the exhaust of a
Permits the Instruments to Be Utilized as a Regular Telephone Between the Two Birdmen. 200 horespower gasoline engine. bril- A
liant line of experimentation finally resulted
tion on land or on a ship. From that time developed some very successful forms of in a form of a telephone transmitter or
on until this countrj- entered the world- vacuum tubes and it was a simple matter to microphone, which possest the remarkable
conflict, the Western Electric Company, as assemble them with the necessary coils, con- quality of being insensitive to engine and
a part of its general study, conducted the
work of perfecting light, compact wireless
telephone sets, which would be available on
small vessels and on airplanes. The first
successful wireless test between an airplane
and the ground after our entrj' into the
war was made with one of the sets designed
and completely built by this enterprising
engineering organization prior to our entry
into the war. The test was made on Lang-
ley Field.
On May 22, 1917, Gen. George 0. Squier,
Chief Signal Officer of the United States
Army, sent for Dr. F. B. Jewett, chief engi-
neer of the Western Electric Company, to
confer with him with reference to the mat-
ter of equipping airplanes with wireless
telephone apparatus. At this conference,
which was held in Washington, besides Gen.
Squier and Dr. Jewett, there were present
E. D. Craft, one of Dr. Jewett's principal
assistants Capt., now Col. C. C. Culver, of
;

the Signal Corps, and Col. Rees, of the


British Armj- Air Service. The possibility
of providing airplanes with wireless tele-
phone service was discust, and the reports
of the development work being done by the
Western Electric Company made by Dr.
Jewett were so promising that he was or-
dered in writing by Gen. Squier to proceed
with the development of the system, and to
actually equip 'planes with it.
The Bell system engineers had progrest
so far at that time that they were able on
July 1, 1917, five weeks after the first con-
ference, in a test at Langley Field, to actu-
IMi'ito l>v Oenhal News I'linr*, .Service
ally demonstrate the working of the wire- Testing the Radiophone Between New York and Washington. A Photograph of U. S. Naval
less telephone between an airplane and the Operators Communicating with the U. S. Navy Department at Washington, D. C, from the
ground. This test also showed that it Bani<ers Club in New York, Thru the Radio Telephone. Many of the Country's Leading
was practical to operate the system be- Bankers Were Present to Witness the Demonstration. Afterward Tests Were Made from
this Station to Airplanes and Dirigibles Flying over New York City, Various Orders Having
tween two or more airplanes in the air. Been Successfully Sent to the 'Planes.
:

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 871

wind noises, and at the same time very


In our next issue will appear an
responsive to the tones of the voice. With
important article by Nikola Tesla
these two elements in hand, the problem
entitled
was apparently solved. The fact remains,
however, that three solid months of the "TRUE WIRELESS"
hardest kind of work was necessary to iron In this article Dr. Tesla will make
out all the kinks and get the thinR in shape known his views of the propagation
so that it might he considered a practicable of the wireless waves.
device for the everyday use of other than
experts, as Mr. Craft points out. The
microphone perfected for this work has no ing at various speeds, and the specifications
mouthpiece, but instead a flat cap having stated this to be from forty to one hundred
three tiny openings about 1/16 inch in diam- and sixty miles per hour, the latter figure
eter. The voice waves pass thru these onto representing the speed when the machine
the diafram easily, but the engine noises was diving. The little dynamo, therefore,
swirl round it in other directions and do had to deliver a constant voltage with a
not enter in sufficient volume to be heard speed varying from 4,000 to 14,000 R.P.M,
at all. The microphone and receivers used for
Atypical performance of the radiophone radiophoning from 'plane to 'plane or 'plane
between 'planes and ground will prove of to earth are arranged by means of a switch
interest. Here is the way it worked at one
so that the pilot and observer can converse
of the first official army tests at the flying
over the telephone circuit between the pilot
field at Dayton, Ohio, December, 1917, as
and his mechanician with ease, and by
related by Mr. Craft.
"The 'planes left the ground and after throwing a switch can connect themselves
what seemed to be an interminable length with the radio apparatus and talk with the
The Wireless Telephone Apparatus (Outlined
of time, we got the first sounds in the re- men in another 'plane three or four miles in White Square) Installed in Cocl<-pit of
away, or to the ground. Airplane. It Takes up But Little Room and
ceiver, which indicated that they were ready
Has Such a Small Weight as to Be Insigni-
The primary object was to ficant, Compared to the Lifting Power of
make it possible for the com- the Plane.
mander of an air squadron to
control the movement of his on a commercial basis, within this short
men in the air, the same as a space of time, practically speaking, an en-
squad leader of infantry does tirely new art!
Photos Courtesy W. E. Co.
on the ground. For this pur-
pose extra long range is not
and the distance
required,
over which they can talk is
HOW AIRPLANES FIND THEM-
purposely limited to two or SELVES BY RADIO.
three miles, so that the enemy In his recent lecture before the American
cannot overhear, except when Institute of Electrical Engineers at New
actually engaged in combat, York Major-Gen. G. O. Squier, in connec-
and then nobody cares. tion with his description of the war's de-
The Navy also makes use velopments in radio apparatus, spoke as
of these sets in their sea- follows concerning the problem of aerial
planes, and here the range is navigation
somewhat greater, up to twen- "One of the principal problems of air-
ty miles in some cases. The plane navigation has been the evolution of
Navy has also made use of a a suitable compass, particularly for night
modified form of this set in bombing work. Magnetic and gyroscopic
their 110-foot submarine compasses have limitations at present which
chasers. The chasers hunt make impossible reliable air navigation by
submarines packs, and by
in dead reckoning.
means of the radio telephone, (Continued on page 926)
their commanders
The Vacuum Tubes Which Do the Work in Radiophoning
keep in constant touch
to and from Airplanes and the Ground.
At the Left the with each other, there-

Transmitting Tube; at Right the Receiving Tube. America
by greatly increasing
Was Turning Out These Buibs by Thousands Every Day
When the Armistice Was Signed, so Rapid Had the Stand- the eflfectiveness of
ardization and Production Progrest.
their operation.
to perform. The spectators were only Finally, with the formal demon-
mildly interested, and some seemed to be a stration completed, pressure was im-
bit bored. Suddenly out of the horn of the mediately applied to produce the
loud speaker came the words, "Hello, necessary quantity of sets with their
ground station. This is 'plane No. 1 speak- multitude of auxiliary and subsi-
ing. Do you get me all right?" The bored diary parts. From January 1, 1918,
expression immediately faded, and looks of to the early summer of that year
amazement came over their faces. Soon the Western Electric Company es-
we got the same signal from No. 2, and tablished factories and trained thou-
the show was on. Under command from sands of operatives so that when the
the ground the 'planes were maneuvered all armistice was signed the necessary
over that part of the country. They were transmitting and receiving tubes for
sent on scouting expeditions and reported radio telephone sets were being pro-
what they saw as they traveled thru the air. duced at a rate in excess of a mil-
Continuous conversation was carried on, lion and a half good tubes per year.
even when the 'planes were out of sight, Improvement in vacuum pumps has
and finally upon command they came flying resulted in a wonderfully high de-
back out of space and landed as directed." gree of exhaustion being attained
Electric current must be supplied to about one-billionth of an atmos-
operate the wireless set on the 'plane, as phere.
we well know, this current being used to Altogether thousands of radio
heat the lilaments of the vacuum tubes and telephone sets of different types
to operate the transmitter. But the 'planes have been manufactured and deliv-
were already loaded down with all the ered to the Army and Navy since
gear they could carry, and the use of heavy the early part of 1918. In spite of
storage batteries was out of the question. the fact that prior to July, 1917. no
The airplane engineers would allow noth- commercial types of this apparatus
ing to be connected to their engines, so were in existence, and some of the
there was nothing left but to supply a sep- fundamental problems had not yet Aviator's Radiophone Helmet Fitted with Special
arate radio dynamo, and drive it by a wind been solved, the resources of this Sound-proof Pads and Having the Two Receivers
propeller, taking its power from the rush-
Mounted Tightly Therein. The Receivers Are
great telephone engineering organ- Moulded In Sponge Rubber. The Helmet Is Made
ing air. Airplanes are in the habit of fly- ization were sufficient to establish of Leather.
872 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

Do Radio Waves Travel Above the Earth or Thru It?


By DR. LEE de FOREST
(/Oi/rtTi exclusively fjr the Electrical Experimenter)

THE Around
article
the
interesting.
on "Radio
World"
From
is
THE editors .sent a copy of the article published in the December issue
of the t,l.KCTHitAL LxPEKiMLNTER entitled "Radio Around the World,"
mendously powerful station
would be required to trans-
mit signals to any such dis-
ven,'
and also the editorial in that issue by Mr. H. (icrnsback, covering
my own rather ex- several interesting and more or less doubtful theories concerning the tance. You doubtless are
tended experience and propagation of these electric waves over a distance of 12,UU0 miles, i.e. aware of the remarkable
between Carnarvon, Wales, England and Sydney, Australia, to Dr. Lee distances obtainable from
based also on tlie calculations de Forest, the prominent .-Vmerican radio engineer and scientist. The
and results obtained by most editors asked Dr. de Forest the following questions: airplanes to the earth, using
First: What is your opinion concerning the etheric wave transmission comparatively small trans-
of the serious workers in this above the surface of the earth, i.e.. free space wave propagation? Do you
field, I think there can be no believe that the etheric wave wireless transmission is better beyond the
mitters. Just recently an
doubt but that the elhcric computed fifty mile atmospheric envelope surrounding the earth, and how army airplane carried on ra-
far into interstellar space do you believe these signals might be carried ?
tioiY component is by far the dio communication success-
Imagine for the moment that an airship fitted with sensitive wireless re-
ceiving instruments could have traveled away from the earth for any fully over a distance of 150
more important one. Under-
desired distance? Do you think these waves would be felt on the moon, miles. The distances are usu-
stand, however, that these are approximately 238,000 miles distant, considering of course that suitable
ally much greater than where
not ordinary space waves, hut receiving instruments were available at that point?
are groutidcd ii:aves gliding Second: What is your opinion concerning the ground wave transmission, a similar transmitter is lo-
i.e.. do you believe, with the geologists and others, that the earth presum- cated on the earth's surface,
over the surface of the earth, ably being a molten mass in the interior, might be a better conductor than using a similar length of
thus following the contour of the soil and rock crust surrounding it, and that this gaseous interior of
the earth might therefore prove a better conductor than the soil and rock antenna.
the earth. See Fig. 1. The
strata, and thus that the ground radio wave may have traveled directly
depth of the wave in the thru the earth or a distance of nearly eight thousand miles corresponding The phenomena involved in
ground or sea water has been to the diametrical axis or do you believe it nuich more likely that these such transmission, where the
shown by actual measure- ground waves followed around the curvature of the earth in the manner airplane is, say, two miles
explainer! by Prof J- Zenncck and other investigators, each ground wave above the earth's surface, are
ments, as well as by theoreti- . .

gliding over the surface of the earth?


cal calculations, to be or- Third: Is it your opinion at the present day that the pure etheric space
doubtless complex. Here the
dinarily and until recently wave, gliding over the earth in accordance with the generally accepted ground wave is originally a
theories concerning latlio transmission, is the predominating wave, both free space spherical wave, but
only a few feet sufficient,
;
as to electrical energy involved and amplitude, compared to the ground
however, to explain the in- wave: or is the ground wave superior in its energy component and when the surface of this wave
teresting results obtained with amplitude? These conditions are shown in one of the following diagrams. reaches the earth it doubtless
Fig. 1, and we would request your opinion on the relative extent above cuts into the earth for a sinall
an horizontal antenna lying and below the surface of the earth, of the space wave and the ground
close to the surface of the wave respectively. depth and becomes then a true
earth, or even in trenches a I grounded wave, just as if it
few inches below the surface f """" J originated from an earthed
and extending, of course, in antenna. See Fig. 3. There
the general direction of wave propagation. given output of energ>' transmitted near the is great need for interesting data on the

Unquestionably the molten interior of the earth's surface can be calculated, by inverse phenomena of transmission from airplanes
earth would conduct low frequency oscilla- square law. It will be found that a tre- and whoever will collect and publish such
tions with compara- data will be confer-
tively little loss, but ring a great service to
it is obviously impos- /%? 6//d/ng IVaye Theory fiodio detector-^
the Radio Art.
sible to make connec- Concerning your
tion to this molten in- ttheric Wove Kodio Radio question as to whether
terior, ordinarily. If Predomnafii Ironsm Tronsm the wireless waves
one cared to experi- travel or glide along
ment with two vol- the surface of the
canoes at a compara- earth in the manner
tively short distance which I have de-
apart, making each scribed above, each
crater the terminus wave having a
of a line connecting grounded foot or base
with the terminals of 'y,(ffM penerating a short
an A. C. generator, distance into the earth,
and at some distant F/g.i I might mention a
Mo/ten Menor;:, -
. (Highly conducting) very interesting phe-
spot of the earth's
surface between two nomenon which we
/l/rp/one /y/re/ess Who/ experience in mining countrij have encountered in
neighboring volcanoes
another parallel wire, A/Pp/one 'l^^ fiecemng station- proves installing wireless sta-
in which a tuning and
tions in mountainous
detecting device was or mining country in
located, very interest- the western part of
ing results might be the United States,
obtained. See Fig. 2. Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate
However, if such a this phenomenon. Fig.
combination could be 4 shows a case which
found there would often happened in the
probably exist not the early commercial days
slightest excuse for of radio - telegraphy,
where a mine owner
sending telegrams be- Ground ^eria/s (Resu/f from tesfs) Submaripe Rec. Potato Messages Me Subttien^ed or other party wished
tween stations thus Heavy insulated ivire
situated. Unfortu- to install a station in
Open trench: a valley or canon,
nately, or fortunate- antenna
ly, we cannot
locate Signobgood
which happened to
our volcanoes as we have sharply rising
would subway tubes. cliffson either side.
If, as you suggest, Apparently the com-
a powerful wireless posite etheric and
station could be op- gi-ound waves became
erated at a sufficient so stretched out or at-
distance from the teiniated their ef-
in
earth's surface, and fort to leap across
completely isolated this valley, that the
therefrom, remark- station was only able
able distances of to intercept either
transmission thru the very weak signals or
ether might be no signals at all.

achieved. However Various Phases of Gliding Wave Wireless Transmission Used in Discussion Here Given.
Therefore it was
I'ound advisable in in-
the energy obtainable In General, the Etheric Space Wave Glides along the Surface of the Earth, Accompanied
at the moon from a by Its Grounded or Foot Wave. (CoKt. on page 919)
: :

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 873

Aerial or Ground Radio Which?


The Opinions of Two Leading Wireless Experts
Do Radio Waves Travel Above the Earth or Thru It? by Dr. L. W. Austin, Radio Expert, U. S. Naval Radio Laboratory.

REPLYING to your
queries of recent date, I
,, .,y-. ir-i.
Here Are the Questions the
.

Editors Submitted
ci-i =

i
course,
powerful
become
at
relatively
greater
more
distances
am very glad that you Q. 1. - Do you believe
wireless transmission is effected by
that . complex . | from the Sendint; station, owing
ether waves hav.ng a grounded foot, these waves gliding over the surface
have asked these ques- oi the earth from the antenna, and if so; | ^^ j,^g y^^^, i,^~^;g forward of
tions and will answer (a) Do yon think that the etheric space wave above the ground is the the wavefront. The sending from
them to the best of my ability. predominating one in energy component and amplitude? or |
i earth or buried antennas is prob-
Cb) Do you believe that the ground wave component is the predominating
Q-1. I see no reason to doubt one in energy component and amplitude?
|
=
ably accomplished as follows
the validitv of the old theory of 5 Q- - Do yo" believe that underground wireless traiismission is effected | In the first place, ground cur-
. - . 1 . I by means of ground impulses or currents radiating thru the earth from =
Wireless transmission which sup- |
1

the base of the antenna, and that the etheric space wave radiation from the rents are formed which produce
I
Doses a wave in ether (and - antenna is merely an incidental and separate phenomenon, which dissipates | an electric field in the ether above
*^_j ._-_ _ i
under certain circumstances
- 1 itsejf at a comparatively short distance of a few hundred miles or so? | t]ig earth's surface This field in
in Q. 3. Do you not believe in this general direction of thought on the =
cnr^aHinrr otlt A
the upper layers of the earth, matter, that it is the etheric space wave radiation from the antenna that ac- spreaamg tA upwara
r,,,t ana r^
graO-
|
counts entirely for airplane radio transmission; either 'plane to 'plane, 'plane I ually rights Itself and travels off
provided they are sufficiently bad to earth, or earth to -plane communication?
^ ,
^ .^ I VCrV nuich like the field from an
conductors), the lower ends of y. 4. How
do you account for the results obtained with the
.

Rogers under- ,
= '
-mtp,,,,
_nienna, fx -rt^nt
CXCCpt th
tnatt 11
't IS /V*
aireC-
the electric lines being grounded ground and undersea radio transmission and reception? Do you believe tliat |
this is accomplisht by the grounded components or "feet" of the gliding ttVC.
on the conducting surface. The etheric space waves in conformity with the usual theory accepted theretofore
|

^^^fKI" tVif'f
| Ci Z J A
space wave under most circum I by the Hertzian wave school, or do you think that it is due to ground im- 1 ,
>"'' , \ ^^
DClieve tnat It

Stances certainlv carries the i pulses or high frequency oscillating currents propagated thru the conducting | IS probable any wireless
that
shell of the earth ?
radiation passes thru the Heavi-
greater part of the energy, ex- I
cept where the wave front is I
I Q. 5.
Do you think that, all things considered, and in the light of present I
side layer. (Ed. Note: This
day radio developments, such as the Rogers underground and undersea sys- =

bent very far forward. This I tern, that radio transmission would take place with higher efficiency in free | would seem to eliminate the
interplanetary space, or do you believe that our wireless signals produced at = "Mars" radio story which has
theory, it seems to me, is suffi- 1 stations on the earth are retained within the atmospheric envelope of the |
ciently proven by quantitative I
I
earth due to ret^ection from the "Heaviside" ionization layer? been going the rounds of the
|
observations on received radio = Q. 6. It has been hinted at by several naval radio experts and others that | daily press.)
it has recently been found that the penetration of the ground wave com- =
current which at moderate dis- I punent _
in radio transmission
increases with increase in wave length, and this I_ Q-6. Experiments indicate
I ^^ _^.
tances always agree within a few phenomenon they are inclined to believe accounts for the results obtained 1 that long Vi'aves Can be detected
per cent with the theory that the with the underground system. Do you believe this to be a fact? j at greater depths than short
antenna produces a field corre- """"- ones,
as would be expected from
sponding to a Hertz oscillator of twice its itself,and then spreads out longitudinally the ordinary skin effect phenomenon of al-
length. (with a more or less bent wave front) very ternating currents.
Q-2. I believe that the currents in the much like the wave from a grounded I am very sorry I have to disagree with
earth are only incidental to the presence of antenna. Mr. Tesla in this matter, for I consider
the ether waves. Q-4. In antennas close to the ground or him the father of wireless telegraphy. His
Q-3. In the case of transmission be- buried in the ground which, by the way, be- lectures in the early '90s contain full de-
tween airplanes and the earth, the phe- have exactly alike except for a slight dif- scriptions of a wireless system superior to
nomenon is similar. In sending from a ference in static-signal ratio, the reception anything which we actually had in prac-
'plane, the wave must start as a pure ether is accomplished by picking up the earth cur- tise before 1910, except for the lack of a
wave which spreads downward and grounds rents produced by the wave. These, of proper detector.

How I Believe Radio Transmission Wave


Is Accomplished
By F. H. KROGER
Chief Engineer, International Radio Telegraph Co., Formerly Chief Engineer, National EUectric Signaling Co.

response to the request of the Edi- coming close to the earth, provides a ator's license must qualify in the transmis-
IN tors of the Electrical Experimenter,
I give below my replies to the ques-
boundary to the waves which prevents the
usual attenuation.
sion
code
and reception of Continental Morse
at the rate of ten words per minute
tions here submitted Q-6, The ground losses are higher with instead of five as heretofore.
Practically all the energy de-
Q-1. longer wave-lengths for poorly conducting Papers covering these examinations will
livered by the radio transinitter is radiated earth, in the vicinity of the antenna, which be rated by the examining officer as soon
in the form of waves gliding on the earth's indicates that a greater volume of the earth after the examination as possible but no
surface. Any energy which may be found is affected by the currents. This greater licenses will he issued until amateur sta-
to exist in the earth's surface is supplied penetration would also hold for the gliding tions are permitted to operate.
by the waves sent out from the antenna. wave. Ground tests made some years ago Please Note By taking this examina-
:

The poorer the conductivity of this surface, indicated that the ability to receive signals tion authority is not granted to open your
the more energy is taken from the wave, did not depend upon the quality of the station. It will be necessary after (he sta-
and consequently the less there is available ground nor the wave-length therefore Mr. :
tions are authorized to open, to furnish on
at the receiving station. Rogers' system probably does not depend form 762, Applicant's Description of Ap-
upon a penetration due particularly to long paratus, the particulars required and await
Q-2. There must exist in the earth's sur-
wave-lengths, but upon a penetration which the issuance of station license as well as the
face, currents at the feet of the waves re-
is sufficient for his purposes, given by any operator's license before operating the sta-
ferred to in question number one. Means
wave-length. tion and form 762 cannot be filled in and
for detecting these currents will give a
filed until the station has been made ready
method of receiviiig messages. These cur-
for operation as it is important that the
rents, however, represent only a small per EXAMINATIONS FOR AMATEUR exact dimensions of the antenna and the
cent of the energy of the traveling wave.
FIRST GRADE RADIO OPER- amount of power to be used be stated in this
It is quite generally agreed tliat the wave
ATOR'S LICENSE AT NEW application.
above the surface cannot exist without the YORK.
current in the surface and vice versa.
You are hereby cautioned that it is un-
Examinations for amateur first grade lawful to operate an unlicensed station, and
Q-3. Yes. all amateur licenses (operator's and station)
radio operator's license are being given at
Q-4.Currents due to the gliding wave. Room 603, Custom House, Bowling Green, issued prior to the war are now void.
The "Heaviside" ionization layer
Q-.S. New York City, every day after 9 a. m., When authority is granted to issue ama-
must be a boundary to the waves. One of announces Charles D. Guthrie, Radio In- teur licenses, new station numbers and call
the explanations of the marvelous work spector of that district. letters will be given.
done in the North during the winter is the Attention is called to the fact that ap- Chas. D. Guthrie,
fact that the ionized layer of the Aurora, plicants for amateur first grade radio oper- Radio Inspector.
I

874 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

The How and Why of Radio Apparatus


By H. WINFIELD SECOR
No. 11. How to Make and Use a Di- length A, of each of the three coils varies coils to the wave meter cabinet is shown
rect-Reading Wave Meter and with the number of turns on each, the table at Fig. 1, and consists of two lugs made
Decremeter. in the figure providing these values for the of 1/16 inch brass and having slots at the
From time to lime tiv will describe on t' different coils. The winding in each case lower ends of each. This enables the opera-
particular instrument used in either the consists of one layer of No. 20 B. & S. gage tor to slip the coils on and off the binding
radio transmitting or receiz'- posts quickly. The inner and
ing set, explaining just hozi' it outer leads from the winding
works, and why. We hare of the inductance should be
received so many requests carried thru diagonally drilled
from new readers ashing for holes in the wooden form, as
such explanations that zi'e is indicated by the dotted
have decided to publish this lines, and they should be sol-
matter in serial form. In the dered to the two brass lugs,
course of several issues all of which are screwed to the
the principal transmitting and form by means of small flat-
receizing apparatus ivill have head brass wood screws. The
been covered. The subject wooden form may be var-
for the eleventh paper is nished or shellacked before
HOir TO M.4KE AND winding, but the winding it-
USE A DIRECT-RE.4DIXG self should not receive any
WAVE METER AND DE- coating of shellac or varnish,
CREMETER. as this changes the distributed
capacity of the coil. Do not
kHE present time seems use any iron in building these
an opportune one for inductances.

Ti the radio student and


the radio amateur to
prepare for the forth-
The next item claiming our
attention is the variable con-
denser, and we might say a
coming opening of experi- great deal concerning this
mental radio opportunities, part of the apparatus, and
and we believe that no better then again we might just as
use can be made of the spare well say very little. Experi-
time than to construct and ence dictates that this comes
study the use of the wave out about as follows in the
:

meter and decremeter. The Photograph of Author's Wave Meter Fitted with Calibrated Condenser first place many radio experi-
accompanying te.xt and illus- and Inductance Coils of the Dimensions Given In the Prese nt Article.
menters would rather obtain
trations show how to build a on the open market a small
home-made wave meter which will give very enameled magnet wire. These inductances rotary type variable condenser having
satisfactory service. The dimensions given have been accurately calibrated by com- the proper capacity for use in this par-
for the various parts of the instruments are parison with a standard wave meter at the ticular wave meter, and this should be
taken from an expcriment.d one which was Radio Standardization Laboratory of the .00086 microfarad. Of course any con-
carefully calibrated for the writer. College of the City of New York, thru the denser having this capacity within a small
We will first take up the construction of courtesy of Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, Di- fraction one way or the other may be used,
the wave meter and will afterward con- but if the student wishes to have a good
sider the calibration curves to be used with _^i Mahogany or Maple accurate wave meter, and intends to event-
it, and also the determination of decre- Varryizhtd^
^ ually have it calibrated or checked against
ment. a standard wave meter, then he will do
Perhaps the first part of the instrument well to select a good sturdy and reliable
that will come to hand as the student sets make of rotary condenser. Some of the
about the building of it, is the inductance, points to be watched in the design of such
or rather the inductances. These coils are a condenser are that it should not have the
also referred to as the exploring coils or rotary and fixt plates too closely spaced,
exploring inductances. They are used to or else it will frequently give trouble by
pick up sufficient energy from a radio short-circuiting; the rotary plates should
transmitter or receiving set, so as to cause be accurately locked on the rotary shaft
oscillations to be set up in the wave meter either by having their hubs molded on the
circuit, which will be of sufficient strength shaft or else they should be mounted on
to give a positive indication of resonance a square shaft so as not to turn, or again
or non-resonance of the circuit, and thus to they can be keyed on the shaft. For the
determine the exact period at which the cur- 'To Fil Sinding Pail-' purpose of a wave meter there should also
rent being measured is oscillating. Fig. I lie practically no up and down movement or
The illustration, Fig. 1, gives the details Inductance Coil Data play in the vertical shaft supporting the
of construction for the three inductances Dimensions of J Indyclance Colli rotary plates. For all practical purposes,
Coil N' i7T,irn^N97nni\ Enam
fnrim Mag
Mfia Wire
Wir^ A-'-.' Indcntf MOOOoTti
used with this w-avemeter. The wooden HTjrnsN'ZoalS Iniej
the capacity of a rotary variable condenser
24 ihl' '
I16PO0
forms on which the coils are wound are
.

X I
!S3pOO (see Fig. 2), is determined by the usual
best turned on the lathe from some fine
Details of Inductance Coils, Three of Which
capacity formula using a K value of 1,
grained hard wood such as mahogany or Are Used to Give the Wave Meter a Desir- which is that for air.
maple. The physical dimensions of the able Range. Many radio amateurs and experimenters
forms are given in the drawing and the

4 Active Air OieleclriCt jrixl. Plales


rector, and the specifications for building Wave Meier"
2 KoJaryPlale ^^ i^ij^j^ these coils must be rigidly adhered to. Circuit
; Airjap Where the accuracy of the instrument
within a few per cent below or al)Ove the
calibrated values is not imperative. No. 20
gage magnet wire, covered with a single
winding of silk may be used but due to ;

the peculiar qualities of enameled magnet


f
wire and the number of turns per inch of '^''-
Fig 4
Plaits Preferably ft lo^i Thick

Fig. 2
A/tfffJinum
winding, etc., it will be seen that the speci-
fications here given should
lowed to obtain the inductance values in
be carefully fol- r^' Vnilalerat Connection of
l__j^Ov_J Peteclor S. Phone to Wave
HomtMadt Variable Condenser centimeters here given. The three coils, Phorie> teeter circuit
@ numbers 1, 2 and 3, have inductances of
36.000, 126,000 and 259,000 centimeters re-
Dimensions of Home-made Variable Con- Usual Hook-up of Detector and 'Phones In
spectively. Unilateral Fashion. Where There Is Suffi-
denser of the Required Capacity for Wave
Meter Here Described. The manner of attaching the inductance cient Energy to Actuate Detector Properly.
I

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 875

^vill undoubtedly wish to construct their


own variable condenser liaving this required
capacity, and the physical dimensions of
such a variable condenser are given in Fig.
2. As will be seen, this particular design
comprises three stationary and two rotary
aluminum or brass plates. These plates
ishould preferably have a thickness of 1/16
to ijil inch so as to be perfectly flat and Inductance
retain their shape, and thus maintain the Terminals
accuracy of the condenser when once assem- -ST
bled. The four active air dielectric spaces
between the plates should be exactly 1/32 Cop SIrip'
inch. The diameter of the rotarv plate, as
Jumper
Fig. 2 indicates, should be 8-23/32 inches,
and by cutting the lugs on the stationary
plates as well as on the rotarv' plate in the Hot Wire-'
'o-iao Scale
manner indicated, will permit of the accu- . Ammeter & Wattmeter Space For P/,one> Cabinet''
rate interleaving of the rotary and fixt ^'"'
""'Terms, for Pecrement. FIc <="' * ^''
plates so as to give the proper capacity.
Thus we see that the two principal parts Fig. 3


of any wave meter are an accurately cali- Hook- Up of wave Mefer

Scale Ca/ibraled Hair Line on O/aii Arrangement of Wave Meter in Cabinet, Including Condenser, Inductance, Geissler Tube,
In Wave lengths [ 'Phone (1,000 or 75 ohm). Etc. The Diagram Shows Geissler Tube and Detector and 'Phone
Coil Numbers on Indicator Circuit, Either of Which Can Be Used.
Direcl/y^,^
Indloalor
Special to radio transmitting sets, there is very length of received signals. The Geiss-
Indicalor^^ often a sufficiently heavy current induced ler tube or other apparatus is, of course
in the wave meter circuit to cause a punc- disconnected from the wave meter circuit,
Arm
ture of the insulation of the inductance if the detector and 'phone method is to be

coil or a short-circuiting of the variable used. With respect to the detector used
condenser, especially if the latter happens on the wave meter, it may be said that
to have closely spaced plates. either carborundum or iron pyrites proves
Variable Condenser best, as either may be subjected to a very
Knob For indicating the ma.xinium resonance
when measuring the wave length of a trans- strong current without harm.
rig. 6 Figures 4 and 5 show two more circuits
mitting set, where the induced current in
the wave meter is of course quite strong used with the wave meter. Fig. 4 shows a
^^ ^\Slide(Manua//y Operaled)
detector and telephone receiver circuit, con-
in any case, a very good indicator, as proven
by practise and experience, is an ordinary nected to the inain oscillating circuit of the
3'-inch Geissler tube, or better yet a srnall wave meter by a unilateral or one-wire
Window inSfiatf .
connection. Tliis method is highly recom-
helium gas tube. It is best when using
f^a! gf.VSyCond mended in many text books treating on the
either a Geissler or helium tube as an in-
Wooe/^S-ftelf-. and
--Calomel -""^ dicator of maximum resonance, to place wave meter and its uses, at the pres-
the tube in a small box mounted on the ent time it is used on many of the best
lid of the wave meter, the box being black- commercial wave meters. This connection
ened inside and provided with a slot in the of the detecting circuit possesses the ad-
front so that the degree of glow in the tube vantage that it cannot have any detuning
'Sca/es Calibrafed in may be easily seen. It is also common or offsetting effect on the oscillating cir-
VJave Lengths or practise to connect a hot wire milliampere cuit as is the case where it is placed in
Fig. 7 Degrees meter in series with the inductance and shunt to the capacity and inductance com-
condenser of the wave meter by removing posing this circuit, and it is very efficient
the jumper on the series binding post termi- for the purpose in hand, as with this con-
nals and connecting the meter to this in ; nection the detector and 'phone receive just
Wyo/-.; ^rivoK.^-;:^, Sli^^ jfi this case the maximum resonance, and a sufficient amount of energv' to operate
Slide'Mnd^ therefore the wave length at which the cir- {Continued on page 921)
cuit under test
is oscillating, is
indicated by
turning the con-
denser handle Hair Line on
'Ma/lip/e Scale
until the needle Glass Window
Pin Varies in
'Tills Pialon Var Concf.
of the hot wire ,, s-
Length with Size of
meter reaches a <[id of
Coil being Usecf Fiq.8 Condense.
maximimi read-
Three Schemes for Improving the Wave Me- ing. Some
oper-
ter Dial and Indicator so as to Make It ators prefer to
"Direct Reading." Fig. 8 Shows an Auto-
matic Dial Arrangement Which Causes the use the well-
Correct Reading to Appear, no Matter Which known detector
of the Three Coils Is in Use. and telephone
receiver method
brated precision variable condenser and an of determining
accurately calibrated inductance. In prac- the maximum
tically all cases this inductance and capacity resonance point
of known values are connected together in in the wave
parallel or shunt as shown at Fig. 3-A. meter circuit as
Referring to Figs. 3-A and 3-B, the lead the diagrams at
wires joining the inductance or exploring Fig. 3 s h o w. ;Fixl Plates
coil to the variable condenser are composed The detector
of two pieces of No. 16 flexible lamp cord, and wireless
each 6 inches long. A 3-inch length of cop- 'phones are con-
per strip joins the tw'o pairs of binding n e c te d (in
posts. Fig. 3 shows one set of binding series or in
posts being used for the inductance coil multiple) across
and the other set intended for the connec- the variable \_,-Rotary Plates
tion of a hot wire milliampere meter or condenserfor
thermo-couple and galvanometer. Ordi- the purpose.
narily tliis latter pair of binding posts are This arrange- Position of Paper Scale on
fitted with a piece of copper strip about men t is e x- Fiotary Flafe of Condenstr
1/16 inch thick forming a jumper. tremely sensi- Fig. 10
It is well in all cases to fit a safety spark tive, ard the
is
one invariably To MakeReading Decremeter" of Your Wave Meter, Cut Out the
a "Direct
gap across the terminals of the variable Paper Scale at the Left and Mount It on the Variable Condenser Shaft or on
condenser as shown at Fig. 3-B, as when used in mjas- the Top Rotary Plate in the Manner Here Shown. The Decrement Is Read
the wave meter is used in close proximity ing the wave thru the Window When Resonance Is Indicated.
876 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

German Radio Apparatus Used at Metz


MORE BUNQUE.
THE accompanying illustrations
the interesting radio apparatus and
antenna mast used at the famous
show which are placed in a group at the lower
center of the front panel.
Among other things, we find it interesting I often wonder
By J. A. \\ eaver.
how Noah made the arc
German mihtary base at Metz. These to note the very neat arrangement of the light.
photographs were taken by the interior wiring of the cabinet, the various And it sure does get my goat why insula-
French Army when they entered Metz after connections being run symmetrically in tors wear petticoats.
the signing of the armistice. The photo- straight lines, evenly spaced and held rigidly .'\nd of what possible use is a vacuum

graph of the aerial mast is interesting as it in place by means of insulating cleats. In cleaner, being as a vacuum is always clean?
shows a very novel construction whereby a the side view of the apparatus, which shows And whether undamped waves oscillate
strongly braced tower structure is formed the interior, one may perceive the neatly oi vibrate?
of steel tubes or pipes, provided with flat- wound inductance coil at the bottom of the And whether it would be murder to kilo-
tened ends thru which bolts are past. The cabinet, and as will be seen, it is square in watt?
base of this radio mast, measuring 80 meters form with a number of inductances placed And whether you can measure water with
in height, tapered to a point at the bottom,
is along the form on which it is woinnl. This a wavemeter?
as the photograph shows, and rests on a large set is designed so as to be suitable for re- And how a bus-line can run from place to
porcelain insulator. Suitable guys and pins ceiving either spark or arc signals. No place without moving?
were used in arranging this insulating base And whetlier it would be nice to be a
support, so that the foot of the mast could mirier in the mines of Asia-Minor?
not slip or break away if for any reason And if a condenser is over charged by a
the insulator should break. The mast was conductor would it cause a disturbance on
well-guyed with steel cables running in dif- the trolley line ?
ferent directions, and the antenna was sup- And where does the dago when nite ap-
ported in umbrella fashion from the top of proaches ?
the mast. As the photograph discloses, a And how to tell when onion plants arma-
high steel fence enclosed the grounds con- ture?
nected with the station to preserve secrecy, And what is the price of a drink at tlie

and also to prevent any one coming in con- bus bar?


tact with the highly charged aerial con- And why some bonbs persist in saying
ductors. n.c. current and d.c. current instead of a.c.
The remaining two photographs show re- and d.c. ?
spectively front and side views of the re- .'Xnd whether there are any seeds in a
ceiving apparatus used at Metz. One of the transformer core.
first interesting things we note in connection
with the design of the apparatus, and CHAIN OF RADIO STATIONS.
plainly visible in the side view is the rotary The establisliment of a chain of radio
control of the inductance slider. This is stations, approximately 30 miles apart along
accomplisht by a lever secured to a rotary the Atlantic Coast, was announced at the
knob, the free end of which is joined by headquarters of the 1st Naval District re-
means of a link member to the slider of cently. The statement intimated that by
the inductance in the manner shown, so this arrangement incoming vessels, when 150
that as the handle is turned in rotary fash- <ir 200 miles off coast, could determine their

ion, the slider will move back and forth position easily by communicating with shore
along the coil. The detectors, of which stations, regardless of weather conditions.
there are several in duplicate, are observed .Mong the 250 miles of coast included within
at the top of the instrument, while an the 1st District eight stations are already
elaborate multiplicity of control handles in operation.
with graduated inductance pointers, are
provided for changing the wave length of
Wireless Terms Illustrated "Beat Receiver"
COAST GUARD STATIONS TO
the primary and Secondary receiving cir- Courtesy The Oscillator. HAVE WIRELESS.
cuits, as well as the coupling between the In the near future radio stations will be
coils of these circuits, and also the capacity installed at the coast guard stations at the
values used. vacuum bulb detectors or oscillators are Isles of Shoals, at Station No. 2 at Cross
The telephone receivers, several sets of shown, but we know that they were used in Island, Buck's Harbor. Me., and Station
which may be used when desired, are con- many of the German sets, the bulb em- No. 8 at Damiscove Island, Boothbay Har-
nected with the receiving set cabinet by ployed being that devised by Lieben and bor, Me. A
number jf radio operators will
means of flexible cords and jacks, eight of Riez. be sent to these stations.
April, 1919 ELECTRICAI, EXPERIMENTER 877

A Timely Reinforcement
A Copper Plated Stomach
By THOMAS REED
THERE'S a in being forehanded.
lot
Mother was that way. Every Satur-
time tripping o'er the lea and scattering

flowers I mean the operation was the
From that moment nothing was thought of
but comebacks to hand to Germany in re-
day we used to have salt fish for same, not the raw material. turn for her favors of the past 40 years,
dinner, so she wouldn't be bothered When one dose of water had suffered with the accent on the last 4 which was
with getting up anything to eat on about enough you poured it off and re- righto, and success to the job but in the ;

baking-day. That sounds like a paradox, newed it, and so on. If you tended right rush of business, a very important point
but it wasn't, it was a shame, for the "bak- to your business thru Tuesday and Wednes- was overlooked by everybody but ME. I'll
ing" was very appetizing and savory, while day and Thursday and Friday and Satur- tell you what I mean.

the fish was well, not so savor>'. day morning, then by Saturday noon there You know how thick and fast the cele-
Now, when you wanted salt fish on Sat-
was your fish transformed into a regular brations came, along there in November?
urday, you had to begin way back in the
eating fish at least those who had to eat it They made a record for thickness and fast-
week somewhere. Tuesday was a good could-. That's how you had to plan meals ness that won't be beaten till "Bill" gets
day because there wasn't much of anything in those days
no frittering away your time back from Hell. There was the "Fake
to do (on top of the regular chores) ex- at tea-dongsongs till the last minute, and Peace Celebration" on Thursday, and the
cept the ironing, and you had a "Real One" on Monday, and the
chance to think. Follow me "Regular One" on Tuesday. I

carefully you know how long it
is from Tuesday before Saturday
don't know how it was with you,
but by Wednesday I had food
comes around? Well, mother
for thought and it was the only
used to plan ahead all the time, kind of food I was able to sit up
foreseeing she was going to be and take any notice of.
heated and tired, and all fust The thought, being fed. was
up with cooking formulas, and mainly to the effect, how nice
would need an accommodating it would have been if I'd had one
viand for dinner that she could of those copper-lined stomachs
slap down most anywhere with- that are always being talked
out hurting it, and tell us chil- about and never realized. I
dren to go to it and forget the don't know as I ever appreciated
whole business. On Tuesday she before how reliable copper is.
commenced deodorizing the fish. Viewing the ruin of my faithful
You while the fish abode
see, Gastric Cavity thru handling the
with the grocer, it was always few easy objects I'd sent down
picking up scents like coffee to it, I envied the old copper
and spices and matches and kero-
boiler at home how it used to
sene, from the clerk's habit of digest 3 or 4 bushels of the fam-
wiping his hands on it in pass- ily wash, or boil up a barrel of
ing, and the hostler would chuck soft soap, or a tub or two of
a horse-blanket on it often whitewash-stunts really exact-
enough to give it a quaint stable ing, i,ou know and get away
tang. But what you'd call the with it year after year.
basic flavor was imparted by Ah me, as the fellow says.

"Tabby" the store cat. The With a tummy built on the lines
pile codfish was the place
of of that boiler, one could cele-
where the cat slept and took her brate Peace till the cows came
bath (the kind of dry-cleansing home with their 16-cent milk,
a cat calls a bath) also her ; and then tackle a New Year's
refuge from stray dogs or am- Eve and a couple of "wakes" on
bush, according to whether she the side, instead of rueing the
could lick the dog or not. The day whatever
that is as I was-
result was you couldn't say the To Copper Plate Human Stomachs So as To Digest th Present doing.
cat smelt fishy, or the fish catty, Post-War Foods, Thomas Reed Here Shows Us How To Set About But the real horror of the
but they smelt about alike It !
Rigging Up the Necessary Apparatus. When You One Receive ;
situation was this here were a
;

was a blend, like this fancy- This Treatment You Will Be Able to Swallow Nails, Old Milk
Cans, Sections of Steam Boilers, Bricks, et Cetera, and Then the million or two of soldiers and
named toilet-water vou have to Undertaker Will Nail You Up. sailors due to come home and go
have pronounced for }-ou, eaii thru this celebration-thing mul-
de something or other. tiplied to thehundredth-power. The big cities
tossing on a preserved pig's foot for supper.
If you just wanted the fish for a smelling were going to stuff 'em. then the smaller
fish, you didn't have to do anything to it, it Examples like this gave me the same branch cities, and the railroad towns, and the
was all right as it was. But when you habit of being forehanded. I'm always
home towns the strain all the time increas-
wanted to use it for an eating tish, you had
to go to work and separate the fish part
looking ahead and spying out some situa-
tion that's liable to be dangerous or dis-
in as the burg grew smaller till
finally
they'd fetch up at "Home" itself, the one with
from the odor part, or as much of it as you agreeable, and providing against it. It's a the Big "H", with Mother roasting chickens
could. It wasn't difficult or laborious at lucky thing I am. as it happens, and you'll and frying flapjacks and baking pies in a
all, but it took time, and that's why you had say so, too, when I tell you. wild effort to make up a year's deficiencies
to be forehanded. You put this fish into Perhaps you remember we had a "war", in army rations all at one meal. All that,

a good stout pan a pan that wasn't par- or something like that, recently. Well, and only an ordinarj' membranous stomach
ticular whom it associated with and cov- just when we were thinking it was going to to stand it! Was there any time to lose?
ered it with common ordinary water. The last forever, we began to hear noises from No. The copper stomach, so long post-
water didn't stay that way very long. In a the Other Side that sounded like "By gorry poned, had to be invented tout de suite if it
few hours it was most iiHCommun water, we've got 'em licked!" "They're quitting!" was going to be ready for the occasion.
yelling to heaven and casting into the air "The war is over !" "Honk-honk!" "Wow!" Well, here it is, all ready and waiting,
bunches of assorted perfumes, like Spring- and other e-xpressions of quiet satisfaction. (Continued ait page 927)
; .

878 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

The Alkaline Storage Battery


By J. F. SPRINGER
batteries are of two prin- certain amount of gas this escapes thru a be preferred, if conditions make slowness
STOR-\GE
cipal kinds (1) lead-acid batterj',
tlie special valve.
;

The cell is well suited to conveniently possible. Whether the battery


and (2) the alkaline battery. Our rough usage, partly because of the tight is charged slowly or rapidly, evenness of

attention is now directed upon the cover and partly because the container is of charging is always to be adopted.
latter. There is but one alkaline cell sheet steel and not of glass or hard rubber. Direct current only is usable in charging.
of prominence on the market the Edi- The liquid is of an alkaline character. It If alternating current is the only source of
energy available
son batterj-. Each it

ceJl is a complete will be necessary to


self-contained unit convert it into di-
and may be used rect current and to
alone or in con- use the latter with
junction with other the battery. There
cells. A typical cell are several methods
will have a voltage which may be em-
ployed. First, there
of about 12 average
discharge potential is the motor-gen-
the maximum dis- erator. The alter-
charge potential is nating current is

about 1.45 volts at used to operate a


the start. The charge motor. The motor
and discharge volt- drives the generator
age characteristics and produces the
are given in the ac- direct current for
companying graph. charging. mer- A
Fig. 1. While charg- cury arc rectifier is
ing the cell voltage another device for
may rise as high as converting the al-
1.85 volts. The am- ternating current in-
perage will vary with to direct. This de-
the size of the cell. vice is often mpre
By connecting a bat- econotnical and
tery of cells in convenient if only a
series, it is possi-
small current is to
ble to run the volt-
be handled.
age up to any de- Of course, direct
sired point; see current may be gen-
Fig. 2-A. Ausual erated at once. The
voltage for rather equipment necessary
A Typical Alkaline Storaoe Battery Installation On Ship-Board, the
short circuits
un- Battery Operating the Wireless Telegraph Equipment In Emergency.
The Control and Charging Switch-Board Appear At the Left o( the
will be (1) an en-
gine or some equiv-
der 300 feet is 30- "Battery Room." All Radio Operators Should Thoroly Understand
32 volts. Accord- The Smaller alent means of op-
storage Batteries. Both the Lead and Alkaline Types.
ingly, about 30 cells Cut Shows the Non-Leaking Gas Vent Fitted On the Alkaline Cell. erating the gener-
This Cell Has a Mean Potential of 1.2 Volts. ator; (2) a gen-
are required. The
battery used as a erator, and (3) a
unit will have a switchboard. It

voltage equal to the sum of the voltages loses but little of its water as time goes on. would probably
cheaper to use the
be
of the individual cells. The amperage In order to determine whether the strength current direct from the generator to
will remain the same as with the single is normal, a hydrometer may be used. The operate the lights, etc., and to dispense
cell. It is necessarj-, therefore, to choose electrolyte consists of potassium hydrate with the storage battery, if the current
a size of cell that will give the amperage (21 per cent solution) to which has been were required in a steady, even stream.
required for the service or else use more added a small amount of lithium hydrate. But current is not ordinarily required
The does
specific gravity of the alkaline cell thus in a home or on board boat.
than one batterj', connecting the bat-
teries
not the cells in parallel, see Fig. iKit change during charge or discharge. (Continued on page 931)
2-B. For a llO-volt system, a large num- The normal specific gravity will be 1.210,
ber of cells will be needed. In making but this tnay drop at times to as low as 1.160
such calculations, it will be best to rate the without affecting the cell. A brand new
alkaline cell at just about 1 volt. Thus, for alkaline battery will not develop its full
llO-volt service use 110 cells, connected in capacity at once. After a number of charg-
series. ings it will settle down to a standard per-
In purchasing a battery, it will be neces- formance. This settlement into a standard
sary to decide on the voltage to be used. condition is understood to be due to the
There are probably more household and improvement in the conditions of the nega-
similar devices on the market th.it are de- tive plateconsequent upon regular charging
signed for the 110- volt system than for any and recharging. This process of self-form-
other. At the same time, there is a consid- ing continues over a period of from one to
erable range of such devices which are three months.
adapted to, and available for use on 30-32 The care of an alkaline battery will ordi-
volt circuits. narilv be simple. The density of the liquid
The alkaline cell has a tight-fitting cover. may be watched and corrected, if necessary.
As in all batteries there will be generated a This will usually mean the addition of a
little water to l)ring the hy-
drometer reading down to
1.210. Regularity of handling
will probably give better re-
sults in an alkaline battery
than any other one thing.
This is especially true in con- A- CeHs connecM m !::r/e5 lii/h-4.a cnumSerofX
nection with the charging. (el/5 * vo/fi per ce//. /imp-/?at/r cc/)ac/(i/-/tH.Cop.of
.\ battery may be charged one ce//.
B- Ce//s irt para//e/.. yalfs-i.i y. or voltage ofone ce/L
slowly or rapidly or at a Amp-hour capac/ly A M Cop of ci/U number
medium rate. That is, it may of celli
be done normally in 7 hours,
Amporc-Hovfi or rapidly in 1 or 2 hours, or
at a moderate rate in 4 or 5 Diagram Showing Voltage and Amperagft
Typical Characteristic Curves for Charge and Discharge
of Edison Type Alkaline Storage Battery. The Average hours. Slow, regular charg- With Series and Parallel Connections of Bat-
Discharge Potential is Seen to Be 1.2 Volts. Fig. 1. ing at the normal rate is to tery Cells.
:

ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 879


April. 1919

Experimental Mechanics
BY SAMUEL D. COHEN
LESSON XI
the feed of the for one revolution.
drill
THE THEORY OF TWIST DRILLS. friction against the walls of the hole, the
rest of the surface is brought to a some- These spiral lines,however, are of unequal

THE the
student who has been following
past lessons in "Experimental
Mechanics" may now tind himself
what smaller diameter. Sometimes the
surface s, is gradually backed off, beginning
diameter. Point a, in Fig. 4, on the circurn-
ference of the drill is given in Fig. 5, as if
moving on the spiral line a^a. The diam-
at the edge without a distinctly perceptible
confronted by a more or less diffi-
step, as in Fig. 1. The profile of the grooves eter of the drill being ) 1 in. and the =
cult task in properly utilizing a very feed l-50th in. the inclination of the spiral
and dd, is chosen so that the intersection with ;

important tool, namely Izcist drills,


found by
the top plane b, gives as far as possible a line is
right angle line C. The shape of the line b
feed
is of lesser importance provided that the 0.00637
groove d is wide enough to allow the chips
Tan |8 :

to pass easily. The dimension of the weak-


circumference 50 X '^

est point of the drill where the edge f' is


/3 = 0 22'

found, is fixt by the demand of strength in


the drill. The edge c', which cuts very badly,
should be as short as possible. Ordinarily,
it is taken 1-lOth of the diameter at the
point of the drill and gradually increases
to the upper end, for reasons of strength. c'
When looking at the drill sideways we
now see it as shown in Fig. 2 cc are the
sectants which form together an angle of
about 120 degrees, c' the connection, dd the
grooves, the pitch of which amounts to 5
to 8 times the diameter of the drill.
consider cc as being the cutting edges of
two chisels, which, turning around the axis
must cut chips from the metal. The form
and the position of these chisels in regard
to the metal will have to answer the same
requirements as every other cutting chisel,
;

We
u Fig 4
b

which are these In Fig. 3 : represents a A Discussion of the Angle and Clearance of the
cross-section of the chisel, B the piece of Cutting Edge of a Twist Drill.
work from which the chip C is cut by mov- Point a, in Fig. 4, at a distance of 1 -20th in.
ing A in the direction of the arrow. from the drill axis, describes the spiral line
To prevent the chisel breaking its cutting cV with the same pitch h. Fig. 5, as a'a; the

edge the angle a obtained by grinding, angle of inclination 7 however, is quite a
In the Present Article the Author Discusses and therefore called the grinding angle, different one; for the case of l-20th in. it is:
the Theory of Twist Drills, the Shape of the For cutting
Grooves, the Pitch of the Cutting Edges, must be sufficiently strong.
Et Cetera. The Lips C-C May Be Consid- mild steel and iron a is made upon an
ered as the Cutting Edges of Two Chisels, average of about 55 degrees with very ;
Tan 7 = = 0.0637
Which Turn about the Axis of the Drill. good steel the angle can be some degrees SOX'^Xl/lO
the writer gives below a brief resuni^ of smaller with a poorer grade steel it must
;
7 = 3 39'
the subject of twist drills and their grind- be some degrees larger. The loosening of
In Fig. 5 the value /i of the feed has been
ing. Because it is very essential to follow the chip from the metal is not done at the
given immoderately large for the sake of
understandinly the subject of twist drills, lowest point of the chisel, but at a, being
clearness, and the angle 7 has consequeiitly
a short mathematical treatise of simple na- the point most advanced. The metal is
been drawn much larger than it is in reality.
ture will be given in order to more readily pushed down at a length /, Fig. 3, and there-
The spiral lines, a^a and c\-, are the lines
facilitate the understanding of the subject.
in regard to which the angle i, in Fig. 3,
The twist drills stand in use so far above has to be measured. They agree with the
flat drills that they are now an indispensable
Don't Miss the Next Lesson
line a-d, in that figure. From this it fol-
tool in ever>- workshop for metal working. "Grinding Twist Drills." lows that for point a of the drill the setting
They may be manufactured by milling or It will discuss the various factors angle i is measured in regard to the line,
forging two spiral grooves out of a cylindri- and therefore must
involved in properly grinding twist inclining already 0 22',
cal bar, or by twisting a bar of the desired drills, both by hand and machine greater than usually. For point
be so much
cross-section, so that the lines originally A real practical article The set-
or jig. c this difference becomes 3 39'.
running parallel to the axis become spiral which every amateur machinist ting angle becomes a changeable value, in-
lines. The first method of manufacturing will want to read. creasing towards the center of the drill. In
is today still the most common one. When giving it everywhere the same value for
we take a spiral drill and turn it with the simplicity's sake, that is to say the largest
top towards us, we shall see it as shown in after returns to its level a-d. The srnaller
cutting cross-section desired in the center,
Fig. 1. dd are the spiral grooves, cc both the angle i, w-hich may be enlarged or dimin-
the edge would become too weak at the
cutting edges, so the drill will have to turn ished by the position of the chisel, the circumference.
in the direction of the arrow, ec is the longer / will be, and the greater will be the
With the above facts in mind the writer
solid part of drill the top of the drill near- resistance of the metal being pushed down.
will give a complete practical discourse on
;

est to us is the edge c^ which unites the two Experience tells us how large the angle i
.

how to handle twist drills, grinding, et


edges cc, making an angle of about SS de- must be it varies between 4 degrees to 8
:
cetera, in the next installment.
grees with each of them. The cylindrical degrees for lathe and planer tools. We (To be continued)
surface of the drill at jj, only exists for shall see how great it must be made for
the part aa, for, to prevent unnecessary twist drills. In no case may it be smaller
than 4 degrees, or the chisel will refuse

^\ to cut. 1
,. ,"
Referring to Fig, 4, the point a, of the
cutting edge c, situated on the cylindrical
surface of, the chisel, we find the grinding
^ angle a, appointed by the tangent to the

^
\

y^/ V- sjiiral and by the tangent to the line ah, -*-


L... g
/
^

,>
.^ sectant
drill,
of the cylindrical
and the ground top B. So the size of
surface of the
I "i -A
B
(
./J
this angle is determined with regard to the
strength of the edge and practically amounts
to about 55 degrees. Then follows the
L ;

r,gs IC angle in Fig. 3


% where to find it. While
:
F'9-^
turning around on its axis the drill ad-
Further Illustrating the Similarity of a Chisel vances into the metal. So each point de- Diagram Used In Explaining the Value of the
Cutting Into a Piece of Metal to the Two Angles of Grinding of Twist Drills.
Cutting Edges of a Twist Drill. scribes a spiral line with the pitch equal to
860 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

Practical Chemical Experiments


Butter and Butter Substitutes
By ALBERT W. WILSDON
BUTTER
milk and
obtained
the
is by
putting it thru the pro-
skimming ice-water, thus chilling it rapidly.
then
It can
be salted and packed like ordinary
removed from the flame ;

genuine butter these particles are small and


in the case of
cesschurninp,
of the globules butter. Two marked advantages which this finely difided. but in the case of oleomarga-
and the solid fat separates
coalesce material has over butter are: (1) It is rin the curd will gather in large masses.
more or less thoroly from the other mucli cheaper, and (2) owing to the ab-
constituents of the milk. As found on the sence of buttermilk and butter fats it has MILK TEST FOR BUTTER
market, butter is rarely found to Contain much better keeping qualities. Its flavor Experiment No. 2. See Fig. 2.
more than 80 to 85 per cent fat the rest ; ranks well with second-class butter. To make a "milk test" for butter, place
"Renovated" or "Process" butter is in
general prepared as follows Old, rancid,
:

and unsalable butter is melted in a large


vat surrounded by a hot water jacket at
a temperature of about 45 deg. C. The
curd and brine are then drawn off at the
bottom, the scum being taken off at the
top. Air is blown thru the mass, to remove
the disagreeable odor, and after mi.xing
with some milk, the mass is churned and
then run into ice cold water to make it
granular in structure. It is then ripened,
worked to free it from buttermilk and
salted. It is required by law in some states
that this product be marked "Renovated
Butter."
SIMPLE TEST FOR BUTTER
Experiment No. 1. See Fig. 1.

Heat about 3 grams of the sample in a


large iron spoon over a low Bunsen flame,
stirring constant^'. Geiuiine butter will boil
quietly, with the production of consider-
able froth or foam, which may, on removal

Fig. 1. Apparatus Used in Making Test


for Butter and Oleomargarin or Renovated Fig. 2. Set-up of Simple Apparatus Utilized
Butter. in Making the "Milk Test" for Butter.
being principally water, with some proteids about 60 sweet milk in a wide-
cc. of
and lactose from buttermilk still remaining mouthed which is set in a vessel of
bottle,
in it, and more or less salt or saltpeter, to boiling water. When the milk is thoroly
flavor and preserve it. It quite frequently is heated, a spoonful of the butter is added
colored with some harmless vegetable com- and the mixture stirred until the fat has
pound. Fig. 3. Test for Coal Tar Coloring in But- melted. The bottle is then placed in a dish
Oleomargarin usually prepared from
is
ter Which Can Be Made by Anyone in a of ice-water, and the stirring continued
Few Minutes' Time.
the fat contained in the intestinal folds of until the fat solidifies. If the sample is but-
beef cattle. It is carefully siript from the from the flame, boil up over the side of ter, either fresh or renovated, it will be
fresh carcass, washed, chilled and hashed the spoon. Renoi'ated butter or oleomar- solidified in a granular condition and dis-
exceedingly fine. It is tributed thru the milk
then rendered in water- ^^^^^^^^m mmi^^^^mi^^^^ in small t<articles. If,
jacketed kettles at a on the other hand, the
temperature of about 50 BEGINNING with this issue, "EXPERIMENTAL CHEM- sample consists of oleo-
deg. C. The scum ISTRY", as will bo noted, has been changed to "PRACTI- margarin, it solidifies
which separates out at CAL CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTS." For several years past, practically in one piece,
the top is drawn off and so that it may be lifted
the scraps settle at the Mr. Albert If Wilsdon, who will rontinue the new department,
.
by the stirrer from the
bottom. Theliquid fat has become familiar to our reade. s thru his chemistry articles. milk.
is then run into vats There has, however, been an urgent demand from our readers By the two tests just
and there permitted to described, the first of
for articles on everyday chemistry, practical experiments, etc.
stand for a day or two which distinguishes
at about 27 deg. C, at If*' are, therefore, beginning with this issue a series of practical fresh butter from pro-
which temperature but- chemistry, free from technicalities. We think the change will cess butter or reno-
ter is just liquid. The be ivelcomed by our friends. vated butter and oleo-
semi-liquid mass is then margarin and the sec-
;

wTapt up in cloths and In the same department ice are also inaugurating a Question ond of which distin-
prest to remove the thin and Ansicer Department, and every reader is invited to ask any guishes oleomargarin
yellow liquid oil foleo question on chemical phases which may occur to him. Such from either fresh but-
oil) from the solid fat ter orrenovated but-
questions will be answered every month hereafter in these col-
(oleo-stcarin). To turn ter, the nature of the
umns. When sending questions, they should be addrest to sample examined may
this
oil )
liquid oil (oleo
into a very good "Editor, Chemistry Department." Editor. be determined.
substitute for butter it Every house-wife
is churned with some ^^^^^^^^^^^ '^"'^^^^^^^~ should know how to
milk so that it can ab- test butter and oleo-
sorb some of the butter taste, then some garin will sputter and act like hot fat con- margarin and the important differences be-
coloring matter is added (vegetable com- taininir water, but will not foam. Examine tween them. That is one object of the present
pound), and the mass is finally run into also the curdy particles when the sample is paper. The author trusts it proves of value.

(Continued on page 1
1)
;

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 881

This dfpartmont will award the following monthly prizes: First Prize, $3.00: Second Prize, $2.00; Third Prize, $1.00.
The purpose of this department is to stimulate e.xperimenters towards accomplishing new things with old apparatus or old material
and for the most useful, practical and original idea submitted to the Editors of this department, a monthly series of prizes will be awarded'
For the best idea submitted a prize of $3.00 is awarded: for the second best idea a $2.00 prize, and for the third best prize of $1.00. The
article need not be very elaborate, and rough sketches are sufficient. We
will make the mechanical drawings. Use only one side of'sheet.
^lake .sketches on separate sheets.

FIRST PRIZE, $3.00 SECOND PRIZE $2.00 THIRD PRIZE, $1.00

A SIMPLE WHIMSHURST IN- BLINKING LIGHTS TELL YOUR PORTABLE BATTERY HAND LAMP
FLUENCE MACHINE. FORTUNE. FOR THE HOME.
By Melville Fisk. S. glance at the illustration will show The articles for the construction of this
HE
T static
made of
construct
machine described herein
simple materials,
and the work
iseasy to
does not
is that while the magnet side of the relay is
open, the small battery motor is running, re-
volving the drum. A
gear may be used if a
slow.r speed is neces-
lamp can be purchased at a small sum, if
you haven't them at home. Flexible lamp
wire is the best for the wiring of this light.

sary. When tiie push ,H00k


A Driving Pulley
button is prest, the ar-
B Jars
Driving belts
mature of the relay is
Brushes attracted, breaking the
Neutra/iz/ng rods motor circuit and mak-
Collectors ing connection on the nond/e of ,

Discliorging Arms other side of the relay screen door"


Cnsstielt
which goes to the one
set of brushes on one
side of the drum. The
armature
con- is itself
nected to one side of
the battery for the mo-
tor, and to one side of
the current supply for Switch
the lamps. On the
other side of the drum
are the brushes con-

Tubing Xoppermire Brass Tube holder


necting to the different
rings on the drum.
[JI
>g==rTTT= These brushes also con-
Tubing ttiomgroph f >.| ( , , ,
nect with the various
Brush needles - - lamps which are again You Have Often Wanted a Portable Battery
Neufrolizjrw Hocfs Collecfors connected to the other
Hand Lamp Here's How to Make One at
Practically No Cost.
. . side of the current
A Home-made Static Machine Constructed from Phonograph,.,..,
Disc r
supply for it,
, i
Records. the lamps. About ten feet of wire is needed, when a
As the button is prest. large dry cell is used which cannot be
require the use of special tools. Asimilar the motor stops and the circuit thru one of carried around. For a pocket (flashlight)
machine built by the writer produces a the lamps is made, the particular lamp de- battery only a few feet is necessary. By
violent and steady spark discharge about an depending upon the position of the drum means of the hook the lamp can be hung
inch or more in length, without the use of when the motor stopt. In front of each anywhere or in any corner on a nail, etc.
Leyden jars. lamp is a pane of glass on the back of which A IVz volt tungsten lamp is right for a.
The plates are two twelve-inch phono- is pasied the fortune telling matter. The single dry cell. A reflector adds greatly
graph records of the disk type. Select t\v front of the glass may be painted with a
>

to the efiiciencv of the light.


which have one side blank. The tin^jil thin white paint. Contributed by RAYMOND W^A.GNER.
sectors are cemented to the smooth side. Contributed bv
It is not necessary to varnish the plates. WILLIAM
F. HAASE, JR
The bosses that keep the plates parallel cii by drilling and then soldering. The needles
the shaft are small cotton spools, that have should be slanted slightly in the direction
a hole in them the size of the one in the in which the plate rotates. The supports
record. Fit the spools up with brass tube are brass tubing, soldered on.
bearing and fasten to the plates with glue. The discharging arms are of brass rod of
A thin cloth or paper washer inserted be- a size that will fit in the collector support-
tween the boss and plate will help the glue- ing tubes. Make a small dent in each tube
to hold. Rubber tire cement will hold bet- so that the rods do not slip all of the way
ter if at hand. The shaft on which the thru. Fit balls to the ends of the rods by
plates revolve extends out J4 of an inch boring, then pegging and soldering.
on either side of the wooden standards An Interesting Electric Fortune-Teller. The jars are used as supports only.
Which Will Provide Hours of Amusement. Varnish them inside and out and fit with
it is held stationary by a cotter pin inserted

in a hole bored down thru the top of the stoppers, bored to hold the collector tubes.
standard. Glue a cardboard washer 1^ inch copper wire bent to shape. They are A simple stopper is made by cutting a large
inches in diameter to the inside of one of pivoted on the protruding ends of the shaft wire spool in half and then winding paper
the plates. The base and standard are made by a short piece of tubing soldered to the around the shank to make a fit with the
of wood in the manner illustrated. center. Press the tubing slightly together jar. Before using soak the stopper in
Make the double driving pulley from a at the open end to make it grip firmly. The melted paraffin. Further insulation can be
large spool such as wire is sold on. brushes are made from very fine copper obtained by placing pieces of a broken rec-
Fasten it to the shaft by drilling thru the strands secured from wire such as is used ord under the jars, r.hie the jars to the base.
shank and shaft and inserting a cotter pin in receiver cords (gilt tinsel). Cut about In operation the neutralizing rods should
or screw. Be sure and make the grooves twelve strands two inches long; tie a knot he at right angles to each other, the best
in the pulleys deep enough to hold the belts in the center, and fold over so that all ends angle, however, can easily be found by trial.
securely. Rubber bands tied together make are together. The brushes are then slipt The brushes should touch the plates lightly
very good driving belts. Tie them with into the small tubes soldered onto the ends no pressure is necessary. The collector
strong linen thread and leave a half inch of the rods and are fastened by squeezing points should be about ^
inch away from
of slack between each band. As the plates the end of the tube together. plates. Be sure that they are all the same dis-
are to revolve in opposite directions, cross Make the collectors as per sketch, using tance away or else some will not contribute
one belt. heavy copper wire. The points are long to the collecting. The distance between
The neutralizing rods are made from Vi phonograph needles, fastened to the arms the plates should be about Y^ to inch. %

882 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

EDITED BY S. CERNSBACK

A Simply Constructed Gas Generator


By IVAN CRAWFORD
AMON'G the automatic pas generators on are many methods which may be employed easily bent to the required shape, leaving
/\^ the market there are few within reach in removing the bell of the bottle, but by small holes in the bottom to allow the acid
of the average experimenter. To meet far the best and surest is the one described to enter. The basket is suspended by means
this condition, Prof. C. D. Dilts has re- below. of a closed piece of glass tubing, bent to
cently developed a generator which may be Several long strips of newspaper, about form a hook, which runs thru the two-hole
easily and cheaply constructed. In experi- an inch wide, should be soaked in water and stopper. The delivery tube from the bottle
wound about the bottle in two bands at the
place where it is desired to break the bot-
tle. About a quarter of an inch should he
left between the two bands. The bottle
should then be slowly revolved with the
hands, allowing a blow-pipe flame to play
upon the exposed part between the bands.
\\ hen this portion is heated sufficiently the
application of a drop of water will cause
the glass to be evenly broken. The edges
should then be smoothed on a soft grind-
stone. The bottom of the smaller bottle is
removed in the same manner.
The sheet lead for the basket may be pro-
cured at any plumbing shop. It may be

Thls Illustration Shows the Different


Parts Composing the "Gas Generator"
Here Described.
Completely Assembled Gas Generator and
menting with qualitative analysis a constant Wash Bottle.
supply of hydrogen sulfide is essential.
This generator, being self-regulating, will may be fitted either with a glass stop-cock
furnish a constant flow of hydrogen sul- or with rubber tubing and metal pinch-
fide, carbon dioxid, or hydrogen. The prin- cock. Altho not absolutely necessan,', a wash
ciple of operation is the same as that of bottle is a desirable addition to the genera-
the well-known Kipp generator, namely that tor, as it not only steadies the flow but
when the gas formed is not allowed to es- cleans and purifies the gas.
cape the solid material is automatically The apparatus should now be assembled
raised out of the liquid, but when the pres- as is illustrated in the drawing and photo-
sure is relieved the solid substance is low- graph. The solid material, such as iron
ered into the liquid, and the generator be- sulfid (when H;S is desired) is placed in
gins to function. As will be seen in the the lead basket and the dilute acid in the
drawing, the four parts are first, a glass
: glass jar. When the smaller bottle is placed
jar or container; second, a bottle of slight- in the jar the acid, reacting with the iron
ly smaller diameter, with the bottom re- sulfid, engenders a flow of H:S which
moved, and fitted with a stopcock in the forces the acid out of the basket if the stop-
top third, a lead basket for holding the
: cock is closed. When the stop-cock is
solid material and fourth, a small wash
; opened, the gas escapes and allows the acid
bottle. to touch the iron sulfid, again causing the
The glass jar may be easily made by cut- formation of H:S. Thus gas is always
ting off the top of a large bottle. There Sectional View of Gas Generator. easily procurable without waste of material.

TESTED CHEMICAL LABORA- very brilliant and beautiful appearance. derful spectacle, and more instructive than
TORY STUNTS. In Water But Not Wet. Powder the
4. reading, to see the sugar turn black, then
1. Spoons Thai ll'tll Mell in Hot Water. surface of a large or small vessel of water boil, and now, rising out of the cup in a
Fuse together 8 parts of bis-
in a crucible with some lycopodium, which may be ob- black color. It is now charcoal.
muth. 5 of lead, and 3 of tin. These metals tained at any drug store; you may then 7. To Melt Steel.
Heat a piece of steel
will combjne and form an alloy, of which challenge any one to drop a coin into the to redness in a fire, then hold it with a pair
spoons can be easily made which possess water, and that you will get it without of pincers. In the other hand take a stick
the remarkable property of melting in hot wetting your hand. The lycopodium ad- of brimstone or roll sulfur and touch the
water, coffee or tea. heres to the hand and prevents its contact piece of steel with it. Immediately after
2. A Self-dancing Egg.
Take a thin glass with the water. their contact the steel will melt and drop
tube about 3 inches long and fill it with 5. Artificiat petrifactions (turning into like melted butter.
mercury' then seal both ends with good hard stone).
In a retort place a small quantity 8. Explosion Without Heat. Take a
wax. Ne.xt have an egg boiled and then of pounded fluor-spar and sand, and pour crystal or two of nitrat of cooper and
break a small piece of the shell from the upon it some sulfuric acid; fluosilicic acid bruise them then moisten them with water
;

smaller end and thrust the tube with the gas will be disengaged, holding silex in so- and roll them up in a piece of tin-foil, and
mercurv- in, lay it on a table and it will not lution. The subjects you wish to petrify in a minute the foil will begin to smoke and
cease tumbling until the egg is cool. The must be moistened with water and placed soon after will take fire and explode. Un-
same can be done by taking a small bladder in a vessel connected with the neck of the less the crystals of copper are moistened, no
putting a little mercury inside and blowing retort, the silex will be precipitated upon heat will be produced.
it up, then warm the bladder, it will skip them like a frost and will have a beautiful 9. To Melt Lead in Paper.
Wrap up a
about as long as the heat remains. appearance. It will wear for years. Note very smooth piece of lead in a piece of
3. To Gii'c a Piece of Charcoal a Coat of Do not breathe in this gas. paper, then hold it over the flame of a

Siher. Lay a crystal of silver nitrat upon 6. An Experiment Jl'itit .Sugar. Take taper the lead will be incited without burn-
;

a piece of burning charcoal; the metallic about or 6 pieces of lump sugar and place
.^ ing the paper providing there are no
salt will catch fire and will emit sparks of them in a cup next pour about 3 tea spoons
; wrinkles in the paper and that it is in con-
various colors. The silver is reduced, and, full of boiling water upon them, and then tact with the lead everywhere.
in the end, produces upon the charcoal a add some sulfuric acid. It is truly a won- Contributed by EUGENE McGOWAN.
I 1

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 883

Electric Engraving Apparatus contact with some body tor


metallic methods the correct dosage at any the gyroscope. Its application is
(1,289,000; issued to Andrew M. its Ipcation. The circuitformed
is moment by a simple adjustment oi mainly a non-magnetic compass,
Robinson) thru a pair of sensitive head re- its parts. This instrument auto- when such disturbing or directive
An electric engraving apparatus ceivers, the bare electrode, the matically and evenly irradiates sur- force results trom the rotation of
employing a source of electric cur- water and the electrode, and nor- faces of widely variable areas, as, the earth, and for movements and
rent forming an ^arc to produce the mally is of high resistance. for instance, areas of from one mil- changes in the course of a vessel
engraving. It consists of an ap- carrying the compass, and apparent
Recording Telephone rotation of the compass card or con-
(1,290.621; issued to John F. MaJ- trolled member taking place and
thaner) servijig as a measure of the change
A new form of recording tele- in course. The gyroscope is a
phone, ;nore or less on the style of means to partly suppress freedom of
the dictating telephone. A device in rotation about its vertical axis and a
convenient size and weight for use frame within which said gyroscope
on office desks, etc. It is so con- is mounted.
pivotally A resilient
structed that it may be used for means connected with the frame
is

receiving direct dictation over the adapted work on the gyroscope,


to
phonograph, and also may be used when the control member or com-
to receive telephone messages from pass card is in connection with said
the ordinary telephone receiver, and frame.
in this manner to record the same
on a phonograph record. Particular
attention is attached to a new form
of reed diafram constructed of the
same width from end to end ap- ; limeter to thirty-two centimeters in
paratus employed with graduatin'* proximately at its ce.tter is mounted diameter.
tools, etc., for marking metal parts a square soft iron disc held in
of machines, etc. A
further object place by clips, which on its under- Secondary Or Storage Battery
in the invention provides an auxil- side has a holder for supporting
(1,285,660; issued to Bruce Ford)
the saffire point of the phonograph.
iary electric current or circuit con- Anew type and form of storage
nected to the pencil, and means in battery, its principal object being to
the pencil for controlling the make minimize leakage between cells and
and break of the auxiliary circuit, still have a multiple voltage battery
to open and close the main circuit of sufficient strength to withstand
so as to prevent arcing when it is the stresses and wear acting on such
raised from the work. This ap- a battery. The structure may be
paratus eliminates this objectionable described as a number of plates
feature. The case contains a trans- having a central portion, one face
former, also a number of switches, provided with a negative formation
by which the character of the cur- and the other face having a posi-
rent may be varied at will. tive formation, with a rim project-
ing beyond both foruiations so as
Current Modulator to fit and be prest into soft rubber
(1,288,117; issued to Francesco tubing, which will make it non-
Mo ran o) Advertising Lamp and Radiometer leakable. The spaces between are
Thechief object of this invention (i, 290, 749; issued to Edward J. filled with an electrolyte, which may
Thermostat
is a metallic microphone for high Hunt) be any plain liquid, or else held
currents, which microphone is con- (1.287,188; issued to Henrich Beck)
The device consists of a motor op- soaked in blotting paper or some A
new design of thermostat, which
stituted by one or more metallic erating on the principle of the radio- other gelatinous formation. to a certain extent eliminates many
meter, in which the moving motor
of the troublesome factors of the
elements are caused to rotate upon
cid style instrument. This type of
their axes by the action of light.
thermostat is one which employs
The device is primarily intended to but cne movable contact, the other
be inserted with the enclosure of
btnip fixt, altho adjustable, and the
any ordinary incandescent lamp bulb
two thermostat elements generally
and combined with the filament sup- control the single movable contact,
port in a manner permitting the
in response to a variation in tem-
use of the usual lamp filament, so But only one is subiect
fi-iature.
that the light issuing therefrom
to the action of radiant heat, and
\\l>\\^\[i> \iJ> shall cause the rotation of the sev-
acts directly upon the carrier, nnd
" i^ 'J \^
eral motor vanes. The motor ele- Method of Telephonic Transmis- thereby acts directly upon the mov-
ment consists of a series of vaniJ, sion Without Return-Wire
able contact. The heat ray
preferably four or more, whic!'. -^rc (1,287.180; issued to C. Bardeloni)
silvered upon one side and black- A new method of transmitting
gripping contacts, which gripping ened upon the other side with car-
contact is formed of two contact speech without a return wire. It
bon or lamp black. is sometimes necessary to use a
elements, so arranged that one of
them grips the other. The vibrating single wire for telephonic trans-
element is firmly mounted by the mission without earthing its end. 1/1
A condition like this might exist in Villi
diafram, while the other element is
supported by such means that the connection with an observation bal-
pressure of the contact which is loon where the stringing of the
formed by both elements accurately separate telephone cable would not
atfects it. In consequence, the elec- be feasible. Under these conditions
trical resistance of the contact itself the circuit does not close by con-
may be capable of varying in rigid ductivity, but remains as an open
1 11/
conformity with the vibrations of c:rcuit, the return being formed by
the diafram according to the ampli- one or more metal conductor
tude of said vibrations. squares, electrostatically and elec-
tromagnet ically connected between
Apparatus for Locating Sunken each other. This invention has the
Bodies object of effecting telephonic trans-
(1,287,907; issued to Patrick B. mission by the variations of the
Delany) electrostatic and electromagnetic
Sunken ships and bodies, by the conditions, with jut any metallic
use of this invention, may be found conductors, or the earth, connecting
very readily. It is an electrically the extremities of the system.
operated device, used with some
form of communicating device, such r--| r--]
as a telephone receiver, and acts
upon the principle of the circuit
lAwwJ\ ,Lw^

may be concentrated on the ther-


Radium-Applicator Compass-Gyroscope ii'ostatic element by means of a
(1,288,048: issued to George Kunklc) (1.289,813: is.sued to Emil Klahn) condensing lens. When the element
hi ing closed, and hnving normally a A radium applicator adapted for The invention consists primarily in is at a normal room temperature it
certain definite resistance, i.e., the the use of radium and other radio- mounting the gyroscope so that at is straight, but when the radiant
inventor does not use coils conduc- active salts. The applicator is prop- all times it is unaffected by gravity, heat strikes the thermostatic ele-
tively or otherwise for the detec- erly calibrated in advance and so and in utilizing this potential func- ment, then itcurves slightly upward,
tion. The bare electrode is lowered arranged that the physician using tion of the gyroscope to regulate the moves a crank upon the carrier,
by means of an insulated wirj thr'.: it can accurately measure and ad- position of the controlled member, which presses the fixt contact,
the water, and depends upon actaa! minister by any of the approved when a disturbing force is acting on thereby closing the circuit.
,

884 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

m\tt\ riiiz|Ama|itff
Our Amateur Laboratory Contcsi is open whether subscribers or in>t. Tlie phinus are jmlgtd tHr l>est arrangemem and etticiency of the appa-
to all reatters,
ratus. To increase the interest of this dipartnient we make it a rule not to publish photos of apparatus unaccompanied by that of the owner. Dark photos pre-
ferred to IJghi-toned ones. We pay $3.00 prize each month for the best photo. Address the Editor. "With tht- Amateurs" Depi .

Amateur Electrical Laboratory" Contest


THIS MONTH'S $3.00 PRIZE WINNER RAYMOND L.vCASSELL
HEREWITH present
I
thousand volt Tesla
three pictures of my Electrical Laboratory.
coil.
I
!:i this "Lab" you can find anything from a binding post to a six hundred
have constructed two high potential transformers and one welding transformer with an output of three volts
and five hundred amperes. Practically everything in this "Lab*" was built by me. There are several motors, both A. C. and D. C, dynamos,
about a dozen spar!: coils, transformers, storage batteries, small steam engine, rectifiers, Tesla coil (Oudin type), switches of all kinds, telegraph
instrumonts, condenser,', volt and ammeters, et cetera. I can get a twelve to fourteen inch spark from the Oudin coil. If the spark is not
drawn off, it will brush discharge to a length of ten inches, crackling and waving like a thing alive. I perform some very interesting experiments
with the coil. I also have a small storage battery set with a separate switch-board for charge and discharge. I have a search-light (arc), which
will throw a beam about two miles. I operate this on a 110 volt circuit with a transformer built for the purpose. I am now building a 330 watt
I). C. dynamo. I experiment with about everything going and a lot more.
Raymond L. Cassell, Roanoke, Va.

HONORABLE MENTION (1 year's subscription to the "ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER")J. H. ENGLAND


HEREWITH
instruments
are photographs of my Laboratory. In one oi the photographs may be seen my "\\'ireless Table,*' which contains
for both sending and receiving.
used The
transmitting set consists of a
the different
K. W. step-up transformer, condensers, spark gap,
all
^4
key, ammeter, et cetera. There is also a 1 inch spark coil for sending short distances. For receiving I have used successfully (before the
war) a tuning coil for short distances and a loose coupler for long distances, in connection with a silicon detector, 2,000 ohm Brandes* phones,
loading coil, variable and fixt condensers. To the left may be seen my switch-board, which is home-made. It contains a number of different
switches, a buzzer, a lamp resistance, and a pilot lamp. To the left of the switchboard there are several shelves on which are different electrical
books, such as '"Hawkin's Electrical Guides. Houston's "Electricity in Everyday Life," and many others. There are various other instruments
tn this table, such as telegraph key and sounder, electric fan, Solderall torch, and an interrupter. Another photograph shows the chemical and
snd photographic table. This table consists of a complete developing and printing set. To the left will be seen the printing box, which is home-
made. The frame is an Auto Mask Printing Frame and is secured to the box by means of small hooks, so as to permit it to be removed easily.
Inside there is a red and a white light. To the righ there are a large number of chemicals, such as nitric acid, bromin, sodivim, et cetera. This
part of my "Lab." comes in handy when I need 2 nicture of some electrical experiment. This laboratory is the result of but one year and a half
of earnest work and study.
J. H. England. .^O*:' 'icorge. (Greenwood, Miss.
:

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 883

Science in Slang
Jazz Stokes on Wireless Dope
By EMERSON EASTERLING
bunque, and then some. The same obtains its juice from batteries or other
SAW a while back in a paper that loco,
Is that plain? Yes, well next
Tesla and Marconi were expressing ginks today however sing a different tune sources.
and admit that in 1900 THEY were fast there is a spark coil that steps the voltage
I their ideason interplanetary wireless
communication. It don't look very
to me that it could be
asleep and deader than an Egyptian mummy,
with heads as solid.
up to a dangerous stage and a spark gap that
lets the high tension current break down
reasonable
"Then along comes Kid Marconi and across the air space. This discharge sets
done in the way
that they proposed it, but
devils around witli oscillators, up an oscillating current of high frequency.
1 don't say that the feat is im-
possible," remarked Jazz Stokes
sending waves thru buildings To increase the efficiency there are con-
and other masses until he gets densers inserted in the circuit these store-
the other night.
'How does a wireless wire?'' to work and builds a real
wireless telegraphing station.
asked Bender.
By sticking his aerials up so
as to clear the buildings and
other masses he finds that he
can send and receive for miles
instead of blocks. In 1901. on
the twelfth day of December,
he shoots a 'can-you-get-it'

across the Atlantic and they
got it. Soon all the first class
vessels were e q u i p t with
radio men and added an-
tennae to their rigging, so that they could
'et the world know that all was off with
them by their C. Q. D. and S. O. S. yelps,
instead of leaving floating spars upon the
briny deep for some brig to sight later.
"Marconi went on improving his appa-/
ratus and handled the financial end so that
besides being a first rate experimenter and
Italian gentleman of standing, he don't have
to eat macaroni with a pencil.
"The world wallows along, and the pat-
ent offices pile up the documents in thcf
wireless department, when an ardent bird.
Dr. Lee de Forest, waltzes on the stage of
industry to the tune of 'N'
'
EVERY-
THING' and shows us something. You
might mistake it for an incandescent bulb,
Heiney Hertz Who While Monkeying but it is as much like a light globe as a
Doc "Nick" Tesla Papa of the Wireless,
Around Sparl< Coils and a Micrometer Spark
\'ictrola is like a centre table. We
call it
Who Grabbed the First REAL Wireless Pat-
Gap, Fell over the Hertzian Wave. ent in 1900
the Audion Amplifier, and with it in your
"It don't, wire, that is why they call it receiving set you are able to make a squeal up and discharge the juice like a nigger
wireless," returned Jazz. a scream. The wireless nuts first found squirting prune juice thru his teeth, only
"Well," I put in, "of course. Punk and I that it was a scream when the ionizing sun- verv much faster."
know all there is to know about wireless light failed to close the Hula-hula island Taking a pen and pad from his pocket,
but for Bender's sake I wish you would tell and 'Frisco communication in the wee sma' Tazz proceeded, "It is like this see the K
us a little about wireless." hours of the morning, after the hour that is the kev; C, coil: c', condenser; A, aerial;
"You are probably familiar with the .Af- the other detectors went bad on 'em. G, ground and B is for the source of
;

rican tum-tums and the Indian signal fires," "For Bender's sake I will give you juice. Then the receiving station is like
he began. "They were the original form of 'Kicks'* the line up on a simple wireless this A, aerial; D, detector; R, receiver.
wireless. station. First the transmitting apparatus There is added more stuff to sensitize
"A scientist by the name of Hertz. Herr the layout, but they would only look
Heinrich Hertz, got to monkeying around like a telephone central station wiring
with spark coils and developing the mi- diagram here on paper, and besides,
crometer spark gap or resonator. This there are more different kinds than
apparatus worked on the principle that there are ways for a young boy to go
electro-magnetic waves radiate from a point wrong.
? '1
of discharge. The twinkling spark be- "In Guglielmo Marconi's original
tween the gap was due to induced cur-
contraption the Signor used a coherer.
rent, being virtually a secondary coil where we use a detector or audion
of one turn. Well, this set Heiney to now. The coherer works by being
deducing, and he deduced the present welded by the incoming waves, the
Hertzian theory of wireless wave electrical resistance being less when
radiation. the filings in the coherer are welded.
"While Heinrich, never having The current is so regulated that when
caught up with the second syllable of the wave waltzes in and unites the
his first name, died a poor man, Nick nickel and silver filings, the sounder
Tesla hadn't been napping either. The that is connected in the circuit bangs
whole wireless dope to this bird was down with a faint tap. The coherer is
an unsealed book as early as 1893, when tapt bv a de-coherer, jarring the nickel
Marconi still slid down
the banister in and silver filings loose for the next dot
his knickers. Thus we
see Nikola two- or dash ad infinitum.
stepping it nonchalantly to the Pat. "The detector rectifies the oscillating
Office, where he grabs the first RE.VL current, making it fit to vibrate the
wireless patent along in 19CX). The old diafram on the receiver that the 'Radio-
boy had it all down in black on white, bug' has glued to his ear.
aerial, ground, spark gap. et al the "The audion is an incandescent bulb
real, honest to goodness dope. This with a parallel grid and plate, work-
earned him the title of "Papa of the ing on the theory that current will flow
Wireless." But in those days there
That word is Kick and not Hick. Kick-
were no detectors and few experimen- is
a San Francisco slanj; word it means al-
ters to boot. So the then wiseacres most anvtliing, originating from a kick in
sniffed at Nick's Patents, tapt their booze anil now applying to almost anything.
Who good, bad, and indifferent.
foreheads significantly and made ^^^a Marconi Who Deviled Around Oscillators and
was Shot "Can-You-Get-lt" Across the Atlantic. (Continued on page 911)
known that this wireless stuff all
: :

886 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

HE PRa^lteE
The "Oracle" Is for the sole benefit of all electrical experimenters. Questions will be answered here for
the benefit of all, but only matter of sufBcient interest will be publisht. Rules under whiph questions wUI
be answered:
1. Only three questions can be submitted to be answered.
2. Only one side of sheet to be written on; matter must be typewritten or else written In ink, no
penciled matter considered.
3. Sketches, diagrams, etc., must be on separate sheets. Questions addrest to this department cannot
be answered by mail free of charge.
4. If a quick answer is desired by mail, a nominal charge of 25 cents is made for each question. If the questions entail considerable
research work or intricate calculations a special rate will be charged. Correspondents will be Informed as to the fee before such questions
are answered.

500 K. W. DYNAMO DEVELOPS thing semed to be in favor of its perfect when the switch is open half-way it makes
BURNT SPOTS ON operation. But still these spots developed connection, so that the field can discharge
COMMUTATOR, just as you After some thought on
state. thru a resistance. This resistance in some
Geo. W. B., Chicago, III, inquires
the matter itwould seem from later experi- cases has been formed of a lamp bank, and
(990)
of the "Oracle"
ences, that some of the following troubles if you try this, you will be surprised to see

Q. 1. What causes commutator bars to


might be the cause of these burnt spots how brightly the lamps flash up whenever
appearing on the commutator the field switch is open, i;e., when the dy-
burn, blacken and roughen up in the fol-
lowing manner? There arc about 4 bars namo is being shut down and after the
under a set of brushes and every set of 4 lllillllllliiiillllllllllllliliilillllllilllllllllllllllllllllllillliiiili
main D. C. bus-bar switch has been
opened. The field magnet, of course, pos-
bars spaced equally between centers of field
poles will blacken. Description of ma- m ODD PHOTOS WANTED AT sesses very high self induction, and when
chine D. C. 500 K. W. rope drive, 8 poles,
: I $1.00 m
EACH!!! the field switch is opened, a very high self-
compound wound, 220 volts. Even airgap I
g
iVoic
Kodak pay for
is the ^
time
a real practi- J
to make your induced current occurs in the field wind-
ings, tending to prolong the magnetization,
all around, commutator undercut, commu- itself in
tator true, field coils equal strength, no H cal way. IVe are after interesting ^ and causing therefore, a very heavy current
of high e.m.f. to occur when the switch is
reversed coils, no overload, machine runs g photographs of out-of-the-ordinary g
alone most of the time; sometimes in par- ^ radio and
electrical, sub- 3 scientific suddenly opened. Practically all dynamos
allel with a \SQ K. W. Brushes have a per- W jects and arc willing pay $1.00 cash J to above 50 K.W. capacity are and should be
H for every one we can use. Please g provided with proper protective field dis-

= production a magazine, a photo- H


g bear in mind that for half-tone re- charge resistance and field break switches
in g of the type described.
B graph should be particularly sharp g 2. It seems that insufiicient brush tension

^ and Of course,
clear. a subject g
interest us particularly H
if would also cause this trouble, not perhaps
s happens to while the machine is rotating at its normal
H well, can hai'C the photo re- g
Zi'C speed and load, but due to a tendency which
J touched. For the general run of sub- g the brushes in such a case might have to
g suchhowever,
jects, does not pay go g
it to jump when the machine was started.
M to expense. Therefore, please S 3. Another possible but hardly probable
H take pains properly focus and ex- H
to source of this burning might be traced to
hard commutator bars. High mica would
g pose your pictures. often happens g It
S that a really mediocre subject g u'ell also cause the trouble, but as you state, in
your particular case the mica has been
W: photographed wins approval over an g
m excellent subject poorly photographed, g undercut.
g And don't send us plate or film"nega- H 4. Trouble is often experienced in power-
g lives": send unmounted or mounted H station work where two or more dynamos
M "prints", preferably a light and dark g are run in parallel, and especially if there
is any weakness in the design of the equal-

g As photograph: Well, H
to zi'hat to izing circuit between the two or more ma-
chines, which may cause heavy cross cur-
g that's hard for us say. We leave g to
g that up you, and every reader now g
to rents to pass between the two machines.
As you win readily conceive, such a current
g has the opportunity become a re- g to
which might be caused by a parli unbal-
g porter of the things the realm g
latest in
ancing of the load between the two ma-
1

A Large Dynamo Armature Develops Burnt g of Electricity, Radioand Science, g chines, might cause a momentary and in
Spots on the Commutator at Equally Spaced ^ But, please remember the "odd, g it's
Points, Corresponding to the Pole Pitch. One
M novel or practical stunts" that tec are g fact a fairly high e.m.f. transitory current
ot the Remedies Suggested Is That the
Armature Be Equipt with Balancing or Cur- g interested in. Every photo submitted = to pass thru tlie brush and commutator sys-
tem of one of the machines, and such a
rent Equalizing Rings, as Here Illustrated,
which Shows Them Applied to a Parallel-
g should be accompanied by a brief de- g current would tend to have the effect of
Wound D. C. Dynamo Armature. These ^ scription of 100 to ISO 'words.
Give g producing the burnt commutator.
Rings Help to Equalize Any Heavy Cross g the "facts" don't tvorry about the g
Currents In the Armature which Might Pro- g style. We'll attend to that. Enclose g 5. Another trouble which would seem to
duce Such Troubles. g stamps if photos are to be returned H point very strongly as a frequent source of

feet gloss, practically no sparking. Four


g
s
and place a piece of cardboard in the g this trouble, and one also that is very often

hundred segments to the commutator, all


envelope with them to prevent muti-
Look around your toivn and H
g overlooked entirely, is the unequal distribu-

Sanding commutator stops the trou-


g lation. tion of the armature curren' in such a large
machine as this. The Editor recollects a
tight.
for 2 to 6 months. What causes it?
g see what you can find that's inter- g
fcle
A. Wewere particularly interested in
g esting. g '
case at one of the southern universities a
few years ago, where no end of trouble was
1.
J Address photos to Editor "Odd H
the phenomenon you describe where the experienced in the operation of a large
500 K. W. D. C dynamo, which altho ap-
g Photos", El.F.CTRICAL Exi'ERIMF.NTER, g
D. C. generator unit, due to this very rea-
parently in perfect shape and maintenance,
g 2Zi Fulton Street, New York City. g son, i.e., the unequal distriliution of the
develops burnt spots all around the com- lllllliilllllllllllllllllllllliilllllllllllllilllillllllllllillilllllllll current thru the armature windings. This
mutator at points corresponding to the defect in design, for that, of course, is what
spacing of the brush studs. 1. From experience with several smaller it is, causes a number of current paths to

The Editor of the Oracle, while serving machines, especially motors on elevator be set tip periodically around the armature,
as engineer in a large power house some service, it would seem that field discharge and comparatively heavy currents will start
years ago, had similar trouble, and it prac- currents, which are often of very high in- flowing around these paths, their area being
tically defied solution by any of the experts stantaneous e.m.f. value, would be liable to that enclosed between the axial lines of the
who attempted to remedy it. Also in this cause this burning. The remedy, or rather two field poles in most instances. In the
case, it is clearly recollected that the ma- safeguard, against such trouble from this case in question, thic was finally solved by
chine, of about the size you mention, was source would be to provide a field break the proper designing and installation of
in very fine running condition, and every- switch fitted with an extra contact, so that (Continued on page 888)
April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 887

The Opportunities
In Draftsmanship Make a Bigger Income
By CHAS. W. MOREY
President Chicago Technical College

During the twenty-


five years in which I

have had exceptional


opportunities to observe
the progress of techni-
cal work of every char-
acter, I have never
known of such oppor-
tunities as exist today Great
for competent drafts-
men.
'
demand Z^6'^''i<if

Very naturally the '^fordrafts-


war had a great effect men now. Still
iiiiiiiii ^greater demand in
in producing the present conditions. Men
were called from the drafting room to the prospect. War over,
trenches, leaving great gaps in our industrial building is to be resumed
organization which have not yet been filled.
I'-atfB-'AqrtM'
and manufacturing to
And now when the war is over, we find many expand to meet home and
>>> ^.j^- , .
rz'-r<f-o* foreign needs which means
men not returning to their old jobs. see We
business pushing harder than ever for markets.
plenty of good positions for ^^VvHHM[B|I1
We hear of great building operations to be draftsmen. Take up this paying pro- X^^i^WMMM
fession. The Chicago "Tech" method
undertaken. We
see a vast area of Europe
is the quickest, easiest way to become a
devastated beyond description, to be rebuilt
and very largely I believe with American ma- draftsman in spare time while you hold 't WerAC^Mrr
terial and with the help of American technical
your present position. That proved before
experts.
you pay a penny. (See free lesson offer below.)
When it is considered that the draftsman Send coupon. Learn how to earn
must be employed on every detail that goes
into the manufacture of structural work of
every kind, machinery, ships, railroads, build-
ings, etc., the vast field for men in this pro-
*25 to 100
fession can be somewhat appreciated.
The problem before thousands of ambitious
young men is not whether to become drafts-
men or not, but how and where to learn most
quickly and thoroughly.
a Week or More
at interesting work with opportunities to rise to superintendent, manager,
orother executive positions. Let the Chicago"Tech"engineers train you
Formerly it was necessary to attend a resi-
. _. , /\ r At least get the free lesson and information.]
dent school, which often meant giving up a
position and spending time as well as money. Drawing Uutrit Easy Payments
It also often meant, if a man wanted to gradu-
{No fees for Chicago "Tech' courses are very moderate and
ate, taking studies not really bearing upon The '

Extra you can pay on easy terms. And also you can obtain in a few
technical training. Some got their training Charge) months what it would take several years to acquire by ordinary
in drafting rooms of factories, architects' of- methods. You can getan early start. You are soon ready to take
fices, or other places where they started out a paying position and toquickly get back the cost of your course.
as boys and slowly worked their way up.
It has remained, however, for correspond-
ence instruction to give every man a chance
to become an expert in any branch of drafts-
manship without leaving any job he may have
and as quickly as his industry will let him
in DraftBrnanship receives this draw-
ing outfit eet'of instruments in case,
the Chica-
go "Tech"
Home
Study
Course
CD 1717 TEST
r Ixllilli LESSON
drawing bcard.Tsquare, triangles, scale,
pass from one lesson to another. curve, drawing paper, pencils, etc., or Other institutions ask you
The Chicago Technical College by its method a cash credit in case he already has an to pay firstand then to find
of training has prepared and is now preparing outfit- Vou use them while learning. then out later how well qualified
take them right into your pructiiml work. you are for this profesBion.
men everywhere to study in spare time at MOTp , Enrolled with Chicapo "Tech"
*^^^ A i- you have the personal direc-
We send the free lesson first
home and then to step into high-paying posi- tion of practical engineers, buildens and
and place you under no obli-
architects who teach you the methods they
gation at all. Discover your
tions.
use in their own work. No useless tlieorles. qualifications before you
By this method no time is wasted on un- no time wasted. You are prepared to stand payanything. And see for
necessary branches. The student gets exactly beside old, experienced men. Big advant- yourself just what Chicago
age to learn Trora a staff like this every "Tech" offers you in train-
the training he will use in practical work and man a specialist. ing which will bring a
in every case he has the direct personal in-
struction of specialists in the branch he has
Come To the College or ready market for your
services and open oppor-
selected.
Before he decides about enrolling, any man
TRAIN at
Wherever you are you can hava
HOME
this Chicaeo
tunities which areclosed
to the untrained man.
The coupon will bring
can easily find out just how well qualified he Tech" training. Comul-te jnitructiur by mail. all the facts about the
Exercises, lt-3soni. perioral rtnectu/n of our ex-
course, the small fee,
may be to follow Draftsmanship. A test les- I)eris riyht in ymr own hi)nn: if you cannot comi
to the LuileKr? lur a leaident course, bend the and the easy terms.
coupon and get the facts.
son is sent free to show the plan of instruction
and to give the prospective student a chance to Mark with X the branch
"size himself up." Auto and Gas you ore intereatcd in-or
if in doubt about wnich
courie totake, write a let-
We are ready to help ambitious men to get Engine Course terata'ing facta about yourself andankine
our nilvic which will be freely given.
into this great profession with the least ex- Allabout automobilemechanism ita Mai) either the coupon or the tetter today.
pense of time and money. We here know what construction, operation and REPAIR
taught by mail. You train directly under
the opportunities are. The calls we have to the Chicago" Tech" automobile experts. CHICAGO TECHNICAL COLLEGE,
Splendid opportunities open now.
furnish good draftsmen to every kind of an 445 Chicago *'Tech** Building, Chicago
organization prove every day that the job is Learn All This in Spare Time Without obligation upon me, send your Catalog on subject indicated
Alt about the Principles of the Auto- below. Also FREK Lesson if inquiry is on Drafting or Plan Reading.
always ready for the man who can fill it. If mobile. Mark X opposite work in which you are especially interested.
young men throughout the country could only All about Gasoline Engines.
All about Power Plants and Trans- n Architectural Drafting Plan-Reading Buildings
realize what a future there is in Draftsman- missions. D Machine Drafting D Plan-Reading Shop Men
ship, many a one now wondering what his
about Carburetors and Fuel Sup-
All D Electrical Drafting D Estimating
ply Systems. Structural Drafting D Surveying
future is to be would come to a quick decision. All about Lubrication and Coolinj?. D Sheet Metal Drafting D Map Drafting
All about Batteries.
I hope that every reader of the Electrical All about Magneto Ignition. n Builders' Course n Autoa and Gift Enginaa
All about Starting and Lighting
Experimenter who is now doubtful about the Syeteros.
calling he is to follow will write for informa- Know How To Fix Troubles
tion on one of our Drafting courses. If in Most complete instruction in auto
repair work. Ekjuips you for high pay
doubt about which branch to take up, a letter or to start a business. Big demand for
sent to me personally will bring suggestions trained repair men. City State.,
based on my own experience and that of our llf ^,_ Send the coupon and get cat-
" rite alogand all in format iun now.
staff. College or Homi^ Study? State which..

You benefit by jiientiotiiitg the "Electrical Exf'crimcnter" when writing to advertisers.


: :

886 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

THE ORACLE. wire, taking off taps from the third, fourth,
fifth and .six layers.
(Coii/iiiMrti from page 886)
Preserve Your We very strongly surmise from the
current equalicitif! riitys placed on the bacl- symptoms you give in your letter concern-
Phonograph Records! of the armature, as shown in the acccm-
panying illustration. ' C3
^lany different windings have been p.'O-
posed and used successfully, but the ma- f\f\i\i\r\r\r\r\
jority of direct-current armatures are
wound with either the single-parallel ring
winding, the single-parallel drum winding,
or the single-series drum winding. The pm
single-parallel drum winding is probably
more used than any otlier, and, on large
t
multipolar machines, any unbalanced con- / sguors ir'ter iron corg
dition in the magnetic circuits is likely to
cause the current to divide unequally
among the several paths thru the arma-
ture. For example, if the air gap on one How Choke or "Ballasf Coll Is Made for
Use in an A. C. Arc Lamp Circuit. This
side of the armature becomes slightly Takes the Place of the Resistance Coil in a
shorter than that on the opposite side, D. C. Arc Lamp.
which may easily occur due to wear of the
ing the failure of the arc to operate, that
A^Ordinary Dew.
Steel Needle.
bearings, the flux in the short air gap will
this is the trouble, as on A. C. circuits re-
B As the ordiniry needle wear 3 down, w(Bf become unduly dense, thus causing the gen-
sistance will give a very poor break spark,
f iti lapfrform, it can no longer ht the eration of higher e.m.f. in the armature
and for this purpose there is required an
record groove pcrlcctir and *^a9 a tend- conductors on that side than in those on
ency towear the record.
inductance of the order described above.
the other side, and the path that develops
OSonora Needle having parill&t tid*f the highest e.m.f. takes the greatest share
ALWAYS fits record Eroo- -: exactly and
of the current. In some cases this unbal- HOMOPOLAR DYNAMO.
Icnetfaeos the record life.
anced condition may not be bad enough to (992) O. S. M.. U. S. N. R. F., writes:
TvarawmHT v quality .-^

Srmanorfi cause trouble other than some slight spark-


ing, but in extreme cases, the e.m.f. of one
Q. 1. Giving a sketch of a commutator-
less D. C. dynamo which he has invented
path or of the paths on one side of the and believes to be entirely new.
armature may become so excessive as to A. 1. We have looked over your draw-
Semi-Permanent Silvered reverse the current in some of the other ings and description of what you term a -

NEEDLES paths, making part of the armature act as a direct current commutator-less dynamo,
Replace steel needles! generator and part of it as a motor at the and while you appear to have something
n*r pUr 60 to 100 tlniM wltbooC wariD out same time. This condition is usually ac- new inthe peculiar design of the pole-
companied by severe vibration of the whole shoes of the field magnet and the arrange-
Ue Sonora Needles mellower for
machine, due to excessive mechanical ment of the armature inductors, the whole
tone, greater economy, conveni- strains, with more or less violent sparking principle of this type of dynamo has been
ence and for longer record life. or tiashing at the brushes, and the machine known for the last forty years or more.
l^ud AUdium Soft is said to be "bucking." On account of the In other words what you have shown is
effects of armature reactions, bucking is simply the well-known "homopolar" dy-
30c per card of 5 somewhat more liable to occur in motors namo, also called the "unipolar" dynamo.
Sample Needle FREE Wrtte font. I than in generators. The bad effects due to Faraday's first disk type dynamo belonged
>onora |3f)onograp!) ba\ti unbalancing can be eliminated by providing to this class. All machines of this type
the armature with equalizer rings as shown. have the disadvantage of producing a very
ompanp,3)nt. By means of equally spaced leads these low electromotive force or voltage and are
GEOBGE E. BRIGUTSON. PrMldrat
rings connect points of equal potential in not usually practical, altho a few machines
179 Broadway, Dept G. ^^^w York the w'inding and allow an equalization of of this type have been used, where a very
Um SoDori Needles on all makes of current between the various paths in the heavy current at a potential of a few volts
sleel needle records armature. was desired. You will find all the informa-
CAUTION! Beware of rimiUrly .Sometimes erratic line disturbances, mo- tion you may desire in this direction by re-
coojtructed needles of inferior quality ferring to the following works
tor flare-backs, defective motor control ap-

i B paratus, will cause tlie effect you describe.


We would recommend that you look up
"Elementary Lessons in Electricity and
Magnetism," by Silvanus Thompson, page
498. Also you would do well to refer to
Humanize Your some of the better class books on D. C. ma-
chinery operation and design, particularly
those by Hobart and Parshall. which you
Professor Thompson's complete treatise,
"Dynamo Electric Machinery," and a most
Talking Machine can procure at your local library. thoro work covering the complete design
and calculation of the electrical as well as
with the Ellis "JIusic Master" Reproducer. II the magnetic circuits of the "homopolar"
Is adapted for alt makes of machines uslnif
disc records and entirely oFercomes those
BALLAST COIL FOR ALTERNAT- dynamo is given in Prof. Alfred E.
harsh, rasping, scratching, metallic Bounds. ING CURRENT ARC-LAMP. VViener's excellent book, entitled "Con-
disagreoable naaal tones and other annoying (991) Henry Tustin, Ocean Grove, N. tinuous Current Dynamo Electric Ma-
"faults". Brings out all the hidden harmoolefl. J.,
musif-al shading and tone coloring and makes writes chinery Design." These books are available
your old phonograph sound like an entirely Q. 1. I am
having trouble in operating thru our "Book Department."
dlfTerent in.strument. (Juaranteed for five years, an experimental arc-lamp on 110 volts. The outline of the action of the machine
but Improres with age and will last a lifetime. you show is in accordance with the opinion
Write for circular "E".
What can you suggest?
A. 1. Regarding the operation of arc of this machine given by Prof. Silvanus
Thompson, in which he says in part:
J. H. ELLIS, P.O. Box 88 lamp at 110 volts house lighting current,
you do not state what kind of current you "There is a class of dynamo-electric ma-
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
have, whether alternating or direct. For chine, differing entirely from any of the
one thing, this factor would determine commutating types, in which a coil or other
whether your experiment would be a suc- movable conductor slides around one pole
'gleabtone phonographs cess or not, for the reason that if you are of the magnet and cuts the magnetic lines
$4.00 to (200.00 Retail
NeedltS $45o per thousand In Ion of 500.000 trying to operate the arc on alternating cur- in a continuo%ts manner without any re-
Molon 1.35 to $14.75 each. Ttone Arms and
Itoproducers $1.30 to $5.75 per set. Main rent, then you will find invariably that it versals in the direction of the induced cur-
Sprtncs 20c to 90c each. Records. Nee^lles. will not operate well using a simple re- rents. Such machines, sometimes called
Rapphire Polnu and Parts at rfasonable
prices. sistance coil or rheostat in series with it. 'homopolar' or 'unipolar, hai'C a ziery low
Write for our 84 page catalogue, the only one electromotive force or voltape.
of lu kind In America, lllustrallnii MS dlfTer- For alternating current
operation the Faraday's
tnt styles of Talklnjr Machines and oyer 500 disk machine belonged to this class"
different Phonfigrai.hic fan.s. proper ballast is always composed of an ad-
LUCKY 13 PHONOGRAPH COMPANY justable impedance or choke coil made up
Eiport Dept 4>)I> y. i-'th St.. N . Y.. U.S A. The stream that has been supplying the
of an iron wire or laminated sheet iron
LANGUAGES
ON
OUICKL.V
LEARNED
PMONOORAPHS At_l_
core on which several layers of magnet
wire are wound. Where an ordinary 1,200
ancient city of Damascus with water for
forty centuries has been harnessed to pro-
vide electricity to light the city and operate
"Like teAn<Daa taneand aii<raar." Oar DUc B*eorda C. P. arc, such as used in ordinary- store
repeat the correct ajiccnt mmi prononciAtion until Toa a railway.
it. Family r I f nrnd* ..nj-py t^n^i^sce Study by tb lighting, etc.. is employed and taking about
LANGUAGE-PHONE METHOD 5 amperes on a 110- volt circuit, the im- According to an Italian scientist's fig-
And
flosenthal's Prscticat Uneuistry
W.r hi. -.^'.-'1 inti"iled
thoM who kr.o lin^uasei
ot't..>rtonltipi
Preoa^.- now
for
to
pedance coil may be composed of an iron ures, a square mile of the earth's surface in
hettr yoir position o- inrrpa,.: rour 6Ti.in..a
Used sod r-coounrn']?4 by ed'^tor in le.dini{
core about 4" x 2", as shown in the dia- six hours of sunshine receives heat equiv-
coUejt-. Writ- forn'.^kl-ta = d Fr Tri.IOffer. gram, and on one leg of which is wound
THE LAMCUAGE PHONE METHOD alent to the combustion of more than 2.600
931 Putnam BuHdiwg 2W 4<th St.. H.T. about six layers of No. 14 D. C. C. magnet tons of coal.
u-fil by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when uriting to advertisers.
:

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER '889

3aa<iiaiaai3ai3iii3aiatiitiijg<i(3tii3iitaai>sii3^i3^ij<^

You can be a Graduate


ELECTRICAL ENGINEER Our method of teaching saves you time and money in becom-
ing a graduate, practical, Electrical Engineer at Big Pay.
There a large and constantly increasing demand for Gradu-
is
ate Electrical Engineers. Our Diploma is accepted as evidence
of a competent, trained electrician. Hundreds of our Graduates
are now big, successful Electrical Engineers. They will tell you
what we have done for them. We can do the same for you in
your Sparc time at home. Read how these results are accom-
plished :

lEIrrtriral iEngtttppr
^b39xp)} (&. branch School oflEngtRMiliia Your object in taking a correspondence course is to Increase
your Earning Poivcr. To learn exactly what you need and not
waste your time and efforts on superfluous matter, is the shortest
1* CMflaeur WbtrMf '^/i means to that end. The Joseph G. Branch School of Engineering
_^/_ specializes in equipping you with the practical and usable knowl-
edge that enables you to qualify as an Electrical Engineer in the
shortest time, yet our course is practical and complete. This we
YOUR DIPLOMA definitely guarantee.

You Get Intensive, Selected, Personal Instruction


Our courses are simple, practical and easily understood. Everything is made clear. You do not become involved
in difficult technical matter of no practical value, and which is so discouraging to the student, but you go straight into
the principles of the subject and the application of these principles. Every one of our students gets personal instruction,
so that his progress is steady and sure. You can't fail with this course if you will simply follow our very clear directions.
One of our students says : "Your course is strong for the Engineer. It gives him the vital working knowledge of the
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$2,500 to $7,500 a Year


The course in Electrical Engineering covers the installa- practical Electrical Engineer without the
loss of time spent
tion and operation of all kinds of modern electrical machin- on endless theory and technical work of other
difficult
ery and appliances, including power plant work. viz. Prac- : methods. This has been inade possible by the thirty years
tical Electricity, Alternating Currents, the Electric Motor, of practical experience of Mr. J. G. Branch. B.S., M.E., in
Practical Mathematics and Electrical Wiring. Under Prac- the engineering field. This is now presented to you in
tical Electricity both direct and alternating currents, high compact, usable and easily learnable form. There is no
potential and high frequency currents are covered. course which will put you on a big salary basis in so short
You get everything that will make you a proficient, a time.

SEND FOR COMPLETE CATALOG, TESTIMON-


IALS AND LIST OF POSITIONS SECURED
Complete, Practical Correspondence Courses in
Electrical Engineering Power Plant Accounting
Stationary Engineering Practical Chemistry
Mechanical Refrigeration Practical Mathematics
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Drawing and Designing {Spanish course)
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We trained over 1,000 men for Government Marine Service This means
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all
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for
:t
Practical Electricity The Electric Motor
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YOU
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in helping them pel positions.
Dept. 14, S42 Dearborn St., Chicago
ADiploma from the Branch School of Engineering is a sure step Without obligation you may send me information about
to a better position and a larger salary. You can soon have your

Diploma without interfering with your i)resent work. your Special Offer on your course checked below
Electrical Engineering Drawing and Designing Practical Itlatliematics
SPECIAL OFFER Stationary Engineering Power Engineering Ingenieria Electrica
The price of the course is extremely low and just now we are Mechanical Refrigeration Power Plant Accounting (Spanish course)
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Address
ing. Dept. 14. 542 Dearborn Street. Chicago.
City .State
^l7i;)tSvti^i1i>i?iirS(ii(lt\i(riYii7itiit<it7ih^ Present Position.

Yon benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


.
890 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919
ments, Bow the staff i3 composed, and the divi-
sions into the various arms of the service, such
as cavalry, field artillery, coast artillery, infantry
;ind engineers. Then we learn about the various
coast artillery districts thruout the United States,
the various ranks held in the army, and the
duties of the officers holding these ranks, army
etiquette and customs including salutes and cour-
'W^AY UNDER M ANU- A \ EST-POCKET DICTIONARY OF
tesies in conversation, when and when not to
address a lieutenant by his title; how to address
FACTURER'S PRICEI TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN a colonel, et cetera.
Genuine. \is ble wriung Un-
derwoods i\.built in our fac-
tory, with Back Spacer, Tabu-
WIRELESS. Flexible cloth covers, 168 The succeeding chapters take up the composi-
tion of the navy and the organization of the
Over lator. Lateral Guide, Stencil pages, indexed alphalietically, size, 3-;4 x
naval force ashore, including an explanation at
lOO.OOO Attachment. 2-eolor Ribbon.
Waterproof Corer and Spe- lYi inches, price $0.75. Piiblisht by the last, on page 41, of the duties of the Bureau
U nd erw^ oocl 9 cial Touch _ Typewriting Wireless Press, Ltd., London, England. of Steam Engineering, and how it comes about
Sold to U. 5. GoTt. G'lide Book sent on 10 that the "Bureau of Steam Engineering" has to
l>^ys' Frtc Trial. Vi rite. A
very useful compendium of the principal wire-
do with the installation of Radio Equipment on
That makes rebuilt Un-
derwocKJs scarce. So- i'P<-ak
quick for yours. GuarHn-l
less terms which should prove useful to all radio
operators and students of the art. The various
ships of the navy and on shore a nice little
poser that has been asked many times thru our

teed for 5 years. You can technical terms are arranged alphabetically, and
rent, buv on easy terms, se- the subject matter given seems to cover most of "Oracle Department," and of the editors per-
cure cash discount or easily the more important terms used in radio engineering sonally every time we meet a "Radio-bug."
earn one thrfutrh ay' ''
and operating. Some of the detinitions are rather Tlien follow interesting chapters on naval eti-
plan; ro eanvassinff.
for Offer No. Id4 terse, and it seems that they could have been easily quette and customs, including what to do when
amplified without increasing the size of the book the officer of the deck passes you. when to
TYPEWRrrra emporium very much.^ For instance, we tind the term "billi- stand up, and when to sit down when a naval
34-36 Lake St, officer enters a cabin, and when an army officer
CHICAGO, IL
cinctly says
condenser," and the definition of the term suc-
"consists of a metallic tube made to enters a tent or barracks; what to say and how
slide over an insulating tube having a metallic to say it, why a "gob" or his high superior
lining." Tliis detinition does not mean very much officer must walk down Broadway in the pouring
to any radio man. and really it is nothing but a rain without an umbrella, and also you will find
trade definition, while as a matter of fact most ot it prescribed in the rules and regulations on
"tTGet aGood Job the regular text-books on wireless telegraphy de-
scribe this condenser as one having a definite
electrostatic capacity of one billi-farad.
naval etiquette, that it is unbecoming an officer
in uniform to carry a package of any kind.
at the close of the hum-drum of red tape, which
But
YoT] have the rpticirements nccesaaryto hold a ?ood This little
job but do you know hnw topftone? "1 his book en- work forms a handy, low-priced compilation of tells you how you shall place your feet, and
titled "Cettlng a Good Job," will tell you how. wireless terms which may prove of considerable use when you shall take off your hat, also when you
Based on the practices followed by bip. Buccessful to radio students and others interested generally in can use your handkerchief, and which proves
cmpJoyera, it tella what to do and say how to make this line of work. mighty interesting reading to us poor land-lub-
Clalk applications by letter how to cet per- liers. we come to the most interesting announce-
sonal interviews what kind or job to
choose references, how to nse them

ment that "it is customary for a committee of
or^Bwerioff ttdvertisemrnt* in all 135 officers, to make the round of calls on New Year's
-.-i^ Uiinceyoa shiuld l;now. It ostsa dol-
lat and may b worth thoQsaDda to you.
Day on all ships in the same port," and further
HAND-BOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND "when in Washington, customary on
MONEY BACK
ScndBdoltkr bill, atanipfl or money
PHYSICS A READY REFERENCE the
cials on
Secretary
New
it is
of the Navy and other high offi-
Year's Day, and you shall appear
to call

or>!er with ytir n."m and ad-


drr-as. Wt* irill nona the book at
POCKET-BOOK OF CHEMICAL AND in your full dress uniform." rain or shine, and
PHYSICAL DATA, by Charles
'

oce. INeit fivn ilTVfi and re-


turn It If yen don't think It worth
D. Hodg- leave your umbrella at home.
thf ri.iirnr, Vnur cdodo back if man, and
Melville F. Coolbaugh,
B.S.. Other chapters treat of the U. S. Marine Corps,
't kc*p
American Technical Society
it.
M.A. Flexible leather covers, 478 pages,
the coast guard and the light house service. We
then come to the sections dealing with the
0eptG.i04i Chicago size 7 X 4^
inches, price $2.00. Publisht strength and organization of foreifjn armies and
by The Chemical Rubber Company, navies with the insignia of rank printed in colors.
Cleveland, Ohio. The volume is one of the best works of this
kind ever publisht, and Lieut. Bunkley should
^Send To-day for the'\ This work is something out of the ordinary and
places in the hands of chemistry students and
be complimented
teresting style in
on the excellent and very in-
which he has compiled the
chemists in general a most excellent collection of work.
"Electrical Workers Friend" tables and formulas worked
quire many hours of search
out, which would re-
thru books on chem-
An electrical book of 66 motor
drawings with complete instruc-
tions for rewinding
ing AC. motors.
Or write fur
and reronneol-
full rartlculuri
Special at
of this
$
3^
valuable book.
istry and physics in order to
tities.

pounds;
There
physical constants
is

of
a

the
large
the complete equations for various organic com-
elements;
determine these quan-
number of tables giving
ELEMENTARY NAVAL ORDNANCE
AND GUNNERY, by Lieut. H. C. Ram-
physical data of organic compounds; qualitative
J. SMITH & SON analysis procedure; flame and bead testing; various sey. Limp leather cover, size, 4^ x 7^
1524 LOWRIE ST^ N^., PITTSBURGH. PA. solutions of salts an<l other reagents; solubility inches, illustrated and numerous draw-
charts, including a table giving the solubility of
ing plates. Publisht by Little, Brown &
GET ON THE
VAUDEVILLE
I tellyou hnw.
STAGE
Fascinating profession for
either sei. Big salaries. Experience un-
organic salts in water; a large number of tables
giving gravimetric factors and their logarithms;
tables of nitric and surf uric acids, as well as
ammonium hydroxid and potassium hydroxid, giv-
ing the proportion by weight and the correspond-
Company,
$3.00 net.
Boston, Mass.,

One of the most valuable works publisht dur-


1918, Price

ing specific gravities for these various chemicals in ing the war as a ready aid to the new students
necessary. Splendid engagements always
solution tables of sound and heat velocity and
in the Naval Gunnery
;
waiting. Opportunity for travel. Thea- Schools and also as a
conduction the various properties of saturated
trical agents and authorities endorse my
;

steam co-efficients of thermal expansion ; voltage


;
guide to instructors and those trying for com-
methods. Thirty years' experience as missions. It has been prepared in a simple, easy
manager and performer. Illust rater*
and composition of voltaic cells; sparking potential
or dielectric strength, wave length of principal and direct manner so that all classes of readers
book "All About Vaudeville" sent FREE, may readily acquire a correct and thoro knowl-
lines of various elements, for spectroscopic and
Frederick La Delle. Sta. 49, Jackson. Mich.
other work; tables giving Index of refraction for edge of the fundamentals and general principles
'POPriARITV FOLLOWS TUEf gases in solution as well as metals and glass, of the art of modern naval gunnery.

UKULELE.?^
yoa play quaint, dr.-atrry Hawnnan muaic ^
J
radio-active tables, etc., etc.
This is a practical hand-book which every
student of chemistry and physics should not be
Most of the material has been gathered from
lectures delivered at the Ensign School at Har-
If
or latest sons* un the Ukuldo you wi|l ba
vard University, and a number of interesting
without. It contains an excellent glossary of
wanWK) tTetrwhrre. W e It^ach by mail 20 J questions asked by students have been incorpo-
aimpio leaaoo^; ei^'wyou Ir^eanenuine Jf/*/j. technical terms with many chemical equations
HawaJlanUkuItla.muaie.ev-rythinB /^\^ /*' rated in the work with full answers.
" worked out and completed, also a large number
Doaxtraa. A>k ua to Band tha atory
of Hawaiian muaic. You will love It. of various physical formulas in mechanics, etc. A few titles of some of the more important
Mo ofalisationabaolutcly free, There is givi-n a considerable number of very chapters follow:
Naval Guns. Manufacture of
i- The HawaunIfMlituleof Mue_; useful and practical laboratory recipes, such as Naval Guns, Gun Mounts, Breech and Firing
^^^ ll'l;rr>ada-ar. Suitf ll>Jl.NiV.-rk ^-* those for silvering glass, making of pole test Mechanisms, Electrical Firing Mechanisms, Tur-
paper, making
cross-hairs for telescopes, etc.; rets, Gunpowder, Projectiles. Magazines, Inspec-
various of photographic developing solu-
forms tions and Tests, Spotting, Sighting, Fire Control,
PourRed.Whife Blue tions
A
forplates and printing papers, etc.
both
very complete bibliography is appended at the
The Battery in Action, Care of Turrets, Auto-
matic Machine Rifles, Battle Drills, The Gunnery
from a Glass of Wafer close of the book, giving a valuable titled list of
several hundred works on chemistry and physics.
Officer of a Ship, Infantry.
Toio can taratiry y^ nrmiB with pUZZllnff
arrret letters wltB
The volume is well indexed. TTie chapter on Infantry has been included in
-h'MTiiral trlckn; w.
matiL- your
ink; maki.'
Ink;
invifiiljlr
Ir y< ownn magic wnuny
wntiny order that those new to the service may under-
a;^r nnd your own blue Ink or ink powder.
I
stand some of the newer positions as practised
\Vrit. with fcattr and have It turn blue. Yoa
r;,-i ;. i.r ".-"! !njtly plain watr Into. i.hre
^,, ,._ .hre in this branch of the service.
rurn rrd
It turn one white to
Tt-i\ In one. In
MILITARY AND NAVAL RECOGNI-
ip , .

the third. Send twenty- There is no doubt but that this book will fill
id aret your outfit i>-f

ti/Qp ti
nd nirht nway^ w
recaivaacapr of Tba
TION BOOK, bv Lieut. J. \V. Bunkley, a very distinct want amongst those who are
Navy. Cloth bound, 224 pages, 51 studying this subject, besides serving to give
_.__
U. S.
neforboya, .
Junior the layman a real glimpse into what a tremendous
.1A^T' Out-
O^/^ full page plates. 18 being in color, size part Gunnery plays in every battle engagement
f-.
THE PORTER CHEMICAL
Arcade Building
-' .nil tToO.
CO.,
Hagarstown.Md. Poatp a
^ vJk^. 5x7 inches, price $1.00. Pul)lisht by whether on land or sea. Lieut. Ramsey is to
D. Van Nostrand Company, New York be complimented upon the excellent style in
rj\T\ '7TD Patented City. which he has covered the work in hand. The
Z/ln-Z.lr Sept. 3nL 19X8
This work proved of great value during the
illustrations are particularly fine and show at a
Artirl- on the Market.
war and is one of the best ever publisht on the glance just how the breech mechanisms of the
fiCtury the aame
The Proniria subject of military and naval organizations thru- great naval cannon work as well as the small
nrvcr break
iind out the world, giving as it does not only the arms, including automatic rifles, machine guns,
different insignia of rank in the various organi- etc. Every kind of projectile is fully explained
_plenl)r >.' fp 6f d line L^V zations of the principal countries of the workl, with sectional drawings, how the powder is placed
Zi[., <-r>'r>(-'r'r, orly 50C pte-
but the customs of the service as well, such and computed, calculating the range from a
-ad. H<^ r-urc the name /-i|.-
ip ami o(ir a^'ire** apt>^ar as etiquette of enlisted men and officers, etc. moving war-vessel with the compensations made
i>r\th^ arti.-Ia you buy. Order This book has been endorsed by the Secretary
iTf>ui III or any Sportins Good' for wind, speed of target, -temperature of pow-
of the Navy. The treatment starts with the
der charge, etc., etc. A most interesting, authen-
Storcin vonrcil*. >end3t*II>p*,
O-in ..r Money Order. organization of the army bureaus and corps, the
AUTOMATIC RUBBER CO. composition of the army and its various depart- tic and valuable work.
COLUMBIA, S. C.

You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


:
April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 891

Free Proof that I Can


Raise Your Pay
No matter how much you
are earning now, I can show you how to I don't claim I can make you
rich over night.
Maybe I can maybe I Sometimes I have
can't.
have even taken failures and shown them how everyone has.
,

increase it. 1 failures But


do claim that I can
I

to make $100
$200, and in once case as high as $2,000 weekly. help 90 out of every 100 people if they will let me.
The point of it all. my friend, is that you are
I am willing to prove this entirely at my risk and expense. using only about one-tenth of that wonderful brain
of yours. That's why you haven't won greater
success. Throw the unused nine-tenths of your
brain into action and you'll be amazed at the almost
have a little chat about getting ahead it isto want for money, friendship, happiness,
LET'S
you and I. My name is Pelton. health or any of the good things of life.
instantaneous results.
The Will is the motive power of the brain.
''
Lots of people call me "The Man Who That "secret" surely made me rich in every Without a highly trained, inflexible will, a man
has about as much chance of attaining success lu
Makes Men don't deny it.
Rich." 1 I've sense of the word.
done it for thousands of people Ufted them life as a railway engine has of crossing the con-
tinent without steam. The biggest ideas have no
up from poverty to riches. value without will-power to "put them over." Yet

I'm no genius far from it, I'm just a plain,
everyday, unassuming sort of man. I Itnow
what poverty is. I've looked black despair in
M
to
Y sudden
prised others.
me and asked
rise

me
to riches
One by one
naturally sur-
people came
how I did it. I told
the will, alt ho heretofore entirely neglected, can
be trained into wonderful power like the brain or
memory and by the very same method intelligent
exercise and use.

the eye had
failure stalk me around and them. And it worked for them as well as it If you held your
would become
arm
in a sting for two years, it
powerless to lift a feather from lack
hoodoo everything I did. I've known the bit- did for me. of use. The same is true of the Will it becomes
terest kind of want. Some of the things this "secret" has done useless from lack of practice. Because we don't
But to-day all different. I have money
is for people are astounding. I would hardly
use our Wills because we continually bow to cir-
cumstancewe become unable to assert ourselves.
and all of the things that money will buy. I believe them if I hadn't seen them with my What our wills need is practice.
am money won't
rich also in the things that own eyes. Adding ten, twenty, thirty or Develop your will-power and money will flow
buy health,
happiness and friendship. Few forty dollars a week to a man's income is a in on you.
you.
Rich opportunities will open up for
Driving energy you never dreamed you had
people have more of the blessings of the world mere nothing. That's merely playing at it. will manifest itself. Vou will thrill with a new
than I. In one case I took a rank failure and in a few power
a power that nothing can resist. You'll
weeks had him earning as have an influence over people that you never
-^ high as :i^2 ,000.00 a week.
thought possible.
want it

Success in whatever form you
will come as easy as failure came before.
was a simple thing that
ITjumped Listen to this And those are only a few of the things the "secret"
me up from pov- A Few Examples
A young man in the East will do for you. The "secret" is fully explained in
As I've said, the wonderful book "Power of Will."
erty to riches. Personal Experiences
had an article for which there
I'm no genius. But I had the Among over D.'iO.OOO users of "Power How You Can Prove This at My Expense
of Will"* are such men as Judge Beu was a nation-wide demand.
good fortune to know a gen- B. Lindsev Supreme Court Justice T KNOW you'll
;
For twelve years he "puttered think that I've claimed a lot.
ius. One day this man told Parker: \Vu Titig Fang, Ex. U. S.
round" with it, barely eking out ' Perhaps you think there must be a catch some-
Chinese Ambassador: A3sistant Post-
me a "secret." It had to do master General Britt Lieul. Gov. a living. Today this young man where. But here is my offer. You can easily make

;

with getting ahead and grow- McKelvie of Nebraska: General Man- is worth $200,000. He is build- thousands you can't lose a penny.
ing rich. He had used it him-
ager Christeson of Wells-Farno Ex-
press Co. E. St. Elmo Lewis, former
ing a $25,000 home
and paying
Send no money no. not a cent. Merely clip
;
cash for it. He has three auto- the coupon and mail it to me. By return mail
Vice-Pres. Art Metal Construction
self with remarkable results. Co. Gov. Ferris of Michigan, and
:
mobiles. His children go to pri- you'll receive not a pamphlet, but the whole
He said that every wealthy many others of equal prominence. vate schools. He goes hunting, "secret" told in this wonderful book, "POWER
OFWILL."
man knew this "secret," that $300 Profit from One Day's Reading
fishing, traveling whenever the
mood strikes him. His income is Keep it five days. Look it over in your home.
is why he was rich. "The result from one day's study over a thousand dollars a week. Apply some of its simple teachings. If it doesn't
netteti me $300 cash. I think it a show you how you can increase your income many
I used the "secret." It In a little town in New York
surely had a good test. At
great bc)k and would not bo without
it for ten times the cost." A. W. lives a man who two years ago
times over just as it has for thousands of others
mail the book back. You will be out nothing.
Wilke, Faulkton. So. Dakota. was pitied by all who knew him.
that time I was flat broke. From the time he was 14 he had But if you do feel that "POWER OF WILL"
Worth $15,000 and More
Worse than that, for I was
"The book has been worth raore

worked and slaved and at sixty wil! do for you what it has done for over a

quarter of a million others if you feel as they do
he was looked upon as a failure.
several thousand dollars in
the hole. I had about given
than $15,000 to nie." Oscar B. Shep-
pard. 1117 E. Locust St., Decatur.
Without work in debt to his that it's the next greatest bonk to the Bible send
me only three dollars and you and I'll be square.

111. charitable friends, with an in-
up hope when I put the If you pass this offer by, I'll be out only the
Would Be Worth $100,000 valid son to support, the outlook
*'secret" to work. "If I had onlv had it when I was was pitchy black. small profit on a thrfee-dollar sale. But you you
may easily be out th^e difi'erence between what
'

20 years u\i\. I would he worlh Then he learned
At first couldn't
believe
I
$100,000 today. It is worth a hundred
the "secret." you're making now and an income- several times as
my sudden change in fortune.
times the price." S. W. Taylor, Tho
In two weeks he was in business
for himself. In three months his
great. So you see you've a lot a whole lot more
to lose than I.

Sante Fe Ry., Milans, Tex.
Money actually flowed in on plant was working night and day
me. I was thrilled with a Salary Jumped from $150 to $800 to fill orders. During 1916 tlie
Mail the coupon or write a letter now you
may never read this offer again.

"Sinre I read Power of Will my profits were $20,000. During
new sense of power. Things salar>- has jumped from $1.10 to $sou 1917 the profits ran close to PELTON PUBLISHING COMPANY
I couldn't do before became
a month." J. F. Gibson, San Diego, $40,000. And this genial 64-year- 30-H WILCOX BLOCK MERIDEN, CONN.
Cal. young man is enjoying the pleas-
as easy for me to do as open-
ures and comforts he Pelton Publishing Company
ing a door. My
business From $100 to $3,000 a Month
"One of our boys who read I'nwer dreamed would ever be his.
little
30-H Wilcox Block, Meriden, Conn.
boomed and continued to of Will hffure he over here T COULD tell you thousands of
fnmi $iun a month to
caiiie You may send me "Power of Will" at your risk.
leap ahead at a rate that jumpt-ii $:i.000 * siniilar instances. But there's I agree to remit $3.00 or remail the book to you in
the flrsl nioiith, and won a %'1'A) prize
no need to do this, as I'm willing
startled me. Prosperity be- for the best salesmanship in the five days.
tn tell you the ".secret" itself. Name
came my partner. Since that State." Private Leslie A.
E. F. France.
Siill, A.
Then you can put it to work and
; . . . .

day I've never known what see what it will do for you. Addr

You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


! J
892 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

\Tobacco Habit The Moon's Rotation


BilNISHEDm (Continued ram page 866
f.
4a ioTS Hours festly absurd and of no bearing on the consumed in the supposed axial rotation,
question under consideration. which is, consequently, wholly illusionaryj
Ill all the coninimiications 1 have received, Something even more interesting may, how-
tho different in the manner of presentation, ever, be stated. As I have shown before,
No craving for tobacco in anyi the successive changes of position in space a ball flying off will rotate at the rate of
when j'ou begi n taki ng Tobacco are mistaken for axial rotation. So, for in- the wheel and in the same direction. But
Don't try to quit the tobacc
aided. It'saloeingfit'btag'ainsth __ .
stance, a positive refutation of my argu- this whirling motion, unlike that of a pro-
and means a serious ehock to the nervoue ments is found in the observation that the jectile, neither adds to, nor detracts from,
Byetem. Let tfac tobacco habit quit YOU.
It will Quit you, if you will just take
moon exposes all sides to other planets the energy of the translatory movement
Tobacco Redeemer, according: to direc- It revolves, to be sure, but none of the which is exactly equal to the work con-
tions for two or three days. It is a most evidences is a proof that it turns on its sumed in giving to the mass the observed
marvelouely quick and thoroughly reliable fl
I remedy for the tobacco habit, ' axis. Even the well-known experiment velocit)-.
with the Foucault pendulum, altho exhib- From the foregoing it will be seen that
I Not aRedeemer
Substitute
Tobacco contains no habit-
I iting similar phenomena as on our globe,
would merely demonstrate a motion of the
in order to make one physical revolution on
its a.xis the moon should Iiave twice its
I fonningdrugreof any kind.
a Bubetitute for tobacco.
It is in no sense H
H satellite about smiic axis. The view 1 have present angular velocity, and then it would
After finishing'
the treatmentyou have absolutely no desire advanced is XOT
B.^SED THE- ON A contain a quantity of stored energy as given

I to use tobacco agrain or to continue the use


I ORY but on facts dciiionstrahh by c.rf'cri- in my above letter to the New
York '^ih-
of the remedy. It makes not a particle of vicnt. It is not a matter of definition as une. on the assumption that the radi' s of
difference how long you have been using
tobacco, how much ytiu use or in what form
H some would have A MASS REVOLV- gyration is 2/5 that of figure. This, of
I you a-e it whether you emoke cigars. * IXG OX ITS AXIS MUST BE POSEST
it.
course, is uncertain, as the distribution of
cigarettes, pipe, chew plug or fine cut or
uaeBDuff,TobaccoRedeemer will positive-
OF MOMENTUM. If it has none, there density in the interior is unknown. But
ly banish every trace of desire in from 48 is no axial rotation, all appearances to the from the character of motion of the satel-
to 72 hours. This we absolutely goiarantee contrary notwithstanding. lite it may be concluded with certitude that
in every case or money refunded.
Write today forour free bookletshowing
I
h .\ few simple rertections based on well it is dez'oid of momentum about its axis.

thedeadlyeffectof tobaccoupon the human H establisht mechanical principles will make If it be bisected by a plane tangential to the
eyetem and positive proof that Tjbacca
Redeemerwillquickly free you of the habit. "~
H
.1 this clear. Consider tirst the case of two
equal weights if and Wi, in Fig. 1, whirled
Newell Pharmacal Company, about the center O on a string .s as shown.
Z>cpt. 52 1 St Louis. Mo.
I -\ssuming the latter to break at a both
weights will fly off on tangents to their

Write For New ^ circles of gyration, and, being animated


with different velocities, they will rotate
iBcr{s\ AlTO-n'HEEL
BOOKLET, and
around their common center of gravity o.
If the weights are whirled is times per sec-

FREE FELT PENNANT ond then the speed of the outer and the
inner one will be, respectively, V 2 ^
Send Da the names of three coaster waffon dealers, R +
/) n and Vi :^ Z'^(R r) n, and the

(
mentionins which handle tb AUTO-WHEIEL, and
wc"lJ Bend yoQ a beaatifol Felt Pennant FREE and ditTerence (' I'l ^
4iT r n, will be the
tell yoa a]l ahoat the wonderful Aoto-Wheel Coaster length of the circular path of the outer
and the patented Aoto-Wheel Convertible Roadster.
weight. Inasmuch, however, as there will
Diagram illustrating the Rotation of Weights
WmMo'I TOU iJke Orfaabe a Coaster Clab?
to be equalization of the speeds until the mean Thrown Off By Centrifugal Force.
It's ercat fun. Every member receives o F F.
cap and the Captain a spoo^at cap. When
yon write, be eure to ask for full in
value is attained, we shall have = orbit, the masses of the two halves are
forriLation and the new Auto-Wheel 2 inversely as the distances of their centers
Booklet. It'a briaiful
information you should have.
of 2'^rn =
2'i'rN, X
being the number of of gravity from the earth's center and,
revolutions per second of the weights therefore, if the latter were to disappear
The BoHalo Sled Co. around their center of gravity. Evidently suddenh', no axial rotation, as in the case
Dept.163 N.Ton- then, the weights continue to rotate at the of a weight thrown off, would ensue.
awanda, N. Y. original rate and in the same direction. I

In Canada: know this to be a fact from actual ex- WHAT IS MAN?


Preston, periments. It also follows that a ball, as .\ man weighing 150 pounds will contain
Ont. that shown in the figure, will behave in a appro.ximatelj- 3,500 cubic feet of gas,
similar manner for the two half-spherical oxygen, hj-drogen and nitrogen in his con-
masses can be concentrated at their centers stitution, which at eighty cents per thousand
of gravity and in and )i, respectively, cubic feet would be worth $2.80 for illumi-
which wili be at a distance from o equal to nating purposes. He also contains all the
^'8 ' . .
necessary fats to make a 15-pound candle,
.

This being understood, miagine a number and thus, together with his 3,500 cubic feet
of balls ^1/ carried by as many spokes ,S" of gases, he possesses considerable illumi-
radiating from a hub //. as illustrated in nating possibilities. His system contains
Fig. 2, and let this system be rotated n 22 pounds and ten ounces of carbon, or
times per second around center O on fric- enough to make 780 dozen, or 9,360 lead
tionless bearings. A certain amount of pencils. There are about fifty grains of

cMo-Whed work w'ill be required to bring the struc-


ture to this speed, and it will be found that
it equals exactly half the product of the
masses with the square of the tangential
iron in his blood and the rest of the body
would supply enough of this metal to make
one spike large enough to hold his weight.
.\ healthy man contains 54 ounces of phos-
BOYS BUILD THIS CAR velocity. Now if it be true that the moon phorus. This deadly poison would make
800,000 matches, or enough poison to kill
This nifty little car driven by gasoline rotates in reality on its axis this must also
^
motor, can be built by any boy. Parts
are furnished by us and are very hold good for EACH
of the balls as it per- five hundred persons. This, with two ounces
^\ ^B cheap. Hend 2 6 cents for building forms the same kind of movement. There- of lime, make the stiff bones and brains.
^ -^* rlang and urice list of parts showinK
bow to fore, in imparting to the system a given No difference how sour a man looks, he
build this contains about 60 lumps of sugar of the
lads' ear.
velocity, energy must have been used up in
the axial rotation of the balls. Let .1/ be the ordinary cubical dimensions, and to make
mass of one of these and A' the radius of the seasoning complete, there are 20 spoon-
g>Tation. then the rotational energy will be fuls of salt. If a man were distilled into
E YzM (Z-TRnY. Since for one com- water, he would make about 38 quarts, or
plete turn of the wheel every ball makes more than half his entire weight. He also
one revolution on its axis, according to contains a great deal of starch, chlorid of
the prevailing theory, the energy of axial potash, magnesium, sulfur, and hydro-
rotation of each ball will be c YiM = chloric acid in his wonderful human sys-
iZ'if r,n)', n being the radius of gyration tem.
about the axis and equal to 0.6325 r. We Break the shells of 1,000 eggs into a huge
can use as large balls as we like, and so pan or basin, and you have the contents
aim Fhre Passeneer 37 H. P. car, 1 1 G In. whi. base*. AH besr- make c a considerable percentage of E and to make a man from his toe-nails to the
_ ^Timken. pelco Ifin.-IJyneto Stg. and Ltg.
for my ffTet fVoe Off- r ar.'f 4
"
yet, itpositively established by experi-
is most delicate tissues of his brain. And this
to drive
Bis money.
and denionstrate. T
Car ment that each of the rotating balls contain is tlie scientific answer to the question,
nilCU
D U9n
fr'ara.iteed or m'.n-y hark. Ifil9 cara rirvdv,
Ca_r jr'ara.iteed
Address J. H. Bush, President. Dept.jMB
MOTOR CO*. 6iistt Temple. Chlcaso* lUuiots only the energy E, no power whatever being "What is Man?"

Yon benefit by mentioning lite "Electrical Exfcrimentey" when writing to advertisers.


:

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 893

"I am familiar with the textbooks and melhod of instruction used by the
International Correspondence Schools in their Courses in Electrical Eng^incer-
ing. and I also know of a number of young men who have taken these Courses
with trreat benefit. I believe that any young man who is interested in electricily
but who cannot lind an opportunity to go throuijh an entrineering college, if he
will apply himself lo one of these courses will find it a practical and economical
way to acquire a knowledge of the profession second only to that acquired by
devoting all the time for years to this study, in a regular college course."
Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz.

What W)uld Their Advice


Be Worth ioYou?
Suppose you have a knack for things electrical that you realize what a
wonderful opportunity for earnings and advancement the field of Electricity
offers. What, then, would it be worth to you to have Edison and Steinmetz,
the two foremost figures in the electrical world, tell you of a thorough,
practical plan by which you can acquire, right at home, the training you
need for success?
Well, here is based on years of familiarity with the instruction given by
their advice,
the International Correspondence Schools and on per-
CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS
sonal kno^yledge of I. C. S. trained men in their employ riNTERNATIONAL
BOX 6184, SCRANTON.PA.
I Explain, without-obllgatinK me. how I can qualify for the posl.
which mark
"I know of the success attained by men who have taken I tlon, or In the subject, be/ore I X,
D ELECTRICIL ENGINEER
I] Electrician ~ CHEMICAL
a SALESMANSHIP
ENGINEER
your Courses," says Edison. "It is a practical and eco- D Electric Wiring
Electric Lighting
ADVERTISING MAN
Show Card Writer
Electric Car Running 8 Outdoor Sign Painter
nomical way to acquire a knowledge of the profession," n Heavy Electric Traction RAILROADER
J Electrical Draftsman "ILLUSTRATOR
Machine Designer DESIGNER
says Dr. Steinmetz. Read their full statements above.
Electric
Telegraph Expi-rt BOOKKEEPER
Practical Telephony Stenographer and TyplBI
DMECHASIOAI- ENtJINEEK Cert. Public Accountant
For 27 years the have been training men at home in
I. C. S. 3 Mechanical Draftsman
DTooImaker
Traffic
Commercial Lavf
Management

their spare time for success in Electricity and 280 other subjects. D Machine Shop Practice GOOD ENGLISH
I] Gas Engineer Common School Subjects
Civil, EMil.NEEK CIVIL SERVICE
It is training over 100,000 men and women right now. It is Surveying and Mapping Railway Mail Clerk
_MINE KOIEI-MANORENGINEEK STATIONARY ENGINEER
ready and anxious to prepare you for advancement in Electrical ARCHITECT Textile Overseer or Supt.
Draftsman AGRICIILTI'RE
B Architectural

Engineering or any special branch of it or in any other line i'LlllBIMl ANU HEATING
Sheet Metal Worker
Ship Draftsman
Nsvleator
gPonltrv
ArTiinnRii.ES
Italslng
IDS
IGSpaoUb
Kreacb
Italian
that appeals to you.
Name .

Present
Pick the position you want in the work you like best, then Occupatiu.-i.

put it up to us toprove how we can help you. Here is all we Street


and No
ask without cost, without obligation, mark and mail this coupon.
Clty_
Canadiana mau send this coupon to
International Correspondence Schools, Montreal. Cajiada

You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


:

894 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

HOW BOY SCOUTS CAN GAIN set and know what precautions to take
"WIRELESS MERIT" BADGE. during a thunderstorm.
The committee on badges, awards and Demonstrate how to rescue a person in
Commercial scout requirements of national headquar- contact with a live wire, and have a knowl-
ters has just established a "wireless merit" edge of the method of resuscitation of a
badge which no doubt will become quite person insensible from shock.
Write a brief essay on the development
Telegraph Apparatus popular as soon as there is an opportunity
for scouts to perfect themselves in the de- of wireless telegraphy.
tails. The requirements are as follows
Be able to receive and send correctly hot
Barg ams less than 10 words a minute. ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR U. S. WAR-
Know the correct form for sending a SHIPS.
message. America's capital fighting ships of the
Standard twenty ohm (POOO Be able to tell in own words the prin- future will be superior to those of other na-
Telegraph Sounders at 'Pleach cipal laws regarding radio communication. tions because of their electrically driven
Know at least 10 of the radiogram abbre- machinery. Secretary Daniels told the
Steoidard Telegraph 125 viations (Q signals). House Naval Committee recently, in dis-
Keys at leach Be able to name two types of detectors closing remarkable results attained by the
and explain how they work. new dreadnouglit New Mexico, equipt
110 Volt A.C. Name five minerals used in detectors in with the electric drive which is to be a fea-
Dynamos _^ the order of their sensitiveness. ture of all the big ships authorized since
leach Draw a diagram of a simple transmitting 1916.
Three Bar set, showing how the following instruments The New Mexico's turbo-electric ma-
Four Bar Z^ach are connected: Source of power (dynamo chinerywas designed to develop 26,500
or storage battery), transformer, condenser, horse-power at full speed and to give the
Five Bar Z^^ch spark gap, helix, key, and explain their ship a speed of twenty-one knots.
function. "It actually developed more than 31,000
For other bargains see page 93S Draw a simple diagram showing how to horse-power," Mr. Daniels said, "and main-
connect the following instrments Tuning : tained for four hours a speed of twenty-
coil or loose coupler, condensers, fixt or one and one-quarter knots, and this when
Skinderviken Telephone Equipment Co] variable, detector, 'phones and ground. Tell running ai a displacement 1,000 tons greater
the use of the above apparatus. than its design called for.
Abbrevialed Addreu
Draw a diagram of three different types The secretary said fuel economy at cruis-
STECO-2118.2136 N.Clark St. CHICAGO of aerials and tell their advantages or ing speed had been one of the things sought
faults. in substituting electric drive for the ordi-
Know how to properly ground a radio nary turbine equipment.

FACTORY-TO>RIDER
AVES YOU MONEY
bicycle.
Buy direct and save on
RANGER BICYCLES now
%\'> 10 520 a Practical Chemical Experiments
come in -54 styles, colors and sizes.
Greatly improved: prices reduced. {Continued f rom page 880)
Other reliable model; WE
DELIVER FREE
and 3'J
also.
to you on approval
d'lya trial and riding test.
TO TEST FOR COAL TAR COLOR- strong. On the other hand the bcia and
\'. Our bic FREE catalos shows ING. ganiiiKiradiation of Mcso-thorium grows
everj'thini? new in bicyclesand aun- Experiment No. 3. See Fig. 3. rapidly and it can be used for medicinal
; dries. Write for it.
To purposes within a few days after prepara-
,

,' TIRES, lamps, wheels, parts and for coal tar colors in butter, a
test
f> 8Upplie3at half usual prices. small sample is mixed on a porcelain plate tion.
Do not buy a bicycle, tires, or Radium, we are
Isundriea nntil you get our wonder- with Fuller's earth, and if coal tars are told, has a long life, half
ttangmr ful newofffTB.Xovi prices and libei^
present, there will be a red mass, while if of it decaying in approximately 1800 years.
terms. A postal brintrs everything.
Bimctrle absent the color will be only light yellow or Meso-thorium on the other hand possesses
CYCLE COMPANY
motorblkt^ mead;Dent. D-r07. Chicago brown. a short life, 5 or 6 years being its useful
Experiment No. 4. life for luminous purposes. For luminous
Build Your Own PHONOGRAPH, Put a little butter in a test-tube, and a
paint to be used on objects which themselves
It'a Easy With Our Help SAVE have a short life, it is an excellent substi-
A ffw hours inieresting work
littleoleomargarin into another. To each
tute for radium and will conserve the ele-
saves
you A
many dollars and gives
mactUne exactly to suit
OVER add one inch or so of alcoholic potash solu-
ment radium for medicinal purposes only.
tion, and warm each in the steam of the
your Ideals.
tone arms,
We furnish mntnra,
uiait-rial. blue
HALF
ca-so water bath. Distinguish the one from the
prints ami full instruclion^.
PUys any record. You can make
.
other by smell, .^dd a little sulfuric acid Static Electricity and Gasoline.
tine profll building phonographs Static electricity, superinduced by the
for your friends.
(dilute) to each and smell again. Notice
Write Today for Our Free that "oleo" test tube will only smell of alco- passage of gasoline thru chamois skin dur-
Blue Print OfTer. Asenta ing the filtration process, was declared to
wanted for our ready built hol, hut that the other will smell, besides,
Choral eotis. of butyric ether. be full of great danger. When this idea
Qioralenn Phonograph Co. became prevalent, a well known automobile
704 Manj.-r BU: Elkturl, IimI-
,
Radium Substitute. concern undertook a series of rigid experi-
We are all familiar with the uses
quilc ments to learn what prospects there were
of Radium in medicine and as an ingredient of real danger. Their investigations re-
House Lighting Plants in luminous paint, both of which have been
brought to the general public's attention
sulted in their finding that the static elec-
tricity scare from the use of chamois skin
$225 to $2100 within the past few years. was without foundation. They claim to
Write for Catalog. giving
I-uminous paint in particular offers a field have secured authentic data from which it
name of your electrical deal-
'-r. Asents Wanted. whereby a substitute for Radium may be was proved that a static electric charge
judiciously utilized. This paint played an .cannot be developed with the temperature
Dynamos, Motors above freezing (32 deg. F.), while at zero
All slzc-9. Battery Chargers important role in the war which has just
and Motor Generator Sets. terminated, having been used more par- (0 deg. F.) the conditions for producing
$25 to fl20. Hydro -Electric
Generators. ticularly on the dials of instruments used the spark are most favorable.
SPECIAL Holtzer-Cabot
on airplanes, so that they could be read at
110-V. A C. Hand Generators,
while thfy last, only $5. night. It has also been used for electric Two Trade Secrets.
Ord*rr from this ad.
push buttons, door numbers, etc. The paint There are two trade secrets at least that
WATSON ELECTRIC CO.. Dept. 14, Gas Bldp.. Chicago.
is permanently luminous in the dark and the world at large may never know, but
BIG BUNCH OF FUN contains from 0.1 to 0.25 milligrams radium which it is well worth the while of inventors
1 NVw Airship
Airships. 1
Game
Chess
with
and
10' element to one gram of zinc sulfid. A to study. One is the Chinese method of
' h.rkt-r Board and men. 1 Chl- luminous watch face usually contains from making the bright and brilliant color known
ritvir Ll|i-5f-lu-la, 1 Set Domlnoe.-i.
12 Other Games. 1!) Lessons In
ten to twenty cents worth of radium on it. as Vermilion, or Chinese red and the other
:

MaKic. 12 Money Making Secrets.


Wlrcle-is Code. IS Pictures Pre'ty
.'Kn excellent substitute for radium for is a
Turkish secret the inlaying of the
<'.\tU. 3 ruzzle*. & New Ford Joke certain purposes is Meso-thorium. This is hardest steel with gold or silver. Among
Book. All for 10c with large Cata-
logue.
a radio-active element found in Monazite the Chinese and Turks these two secrets
Dept. 72 sand and other thorium minerals. When are guarded well. Apprentices, before they
American Toy Lowell. Mass.. U. S. A. first extracted it is not satisfactory for are taken' for either trade, are compelled to
luminous paint, and consequently must be swear an ironclad oath to reveal nothing of
Printing Cheap
.^...^CardB.circulare. labelf(.book.pa[)4T Pre^-S^",
"ripened" for several months, or even a what passes in the workshop. They must
I.arKer $30 Job press SflS np.Save m'^'nc v. Pri nt year before it can be used. During this also belong to families of high standing,
for other*, big profit. All easy. rule.. 8eot.
Writ* factorr for press catalo.TYPE.card, time the alpha radiation, which is required must pay a large sum of money as a guaran-
paper THE PRESS CO. 0-47 M*Hdn,Conn. for luminous paint, becomes sufficiently (Continiicd on page 911)
You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical' Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 893

Thousands of Electrical experts are needed to help rebuild the world. Come to Chicago to the great
shops of Coyne and let us train you quictcly by our sure, practical way, backed by twenty years of success.
Hundreds of our graduates have become experts in less than four months, i'ou can do the same. jVow is your
big opportunity.
Come no previous education necessary.
Earn $125 to $300 a Month Day or Evening Courses Learn
In the Electrical business. Come here where you will
Don't worry about the money. Anyone with Drafting
be trained in these great $100,000 shops. Experts ambition can learn here. Our tuition is low
show you everything and you learn right on the ac- with small easy payments if desired. .Ml tools The country is cry-
tual apparatus. You work on everything from the and equipment is furnished free. Our students ing for skilled drafts-
simple bell to the mighty motors, generators, electric live in comfortable homes in the best section men in all lines. Thou-
locomotives, dynamos, switchboards, power plants,
everything to make you a master electrician. We in Chicago
on the lake just a few minutes' sands of positions open
walk from our school. with princely salaries.
have thousands of successful graduates. Just as soon We have been able to
as you have finished we assist you to a good position. Electricity, Drafting place every graduate in
We now have more positions than we can fill. Think a good position. One
of it. Motion Picture Operating firm asked for all our
men. Now is the time
Become an Expert in 3J2 Months Plumbing to get into this big
No need of taking from 1to 4 years to become an field. Experts train you
expert, we have proved this in thousands of cases. We teach all these trades and professions -under practical work-
The Coyne method of practical training eliminates quickly and in such a thorough, practical way ing conditions, no
all books, useless theory and other non-essentials and that when finished you are ready to step right books and theory go
trains you in just what you need to know to become into a position of responsibility and big pay. here. Check drafting
on the coupon below
an expert.
and mail it at once for
Earn Your Way Send Today for Big Free Book full particulars.
Don't tell yourself you haven't got the money to come to
Coyne. If you have amhition and the nerve of a real man, Write today, nozc. for the book. It tells what
Dozens of our students every year work I I
that's all you need. Coyne graduates have done. What you I

in their spare time and earn their living expenses. Dozens of


others work in the day time, earn all their e.xpense and attend can do. Fill in the coupon, check the * COYNE TRADE AND
our evening school. Our employment department will help trade you are most interested in or ENGINEERING SCHOOLS
you without charge. send a postal card, do it noi^: ^ Dept.
Bennett W. Cooke. Director
24, 39-51 E. Illinois St.
BENNETT W. COOKE, Director Chicago, ill.
Please send at once your big Freo
COYNE TRADE AND ENGINEERING SCHOOLS Bf) 'k I am interesterl in
[ ] riectricify Drafting
[ ] Plumbing
Dept. 24 39-51 E. Illinois Street, Chicago, 111. f ]
Motion Picture Operating
[ 1.

iChech trade interested m)

Address.

You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


^ ;
:

896 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

AN OZONE WATER PURIFIER FOR


/2 SAVED INTRODUCING THE HOME.
For use in homes, offices, drug stores,
GET OUR restaurants, hospitals and institutions, a
Mr. R. W. DeMott Milwaukee concern has designed a con-
BIGBOOK ,

For months past Mr. R. W.


eight
venient size of Ozone Water Purifier con-
structed as shown in the accompanying
DeMott has been advertising manager
DO Your
Own PLUMBING of your magazine.
illustration. It is pointed out that in the

AND HEATING at low cost You have noticed the rapid grozvlh
ozonizing process employed, ozone is pro-
duced by means of an electric current and
Send
for our big instructive
of "E. E." during that time. One big mixed thoroly with the water as drawn
256 patie well-bouud Haudj- reason for this astounding gro'u'th
from the faucet, so that all water used
Man Book Catalog. Every and betterment of your magazine is
Home comes into actual contact with ozone. The
Owner. Contractor, due directly to .Vir.' De.Moti and his
Electrician, Farmer, Factory extra o.xygen atoms of the ozone combine
"ads."
Manager, etc.. needs it. Shows with organic matter of the germs in the
over m.oOO Fixtures and Sup- If you have the welfare of your
magazine at heart, read Mr. De^fott's
water and burn them up. The carbon
plies in plumbing and heating
dioxid formed by this chemical action
at wholesale. Shows how to message. It means monev to \ou.
save ."ikilled labor, hard work passes out into the air leaving a trace of
The Publishers.
and unnecessary material by the same effect produced in carbonated
beverages, which adds to the palatability
OUR NEW \>

dvertising Talks of the ozonized water. It is claimed that


all tastes and odors are removed .by this
Cot-to-fit-Method Vou. as a reader of the process while mineral elements essential to
This woiuierful book helps vou selet.-. ami ins. a 1 iht- Electrical Experimenter, health remain, for they do not oxidize.
VTx>ivrPlunibiup. Water SupiiLv Sjsleiu. llni An
Water or Sleam Plain. Besides being our Wlmli- ak- are vitally interested in There are a great many cities whose
t-'a'.alug u has many practic-il every department of the magazine. water supplies are chlorinated and it is
plans. cUagrams, sketches, ele-
\Htions. etc.. showing how tn There are some very strong reasons claimed that the use of this ozone water
do the work this newer, cut-
lo-fliway. Any handv man
why you should be doubly interested purifier will eliminate the odor and taste
Milh a tew lnols can easllv do in the advertising. of chlorin from the water the same as it
hi? own ins:alUiii: witti iiiv
aul of this The
publishers are constantly striv-
big Handy - Man Book ing and planning to improve the qual-
We have spared no ity of the magazine offered you each
efTori and have gone lo ;i

great exi>ense to compile month. But it is your magazine and


this valuable book. Wiih
it is up to you as to how big it shall
eeitncmy a uatiouai
still
nei-essiiy, it would be un- grow. There are a great many things
patriotic to send tliis ei-
i ensite bonk bruadcast that .vou ought to know about adver-
Id non- Interested parties.
tising, and how this powerful force
Therefore, we request a
umporary deposit fur each affects you personally.
cuiiy of 25c which We re-
Iiirid on first order, or
Progressive and responsible firms
we send our Bargain Bul- all over the country announce what
letin Free. Addrrs. Tuday

HARD IN -LAV IN COMPANY 40 Years At


they have to offer you through the
advertising pages of the Electrical
4510-20 Cottage Grove Ave.. Chicago E.XPERIMENTER. Not only will you
$500,000 plants behind our guarantee help your magazine by showing an
interest in its advertisers, but you will
benefit yourself to an even greater
IEariied$2200l. degree. I will take up these points one
by one each month, and hope that
every reader will follow this column
and offer any suggestions or ask any
questions that may come to his mind

.J: regarding advertising and its relation


to a big magazine.
If you have any suggestions to
make regarding the advertisements
that appear, if is any informa-
there
nPHis is
tion you would like regarding adver-
Richard A. -'

tising in general, write me personally


Oldham. He earned $2200.00
in four months with a Hay-
and your questions will be taken up
in due course through this column. New Design of Ozone Water Purifier for the
^ood Tire Repairing outfit. For
20 years he was telegraph operator on the 1-or the ne.\t few months I will tell Home. Office and Factory. The Ozonizer
Illinois Central Railway. He isnow 58 years you about "E. E." advertising and its Connects With Any Lamp Receptacle. The
old. He answered my advertisement quit Purifier Has a Capacity of Over 2.000 Gallons
relation to you. Each month I will Per Day.
his job bought a plant and opened a busi-
ness. He just wrote me
"1 have made more give you one reason more why the
in eight months than 2'; yearsas operator." advertisements should be of vital in- eliminates other objectionable odors and
There are now 500 stations where tire re- terest to everyone of us. tastes.
pairing is neglected.
You have watphed the Experimenter As an amelioration of filtered water, or
I Must Have 500 Men grow from a sixteen-page maga-
little as a substitute for filtered or distilled water,
To Fill These Positions zine to its present size. You have it is claimed the process of ozonization
I have a intercstinK Book to send yotl.
Bij? watched the class of articles improve, stands by itself it has no equal in efficiency;
:

It tells nil about tires gives its staff of authorities who contribute the removal of disease germs is absolute
inside figaresand profit Send
for It What Oldham and others
I
each month get bigger and better, the water resulting from such process is as
are doing you can do. S2SO0.OO to finally resulting in the wonderful an- perfect as one can wish, being bright and
$4,000.00 per year is conservative,
Uke Mr. Olabam One machine nouncement made in our lanuary is- sparkling. Each of the water purifiers has
wUl start you. Then open a shop.
Yoacanseebuginessallaroand you. Pot
^^ sue that the publishers had secured a purifying capacity of over 2,000 gallons
oat a Uaywood Sign and business will for you the services of the world's a day, and, therefore, any user is entirely
conitoyou. Now ift started. Send for
the Biff Book ar.d start makinjp money. greatest inventor. Nikola Tesia, to independent of the condition of the water
M. HAYWOOD, PrS. give you exclusive feature articles in at the municipal plant in his city.
Haywood Tire & Equipmetvt Co. every issue for the next two years at
1209 Capitol Ave. Indianapolis, Ind. least.
One of the principal factors in this
THE MAKING OF A MATCH.
rapid growth has been its advertising. Thorpe gives the following proportions
for match head and for striking surface
\,^V/i'<IOJi^l VJO rpiiabie data cunreniing trade Next month I will show you how,
formulae or Industrial processes. When you desire to by reading and answering the ad-
Head composition Potassium chloral, 5
:

either duplicate or improve upon a product or process


vertisements, you will help to still
parts potassium bichromat, 2 parts glass
; ;

now in uae, we ean helf* you, as we are ever on the


alert and closely folh'lng the development of the in- further build up and increase the size
powder, 3 parts gum, 2 parts. Rubbing
;

du.strial art in all its branches. Tlie formulae listed surface: Antimony trisulfid, 5 parts; red
below will serve briefly lo shuw the flehl we cover: 1 of the Experimenter.
Preparing Solidified Alr^.hol. 2 I'rodu.inp Liquid phosphorus, 3 parts; manganese dioxid, 1J4
Toilet Soap.
3 I'rf-ce&s for Electru-galvanizing Iron.
parts; glue, 4 parts.
4 Ink for Typewriter Riblw>ns (all standard cnlnrs).

'>
FnK-ess for Sensitizing pai>er wiilch gives excellent
I-rinf-s frnm line drawings and plan tracings: It supplies
copies in white lines on a brown ground. 6 Alloy for Tungsten is now used as an electric bat-
Solderins Alutninom. The aUndard rrice furm'-h furrPoU insucd
by thia bureau i* Thirty-five cnta. Letters of inqntrr welcomed. tery element.
Informative llterauire aeot apoEtrequeat. Industrial Methods .idvertising Manager.
Buruu, 320 Fifth Avenoe. Nw York. N. Y. Electrical goods of American manufac-
ture are extensively sold in Porto Rico.
You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when a'riting lo advertisers.
:

April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 897

WHAT IS A "KILOWATT" AND


"KILOWATT-HOUR".
By Frank Szabo.
THERE seems be
ception of the terms
to ciuile a
kiUiivatt
wrong con-
and kilo-
Quite frequeinl\ one liears
ii.alt-lwiir.
expressions such as "10 kilowatts per hour",
but such an expression does not mean any-
thing.
H'liat is a kilozi'Gtt? Kilowatt is a term Taught By A Practical Man
for power or rate of work. According to
Kent and other authorities, one kilowatt is
equivalent to the evaporation of 3.52 lbs.
and in Your Home!
of water l>cr hour from and at 212 deg. P.,
or 3,415 heat-units per hour. In this defi- I am teaching electricity atid electrical drafting
nition, per hour is a necessary part of it,
without which the definition is incomplete.
'iM^ ^^^KM to many men, young and old, and trust you will
become sufficiently interested after reading this
If it takes approximately 3 lbs. of burn-
ing coal to evaporate 3.52 lbs. of water advertisement, that you will send for my cata-
from and at 212 deg. F.. then one kilowatt log which tells what I am endeavoring to do
represents the consumption of j lbs. of coal and also places before you the simple way in
per hour, and not simply the consumption
which the instruction work is handled. The
of 3 lbs. of coal. If we extend the evapora-
tion of 3.52 lbs. of water from and at 212 catalog is written in a very plain manner,
deg. F. by a consumption of 3 lbs. of coal much in the same style as my lessons are writ-
uniformly over a period of two hours, we ten, and tells you exactly what you get and what the course can do for
do not have the equivalent of one kilowatt,
but one-half, or 54 kilowatt, because during
you. My
catalog, as well as my advertisements, is written in a very
one hour only one-half of 3.52 lbs. 1.76 = careful, conservative manner so there is no possibility of you expecting
lbs. of water have been evaporated with a something you will not get.
consumption of one-half of 3 lbs. 1.5 lbs. =
coal. Also, if we did the above perform-
ance in 30 minutes, or one-half hour, we
The Purpose of the Course of Study
I have been designing courses in electrical instruction and teaching electricity,
would not have the equivalent of one kilo-
off and on during the past 17 years, and during that time I have had an unusual
watt, but two kilowatts, because at the same
opportunity to make a special study of the teaching business, from the stand-
rate we would, during one hour, evaporate
point of a practical man. This course of my own is designed with a view of
2 X 3.52 lbs. =
7.04 lbs. of water with a
reaching those who do not have a lot of time and money to devote to study work,
consumption of 2 x 3 =
6 lbs. of coal.
and to give them as thorough a knowledge as possible of electricity, in the short-
Hence, one kilowatt represents the con-
sumption of J lbs. of coal per hour.
est possible time. The instruction is given like you were working on various
jobs and I was the boss telling you what to do and how to do it, and giving the
Of course the quantity of 3 lbs. of coal explanation necessary for the understanding of the theory covered by the sub-
in the above explanation is not fixt it may ;

ject under discussion. There are many conditions which seldom occur in the
take slightly more or less than 3 lbs. per
every day run of electrical experience, and these conditions I lay particular
hour for one kilowatt, depending on the
stress on. This part of the instruction makes the course particularly attractive
heat value of the coal and the efficiency of
and valuable to those already engaged in active electrical work.
the steam and current generating units, but
3 lbs. is a fair average figure.
What is a kilowatt-hour? According to It Is Up To You
Kent, it is the evaporation of 3.52 lbs. of The
instruction work is laid out and given in a way easily understood. It is
water from and at 212 deg. F., or 3,415 not a cut and dried book plan, but the lessons are prepared especially for the
heat units. In this definition, per hour is purpose for which they are used and additional instruction is given to the indi-
left out because no matter how fast or how vidual student, with a view of meeting his particular needs. I have the informa-
slow the water evaporates, the actual work tion to give and I believe the ability to impart it to others, a fact which is in a
done in evaporating 3.52 lbs. of water from way proven by other institutions which have made use of my services in the de-
and at 212 deg. F. is equivalent to one kilo- sign and perfecting of instruction courses. To understand this work, IT IS UP
watt-hour. In other words, one kilowatt- TO YOU to stick with me and I will surely stick with you till you understand
hour is the equivalent of the rate of one any part of the work you have gone over.
kilowatt for a period of one hour. The
rate of i/j kilowatt for a period of 2 hours Practical MenTake My Course and Recommend it to Others
is also equivalent to one kilowatt-hour.
Sixty percent of my students are actively engaged in electrical work and find the
Hence instruction I give well suited to their needs. Several of these men have had
Kilowatt-hours their fellow workers take the course also and they are taking the instruction
Kilowatts = together, making a class-room proposition of it and the results are in every way
No. of hours satisfactory to all concerned. One of these classes was started by a Chief Elec-
and kilowatt-hours = kilowatts X No. of trician, one of my students in Glen White, W. Va., who now has practically all
hours.
the men under him taking my course. I believe the fact that these men who
Referring to the operation of electric understand electrical work approve of my course to this extent is one of the
cars, we cannot correctly say they require strongest endorsements I could get.
four kilowatts per car mile; we must say
four kilowatt-hours per car mile, because
the speed of the train has to be considered.
FIFTY FIFTY
Suppose we introduce a watt-meter and a I work absolutely on a 50-50 basis with my students. Vou pay me the comparatively low price
I ask, and I give you the instruction and other help as is stated in my catalog. No student
watt-hour-meter into the circuit. The watt is permitted to pay cash for his entire course on starting, the course being paid for in small
meter will indicate the rate of power con- monthly payments as you go along. Students have the privilege of discontinuing the work
if they should find that it was not just what they were after, and their payments stop at the
sumed in kilowatts, whereas the vvatt-hour- same time. This is my way of doing business and I would not want your money when I was
meter sums up all the kilowatt-hours con- not giving you the instruction.
sumed during the run. At uniform speed
of the car the watt-meter pointer will re- Apparatus, Instruments, [
*

main approximately steady in one position, yorke burgess.


Material, Etc.
but the watt-hour-meter will continue in- ^ BURGESS ELECTRICAL SCHOOL.
Certain ., ,
,
electrical ,
apparatus,
,
m- i
creasing the reading at a constant rate. struments, material, charts, draft- 745 East 42nd Street, Chicago, Ulinois.
If the watt-hour-meter at the end of ten ing implements, etc., as detailed in I
the catalog, are included in the _
miles' run at constant speed shows a read- course and are a part of the regular Oentlemen:
ing of 40 kilowatt-hours, and it took one ;ra"?h'arW':^ ^'l^'J^^l^ b\' .K"
Send me catalofr describing your course in Electricity
hour to make the run of ten miles, then regular monthly paynienls. I and Uratting.
the watt-meter showed a constant reading FILL OUT COUPON FOR ONE I .,.,,
of 40 kilowatts. But if the run of 10 miles OF MY CATALOGS WHICH , >.'\Mh
GIVES FULL INFORMATION. I
is made in say one-half hour, the reading ADDRESS
of the watt-hour-meter will be appro.xi- BURGESS I


mately the same 40 kilowatt-hours (ne- Electrical School i
"''""'

glecting the difference in efficiency of the


unit at different loads)
but the watt-meter
745 E. 42d St., Chicago, III. '
ST.\TE
{Continued on page 700)
Yon bpiefit }jy mentionimj th:^ "Electrical Experitneittcr" when writinq to ad-.ertisers.
:

898 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April. 1919

LEAKN WIRELESS
IN TEN WEEKS
Ri^Ki" Injlbitt' Owtt Home
The Age of Wireless Is Here ^;$?i?xjiy This
The experimental stage has passed. \\"ireless now equals in /?'''<"< ,?""'
"^c'^* ''o ^
"'
""'I""'.!" / eKnurc

what
k'elopment and growtn ot wireless in recent years big men
there has been left in its wake a tremendous shortage of operators. /""'L",''" w.t'!' "-"l!"""""* """""'^i!!-'' ""i
'<".,."''.."<.
'-',,.'' 'r,,: ''<''
Actually thousands upon thousands will be needed for permanent
"peace time" positions offering wonderful opportunities for "--^":>'/ the future
advancement '
of Wireless

No Previous Experience Get Your Instruction From Pay As You Go Along


Necessary the Nation's Capital With Your Lessons
Our Course Is Endorsed by Officials of the
You donot need any previous U. b. Government Our plans of payment bring a
training or experience fn order The National Radio Institute, headed wireless educatioa within the
to become a succe.>;sful Wireless by authorities who have be^-n closely al- reach of anyone who desires to
Expert. By our practical ten lied with government training of stu-
learn. A small pajTnent down
weeks' Home Study Course you dents, has perfected an easily mastered
course in wireless telegraphy whereby
and small payments twice a
can quickly qualify for a good
position at big pay. Many of our students are taught completely in ten month enable you to earn the cost
students have secured positions weeks, either here in Washington at our of your tuition while actually
before completing the course. large residence school or at home, by learning to be a wireless operator.
mail. Many of our students, are
ready to take up actual wireless
work in nuicli loss time. The
course is founded on actual prac-
tice, hence the rapid progress of Wireless
the student.
News Notes
Earn Up to $200 Per Month
In the short period of ten weeks we can The U. S. Shipping
make of you a wireless operator, a man Board has recently an-
with a profession, independent, and not nounced an increase of
siihject to the rise and fall of wages in the nearly 30% in the pay of
hibor market. Salaries are as high as $200 Merchant Marine Wire-
per month. We
give you this training at less Operators.
iiome, by mail, in your spare time. It is Nicola Tesla, world
not necessary for you to lose any time from famous inventor, has
your work to take the course. Then when recently h s
perfected i

you have received your diploma we help Wireless Light, one of


find you a good position. the wonders of the age.
Free Instruments to Every Student Another new invention has
been perfected whereby wire-
In addition to text books, lessons and less messages may now be
liersonal instruction, we send you a Home sent underground.
Practice Set consisting of a standard send- Due to the recent perfecting
of the wireless Telephone,
ing key and buzzer, and a Universal auto- we expect to soon be able to
matic wireless transmitting and receiving communicate with our Home
set. These instruments arc free to every Study students by wireless.

student. No other school can offer you


what we do.

^ Mail This Coupon Today . .1. Valuable Wireless Book FREE


XATIONAI. RADIO INSTITUTE,
tOur you gives
booklet, "WIRELESS,
the Opportunity of Today,"
complete information in regard to our course,
Dcpt. 70, Washington, D. C. the (juick and easy methods by which you can inaster wire-
Send me, free of charge, your booklet. "Wireless, the Opportunity of the less, and other important facts you should know. It is free.
Age." with full particulars regarding your famous 10 weeks' Home Study Just mail the coupon. No obligation whatever on your
Course, and your Special Free Instruments Offer.
part.
I Xame
Address
Town State

You benefit by mentioning the " Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
" :'

April. 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 899

TRANSMISSION OF LIGHT THRU mission through 50 ft. (15.2 m.) of water


WATER. would be onlv about one part in 10,000,-
The comparative transmission of light 000 of the inc'ident light.
thru varying depths of water is a problem The rapid decrease in the transmission
that science until recently knew but little factor with increased light travel in water
coincides with the well-known facts that,
ia --.
medium, the
"

:r 1 " ^ "^-";e;; for a so-called transparent


--Ui J t

"-- ocean permits the penetration of daylight


U,
!:
1 ili:
H Hi to but a surprisingly short distance below
1 n ;::: .j- + 4- . - 1 -

the
its surface and that fish native to
-tVi Shi V
[ 1
depths are blind or carry their own illu-
ik
d. 1
I i
'""'"
minants.
EARN $35 TO $100
''n llti _L.!...^ !
\iit H
i

HAMMOND RADIO CONTROLLED


WEEK
:!
iff 1 '

PER
I j

':':': :

i : ffci:
BOAT SUCCESSFUL.
vk^ t T t ; Army and navy experts have reported the
v
-
j_ ;

device of John Hays Hammond, Jr., for


'

i t
-:

+ ^h" ^ : :

Mechanical Draftsman
-''''-

As
:

radio control of surface craft to be .sent a


H: i
m\ i\
j_tt -;;i
laden with explosives against enemy ships.
;

h
t:

3
V it'
1
"1:
,\
a success, and predict similar results with
submerged craft.
Thousands of Men Wanted
"
can learn Mechanical Drawing at home
Vou
Secretary Baker wrote the House appro-
, ;; t

IIL4-t-rt;-- H " --
priation committee recently that the joint
inyour spare time through our practical Home
z

=
!-ti i
" "^
H -2|- -;::
army and navy board was "convinced of the Study Course and qualify for Big Pay. We
[

Tit -";:
[1 "

practicability of the control" of the surface have placed hundreds of our students in good
\"
\A \
i j|_ WW paying positions. Government departments and
craft, and added that there had also been
.

1
"^
= ;;
:
|-| 1

^hll ^-^^ demonstrations of the possibility of the private concerns are continually calling upon
; :"
control to a craft, completely submerged, us for our graduates.
;;
Sil i
*^'"tTf
i E li.l.. ''''1' except for an air in-take pipe.
Before finally deciding on the purchase Become a Chief Draftsman
Tcsr r^^oc n^ ciTy *vy*-rf or x^Her^eT^oy , /v < of the patents for $750,000 the board de- and get to the very top in this well-established
sires further experiment with the submerged and rapidly growing profession. The training
Showing Decrease In Transmission of Light craft.
Thru Water for Different Depths. A Problem given by the Columbia School of Drafting will
Which All Submarine Inventors Are Inter- Construction of the submerged craft,
give you just the knowledge you need to make
ested In. which will be about 80 feet long by 7 feet
good as a Chief Draftsman. No previous train-
in diameter, will take two years, according
about. Now, thanks to Air. S. L. E. Rose, of ing is necessary. You can begin our course now
to Mr. Hammond, who told the committee,
the General Electric Company's illuminating he had spent ten years and $400,000 on his and make rapid progress from the start under
engineering laboratories, who describes his invention. the Personal Instruction of the President of the
findings in the General Electric Review. School, Mr. Claflin, by mail. His carefully pre-
"The board considered the ability of the
Photometric readings were taken every enemy to interfere with the control of the pared lessons and personal letters of advice
six inches thruout the available range of Mr. Hammond's make each step easy and interesting.
vessel by radio energy.
SVi feet of water in the cylindrical tank claims are that no interference can be had
in which the tests were conducted. The Draftsmen Now Getting
with the craft outside a radius of 100 to
water used was Schenectady city water,
which is clear artesian well water. Sea
150 yards from the source of the energy; $35 to $100 a Week
that is, from the radio plant of a battleship,
water would transmit much less light ow- with big chances for better pay as the demand
for example."
ing to the apparent blue or greenish tint grows. All big engineering, construction and
Major-General F. W. Coe said he had
it possesses which tints bespeak a fairly
run the craft "all around vessels coming manufacturing projects must first go through
considerable amount of suspended matter Mr. Hammond the drafting room before the workmen can
into the harbor at will."
and consequently increased opacity.
said an aviator after four hours' training commence. All such enterprises depend upon
The accompanying graphic curve shows
vividly the relative transmission of light
on control, was able from a height of 9,000 large numbers of draftsmen. Salaries are ad-
feet and a distance of six or seven miles vancing steadily.
from a Mazda lamp, fitted with water-
proof connections. table of constants A to exercise absolute control over the high-
is given in the article, together with a for-
speed boat. Drawing OutBt Free with Our Course
mula for computing the illumination in- As soon as you enroll you will be sent our
tensity for diiTerent depths of water when ELECTRIC SNOW MELTER FOR drawing outfit for your own use throughout
the initial intensity is known. The present TRACK SWITCHES. the course. This entire outfit will be yours to
graph shows, however, just how rapidly The electric snow melting device for
keep. You are not obliged to return it after
the illumination falls off in water for any track switches here illustrated is purely
completing the course.
given initial illumination. The particular- and simply an electric heater enclosed in
ly interesting feature of the results from a 31/2 inch wrought iron pipe, 20 inches Not Only a Correspondence School
a practical standpoint is the very consid- long. These heaters are placed between the
erable cut-off of light produced by a sub- ties, just under the rail. They are wired The Columbia School of Drafting is proba-
stance apparently so transparent, amount- from a circuit as the amount and character bly the largest residence school in the country
ing for a single foot (0.05 m.) of water of the supply current makes necessary, and specializing in the training of professional
to 27.5 per cent. this basis the trans- On a switch is placed in this wiring at some Draftsmen. Our Home Study Courses are an
convenient point extension of the same instruction as given
clear of the track. locally.
The current can be
turned on as the Illustrated Catalog FREE
snow storm starts
Simply fill in the coupon below, return it to
by an employee as
easily as an elec- us and we will send you free a copy of our
tric light. The illustrated catalog which tells all about our
heat generated practical- Home Study Course and how you
does the rest. may secure our instructions at once on easy
The temperature terms so as to quickly qualify for one of the
big positions open.
in the heater rises
about 100 degrees Send This Coupon Today.
Centigrade in the
first half hour and COLUIVIBIA SCHOOL OF DRAFTING
by the end of an Dept. 982, 14th and T Sts., Washington, D. C.
hour is about 135
Witliout oliligation to me, please send me y jr
degrees Centi-
Illustrated Tatalog and tell how I may secure
grade above the your practical training in Drafting and your help
outside tempera- in securing a position as Draftsman.

ture. This heat is


Na
not enough to set
fire to anything but Address
is sufficient to melt
New Electric Snow Melter for Railroad Tracl< Switches. Heating Coils City State.
Indicated By Arrows. the snow.

You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.


: ;

900 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

WHAT IS A "KILOWATT" AND an electric power station charges you ten


TRANSFORMERS "KILOWATT-HOUR?" cents per kilowatt-hnur you can burn one
110-V. (Continued from l^ai/t' 1^97) 40-watt lamp
1.000
8 Voit Secondary reading of 80 kilowatts
will srive a constant
= 25 hours, or twenty 40-watt lamps
in other words, for a speed twice as great
(.Kiistimes s<t 40
little current the watt-meter will show a constant read-
1,0)0
will not move ing twice as high, whereas the watt-hour-
ordinary meter. =^1/4 liours, for ten cents, since
meter reading will be the same for the
20 X 40
$1
Postpaid
^ distance trax-elcd.
.fciiiit*

Applying the formula to this example for


a speed of 10 miles per hour and a power
both conditions represent one kilowatt-hour.

Only $1.00
consumption of 40 kilowatt-hours, we get SOMETHING NEW IN LAMP
No. 10 gJTes 3
40 GUARDS.
l:; aiid IS vulu 5-condary.
currents
Ideal f'^r eiperimenlal
6,
Kilowatts = = 40
wurk. A ttandard traiisf.-rim-r tniaranu-t'd. Complete 1
A new departure in portable
with plus, $2.00 iMStnaid. Urdt-r from this ad. shown in the
Making the same run in one-half hour wc lamp guards is
NATIONAL TRANSFORMER CO.. illustrationof a split
Dept. 13, 3124 No. California Ave., Chicago get
40 handle which can be
triiiun^ attain open lo Kilowatts = = 80 quickly attached to a
ELECTRICAL civilians. Over 3 000 men
trained for electrical in-
special expanded steel
lamp guard supplied
duiitrie^
For men
in experietice of
of ambition and
timre llian a 'juarter of a ceiiliir>.
limited tune. Condensed cour:je in
Dividing the total power consumed by one
car in kilowatt-hours by the distance in by the same concern.
enable miles, we get the power consumption in
This portable suc-
ENGINEERING
s

graduates
~~ " " ""^ III seruTf kiloivatt-hours per car mile. cessfully fills a de-
BOOd positions and promotions.
Elfctriritj. Mathematics. Steam and
Ttieoretnal and Tract ical
Mechani- Applying the above terms to electric light, mand for a substan-
Gas
cal Drawing. Students l^l^^lp^/PAm I::ii;ine>.

a 40-watt electric light is one that consumes


tial handle guard
construct dynamos, in-
"^
m. m Wl r W E-JAH
ini ^^i^^ ^*-Bm which does not need
sua wiring and test electric power at the rate of 40 watts or
electrical machinery. Course with diplo-
40 watt-hours per hour. A circuit haxing, to be wired. The
ma, complete.
Thoroughlj- equipped fireproof dormitories. halves of the guard including the
say, twenty 40-watt lights in parallel will
liiniuR liall. laboratories, shops. handle itself, open from the
Write for catalug. 2TlL \ear iipeiis October then consume electric power at the rate of
hinge at the bottom of the guard
1. li'iy
BLISS ELECTRICAL SCHOOL 20 X 40 =
800 watis or 800 watt-hours per
and can instantly be closed and
260 Takoma Avenue, Washington, D. C. hour, or 40 watt-hours per lamp-hour. If
locked around the socket at the
end of any extension cord. The
cord itself runs thru grooves in
MAGNETIC COLD WEATHER WON'T BOTHER YOUR STARTER the handle.
RECTIFIER If you keep your battery The convenience of this new product will
charged up with an
I'atenled be appreciated by the motorist in his gar-
April I*. \^\
F-F BATTERY BOOSTER age as well as in every factory, mill or
warehouse, because it permits light to be
rONXECT to any lamp socket without removing bat-
tt-ry from car or breaking any electrical connections. safely carried to dark corners, in stock
Clianges alternatinB to direct charging current, and will bins, engine pits, etc. Fire danger is
completely your battery over night.
fill
The I'rivale Garage types cost only $24.00 and come avoided and lamp users will readily see the
complete with long cord and plug to fit any lamp socket,
anmieler, which tells what current is flowing into the advantage and economy, as the modest cost
battery and charging wires fitted with clips, to snap on of the guard is quickly repaid thru preven-
the battery terminals.
Thousands in use giving satisfaction.
tion of lamp breakage.
Write today for Bulletin No, 12. or send us your
order. M'nicy back if you wnnt it.

The France Manufacturing Company


ANOTHER "USELESS" PATENT.
Cleveland, Ohio A Chicago woman has patented a shoe
with an electric battery in the heel to supply
a mild current to a wearer's ankle as a
The House of Taylor tonic. Another "useless patnt!"

HOTEL MARTINIQUE THE PHOTOELECTRIC


TIVITY OF VARIOUS
SENSI-
BROADWAY. 33D STREET, NEW YORK SUBSTANCES.
One Block from Pennsylvania Station.

Equally Convenient for


Amusements, Shopping or Business
SOME
made
time ago an examination was
of various substances to de-
termine their electrical sensitivity to
157 Pleasant Rooms, with Private Bath, light and in view of the fact that
;

some of the results obtained are at


$2.50 PER DAY.
variance with the measurements made by
257 Excellent Rooms, with Private Bath, Case, it seems desirable to publish a sum-
facing street, southern exposure, mary of these observations, which were
$3.00 PER DAY. made at the Bureau of .Standards.
Also Attractive Rooms from $1.50. Two of the herein described substances
400 Baths The Restaurant Prices Are Most Moderate. were examined for change in electrical con-
ductivity caused by the action of light
600 Rooms
upon them, and all of them were exam-
ined for photoelectrical activity when they
were charged to a negative potential in an

We
CORE WIRE
have been fortunate in securing thru auction several tons of guaranteed pure, double
annealed Norway Iron Core Wire and are selling this wire to ''Experimenter" readers
evacuated bulb and exposed to light, reports
Messrs. Coblentz and Emerson in the Jour-
nal of the Washington Academy of Sci-
ences.

an
When the substances were examined for
increase in electrical conductivity, a

At Pre-war Prices 20cts lb.


This wire l3 just the thing for spark colls, transformers, etc., and It Is. of course, a very much
potential of 2 to 6 volts was connected
thru a resistance of zero to l.(X)0,000 ohms
into a circuit containing a d'Arsonval gal-
more superior product than the usual Iron wire. We absolutely guarantee the quality. vanometer and the substance under in-
If you ever thought of building a spark coll, transformer, or similar apparatus, now Is the
chance to get the right material for It. As far as we know this Is the only lot of Iron Norway Core vestigation. In most cases the substances
Wire la the hands of any dealer at the present time, and none can be gotten until after the war. were slightly conducting when not exposed
We bave only two sizes left to light, so that the dark current had to be
26 INCHES 36 INCHES
annulled by joining a counter e.m.f. thru a
Thickness about No. 21 B and S
resistance of 10,000 ohms to the terminals
If either of these sizes should be too long we advise cutting the wire down yourself by means
of shears. It will pay you to do so as real Norway Iron Wire, sold by a few dealers last year, of the galvanometer. This counter e.m.f.
brought from 40c to 50c a pound. American core wire now sells for from 30c upwards per pound. was obtained by shunting across a re-
As long as the supply lasts we offer this wire as described above to our customers at the very sistance of 100 ohms which was in series
low price of 20c a pound. Order at once.
with a cell of 2 volts and a variable resist-
ELECTRO IMPORTING CO., 231 Fulton St., N. Y. C. ance of zero to 70,000 ohms.
The source of light, when not otherwise
You benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
April, 1919 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER 901

specified, was a 16-c.p. carbon incandescent


lamp, placed at a distance of 10 cm. from
the substance imder investigation. One dis-
appointing feature of this investigation is
that no substance was found whicli is com-
parable in sensitivity with the (<otassium
photoelectric celt and with the selenium cell.
Gallium. This metal was solid, thus dif-
fering from the impure material, which is
a liquid.
The results obtained proved disappoint-
ing, this metal being quite insensitive to
light. When the cell was exposed to day-
light the photoelectric current produced a
deflection of only 4 to 5 mm., whereas simi-
larly exposing a potassium photoelectric
cell the photoelectric current was sufficient
to give a deflection beyond the range of
the scale.
Silver Sulfide. The sample examined
was a thin flexible strip, 6 by 10 mm. in
area. In one test the silver sulfide formed
the negative electrode of a photoelectric
cell (evacuated glass bulb about 5 cm. di-
ameter with a ring of platinum wire for the
anode). It was connected thru an iron-
clad Thompson galvanometer to a battery
of 340 volts. 'V\'hen exposed to daylight a
deflection of perhaps 1 to 2 mm. was ob-
served, but no deflection resulted from
exposure to the standard carbon lamp.
Selenium. A crystal of selenium, pre-
pared by Dr. F. C. Brown and having a
receiving surface of less than one sq. mm.,
when exposed to the standard lamp gave
Telegraph and Telephone
a deflection of more than SO cm., which
shows its great sensitivity as compared
with other substances.
Books Sent to Experimentors
The mounting of the selenium crystal
consisted of metal electrodes between which
the crystal was held by compression. When
operated as a photophone, by connecting
for a Whole Week

Absolutely free to use for seven days no strings of any kind to this
FREE
the selenium crystal with an Audion ampli- offer. Every reader of Electrical Experimenter can have a set of
fier, a loud musical note was obtained.
Tellurium. This metal is said to change
these great. instructive and intensely interesting books telling everything
in resistance when exposed to light. The that the greatest experts in the business know about telephony and
present tests were made upon a mirror of telegraphy. The coupon brings all four volumes right to your door.
tellurium deposited upon a glass plate by If they don't please you in every way, we stand the expense of shipping
cathode disintegration. Suitable terminals
were attached to a sample about 4 by 50 them back. See the list of things the books explain and our free trial
mm. No change in conductivity was ob- offer below.
served when it was exposed to light.
Boleite. The sample of boleite [3Pb CI
(OH) .Cu CI (OH) -f Ag CI], from Boleo,
Mexico, examined was a single rectangular
Will Make You An Expert
This Library of Telephony and Telegraphy will fit you to hold the biggest kind
crystal 3 by 3 by l.S mm. It was held by of job in this interesting and well-paying field. The 4 big books with 1,728
compression between copper electrodes. pages and 2,000 pictures, plates, diagrams, etc., bound in genuine leather, regular
No change in conductivity was observed library style, explain everything you need to know.
when the crystal was exposed to daylight
or to the standard incandescent lamp. Parf
1 art Ul WKnt
nf TYndL Electric
jej^
Teleeraph Wlre-
TelegrauhyWireless Consulting With every
Cyclopedia
set of the
of Telephony
Stibnite. The size of one sample exam- XKv
1 ney ^Oncain Telephony Klemeiits of and Telfgrapliy we will
Eieclriclly Line C o n-
f^rhi-il-air
ined was 4 by 7 by 0.5 mm. Terminals were slruotion EngineerinK and Maintenance Electrical
SERVICE FREE give without any charge

attached to it bj' heating a copper wire to Measurements Switchboards Automatic Systems whatever a one year membership iu the American
Power I'lants and Uuiidings Special Service Fea- Technical enabling you to consult our en-
Sticieiy
incandescence in a gas flame and bringing tures Telegraph and Railway Work Substation gineers and experts on any telephone, telegraph or
Equipment Party Line Systems Generat^irs Train wireless problem you want solved for one year. This
it in contact with the plate of stibnite. Dispatching Storage Batteries Coils Tests. Alto-
membership usually sells for $12.00. It i3 yours frea
The standard carbon lamp caused a de- gether a thousand dltferent subjects are covered in
detail. wi.h the books.
flection 5 cm.
of Stibnite may be con-
sidered as sensitive as boulangerile. to be
mentioned presently, but the deflection DON'T Don't send one cent with This Coupon
drifted, due to the decrease in resistance
with time already noticed by other observ-
ers.
SEND your free trial request. The
coupon is all you need to
get the books. Just fill out
Is
NEED
all You
Boulangerile.
gerite (3PbS. Sba
The specimen of boulan-
Irkutsk, Siberia)-, in-
Ss,
vestigated was obtained from the Smithson-
MONEY all
to
three
us.
lines
We
books to either your home
~

will
and mail
ship
it

the
Send it Dept. X-3384
American
Technical
Society,

or shop by c^ipress collect and you can use them as Chicago, III.,
ian collection. Several samples were ex-
amined. In one sample, 4 by 7 by 0.8 mm., if they v.'ere your own for a whole week. Then if Now U. S. A.
Please send me the
the electrodes consisted of copper wires you want to send them back do it. It's all right with four-volume set of
us and we will pay the expense of shipping them back "Telephony and Teleg-
melted into the material as just described. raphy'' for_ seven days'
The radiation from the standard lamp gave ourselves. If you want to keep the books send us examination, shipping
a deflection of 10 to 20 cm. only $2.00. You can send the balance of our charges collect. If I decide
Another sample, 1 by 1.2 by 2 mm., held special $12.80 price the same way
month.
$2.00 each to buy, I will send $2.00 within
seven days and balance at $2.00
by compression between two heavy elec- month until $12.80 has been
trodes of copper, when exposed to the paid. Then you will send me a re-
standard incandescent lamp produced a de-
We reserve the right to withdraw this price ceipt showing that the set of books and
at any time. In fact we cannot maintain the Consulting Membership are mine,
flection of 2 to 3 cm., which is comparable itafter the present edition is sold. Act and fuUv paid for. If I want to get along
with the preceding when one considers the now while the low price holds good. ithout the books. I will return them at
ur expense after seven days.
size of the exposed surfaces.
Altho this substance seems fairly sensi- AMERICAN TECHNICAL Name
tive, it did not appear to be sufficiently so SOCIETY
to justify an investigation of its spectral Dept. X-3384 Address
sensitivity with a view of using this min- Chicago, U. S. A.
eral as a selective radiometer.
Jamesonite. (2PbS.Sb2S3; Smithsonian
Yoit benefit by mentioning the "Electrical Experimenter" when writing to advertisers.
902 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER April, 1919

collection,from Cornwall, England.) The


sample examined (size 2 by 7 by 1 mm.)

FREESRUnUR had the copper wire terminals attached by


fusing the incandescent wire into the ma-
terial. The standard lamp gave a deflection
of only 1 to 2 cm., which seems to indicate
DONrWEARATRUSS that this material is not so light-sensitive
as is boulangerite.
Mixtures of galena and stibnite in va-
rious proportions were melted in a cru-
^jL 7 ***,T^ f P.
yN T 5^ cible and poured upon a plate of metal.
Several samples, 5 by 10 by 0.5 mm., were
PUPAOCTWJtb'"
examined, but none of them gave any in-
Inner eurface made seIf-TMR0UCHTHt5 dication of light-sensitiveness (change in
adhesive purposely to prevent OPENINO f
slipping and to keep constantly applied * resistance) when exposed to daylight or
the absorbent - astringent medication to the standard incandescent lamp.
called PLAPAO. Close the hernial opening
as nature latendsd eotbe Rupture CAN'T Bisiiiuthiiiitc. Bismuthinite, Bij Sa, was
come down. obtained from the Smithsonian collection
Do Away With Steel and Rubber Bands That Chafe and from Jefferson County, Montana. This is
Pinch
the most interesting substance examined, in
You know by your own experience that the truss a mere mnkeshift a false is prop against view of the diverse results obtained and the
a collapsing wall and that undermining your
it is continue healtli. W'liy. tlien, to wear It ?
STUART'S PLAPAO-PADS are entirely different
adhesive purposely to prevent slip:iing and to hold the distended muscles securely in place.
being
medicine applicators made self- explanation offered therefor.
Nu
straps, buckles or sprinirs attached. No "digging in" or grinding pressure. Soft as Velvet Flexible The sample of bismuthinite examined

Easy to Apply Inexpensive. Continuous day and night treatment at home. No delay from work.
Hundreds of people, old and young, have gone before an officer tjualifled to acknowledge oaths, and
consisted of a non-homogeneous mass of
acicular crystals, which was easily crushed

swore that the PLAf'AO-rADS cured their Ruptures some of them most aggravated cases and of into numerous fine needle-like crystals. The
Inn;: standing.
first sample examined was a small mass of
Send Today For FREE PLAPAO-No Charge for it--Now or Ever crystals (size 1 by 1 by 0.7 mm.) held by
Siinrly write your name and a(Mre*is bt-low. Send Ihis advertisement for absolutely FREB TRIAL compression between two heavy electrodes
PI..\PAO and 4S-i)aKe Boik on Rurture No rhar^e for ii--ni\v or ever. Nothing
today 'tis madness to defer." Address. PLAPAO CO.. Block 8-14. St Louis, Mo.
to be returned. "Be wise of copper. When the crystal was exposed
to the standard carbon lamp no change in
Name Address conductwiiy could be detected with cer-
tainty.

A second sample, 3 by 6 by 1 mm., had


the copper wire terminals attached by fu-
sion, as already described. The e.m.f's
applied were the same as for the preceding
sample. When exposed to the standard
lamp no change in conductivity was ob-
Atlantic City's Newest (
served. These results being contradictory
to those published by Case, who used a
Fire-Proof Hotel three stage Audion amplifier to detect the
change in conductivity of the crystals, the
Ocean Front. Unusually attractive foregoing experiinents were repeated in
during the Autumn and Winter sea the manner described by him. For this
sons.
purpose the light from an acetylene fiame
shining thru a slit 2 by 10 mm. was focused
\ upon the crystal by means of a triple
American and European Plans achromatic lens, 6 cm. in diameter and 18
cm. focal length. The light was interrupted
Luxurious lobbies, spacious verandas and sun parlor.s overlooking tlie ocean. by means of a sectored disk having IS
Charming afternoon musicales and evening concerts. A palatial residence openings and operated by means of an elec-
for those seeking rest and recreation. Sea water baths. Fireproof garage. tric motor, the speed of which could be
Illustrated booklet sent on request. varied. The usual speed gave 240 inter-
ruptions per second. The crystal was con-
nected to a three stage Audion amplifier
*ITHR'5. tlOMEYIN IT . and telephone receiver. A crystal of sele-

ARN TELEGRAPHYisgS^
_ig^lLEARN TELEGR^ nium or a selenium cell produced a loud
note, but the samples of boulangerite and

iJTiniMORSE AND WIRELESS-:^-- jamesonite, which by previous tests were


light-sensitive, did not give a musical sound
in the telephone.

TEACH YOURSEUR The sample of bismuthinite with elec-


trodes sealed on produced no audible note
in half the usual time, at trifling cost, with the when exposed to light.
wonderful Automatic Transmitter. THE OMNIflRAPHi
Sends unlimited Morse or Continental messaged, at At dozen samples of bismuthinite
least a
Buy speed, just as an expert operator would. held by compression between heavy copper
Adogttd by U. S. 6v't. 4 ityln. Citaloia* frMi
electrodes were examined in connection
with the amplifier. Of this number only
OMNIGRAPH MFG. CO. two samples appeared
One sample produced
to be light-sensitive.
only a faint sound in
39L Cortlandt St. New York the telephone receiver. The second sample
produced a loud note in the telephone. The
sound was the loudest when the crystal
1-50 H. P. Motor $4.00 complete as shown was exposed along the line of contact with
If yon are in need of a small motor for experimental purposes, this Is your
chanee to get one at a very low price. Wound for 111) voit A. C. or U. C. Built
the copper electrode. Covering the crystal
exactly the same as