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Alex Quintas de Souza

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ANCIENT EGYPT BY GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A. CAMDEN PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,
ANCIENT
EGYPT
BY
GEORGE
RAWLINSON,
M.A.
CAMDEN
PROFESSOR
OF
ANCIENT
HISTORY
IN
THE
UNIVERSITY
OF
OXFORD,
AND
CORRESPONDING
MEMBER
OF
THE
ROYAL
OF "THE
/
ACADEMY
OF
TURIN
;
AUTHOR
FIVE
GREAT
MONARCHIES
OF
THE
ANCIENT
EASTERN
WORLD"
ETC.
ETC.
WITH
THE
COLLABORATION
OF
ARTHUR
OILMAN,
M.A.
"the
AUTHOR
OF
STORY
OF
ROME"
ETC
T.
FISHER
UNWIN
LTD.
LONDON:
ADELPHI
TERRACE
Copyright by T. Fisher Unwin, 1887 {for Great Britain) Copyright by G. P. Putnam's Sons {for
Copyright
by
T.
Fisher
Unwin,
1887
{for
Great
Britain)
Copyright
by
G.
P.
Putnam's
Sons
{for
United
States
the
of America),
l88j
DT Olo REGINALD STUART POOLE, KEEPER OF COINS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE
DT
Olo
REGINALD
STUART
POOLE,
KEEPER
OF
COINS
IN
THE
BRITISH
MUSEUM,
CORRESPONDENT
OF
THE
INSTITUTE
OF
FRANCE,
AND
IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT
OF
MUCH
HELP
AND
MUCH
PLEASURE
DERIVED
FROM
HIS
EGYPTIAN
LABOURS
^ Orf^*^r^*-"
M
i |A^- .. ^V^^ ? ^-^ "3
i
|A^-
..
^V^^
? ^-^
"3
c m
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m
CONTENTS. PAGE Land Egypt 1-22 1 HE of General Egypt, Chief divisions : I twofold shape
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Land
Egypt
1-22
1 HE
of
General
Egypt,
Chief
divisions :
I
twofold
shape
of
"
division,
division,
The
Egypt
2
;
threefold
3 "
of the maps
"
Egypt,
unreal,
4 "
the gift of
Egyptian
the
river,"
in what
sense,
The
Fayoum,
5, 6 "
7 "
the
speculations
concerning
Nile, 7, 8 "
The
Nile
lieautiful, 8 "
Size of Egypt,
Fer-
tility,
not
9 "
10^" Geographical
The
Nile,
12 "
as
a
situation, il,
Phenomena
tion,
inunda-
means
of the
of communication,
12,
13 "
Climate
of Egypt,
Geology,
Flora
13, 14 "
14 "
15 "
and
Fauna,
Exceptions,
20-22.
16, 17 "
General monotony,
19 "
II.
The
People
Egypt
of
J3-4S
Origin
Egyptians,
Phenomena
of their language
of the
23 "
Two
Two
and
type,
24 "
marked
varieties of physique,
25 "
types of character
: the
melancholic,
25, 27 : the
gay,
27-29
Character
of the
Egyptian
"
religion : polytheism,
30, 31 "
Animal
Worship
worship,
31-33 "
of
the
monarch,
33 "
Local
Esoteric
Osirid saga, 34, 35 "
Evil gods,
36 "
cults, 37 "
how
belief, 39 "
religion,
38 ;
reconciled
with
the popular
Conviction
of a life after death,
Moral
40, 41 "
code,
41-43 "
Actual
Ranks
state
of morals,
43 "
of society, 44, 45.
X CONTENTS. PAG" III. The Dawn History of 46-64 Early Egyptian Thoth legends, 46, 47 "
X
CONTENTS.
PAG"
III.
The
Dawn
History
of
46-64
Early Egyptian
Thoth
legends, 46, 47 "
myths
: the Seb
and
The destruction of mankind
by Ra,
48 "
Traditions concerning
M'na,
Menes,
Site of Memphis,
Great
Temple
or
48 "
49 "
of
Phthah at Memphis,
Names
of Memphis,
50, 51 "
51 " Question
Supposed
of M'na,
of the existence of M'na,
52, 53 "
successors
54 " First historical Egyptian,
Sneferu,
The
Egypt
of his
55 "
Hieroglyphics,
Tombs,
Incipient
time,
56 "
57 "
58 "
mids,
pyra-
60 "
Manners,
59, 60 "
Social condition
of
the people,
61 "
Position of women,
62-64.
IV.
The
Pyramid
Builders
65-9
^
Difficult to realize the conception
65 "
of
a
great
pyramid,
Egyptian
idea
66 "
Number
in Egypt
of
one,
of pyramids
:
the Principal
Three,
67 "
Description
of the " Third
Pyramid,"
67-71
"Second
Pyramid,"
"First"
; of the
72;
of the
01
"Great
Pyramid,"
The
traditional builders, Khufu,
75-81 "
Shafra, and Menkaura,
82 ; the
82 "
pyramids
their tombs,
Grandeur
84, 85 "
of Khufu's
83 "
Cruelty involved
in it,
conception,
The
builders' hopes
Skill dis-
played
not
realized, 85, 86 "
86 " Magnificence
in the construction,
of
the
archi-
tectural
Inferiority of the
"Third
Pyramid,"
effect, 89 "
90
of the pyramid
"Continuance
period, 91-94.
V.
The
Rise
Thebes
Power,
Early
of
to
and
the
Theban
Kings
95-1 1*
.....
Shift of the seat
site of Thebes,
Origin of the
of power
"
95 "
of Thebes,
Earliest known
Theban
king, Antef
I.,
name
96 "
His
Mentu-hotep
successors,
"Antef
the Great,"
97 "
I. and
Other Antefs and Mentu-hoteps,
Sankh-ka-ra
98 "
98, 99 "
and
his fleet, 99, 100 "
Dynasty
of Usurtasens
and Amenemhats
:
CONTENTS. XI i-AGE Reign Amenemhat I., spirit of their civilization, loo, loi " of His and
CONTENTS.
XI
i-AGE
Reign
Amenemhat
I.,
spirit of their civilization, loo,
loi
"
of
His
and hunting
Usurtasen
I02
"
wars
expeditions,
103,
104 "
I.
: his
wars,
105 "
His sculptures
and
architectural works,
His
Reign of Amenemhat
106 "
obelisk,
107-109 "
II. : tablet
belonging
to
Usurtasen
his
his time,
109, no
"
II. and
con-
quests,
III,
112.
VI.
The
Good
Amenemhat
Works
and
his
1 13-123
.
Dangers
with the inundation
connected
of the Nile, twofold,
An
excessive inundation,
defective one,
113 "
114;
a
Sufferings from these causes
under Amenemhat
115 "
III., 115, 116 "
Possible
Amenemhat
storage
of
water,
117 "
's reservoir,
the
'* Lake
Moeris,"
Doubts
as to its dimensions,
118 "
119, 120 "
Amenemhat's
" Labyrinth,"
121
"
His pyramid,
and
name
of
Ra-n-mat,
122,
123.
VII.
Abraham
Egypt
in
1 24-13*
.....
Wanderings
of the Patriarch,
Necessity which
drove
him
124 "
into Egypt,
Passage
of the Desert,
A dread
125 "
126 "
anxiety
Reception
unfaithfully met,
127 "
on
the frontier, and removal
of Sarah
to
the
Abraham's
court,
128 "
material
well-being,
The
Pharaoh
Sarah,
Probable
date of the
129 "
restores
130 "
Other immigrants,
visit, 130 "
131.
VIII.
The
Great
Invasion
The
Hyksos
herd
Shep-
or
"
Kings
Joseph and
Apepi
"
132-146
.
.
Exemption
Egypt
hitherto from
of
foreign attack,
132 "
Threatening
of Asia,
movements
among
the populations
133 "
Manetho's
tale of the "
Shepherd
" invasion,
The
134 "
prob-
able
Upper
Egypt
The
reality, 135, 136 "
not
overrun,
137"
XII CONTENTS. firstHyksos king, Set, or Saites, 138 " Duration of the rule, doubtful, Character of
XII
CONTENTS.
firstHyksos
king, Set, or
Saites, 138 "
Duration
of the rule,
doubtful,
Character
of the rule improves
139 "
with time,
140
at Tanis,
Apepi and Ra-sekenen,
"
Apepi's great works
144 "
Apepi
145 "
and Joseph,146.
IX.
Ffow
Hyksos
Expelled
Egypt
THE
were
from
147-169
Rapid deterioration of conquering
races
generally,
147, 148 "
Recovery
of the Egyptians
from
the ill effects of the invasion,
Second
War
of Apepi
149 "
rise of Thebes
to greatness,
150 "
Ra-sekenen
III.,
Succession
Aahmes
with
151 "
of
;
war
The
Ilyksc- quit Egypt,
Aahmes
continues,
152 "
153 "
perhaps
assisted by the Ethiopians, 154-157.
The
First Great
Warrior
King, Thothmes
I. 158-169
Early
of Thothmes
in Ethiopia
Nubia,
wars
and
158-160 "
His
the Hyksos
invasion,
Condition of
desire to avenge
161 "
Western
Geographical
Asia at this period,
be
162,
163 "
sketch
Probable
tion
informa-
to
of the countries
attacked,
164, 165 "
of Thothmes
His
on
these matters,
167 "
great expedi-
tion
into Syria and Mesopotamia,
His
buildings, 168 "
167 "
His greatness insufficiently appreciated, 169.
XI.
Queen Hatasu
Mkkchant
Fleet
and
hfk
170-188
.
High
in
Egypt,
Early
estimation
of
women
170 "
position of
Hatasu
II., 173 "
Her
buildings
as jointruler with Thothmes
Her
at this period,
173 "
assumption
of male
attire and titles,
Her
regency for Thothmes
IH.,
174-177 "
nominal
and
real
Construction
of her
fleet,
sovereignty,
177, 178 "
and voyage
Return
to Thebes,
Construc-
tion
178-183 "
of the expedition
184 "
of
a
temple
to commemorate
it, 185 "
Joint reign of
Hatasu
with Thothmes
HI. "
Her
Her
obelisks,
186 "
name
obliterated by Thothmes.
187.
CONTENTS. Xlii PAGB XII. Thothmes Third Amenhotep the and the Second 189-207 III. into Asia, His
CONTENTS.
Xlii
PAGB
XII.
Thothmes
Third
Amenhotep
the
and
the
Second
189-207
III. into Asia,
His
First expedition of Thothmes
189-191 "
second and subsequent
campaigns,
191, 192 "
Great expedition
of his thirty-third year, 192, 193 "
Adventure
with an
elephant,
Further
194
"
expeditions
:
amount
tribute,
of plunder
and
Interest in natural history, 196 "
Employment
195
"
of a navy,
Song
the walls of the Temple
of Karnak,
197
"
of victory on
198-199 " Architectural
Their
works,
199-201 "
present wide
diffusion, 202 "
Thothmes
with Alexander,
compared
203 "
Description
Position of the Israelites under
of his person,
204 "
Thothmes
III., 205 "
Short reign of Amenhotep
II., 206.
XIII.
Amen-hotep
III. AND
Great
Works
The
HIS
"
Vocal
Memnon
208-222
.....
The
"Twin
Colossi"
of Thebes:
their impressiveness, 208-
211
The
The
"
account
given of them
by their sculptor, 212 "
Eastern
Colossus, why
Vocal Memnon,"
called "The
213, 214
" Earliest testimony
to
its being
"vocal,"
Rational ac-
214 "
count
215-217 " Amenhotep's
of the phenomenon,
temple
at
Luxor,
His other buildings, 219 "
His
217, 218 "
wars
and
peditions,
ex-
219,
220
His
"
lion hunts ; his physiognomy
and
character, 221,
222.
XIV.
KhUENATEN
DiSK- WORSHIPPERS
AND
THE
223-230
.
Obscure
nature
of the
heresy
of the Disk-worshippers,
223-
of Disk-worship
with the Israelites,
225
"
Possible connection
Hostility of the Disk-worshippers
226
to
the
old Egyptian
"
The
introduction
religion,
227 "
of
the "heresy"
of the "heresy"
traced
to
Queen Taia, 228 "
Great development
under
I.
her
Amenhotep
IV., or
Khuenaten,
Other
son,
229 "
changes
introduced
by him,
230.
CONTENTS. xiv TAGS XV. Beginning Decline Egypt of the of 231-257 . Advance of the Hittite
CONTENTS.
xiv
TAGS
XV.
Beginning
Decline
Egypt
of
the
of
231-257
.
Advance
of the Hittite
in Syria,
War
of Saplal
power
231 "
with Ramesses
Warof
Seti I. with Maut-enar,
I., 231 "
232 "
Great Syrian campaign
Seti's other
of Seti, followed
His
by
a treaty, 233-235
Hittite war
wars,
"
236 "
great
wall, 237 "
Ramesses
Poem
of Pentaour,
Results
of
II., 238-240"
241 "
the battle of Kadesh,
a
new
treaty and
an
of
inter- marriage,
MiHtary
decline of Egj'pt, 244 "
Egyptian
242, 243 "
art reaches
its highest
Hall
of Columns
at Karnak,
point : Great
245 "
Tomb
Seti, 246,
Colossi of
Ramesses
II., 248 "
of
247 "
Ramesses
II. the
Israelites, 249 "
great
the
oppressor
of
Physiognomies
of Seti I. and
Ramesses
II., 250-252.
XVI.
Menephthah
I.,the
Pharaoh
Exodus
of
the
253-268
Good
Mcnephthah's
prospect
of peace
on
accession,
253 "
General
Invasion
of the Maxyes,
sketch
of his reign, 254 "
255
" Their Mediterranean
Repulse of the invasion,
allies,256,257 "
258-261 " Israelite troubles,
Loss
Egyp-
tian
262-264 "
the
force in the
Red
Sea, 265 "
of
Internal revolts and
chariot
difficulties, 265 " General
review
of the
civilization of the
period, 266-268.
XVII.
The
Decline
Egypt
of
under
the
later
Ramessides
269-287
....
.
Temporary
dismtegration
of Egypt,
Reign
of Setnekht,
269 "
Reign
270
of Ramesses
III., 271 "
General
"
restlessness of
the nations
in his time, 272 "
Libyan
invasion of Egypt,
273,
Great invasion
of the Tekaru,
Tanauna,
274
"
and
others, 275,
battle on
by
276
Part
"
First naval
record,
277, 278 "
taken
Ramesses
Campaign
in the fight, 278-281 "
of revenge,
282 "
Later
of Ramesses
General
decline of
years
peaceful,
283 "
Egypt,
Insignificance of the later Ramessides,
284 "
284, 285 "
Deterioration in art. literature, and morals, 285-287.
CONTENTS, XV PAGE XVIII. The Priest-Kings Pinetem Solomon and " 288-297 . Influence of the Ordinary
CONTENTS,
XV
PAGE
XVIII.
The
Priest-Kings
Pinetem
Solomon
and
"
288-297
.
Influence
of
the
Ordinary
priests in Egypt,
288 "
relations
between
them and
the kings, 289 "
High-priesthood
of Ammon
becomes
hereditary
Herhor,
of Pinetem
;
290^Reign
I., 293
Reign
of Men-khepr-ra,
Rise
of the
kingdom
of the
"
294 "
Israelites, 295 "
between
Pine-
tem
Friendly relations established
Solomon,
Effect on
Hebrew
11. and
2q6 "
art and
archi-
tecture,
297.
XIX.
Shishak
Dynasty
and
his
298-313
....
Shishak's
family Semitic,
Assyrian
or Babylonian,
but not
298
Connected
Re-
ception
"
by marriage
with
the priest-kings, 299, 3C)0 "
of Jeroboam by
Shishak,
301 "
Shishak's expedition
against Rehoboam,
Aid
302"
lent to Jeroboam
in his own
kingdom,
Arab
Karnak
inscription,
303 "
conquests,
304 "
War
of Zerah
305 "
Shishak's successors,
306 "
(Osorkon II. ?)
Effect of Zerah's
defeat, 309 "
Decline
with Asa,
308 "
of the
dynasty,
310 " Disintegration
Egypt,
Further
of
310,
311 "
deterioration in literature and art, 311-313.
XX.
The
Land
Shadowing
Wings
with
Egypt
"
ethiopians
under
the
314-330
....
Vague
of the term
Ethiopia,
use
Ethiopian
kingdom
314 "
of
Napata,
Wealth
Napata,
Piankhi's
315 "
of
316 "
to
rise
317 "
of Egypt,
Revolt
of Taf-
power,
His protectorate
318"
Suppression
nekht
and
others, 318 "
of the revolt, 319-322 "
Death
of Piankhi,
revolt of Bek-en-ranf,
Power
and
323 "
of
Shabak
Egypt,
General
established over
324 "
character of the
Ethiopian
Advance
of Assyria towards
the Egyptian
rule, 324 "
border,
Collision between
325 "
Sargon
Shabak,
and
326 "
"
Reign
Shabatok
Sennacherib
of
threatens
Egypt,
"
327 "
Reign
of Tehrak,
328-330.
XVI CONTENTS. PAat XXI. The Fight Carcase Ethiopia over the k. " Assyria 331-341 ... ...
XVI
CONTENTS.
PAat
XXI.
The
Fight
Carcase
Ethiopia
over
the
k.
"
Assyria
331-341
...
...
Egypt
by Esarhaddon,
Great
battle near
attacked
331, 332 "
Memphis,
Memphis
taken,
flight of
Tehrak
to
333 "
and
Napata,
Egypt
by Esarhaddon,
334 "
split up into small states
Tehrak
Tehrak
driven
334, 335"
renews
the struggle,
336 "
out by Asshur-bani-pal,
His
Attempt
337 "
last effort, 337 "
by Rut-Ammon
fails, 338 " Temporary
of Mi-
made
success
Ammon-nut,
Egypt
becomes
Assyrian
339 "
once
more
an
dependency,
340 "
Her wretched
condition, 341.
XXII.
The
Corpse
Life
Psamatik
I.
comes
to
again
"
Son,
Neco
AND
HIS
342-359
Foreign
to
Libyan
help needed
save
a
sinking
state,
342"
origin of Psamatik
His
I., 344 "
the
revolt connected
with
decline of Assyria,
Assistance
him
by Gyges,
345 "
rendered
His
Reign
345 "
struggle with
the
petty
princes,
346 "
of
Psamatik
by
him
: place
assigned
to the mercenaries,
347 "
His
to her
former
measures
for restoring Egypt
prosperity,
He
intercourse
between
Egypt
348,
349 "
encourages
and
Greece,
Egypt
350-352 "
restored to life : character of the new
life, 353 "
Later
years of Psamatik
of Ashdod,
: conquest
354
Reign
of Neco:
his two
fleets, 355 "
"
His circumnavigation
of Africa, 356 "
of Syria, 357 "
His conquest
^Jeremiah on the
battle
of Carchemish,
Neco's dream
358 "
nates,
termi-
of
empire
359.
XXIII
The
Saite Kings
later
Psamatik
II., Apries,
"
Amasis
AND
360-367
......
The
Some
Saitic revival in art and
architecture, 360 "
recovery
Expedition
of Psamatik
II.
into
of military
strength,
361 "
Ethiopia,
Part
362 "
taken
by Apries
in
the
between
war
CONTENTS. XviT Nebuchadnezzar and Zedekiah, 363 " His Phoenician conquests, Invasion of Egypt 364 " His
CONTENTS.
XviT
Nebuchadnezzar
and Zedekiah,
363 "
His Phoenician conquests,
Invasion
of Egypt
364 "
His expedition
against Cyrene,
364 "
by Nebuchadnezzar,
of Amasis,
The
365 "
Quiet reign
366 "
of true
life, 367.
Sutic revival not
the recovery
national
XXIV.
The
Persian
Conquest
368-380
Amasis
Patient acquiescence
in his position of tributary to
of
Babylon,
Rise
the Persian
Cyrus,
368 "
of
power
under
and
by Croesus
to Amasis,
League
of Egypt,
Lydia,
appeal
made
and Babylon,
Precipitancy
of Croesus, 371 "
Fall of
369, 370 "
Babylon,
Later
of Cyrus,
372 " Preparations
371 "
wars
made
by Cambyses,
Great
battle of Pelu-
against Egypt
373, 374 "
Psamatik
III. besieged
in Memphis,
Fall of
sium,
375 "
376 "
Memphis,
and cruel treatment
of the Egyptians
by Cambyses,
His iconoclasm
by
377" 37^ "
checked
Conciliatory measures
considerations
Darius Hystaspis,
some
of
policy, 379 "
of
379,
380.
XXV.
Three
Desperate
Revolts
380-386
....
First
Khabash,
by
Xerxes,
revolt, under
Second
easily suppressed
Inarus and Amyrtaeus,
381, 382 "
revolt under
assisted
by Athens,
Suppressed
by Megabyzus,
Hero-
382, 383 "
384 "
doius
in Egypt,
Third
Nefaa-rut,
385 "
revolt, under
attains
a certain
success
; a native monarchy
re-established, 386.
XXVI.
Nectanebo
I. "
A
Last
Gleam
Sunshine
of
387-392
.
Unquiet
of Nefaa-rut,
time under
the earlier successors
387 "
Preparations
of Nectanebo
(Nekht Hor-heb) for the
better
of Egypt
Persians,
the
Invasion
protection
against
388 "
of
Egypt
by Pharnabazus
Iphicrates,
Failure
A
expedition,
390 "
and
faint revival of art and
389 "
of the
architecture,
391.
CONTENTS. KVlil tr/Ui* XXVII. The Light Darkness goes out in 393-402 . . Reign of Te-her
CONTENTS.
KVlil
tr/Ui*
XXVII.
The
Light
Darkness
goes
out
in
393-402
.
.
Reign of Te-her
(Tacho),393 "
Reign of Nectanebo
II. (Nekht-
Revolt
of Sidon,
of Ochus,
nebf ), 394 "
and
great
expedition
Sidon betrayed
by Tennes
and Memnon
of Rhodes,
394) 395 "
March
Egypt
: disposition of the
Persian forces,
396 "
upon
Skirmish
at Pelusium,
Nekht-nebf
to
397 "
and
retreat
of
Memphis,
Capture of Pelusium,
Surrender of
398, 399 "
399 "
Bubastis,
Nehkt-nebf
flies to
Ethiopia,
General
400 "
401 "
reflections, 402.
Index
403
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. VACB Frontispieci COLUMNS OF THE GREAT HALL, KARNAK . KARNAK, WITH PALMS AND
LIST
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS.
VACB
Frontispieci
COLUMNS
OF
THE
GREAT
HALL,
KARNAK
.
KARNAK,
WITH
PALMS
AND
CAMELS
SALT
LAKE,
FIGURES
OF
TAOURT
...
".,
FIGURE
OF
BES
.......
WADY-MAGHARAH
TABLET
OF
SNEFERU
AT
.
PYRAMID
OF
MEYDOUM
.
GREAT
PYRAMID
OF
SACCARAH
SECTION
OF
THE
SAME
.
GROUP
OF
STATUARY
HUSBAND
AND
WIFE.
"
SECTION
OF
THE
THIRD
PYRAMID
.
TOMB
CHAMBER
IN
THE
SAME
"
SARCOPHAGUS
OF
MYCERINUS
.
SECTION
OF
THE
SECOND
PYRAMID
SECTION
OF
THE
GREAT
PYRAMID
KING'S
CHAMBER
AND
CHAMBERS
OF
IN
THE
GREAT
PYRAMID
THE
GREAT
GALLERY
IN
THE
SAME
THE
GREAT
PYRAMID
AND
THE
SPHINX
XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. rAGB SPEARING THE CROCODILE lO"? OBELISK OF USURTASEN I. ON THE SITE
XX
LIST
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS.
rAGB
SPEARING
THE
CROCODILE
lO"?
OBELISK
OF
USURTASEN
I.
ON
THE
SITE
OF
HELI-
OPOLIS
107
BUST
OF
A
SHEPHERD
KING
14'
HEAD
OF
NEFERTARI-AAHMES
155
BUST
OF
THOTHMES
I
.
.159
HEAD
OF
THOTHMES
II
I?'
HEAD
OF
QUEEN
HATASU
I71
GROUND-PLAN
OF
TEMPLE
AT
MEDINET-ABOU
175
.
.
EGYPTIAN
SHIP
IN
THE
TIME
OF
HATASU
179
.
.
HOUSE
BUILT
ON
PILES
IN
THE
LAND
OF
PUNT.
l8j
.
1 83
THE
OF
PUNT
AT
THE
tOURT
QUEEN
OF
HATASU
.
SECTION
OF
THE
PILLARED
HALL
OF
THOTHMES
III.
AT
KARNAC
201
.
BUST
OF
THOTHMES
III
205
TWIN
COLOSSI
OF
AMFNHOTEP
III.
AT
THEBES
209
.
.
BUST
OF
AMENHOTEP
HI
221
KHUENATEN
WORSHIPPING
THE
SOLAR
DISK
225
.
.
H^.AD
OF
AMENHOTEP
IV.
OR
KHUENATEN
229
.
.
.
HEAD
OF
SETI
I.
250
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
BUST
OF
RAMESSES
II.
25J
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
HEAD
OF
MENEPHTHAH
255
SEA-FIGHT
IN
THE
TIME
OF
RAMESSES
III.
279
.
.
.
CARICATURE
OF
THE
TIME
OF
THE
SAME
286
.
.
,
HEAD
OF
HER-HOR
29I
FIGURE
RECORDING
THE
CONQUEST
OF
JUDiEA
BY
SHISHAK
305
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XXI PAGE HEAD OF SHISHAK PIANKHI RECEIVING THE SUBMISSION OF TAFNEKHT AND OTHERS
LIST
OF
ILLUSTRATIONS.
XXI
PAGE
HEAD
OF
SHISHAK
PIANKHI
RECEIVING
THE
SUBMISSION
OF
TAFNEKHT
AND
OTHERS
HEAD
OF
SHABAK
SEAL
OF
SHABAK
HEAD
OF
TIRHAKAH
329
FIGURE
OF
ESAR-HADDON
AT
THE
NAHR-EL-KELB
335
HEAD
OF
PSAMATIK
I
344
BAS-RELIEFS
OF
THE
TIME
OF
PSAMATIK
I.
35'
.
,
HEAD
OF
NECO
3S5
......
THE STORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT. I. THE LAND OF EGYPT. Egypt is like a In shape
THE
STORY
OF ANCIENT
EGYPT.
I.
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
Egypt
is like a
In shape
lily with a crooked
stem.
A
broad
blossom
terminates
it at
its upper
-end ; a
button
the
stalk a littlebelow
of a bud projects from
the blossom,
the left-hand side. The
broad
blossom
on
is the
from
Aboosir
to
Tineh,
Delta, extending
a
direct distance
of a hundred
and
eighty
miles, which
the projection of the -coast "
the graceful
swell of the
to two
hundred
petals "
enlarges
and thirty.
The
bud
is the Fayoum,
depression
in the hills that
a
natural
Nile
shut in the
the
has
been
valley
on
west,
which
rendered cultivable for many
thousands
by the
of years
introduction
into it of the Nile water,
through
a canal
known
"
the " Bahr
Yousouf
The
long
as
stalk of the
lily is the Nile valley itself, which
is a ravine
scooped
soil for seven
hundred
from
in the
rocky
miles
the
First Cataract
to
the
of the
apex
Delta, sometimes
a mile broad,
not
more
than
never
more
than
eight or
ten
No
miles.
other country
in the world
is so strangely
2 THE LAND OF EGYPT. to shaped, so long compared its width, so straggling, hard to
2
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
to
shaped,
so
long compared
its width, so
straggling,
hard
to
from
so
govern
a
single centre.
At
the
to
divide
the first glance,
country
seems
itself into two
; and
this
strongly contrasted
regions
the original impression
its
was
which
it made
upon
inhabitants.
The
from
natives
a
time
very
early
designated
their land
as
" the two
lands," and
repre-
sented
it by
hieroglyph
form
a
the
to
in which
used
" land " was
doubled.
The
kings
were
express
called
Lands,"
" chiefs of the Two
and
wore
two
crowns,
as
being
kings
two
The
Hebrews
of
countries.
caught
the idea, and
though
up
they sometimes
called Egypt
" Mazor
" in the
singular number, preferred commonly
to designate
it by
the
dual
form
" Mizraim,"
which
" the
two
Mazors."
These
" two
Mazors,"
means
" two
Egypts,"
or
" two
lands," were,
course,
the
of
blossom
the
broad
tract
the
and
the stalk,
upon
Mediterranean
known
" Lower
Egypt,"
"
as
or
the
Delta,"
and
the
long
narrow
that
lies, like a
valley
to
the
bears
green
snake,
south, which
the
name
of
" Upper
Egypt,"
" the
Said."
Nothing
is
or
more
between
striking than
the contrast
these
two
regions.
Entering
Egypt
from
the Mediterranean,
from
or
Asia
by
the caravan
route, the traveller sees
stretching
before him
boundless
an
apparently
plain, wholly
broken
un-
by
natural elevations, generally
green
with
crops
or
with marshy
plants, and
canopied
by a cloud-
less
distant
flat
sky,
which
rests everywhere
on
a
horizon.
An
him.
No
absolute monotony
surrounds
highland,
forest,
alternation
of plain and
meadow
and
slopes of hills, or hanging
or dells, or
no
woods,
gorges,
or babbling rills, meet
or cascades,
or
rushing
streams,
THE CHIEF DIVISIONS. 3 his gaze on any side ; look which way he will, all
THE
CHIEF
DIVISIONS.
3
his gaze
on
any
side ; look
which
way
he will, all is
sameness,
one
vast
smooth
expanse
of rich
alluvial
in being
soil,varying
only
cultivated
or
else allowed
to
Turning
his back
lie waste.
with
something
of
of this featureless
on
the
weariness
dull uniformity
plain, the wayfarer proceeds
southwards,
and
enters,
at
the distance
of a hundred
miles from
the coast,
on
an
Instead
illimitable prospect
entirely new
scene.
of an
him
side, he finds himself
in a
meeting
on
every
parativel
com-
down
narrow
vale, up and
which
commands
an extensive
view, but
where
the eye still
the prospect
either side is blocked
at the distance of
a few
on
miles
by
of hills, white
tawny,
rocky
ranges
or
yellow
or
drawing
sometimes
so
near
as
to threaten
an
obstruc-
tion
far as
of the
river course,
sometimes
receding
so
to leave some
miles
of cultivable soil on
either side of
the
The
stream.
rocky
ranges,
as
he approaches
have
and forbidding
They
them,
a
stern
aspect.
rise
for the
most
part, abruptly
in bare grandeur
; on
their
heather
nor
; no
trees
craggy
sides
grows
neither moss
clothe their steep heights.
They
intended, like
seem
of Rasselas,
to
the mountains
that enclosed
the abode
keep
in the inhabitants
of the vale within
their narrow
limits, and
from
bar them
out
any
commerce
or
ac-
quainta
beyond.
with
the regions
Such
is the
twofold
division
of the
country
which
impresses
the observer
strongly
at
the
first. On
a
intimate
familiarity, the
a
more
longer sojourn and
twofold
division
to
gives place
one
is three-
fold.
which
The
lower differs from
the
upper
valley, it is a
sort of debatable
region, half
plain, half vale ; the
itself out
cultivable surface spreads
more
widely, the
4 THE LAND OF EGYPT, hills recede into the distance ; above enclosing all, to tract
4
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT,
hills recede into the distance ; above
enclosing
all, to
tract belongs
of the Fayoum
the middle
the open
space
diameter, and
nearly fifty miles across
containing
in its greatest
four hundred
an
area
of
square
miles.
Hence,
of Egypt
some
a triple
with
of the occupants
division has
been
preferred to
a
twofold
one,
the
"
Greeks
interposing
the
" Heptanomis
between
the
"
Thebais
the Delta, and
the Arabs
the " Vostani
and
"
between
the Said and
the
Bahari,
or
country
of the
sea."
It may be objected to this description, that the Egypt
the Egypt
which it presents
to the reader is not
of the
Undoubtedly
The
maps.
it is not.
maps
give
the
of Egypt
to
broad
name
a
rectangular
space
which
of Africa,
they mark
out
in the north-eastern
corner
bounded
two
by
the Mediterranean
on
sides
and
the
Red
Sea, and
on
the
two
by
two
imaginary
others
kindly draw
for us
lines which the map-makers
across
of the
desert.
But
"this Egypt,"
has
the sands
as
"
is a
been well observed,
fiction of the geographers,
to
fact as
the island
Atlantis
Greek
as
untrue
of
legend, or
the Lyonnesse
both
of medieval
romance,
sunk beneath
to explain their disappearance.
the ocean
The
true Egypt
of the Hebrews,
of the old monuments,
of the Greeks
Romans,
and
of the
Arabs,
of its
and
in this day, is a mere
fraction of this vast
own
people
of the
plain watered
than
the
area
maps,
nothing
more
valley and
by
the
Nile, for nearly
hundred
seven
by
from
the
the
Mediterranean
miles
river's course
^
The
southwards."
great wastes
on
either side of the
Nile
in no
Egypt,
the
un-
valley
are
sense
neither
"
' R. Stuart Poole,
Cities of Eg"'pt," p. 4.
NATURE PREFERABLE TO MAPS. 5 dulating sandy desert to the west, nor the rocky and to
NATURE
PREFERABLE
TO
MAPS.
5
dulating sandy
desert
to
the
west,
nor
the rocky
and
to
the
terrace
gravelly highland
east, which
rises in
after terrace
to a height, in some
places, of six thou-
sand
feet.
Both
inhabited, and
by tribes
are sparsely
of a different race
from
the Egyptian
"
to the
is in the
tribes whose
best times
allegiance
rulers of Egypt
nominal,
the
and
for the
who
most
part
spurn
very
idea of submission
to authority.
If, then, the
true
Egypt
be
the tract that
have
we
described "
the
the
Fayoum
the
Nile valley, with
and
Delta "
bud,
the blossom
the lily stalk, the
and
we
"
how
it
can
to
well understand
came
be said of old,
that " Egypt
was
the
Not
gift of the river."
that the
lively Greek,
who
first used the expression, divined
The
fancy
exactly
the scientific truth of the matter.
of Herodotus
saw
Africa, originally, dotibly severed
from
Asia
by
two
inland
parallel fjords^ one
running
from
the
Indian
Ocean,
Red
northwards
as
the
Sea
does
to
this
day,
inland
and
the other penetrating
from
the Mediterranean
to
southwards
an
equal
or
distance !
The
Nile, he
itself
greater
said, pouring
into this latter fjord, had
by degrees
filled it up, and
had
by further deposits turned
into
then gone
on
and
land a large
of the Greeks,"
piece of the " sea
as
was
evident from
the
projection of the shore of the Delta
beyond
the general
coast-line of Africa eastward
and
"
I
for my
westward
; and, he
added,
am
convinced,
own
to divert
his
part, that if the
Nile should
please
from
bed
into
waters
their present
the
Red
Sea, he
fillit up
land
would
turn
it into dry
and
in the space
twenty
thousand
in
half
of
years,
or
maybe
that
time "
for he
is a
mighty
river and
a
most
energetic
6 THE LAND OF EGYPT. Here, one." in this last expression, he is thoroughly has right,
6
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
Here,
one."
in this last expression,
he is thoroughly
has
right, though
the
method
of the
Nile's energy
been
The
from
other than he supposed.
Nile, working
its immense
in the
reservoirs
equatorial
regions, has
itself out
a deep
bed
gradually scooped
in the sand
of the
desert, which
have
and
rock
must
originally
Africa from
extended
across
the
whole
of northern
the Atlantic
to the
Red
Sea.
Having
itself
scooped
to a
depth,
hundred
out
this bed
in places, of three
feet from
the
desert
level, it has
then
proceeded
its own
deposits. Occupying,
partially to fillit up with
it is at its height, the entire bed, and
when
presenting
at that time
the appearance
of a vast
lake, or succession
of lakes, it deposes
day
every
a
portion
of sediment
over
the
it
covers
: then,
con-
whole
space
which
tracting
it leaves
the base
gradually,
at
of the
hills,
both
on
sides, or
at
any
rate
on
one,
a
strip of land
fresh dressed with mud,
daily as
the
which
gets wider
into furlongs, and
waters
stillrecede, until yards grow
furlongs
last the
is
into miles, and
at
shrunk
stream
a few
hundred
content
with a
narrow
channel
yards
leaves the
of its bed
in width, and
rest
to the embraces
the industry
of
sun
and
air, and, if he
so
wills, to
ol
The
land
is Egypt
Egypt
man.
thus left exposed
"
is the temporarily
bed
it
uncovered
of the Nile, which
during
reclaims and
recovers
a
portion
of each
year,
Egypt
disappears
from
human
when
view, save
where
labour
has
by
formed
mounds
and
embankments
artificial islands that raise their heads above
the waste
for
the
build-
ings.
of
waters,
most
part
crowned
with
There
is one
to
this broad
exception
and sweeping
THE NILE. 7 The Fayoum is no Statement. part of the natural bed has b}' its
THE
NILE.
7
The
Fayoum
is no
Statement.
part
of the
natural
bed
has
b}' its
of the Nile, and
not
been scooped
out
It is a
depression
in
energy.
natural
the
western
off from
the
Nile
by
desert, separated
valley
a range
of limestone
hills from
two
hundred
to five hundred
feet in
height, and,
from
apart
the
activity of man,
have
been
arid, treeless, and
Still,
would
waterless.
it derives
from
the
Nile
all its value, all its richness,
all its fertility.
Human
energy
at
some
remote
period introduced
into the depressed
tract through
an
from
artificial channel
the
Nile, cut
in
some
places
through
life-giving fluid ; and
this fluid,
bearing
the rock, the
the precious
has
Nile sediment,
sufficed to
fertility over
to
spread
the entire
like a garden.
region, and
make
the desert blossom
The Egyptians
were
not
unaware
of the
source
of
their blessings.
From
a
remote
date they speculated
They
deified it under
on their mysterious
river.
the
of Hapi,
" the Hidden,"
they declared
name
that "his
"
known
that
he
inscrutable
abode
was
not
;
was
an
that
god,
none
they
could
tell his origin :
acknow-
ledged
him
as
things, and
the giver
of all good
espe-
cially
They
of the
fruits of the earth.
said "
" Hail
Nile I
to ihee, O
Thou
showest
thyself in this land,
Coming
life to
Egypt
in peace,
;
O
Ammon,
thou
giving
leadest night unto
day,
A
leading that rejoices the heart !
Overflowing
by
Ra
the gardens
created
;;
Giving
;
Watering
life to all animals
the land without
ceasing
:
The
of heaven
descending
way
:
Lover
of food, bestower
of
corn,
Giving
home,
O
Phihah
!
life to every
.
.
"
8 THE LAND OF EGYPT. O inundation to thet; : of Nile, offerings are made Oxen
8
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
O inundation
to thet; :
of Nile, offerings are
made
Oxen
are
slain to thee ;
Great festivals are
kept for thee ;
Fowls
are
thee ;
sacrificed to
Beasts of the field are
for thee ;
caught
Pure
flames are
offered to
thee ;
Offerings are
made
to every
god,
Nile.
As they are
made
unto
heaven,
Incense ascends
unto
Oxen,
bulls, fowls are
burnt 1
for himself chasms
in the Thebaid
;
Nile makes
Unknown
is his name
in heaven,
He
doth not
!
manifest his forms
Vain
are
all representations !
Mortals
1
extol him,
and
the cycle of gods
Awe
is felt by the terrible ones
;
His son
Lord
is made
of all,
To
enlighten all Egypt.
Shine
forth, shine forth, O
Nile ! shine forth !
Giving
lifeto men
by
his omen
:
Giving
life to
his oxen
by the pastures !
"
Shine
forth in glory, O
Nile !
'
Though
thus useful, beneficent, and indeed essential
of Egypt,
the Nile can
to the existence
scarcely be said
to the variety of the landscape
or to the
to add
much
beauty
of the
doubt, to
scenery.
It is something,
no
have
the sun
beats
the sight of water
in a land where
down
all day
long with unremitting
force tillthe earth
is like a furnace of iron beneath
brass.
a sky of molten
But
the Nile
During
the inundation
it
is never
clear.
is deeply
stained with the red argillaceous soil brought
down
from
the
Abyssinian
highlands.
At
other
less tinged
the
seasons
it is always
more
or
with
from
vegetable matter
which
it absorbs
on
its passage
Lake
Victoria
to
Khartoum
;
and
this vegetable
' Translation
by F. C. Cook.
SMALL SIZE OF EGYPT. Q with its depth it matter, combined and vohime, gives dull deep
SMALL
SIZE
OF
EGYPT.
Q
with its depth
it
matter, combined
and vohime,
gives
dull deep
a
prevents
it from having
translucent
the
hue, which
attractiveness of purer and
more
streams.
The
Greek
Neilos, and
the Hebrew,
Sichor,
name,
thought
to
are
embody
this attribute of the
mighty
to
" dark
blue " or " blue-black," terms
river, and
mean
sufficiently expressive of the stream's
ordinary colour.
Moreover,
the Nile
is too
It
wide
to be picturesque.
less than
a mile broad
from
is seldom
the point where
Egypt,
flat
it enters
and running
generally between
shores it scarcely reflects anything,
unless it be the
grey-blue sky overhead,
or
the
sails of
a
passing
pleasure boat.
The
size of Egypt,
the
limits which
have
within
been
here
to
assigned
it, is about
eleven
thousand
four hundred
square
less than
miles, or
that of any
European
State, except Belgium,
Saxony,
and Servia.
Magnitude
is, however,
but
insignificant element
an
of States "
Sparta,
in the greatness
witness Athens,
Rhodes,
Genoa,
Florence,
Venice.
Egypt
is the
richest and most
productive
land in the whole
world.
In
flourishing age
its most
we
are
told that
it con-
tained
twenty thousand
cities. It deserved
to be called,
more
(probably) than even Belgium, "
one
great town."
But
Still, as little
its area
was
undoubtedly
small.
have
men
taken
highest
often
the
rank
among
filled a most
important
warriors, so little States have
place in the world's history.
Palestine was
the
about
size of Wales
; the entire Peloponnese
larger
was
no
than
New
Hampshire
; Attica
had
nearly
the
same
as Cornwall.
Thus
the
of Egypt
does
area
case
not
stand by itself,but is merely
one
out of many
exceptions
to what
may
perhaps
be called the general rule.
t6 THE LAND Of EGYPT. happy in her If stinted for space, Egypt was soil The
t6
THE
LAND
Of
EGYPT.
happy
in her
If stinted
for space, Egypt
was
soil
The
and
in her situation.
rich alluvium, continually
deeper
deeper,
growing
and
top-dressed
and
each
bountiful hand,
inexhaust-
ible
year
by nature's
was
of an
fertility, and
bore readily year
a three-
fold
after
year
harvest "
first a grain crop, and
then
two
crops
of
The
grasses
or
esculent
vegetables.
wheat
sown
a hundredfold
to the husbandman,
returned
and
was
harvest-time
gathered
at
in prodigal
abundance
"
"
as
of the sea,
the sand
tillmen
" left
very
much," "
(Gen. xH.
doora
numbering"
49). Flax
and
were
largely
cultivated,
and
enormous
were
produced
of the
most
quantities
nutritive vegetables, such
as
lentils, garlic, leeks, onions, endive, radishes, melons,
lettuces, and the like, which
formed
cucumbers,
a most
important
in the
food
The
element
of the
people.
the
vine
was
also grown
in many
places, as
along
flanks of the hills between
Thebes
and Memphis,
in
the basin of the Fayoum,
at Anthylla
in the Mareotis
at Sebennytus
(now Semnood), and
Plisthine, on
at
the
the
Mediterranean.
The
date-palm,
shore
of
springing
naturally from
the soil in clumps,
or
groves,
or
planted
in avenues,
everywhere
offered its golden
the
dropping
its fruit into his
clusters to
wayfarer,
lap.
Wheat,
however,
was
throughout
antiquity the
Egypt,
chief product
of
which
was
the
reckoned
of the
the
granary
world,
refuge
and
resource
of all
in time
of dearth,
and
on
the neighbouring
nations
in
in
the
imperial
which
the later republican,
and
Rome
depended
for her
times,
sus-
almost
wholly
tenance.
If the soil was
thus all that could be wished, still more
ADVANTAGES OF GEOGRAPHIC POSITION. 11 Egypt advantageous was the situation. was the only of the had
ADVANTAGES
OF
GEOGRAPHIC
POSITION.
11
Egypt
advantageous
was
the situation.
was
the only
of the
had
nation
ancient
world
which
ready
access
to two
the Northern
Sea, or
" Sea of the Greeks,"
seas,
the Eastern
Sea, or
" Sea of the Arabians
and
the
and
Indians."
Phoenicia
might
her traffic by
carry
the
travel
fifteen degrees
painful
of
caravans
across
of
desert from
her
the Levantine
to
cities on
coast
the
of the Persian
Gulf, and
inner recess
thus get
a share
in the trade of the East
at a
vast expenditure
of time
trouble.
Assyria
Babylonia
for
and
and
might
a
time, when
at the
height
their dominion,
of
obtain
a
temporary
hold
on
their own,
lands which
were
not
boast
and
that
they
from
"sea
the
stretched
of the
"
from the Persian
rising " to " that of the setting sun
"
Gulf to the
Mediterranean
; but
Egypt,
at all times
by
her
and
under
all circumstances,
commands
both
the Mediter-
ranean
geographic
position
an
access
to
to the
Indian
Ocean
by
and
of the
Red
way
deprive
her.
Suez
Sea, whereof
nothing
can
must
be
hers,
for
always
the
Isthmus
is
her
natural
boundary,
has been
and
her water-system
connected
head
of the Arabian
Gulf for more
than three
with the
thousand
years
; and,
in the
absence
of any
strong
State
in Arabia
Abyssinia,
or
the
entire
western
coast
of the Red
Sea falls naturally under her influence
its important
and harbours.
Thus
with
roadsteads
Egypt
had
two
great outlets for her productions,
and
two
inlets by which
great
she received the productions
Her
issue
from
the
of other countries.
ships
could
Nilotic ports and trade with
Phoenicia, or
Carthage, or
Italy, or
her
Greece, exchanging
corn
and
wine
and
furniture
for
glass
and
and
works
in mctallurg)'
12 THE LAND OF EGYPT, Etruscan Grecian Tyrian vases, or statues, or purple tin brought by
12
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT,
Etruscan
Grecian
Tyrian
vases,
or
statues,
or
purple
tin brought
by Carthaginian
robes, or
merchantmen
from
the
Scilly islands and
from
Cornwall
; or
they
from
Heroopolis,
Myos
Hormus,
could
start
or
or
further to the
by
some
port
southward,
and
pass
way
of the
Red
Sea
to
the
" Araby
spice-region
of
the
Blest," or
to
the Abyssinian
timber-region,
or
to the
and Mozambique,
Arabia
shores of Zanzibar
or
round
to Teredon
the Persian
Gulf, or
on
possibly to Ceylon
India,
The
or
products
of the
distant
east, even
of
" far Cathay,"
into the land, for they
certainly .flowed
have
been
dug
out
of the ancient
tombs
; but whether
they
by direct or
were
by indirect commerce
obtained
to be doubtful.
must
be admitted
The
possession
of the
Nile
was
of extraordinary
to Egypt,
tility,
fer-
advantage
not
merely
as
the source
of
but
One
as
a
means
of rapid communication.
impediments
of the greatest
to progress
and civiliza-
tion
which Nature
he
offers to man
in regions
which
has
to
his will, is the difficulty of
not
yet
subdued
locomotion
of transport.
Mountains,
forests,
and
"
torrents,
marshes, jungles, are
the
curses
of
new
have
been
countries," forming,
until they
cut through,
bridged
insurmountable
over,
or
tunnelled
under,
barriers, hindering
hatreds
commerce
and
through
isolation.
Egypt
had
from
causing
the first a
broad
road driven through
it from
end
to end "
a road
seven
hundred
less than
miles long, and
seldom
much
a mile
wide "
which allowed
of ready
and rapid communica-
tion
between
the
the
kingdom,
remotest
parts
of
Rivers, indeed,
are
of no
use
as
arteries of commerce
vehicles fo" locomotion
have invented
or
until men
EGYPT DURING THE INUNDATION. I3 boats, or at least rafts, to descend ships or and ascend
EGYPT
DURING
THE
INUNDATION.
I3
boats, or
at least rafts, to descend
ships or
and ascend
; but
the Egyptians
them
were
the
acquainted
with
of boats
use
and
rafts from
a very
remote
period, and
like a
brood
of ducks
took
to
or
a
the water
parcel
of South
Sea Islanders.
Thirty-two
centuries
ago
an
Egyptian
king
built a
temple
on
of the
the confines
Mediterranean
he floated down
entirely of stone
which
Nile
for six hundred
from
the
the
and
fifty miles
quarries of Assouan
(Syen6); and the passage
up
the
of the
portion
as
river is for a considerable
year
easy
down.
Northerly
the famous
as
the passage
winds "
" Etesian
in Egypt
during
gales " "
prevail
the whole
by hoisting
of the
summer
and
autumn,
and
a sail
a
it is almost
always
possible
to ascend
the stream
at
dropped,
good
pace.
If the sail be
the current
will
; and thus boats,
at all times
take a vessel down-stream
down
even
the
and
vessels of a large size, pass up and
with equal facility.
water-way
Egypt
is at
all seasons
a strange
country,
but pre-
sents
the most
astonishing
appearance
at
the period
the
inundation.
At
that
time
not
only
is the
of
lengthy valley from
Assouan
to
Cairo
laid under
but
the
Delta
itself becomes
lake,
water,
one
vast
interspersed with islands, which
stud
its surface here
there at intervals, and
Herodotus
and
which
reminded
The elevations, which
of " the islands of the .^gean."
are
man,
are
for the
the work
of
crowned
most
part
of towns
with
the white
walls
and villages sparkling
in the flood
in the
sunlight, and
sometimes
glassed
beneath
them.
The
palms
and
sycamores
stand
up
by
five
out
of the expanse
of waters
shortened
some
or
feet of their
height.
Everywhere,
the
six
when
14 THE LAND OF EGYPT. inundation begins, the inhabitants hurrying are seen their cattle to the
14
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
inundation
begins, the inhabitants
hurrying
are
seen
their cattle to the shelter provided
in the villages, and,
if the
the
is
rise of
water
more
rapid
than
usual,
their beasts with difficulty, causing
numbers
rescue
them
by
to wade
or
swim,
or
even
saving them
means
of boats.
An
inundation
brings
excessive
not
only
but
human
life into peril,
animal,
endangering
the
villages themselves,
which
may
be submerged
and
height.
swept
away
if the
water
rises above
a certain
A deficient inundation,
hand,
brings
on
the other
no
immediate
danger,
but
by limiting production
may
a dearth
incalculable suffering.
create
that causes
however,
Nature's operations
are,
so
uniform
that
Egypt
these calamities
rarely arise.
rejoices, more
in an
than almost
any
other country,
equable
climate,
an
equable temperature,
and
an equable- productive-
ness.
The
doubt,
summers,
no
are
hot, especially in
intense
the south, and
an occasional
sirocco produces
discomfort
while it lasts.
But
the cool Etesian
wind,
blowing
from
the
north through
nearly all the summer-
time,
tempers
of the
sun's
even
in the
the ardour
rays
hottest season
during
of the year
; and
the remainmg
from October
months,
to April, the climate
is simply
delightful.
Egj'pt
has
been
to
have
but
two
said
Spring
from
seasons,
spring
and
summer.
reigns
October
into
May
up, flowers
bloom,
"
crops
spring
fan
in
soft zephyrs
the cheek, when
it is mid-winter
Europe
by
February
the
fruit-trees are
in
full
;
blossom
begin
to ripen in March,
; the crops
and
are
by
April ; snow
frost
the
reaped
end
of
and
are
at
time
fog, and
even
wholly unknown
any
; storm,
rain are
rare.
A bright, lucid atmosphere
rests
upon
GEOLOGY AND FLORA, 15 There is no the entire scene. moisture in the air, no mist
GEOLOGY
AND
FLORA,
15
There
is no
the entire scene.
moisture
in the air, no
mist veils the distance.
One
day
cloud
in the sky ; no
follows another, each the counterpart
of the preceding;
length
to
for
until
at
spring
retires
make
room
fiercer light, a
hotter sun,
longer
summer,
and
a
a
day, show
that
the
most
enjoyable part of the year
by.
is gone
The
of Egypt
The
geology
is simple.
entire flat
The
hills on
country
is alluvial.
either side are,
in the
north, limestone,
in the
central region
sandstone,
and
tion
forma-
in the south
granite and
syenite.
The granitic
begins between
the twenty-fourth
and twenty-fifth
parallels, but occasional masses
of primitive
rock
are
intruded into the secondary
regions, and
these extend
Above
northward
as
far as lat. 2y"io'.
the
rocks are,
places, deposits
in many
of
gravel
and
sand,
the
former
hard, the latter loose and
A
shifting.
portion
Gold
is found
of the eastern
desert is metalliferous.
day
even
at the present
in small
quantities, and seems
to have
been
Copper, iron,
anciently
more
abundant.
lead
have
been
and
also
met
with
in modern
times,
signs of having
and
one
iron mine
shows
been anciently
Emeralds
in
worked.
abound
the
region
about
Mount
Zabara,
desert further yields
and
the eastern
jaspers,carnelians, breccia verde, agates, chalcedonies,
and rock-crystal.
The
ing.
flora of the country
is not particularly interest-
Dom
trees,
and
date palms
are
the principal
the
latter having
a single tapering
the former
divid-
ing
stem,
into branches.
The sycamore
[Ficus sj'canionis) is
also tolerably
common,
as
are
several
species
of
The
furnishes
p.cacia
acacia
seyal, which
the
gum
l6 THE LAND OF EGYPT. is " of commerce, a thorny tree, arable gnarled and Hke
l6
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
is "
of commerce,
a
thorny
tree,
arable
gnarled
and
Hke
in its habit
somewhat
a solitary hawthorn
and
larger."
Its height, when
manner
of growth,
but much
is from fifteen to twenty
full grown,
feet. The /'ersea, a
the ancient Egyptians,
is a bushy
sacred plant among
tree
or
shrub, which
attains the
height of eighteen
or
twenty
bears
feet under favourable circumstances,
and
flavour.
The
a fruit resembling
a date, with a subacid
bark
branches
the
is whitish, the
gracefully
curved,
foliage of an
ashy
grey, more
especially on
its under
surface.
Specially characteristic of Egypt,
though
not altogether
peculiar to it, were
the papyrus
and
the
lotus " the Cyperiis papyrus
NympJicea
lotus
and
of
botanists.
The
papyrus
was
a tall smooth
reed, with
a delicate pith, out
a large triangular stalk containing
the Egyptians
of
which
manufactured
their paper.
The
fabric was
by its
excellent, as
is shown
ance
continu-
to
the
day,
by
present
the
fact that the
and
Greeks
Romans,
it
to
and
after long trial, preferred
The
lotus was
parchment.
a large white
water-lily of
Kings
exquisite beauty.
offered itto the gods
; guests
banquets
wore
it at
; architectural forms were
modelled
it ; it was
upon
employed
in the ornamentation
of
thrones.
Whether
had
its root
as-
the effect on
men
cribed
to it by
Homer
be doubted
; but
may
no
one
it instantly
"a
ever
saw
as
it without
recognizing
"
thing of beauty,"
therefore as
and
a
joy for ever."
Nor
Egypt
have
can
times
afforded
in ancient
At
the
any
very exciting
amusement
to sportsmen.
hound
present day
gazelles are
chased
with hawk
and
during
broad
the
dry
season
on
the
of the
expanse
Delta ; but anciently
the thick population
scared off the
MONOTONY OF EGYPT. IQ only to be found in the whole antelope tribe, which was Nor
MONOTONY
OF
EGYPT.
IQ
only to be found
in the
whole antelope tribe, which
was
Nor
desert region beyond
the limits of the alluvium.
Egypt,
have
can
in the proper
sense
of the word,
ever
been the home
fallow-deer, of lions,
of red-deer, roes,
or
bears, hyaenas, lynxes,
Animals
or
of these
rabbits.
classes may
occasionally have appeared
in the alluvial
be
plain, but they
would
only
rare
visitants driven by
hunger
from
their true
habitat
in the
Libyan
or
the
Arabian
The
the
uplands.
crocodile, however,
and
hippopotamus
by
were
actually hunted
the ancient
Egyptians
; and they further indulged
their love of sport
of fowling
fishing.
All
kinds
in the
pursuits
and
of
in
the
Nile
waterfowl
are
at
all seasons
abundant
left by
the
waters,
and
especially frequent the pools
ducks, ibises,
retiring river "
pelicans, geese,
cranes,
storks, herons, dotterels, kingfishers, and sea-swallows.
in the
Quails also arrive in great numbers
month
ol
March,
though
there
are
no
pheasants, snipe, wood-
cocks,
Fish
nor
are
partridges.
very
plentiful in
the
Nile
from
it ; but
the
derived
there
and
canals
to
are
the
not
many
kinds which
afford much
sport
fisherman.
Altogether,
Egypt
is a land
of tranquil
monotony.
The
travels
eye commonly
either over
a
waste
of
waters,
or
over
a green
plain unbroken
by elevations.
The
inclose the Nile valley have level tops,
hills which
bare of trees, or
flowers,
and
sides that
are
shrubs, or
The
No
or
even
mosses.
sky is generally cloudless.
fog
the distance
or
mist enwraps
in mystery
;
nc
rainstorm
sweeps
across
the
scene
; no
rainbow
spans
the empyrean
; no
shadows
chase
each
other over
the
landscape.
There
is an entire ab.'^ence of picturesque
20 THE LAND OF EGYPT. A single broad river, unbroken the scenery. within limits of Egypt
20
THE
LAND
OF
EGYPT.
A
single broad
river, unbroken
the
scenery.
within
limits of Egypt
even
by a rapid, two
flat strips of green
hills
plain at its side, two
low lines of straight-topped
beyond
them,
a boundless
and
open
space
where
the
river divides itselfinto half a dozen sluggish branches
is by
before reaching
the
sea,
constitute Egypt,
which
Holland
nature
a southern
"
" weary,
stale, flat and un
"
in two
profitable." The monotony
is relieved, however,
by
two
Nature herself does some-
ways,
and
causes.
thing
to relieve it. Twice
a day, in the morning
and
the
the landscape
lit up
in the evening,
sky and
are
by
hues
bright yet
delicate, that
the homely
so
so
transformed
as by
features of the prospect
are
at
once
beauty.
At
magic,
and
wear
an
aspect
of exquisite
dawn
long
themselves
streaks
of rosy light stretch
haze
across
the eastern
sky, the
above
the western
horizon
blushes
a deep
light diffuses self
it-
red ; a
ruddy
towers
around,
and
makes
walls and
and minarets
to
like
fire ; the
long
and
cupolas
glow
shadows
thrown
tree
building are
by each
and
purple
or violet.
A
is
glamour
over
the
scene,
which
seems
trans-
figured
by an
is
enchanter's
wand
; but the enchanter
Nature,
and
the wand
she wields
is composed
of
sun-
Again,
rays.
at
eve,
nearly the
same
effects are
pro-
duced
as
in the
heightened
morning,
only
with
a
effect; "the
redness of flames"
passes into "the
redness
"
of
roses
the
"
wavy
cloud
that fled in the morning
blushing, yet still
comes
into sight once
more
comes
"
burning
blushes, and
comes
on
comes
"
with
clings to
the Sun-god's side.^
Night
brings
a fresh transfiguration.
The
olive
" Adapted
from Mr.
Kinglake's
"Eothen,"
p. i88.
MONOTONY BROKEN BY ARCHITECTURE. 21 to deep blue-grey. The after-glow gives place a rises into the
MONOTONY
BROKEN
BY
ARCHITECTURE.
21
to
deep
blue-grey.
The
after-glow
gives place
a
rises into the vast
yellow moon
expanse.
A softened
light diffuses itself over
The
earth and
sky.
orb
of
in brightness
firmament
through
night
a
walks
of
; or, if the
is below
horizon, then
sapphire
moon
the
is lit up
the purple
vault
with many-coloured
stars.
A
of beauty
Silence profound
reigns around.
phase
different from
that of the day-time
wholly
smites the
of feature is forgiven
to
the
sense
; and
the monotony
to
changefulness
of expression,
and
the experience
of
delight
a
new
Man
has also done
the dulness
his part
to overcome
that brood
the " land of Mizraim."
and
sameness
over
Where
tame
nature
is most
and
commonplace,
man
his highest
As
is tempted
to
in
flights of audacity.
the level Babylonia
to build
a tower
that
he aspired
to heaven
" (Gen. xi. 4), so
in Egypt
he
should
" reach
strove
to startle and
surprise by gigantic works,
mous
enor-
undertakings, enterprises that might have seemed
And
wholly beyond
his powers.
these have
consti-
tuted
the
in all ages, except
very earliest, the great
Men
drawn
attractiveness of Egypt.
are
there, not
of the Nile, or the mild beauties
by the mysteriousness
fields
of orchards
and palm -groves, of well-cultivated
by the loveliness of sunrises and
and
gardens "
no,
nor
sunsets,
of moonlit
skies and
stars shining
with many
hues, but by the huge
masses
by the
of the pyramids,
enormous
ples,
tem-
colossal statues,
the tall obelisks, the
the deeply-excavated
tombs,
the mosques,
the
The
castles, and
the palaces.
architecture of Egypt
It began
it has
is its great
glory.
early, and
con-
tinued
late.
But
thickly
for the great
works, strewn
THE 22 LAND OF EGYPT, land of Egypt over the whole valley of the Nile, the
THE
22
LAND
OF
EGYPT,
land
of Egypt
over
the whole
valley of the Nile, the
would
have obtained
but a small
share of the world's
it is at
least doubtful
its
attention
; and
whether
"
"
have
story
would
ever
been thought
to
necessary
" the Story of the Nations."
complete
II. THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT. Where the Egyptians from, is a difficult came to Ancient question
II.
THE
PEOPLE
OF
EGYPT.
Where
the Egyptians
from,
is a
difficult
came
to
Ancient
question
answer.
speculators, when
they
derive
definitely from
could
not
a
people
any
other,
took
the figment, that they
refuge
in the statement,
or
of the
had
were
the children
they
soil which
always
Modern
theorists may
occupied.
say,
if it please
them,
that they
were
evolved
out
of the monkeys
that
had their primitive abode
on
that particular portion of
Monkeys,
however,
found
the earth's surface.
are
not
have
that in Egypt
everywhere
; and
we
no
evidence
they
indigenous,
were
ever
though,
as
pets, they
were
the Egyptians
delighting
in keeping
very
common,
them.
Such
have
evidence
as
we
to us
reveals
the
in the land of Mizraim
man
as
anterior to the monkey
Thus
we
are
thrown
back
on
the original
question "
Where
did the
is found
in
man,
or
race
of
men,
that
Egypt
at the dawn
of history come
from
.''
It is generally answered
that they came
from
Asia
;
but this is not
much
more
than a conjecture. The
type
of the Egyptians
is different from
physical
that
known
The Egyptians
had
of any
Asiatic nation.
no
traditions that at all connected
them
with Asia.
Their
language,
indeed,
in historic
times
was
partially
24 THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT. Semitic, and allied to the Hebrew, the Phcenician, and the Aramaic
24
THE
PEOPLE
OF
EGYPT.
Semitic, and
allied to the Hebrew,
the Phcenician, and
the Aramaic
; but
the relationship
was
remote,
and
for by later intercourse, with-
may
be partly accounted
out
involving original derivation.
The
fundamental
of the Egyptian
character
in respect
of physical type,
language,
tone
and
of
thought,
is Nigritic.
The
Egyptians
were
they bore
not
negroes, but
a
blance
resem-
is indisputable.
Their
type
to the negro
which
diiTers from
the Caucasian
those
in exactly
respects
They
which
when
exaggerated
produce
the negro.
darker, had
thicker lips, lower
foreheads, larger
were
heads,
jaws, a flatter foot, and a more
more
advancing
frame.
that
the
attenuated
It is quite
conceivable
type
by a
degeneration
negro
was
produced
gradual
from
find in Egypt.
It
that which
we
is even
con-
ceivable
that
the Egyptian
type
by
was
produced
from
that of the
gradual
advance
and amelioration
negro.
derived, the Egyptian
Still, whencesoever
people, as
in the flourishing times
of Egyptian
history,
it existed
beyond
diverse
was
all question
a mixed
race,
showing
affinities. Whatever
the people
was
originally, it re-
ceived
into
it from
time
to
time
foreign
various
elements,
and
those
in such
quantities as
seriously
to
Ethiopians
from
affect its physique
the
"
south,
Libyans
from
Semites
from
the west,
the north-east,
There
where
are
two
Africa adjoined on Asia.
quite
different types of Egyptian
form and feature, blending
together
in the
veloped
de-
mass
of the
nation, but
strongly
in individuals.
and (so to speak) accentuated
One
III.,
is that which
we
see
in portraits of Rameses
of Rameses
II. "
high fore-
and
in some
a moderately
EGYPTIAN PHYSIQUE TWO TYPES. 1^ " head, a large, well-formed aquiline nose, a well-shaped lips not
EGYPTIAN
PHYSIQUE
TWO
TYPES.
1^
"
head, a large, well-formed
aquiline nose,
a well-shaped
lips not
full, and a delicately rounded
over
mouth
with
The
forehead
coarse
"
chin.
other is comparatively
low, nose
depressed
of the face
and
short, lower
part
heavy,
jaw
prognathous
and
sensual-looking,
chin
large, lips thick
two
types
and
projecting. The
of
face are
not, however,
by
differ-
ence
accompanied
much
of frame.
The
Egyptian
in
is always
slight
flat in foot, with
limbs that
figure, wanting
in muscle,
long, too
thin, too lady-like.
Something
more
are
too
in
of muscularity
appears, perhaps,
in the earlier than
the later forms
to
a
; but this is perhaps
attributable
modification
of the artistic ideal.
As
Egypt
two
types
presents
us
with
of physique,
it brings
before
two
strongly different types of
so
us
On
hand
the one
we
see,
character.
alike in the pic-
tured
scenes,
in the native literary remains,
and in the
foreigners have
left us
of the
accounts
which
people,
dignified race,
a
grave
and
full of serious
and
sober
thought,
given to speculation
and reflection, occupied
the interests belonging
rather with
to another
world
those
that
than with
attach to
this present
scene
of
inclined
to
indulge
in a
existence, and
gentle
and
dreamy
of a king, when
The first thought
melancholy.
he began
to begin
his tomb.
The desire
his reign, was
It is a
of the grandee
was
trite tale how
similar.
at
feasts a slave carried round
to all the guests
the repre-
of a mummied
corpse, and
showed
it to each
in turn,
" Look
at this, and
with the solemn
words
so
"
drink
; for be sure
that
day
one
such
as
this
eat and
thou
The
favourite song
of the Egyptians,
shalt be."
to Herodotus,
dirge.
The
" Lay
according
was
a
of

sentation

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT. 26 Harper," which key-note that we a subjoin, sounds familiar, at any
THE
PEOPLE
OF
EGYPT.
26
Harper," which
key-note
that
we
a
subjoin, sounds
familiar, at any
was
very
rate, to large numbers
among
the Egyptians.
The
Great
One
' has gone
to his rest,
Ended
his task and
his race
;
Thus
men
are
aye passing away,
And
youths
are
aye taking
their place.
As
Ra
rises up every
mom,
And
Tum
every evening
doth set,
So
bring forth,
women
conceive
and
And
men
without ceasing beget.
Each
soul in its turn
draweth
brealli "
Each
bom
Death.
man
of woman
sees
Take
thy pleasure to-day,
Father
! Holy
One
!
See,
Spices and
fragrant oils,
Father,
we
bring to thee.
On thy sister's bosom
and
arms
Wreaths
of lotus we
place ;
On
thy sister, dear to thy heart,
Aye
sitting before thy face.
Sound
the song
; let music
be played
And
behind
thee be laid.
let cares
Take
thy pleasure to-day ;
Mind
delight I
thee of joy and
Soon life's pilgrimage ends.
And
pass to Silence and
Night.
we
Patriarch perfect and pure,
Nefer-hotep,
blessed one
!
Thou
Didst finish thy course
upon
earth.
And
art with the blessed ones
now.
Men
pass to the Silent Shore,
And
their place doth know
them
no
more.
rhey
had
been,
are
as
they never
Since the sun
forth upon
high ;
went
They
the banks
sit on
of the stream
That
floweth in stillness by.
' Nefer-hotep,
a deceased
king.
TWO TYPES OF CHARACTER, 2^ Thy soul is among them ; thou Dost tide, drink of
TWO
TYPES
OF
CHARACTER,
2^
Thy
soul is among
them
; thou
Dost
tide,
drink of the sacred
Having
of thy heart "
the wish
At
peace
ever
since thou hast died.
Give bread
to the man
who
is poor.
And
thy name
shall be blest evermore.
Take
thy pleasure to-day,
Nefer-hotep,
blessed and
pure.
What
availed thee thy other buildings
?
Of thy tomb
alone thou art sure.
On
beside,
the earth thou hast nought
Nought
of thee else is remaining
;
And
below,
when
thou wentest
Thy
draining.
last sip of life thou wert
Even
have
they who
millions to spend,
Find
at last to an
that life comes
end.
Let all, then, think of the day
Of departure
without returning "
'Twill then be well to have
lived,
All sin and injusticespurning.
has loved
For he who
the right,
flee,
In the hour that none
can
Enters upon
the delight
Of a glad eternity.
Give freely from
out
thy store,
And
thou shalt be blest evermore.
On
of a lightsome,
the other hand, there is evidence
joyous, and even
frolic spirit as pervading
numbers,
the
lower
classes of the Egyptians.
especially among
" Traverse
Egypt,"
knows
says
a writer who
more
of
the
than
other living
ancient
country
almost
any
"
person,
examine
the scenes
sculptured
or painted
on
the
of the
to
tombs,
walls
chapels
attached
consult
the inscriptions graven
on
or
traced with
the rocks
ink on
the papyrus
rolls,and
you
will be compelled
to
the
Egyptians
modify
your
mistaken
notion
of
THE PEOPLE OF 28 EGYPT, being I defy you a to find nation of philosophers. freshly
THE
PEOPLE
OF
28
EGYPT,
being
I defy you
a
to
find
nation
of philosophers.
freshly
anything
more
gay,
more
amusing,
more
Egyptian
simple, than this good-natured
people, which
fond
of life and
in its
was
felt a profound
pleasure
Far
from
desiring death, they
existence.
addressed
to the
them
in life, and
to
prayers
gods
to preserve
happy
give them
a
old
age "
an
old
age
that should
'
the
reach, if possible, to
perfect term
of
i lo
years.'
They
kind ;
gave themselves
up
to pleasures
of every
they
drank,
they danced,
they delighted
in
sang, they
into the
hunting
making
excursions
country,
where
fishing were
and
occupations
reserved especially for
this inclination
the nobility.
In conformity
with
towards
pleasure, sportive proposals,
a pleasantry
that
was
perhaps
over-free, witticisms, raillery, and
a mocking
spirit, were
in vogue
among
the people,
fun
into the
was
entrance
even
tombs.
and
allowed
In
the
had
a difficulty in
large schools
the masters
training
keeping
down
the young
and
their passion
When
failed of
for am.usements.
oral exhortation
success,
the
cane
was
used pretty smartly
in its place ;
men
of the
land
had
'
for the
a
that
wise
saying
a
boy's ears
his back.' "
^
grow
on
Herodotus
tells us
how
gaily the Egyptians
kept
their festivals, thousands
of
the
common
people "
into
men,
women,
and
children together "
crowding
the boats, which
at
times
the Nile, the
such
covered
men
piping, and
the women
their hands
clapping
or
from
striking their castanets,
as
town
to
they passed
town
the banks
of the
along
stream,
stopping
at
the
various landing-places,
the
inhabi-
and
challenging
' Brugsch, "Histoire d'Egypte,"
p. 15.
EGYPTIAN DRQLLERY. 29 tants to Billingsgate. a contest of good-humoured From how we see the the
EGYPTIAN
DRQLLERY.
29
tants
to
Billingsgate.
a
contest
of good-humoured
From
how
we
see
the
the monuments
men
sang
at
their labours "
here as
they trod the wine-press
or
the
dough-trough,
by
there as
they
threshed
out
the
corn
driving the oxen
heaps.
through
In
the golden
one
of a harvest-song
have
down
case
the words
come
to
us
:
" Thresh
for yourselves,"
they sang,
" thresh for yourselves,
O
oxen,
thresh for yourselves, for yourselves "
"
Bushels
!
for yourselves, bushels for your masters
Their light-hearted drollery sometimes
found
vent
The
in caricature.
grand
sculptures
wherewith
a
king strove
to perpetuate
the memory
of his warlike
exploits were
travestied by satirists,who
reproduced
between