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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

GUIDELINES FOR STREET


LIGHTING IN THE PACIFIC
Promoting Energy Efciency in the Pacic (Phase 2)
2015 International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)

Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)


12th Floor, UBC II Building, Suite 1208
591 Sukhumvit Rd,(Corner Soi 33)
Wattana,Bangkok 10110,Thailand
Tel : +66 2 662 3460-4
Fax : +66 2 261 8615
www.iiec.org

Published by:
International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)

Photos Title Page:


Photograph Courtesy of All-free-download at all-free-download.com/free-photos/night_traffic_
182757.html

Design:
International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)

Produced under:
Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific Phase 2

With funding support of:


Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Acknowledgement:
This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the Asian Development Bank. The
contents of this document are the sole responsibility of International Institute for Energy Conservation
and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the Asian Development
Bank.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
GUIDELINES FOR STREET
LIGHTING IN THE PACIFIC
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Objectives of the Guidelines 1
1.2 About the Guidelines 1
1.3 Who Should Read these Guidelines? 2
1.4 Other Energy Efficiency Guidelines 2

2 OVERVIEW OF STREET LIGHTING 3


2.1 Purpose of Street Lighting 3
2.2 Basic Lighting Terms 3
2.3 Standards, Regulations and Recommendations for Street Lighting 4

3 COMPONENTS OF STREET LIGHTING 5


3.1 Optical Systems 5
3.1.1 Lamps 5
3.1.2 Control Gears 7
3.1.3 Luminaire 8
3.1.4 Photoelectric Controls 16
3.2 Structural Systems 16
3.2.1 Poles 16
3.2.2 Mast Arms (Mounting Brackets) 19
3.2.3 Bases and Foundations 19
3.3 Electrical Systems 20
3.3.1 Grounding 20
3.3.2 Voltage Drop 20
3.3.3 Energy Metering 20
3.3.4 Service Cabinets 20

4 DESIGNING AN ENERGY EFFICIENT STREET LIGHTING PROJECT 22


4.1 Understanding Roadway Categories and Lighting Recommendations 24
4.1.1 Classifying Roadways by Category 24
4.1.2 Understanding Lighting Quality Recommendations 24
4.1.3 Determining Actions Retrofits or New Systems 25
4.2 Shortlisting the Appropriate Lighting Technologies 26
4.2.1 Advantages of LEDs and HPS Lamps 26
4.2.2 A Quick Selection Guide for Replacing FLs and MVs with LED and
HPS Lamps (for Retrofit Projects) 27
4.3 Simulating Lighting Design and Calculating Costs 28
4.3.1 Design Components to Consider 28
4.3.2 Simulating Lighting Design with Computer Programs 29
4.3.3 Conducting a Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) 30
4.3.4 Calculating Financial Payback Periods 30
4.4 Measuring and Calculating Average Illuminance 31

Contents
...
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

5 MAINTENANCE OF EE STREET LIGHTING 34


5.1 Cleaning Luminaires 34
5.2 Lamp Replacement 34
5.3 Electrical Wiring Inspection 34
5.4 Measurement of Voltage Input 34

6 APPENDIX 1: LIGHTING TERMINOLOGIES AND BASIC UNITS 36

7 APPENDIX 2: LAMP REQUIREMENTS AND SAMPLE TECHNICAL


SPECIFICATIONS 38
7.1 HPS Luminaire Requirements 38
7.2 LED Luminaire Requirements 40

8 APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE OF LIGHTING MEASUREMENT SHEET 42

9 APPENDIX 4: LCCA ALTERNATE FORMULA REPRESENTATION,


AND EXAMPLE 43

10 BIBLIOGRAPHY 46

.; Contents
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

FIGURES
Figure 3-1 Typical HID Lamp and Control Gear Circuit 7
Figure 3-2 Typical LED Array and Driver Circuit 7
Figure 3-3 Cobra Head Style Luminaires 8
Figure 3-4 High Mast Style Luminaires 8
Figure 3-5 Vertical Mount Style Luminaire 9
Figure 3-6 Shoebox Style Luminaires 9
Figure 3-7 LED Style Luminaire 9
Figure 3-8 Basic Functions of Reflector, Refractor and Lens in Street Lighting Luminaires 10
Figure 3-9 Reflectors used in HID and LED Luminaires 10
Figure 3-10 Refractor of a Cobra Type HID Luminaire 10
Figure 3-11 How LED Lenses Control Light Distribution 11
Figure 3-12 Cutoff Characteristics Full Cutoff 11
Figure 3-13 Cutoff Characteristics Cutoff 12
Figure 3-14 Cutoff Characteristics Semi-cutoff 12
Figure 3-15 Cutoff Characteristics Non-cutoff 12
Figure 3-16 IESNA Lateral Light Distribution Classification Types 13
Figure 3-17 Ingress Protection (IP) 14
Figure 3-18 Mechanical or Impact Protection 15
Figure 3-19 Internal and External Installation of Photoelectric Control 16
Figure 3-20 Single-sided Configuration 17
Figure 3-21 Staggered Configuration 17
Figure 3-22 Opposite Configuration 18
Figure 3-23 Twin Central Configuration 18
Figure 3-24 Mast Arms (Mounting Brackets) 19
Figure 3-25 Base and Foundation for Lighting Pole 19
Figure 3-26 Pad Mounted Service Cabinet 21
Figure 3-27 Pole Mounted Service Cabinet 21
Figure 4-1 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project Flowchart 23
Figure 4-2 Geometry of Street Lighting 28
Figure 4-3 Illustration of Illuminance Field of Calculation and Measurement 31
Figure 4-4 Calculation of Lighting Quality Parameters using an Excel Spread Sheet 33
Figure 5-1 Comparison of Lamp Replacement Frequency of HID Lamp and LED 35
Figure 8-1 Sample of Lighting Measurement Sheet 42
Figure 9-1 Example of LCCA between 100 sets of MV and LED Street Lighting Systems 45

Figures
;
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

TABLES
Table 2-1 Lighting Terminologies and Basic Units 4
Table 3-1 Types of Lamp Technologies 6
Table 4-1 Recommended Illumination Level for Different Classification of Roads 25
Table 4-2 Recommended HPS Lamp Wattage and LED Luminaire for EE Retrofits 27
Table 4-3 Lighting Design Software Tools 29
Table 7-1 HPS Luminaire Requirements 38
Table 7-2 LED Luminaire Requirements 40
Table 9-1 Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Mercury Vapor Luminaire vs. LED Luminaires 44

;. Tables
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

ACRONYMS
ADB Asian Development Bank
CCT Correlated Color Temperature
Cd Candela
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CIE Commission Internationale de LEclairage
CRI Color Rendering Index
E Illuminance/ Illumination
EE Energy Efficiency
GEF Global Environment Facility
GHG Greenhouse Gas
HID High-Intensity Discharge
HPS High-Pressure Sodium
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IIEC International Institute for Energy Conservation
IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
IK Mechanical Protection [from Impact]
IP Ingress Protection
J Joules
kWh Kilo Watt Hours
L Luminance
LCCA Life Cycle Cost Analysis
LED Light Emitting Diode
LLD Lamp Lumen Distribution
Lux Luminous Flux Per Unit Area
lm Lumen
MH Metal Halide
MV Mercury Vapor
PDMCs Pacific Developing Member Countries
PEEP2 Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific Phase 2
PNG Papua New Guinea
RETA Regional Technical Assistance
U0 Overall uniformity of Luminance
U1 Uniformity of Luminance
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
USD United States dollar
UV Ultra Violet
W Watt

Acronyms
;..
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objectives of the Guidelines
Based on a consultation process conducted in 2007 on behalf of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Pacific Alliance for Sustainability, five Pacific Developing Member Countries (PDMCs) the Cook
Islands, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Samoa, Tonga, and Vanuatu assigned high priority to reducing
their use of fossil fuel. In response, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved Regional Technical
Assistance (RETA) for promoting energy efficiency in the Pacific in September 2008. This project was
implemented in 2 phases. The first phase concluded in May 2011, and focused on identifying a pipeline
of specific energy efficiency projects for funding and co-financing by ADB, GEF, and other sources.

The objective of the second phase Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Pacific (PEEP2) was to
improve the efficiency of electrical power for end-users in the residential, commercial, and government
sectors across the 5 PDMCs. This goal was addressed with several complementary methods: building
stakeholder knowledge, mainstreaming government policies, implementing energy in new and existing
buildings, and disseminating information to build awareness and change behavior. These actions
resulted in: enhanced energy security, reduced energy costs for end-users, and overall reductions in
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific were developed under PEEP2 in
order to help achieve energy and financial savings, while increasing public safety for drivers and
pedestrians. The guidelines help achieve these goals by providing methods and techniques for
enhancing efficiency and quality of street and public lighting in the Pacific.

1.2 About the Guidelines


The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific were designed in accordance with
the specific needs and requirements of the PDMCs, which have limited resources due to their geo-
graphical placement. The utilities, public and private sectors have limited experience in developing and
implementing energy efficiency projects capable of making considerable impact in the region. These
guidelines were designed taking the above factors into consideration, and are intended to significantly
reduce costs, save energy, and lower GHG emissions.

These guidelines employ a simple and effective approach for achieving such reductions; they provide
guidance on how utility and municipal staff can improve the energy efficiency and performance of
street and public lighting. They also provide methods for reducing the operation and maintenance cost
of public lighting in order to ensure on-going quality and functionality.

These guidelines provide a range of easy to follow techniques and methodologies on the different
steps in design, installation and maintenance of energy efficient street lighting in the Pacific.

Introduction

Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

1.3 Who Should Read these Guidelines?


The Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific are developed for utilities and munici-
palities in the Pacific. This document will be particularly helpful for:
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1.4 Other Energy Efciency Guidelines


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Hotels, Commercial, and Public Buildings in the Pacific are also avail-
able. To receive a digital copy, please contact IIEC or visit www.ee-pacific.net.

 Introduction
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
2
OVERVIEW OF
STREET LIGHTING
2.1 Purpose of Street Lighting
Street Lighting (or Roadway Lighting) is one of the most common forms of exterior lighting 1. The gen-
eral purpose and importance of street lighting is to allow drivers and pedestrians to travel safely, see
hazards, recognize objects and have a sense of security, as a result of improved night time visibility.
Properly designed and maintained street lighting can provide comfort and safety during nighttime con-
ditions for both vehicle and pedestrian traffic.

In fact, street lighting does more than just reduce nighttime traffic accidents, and it can also:
r Reduce the level of petty crime and personal robbery, and give citizens a better feeling of security;
r Help road users without head lamps (e.g. the non-motorized, two-wheelers, etc.) to see potholes
and small obstacles;
r On multi-purpose roads, it can enhance commercial and social activity during the hours of dark-
ness, particularly after dusk; small installations in village centers, even operating for a few hours,
can enhance community life;
r Make urban centers more attractive, especially for visitors and tourists.

Some of the major issues concerning the design and specifications for roadway lighting include the
light level, colour quality, light distribution, maintenance and initial cost. In recent years, energy
efficiency has also become a priority consideration particularly in countries where electricity tariffs
are high due to the long operating hours of most outdoor lights.

Increased energy efficiency in street lighting systems significantly reduces operation and maintenance
costs. Through cost-effective energy efficiency measures, energy and monetary savings of 20%- 50%
can be achieved. The initial investment cost associated with more efficient lighting technologies is
easily outweighed by the lower overall life-cycle costs 2 of efficient lighting.

2.2 Basic Lighting Terms


Important lighting terminologies and basic units are summarized in Table 2-1. Detailed descriptions are
given in Appendix 1.

1 Other exterior lighting applications include landscape, building facades, monuments, and signage, retail and commercial establishments

2 A life-cycle cost is dened as a sum of an initial purchasing price of equipment, installation costs, as well as maintenance and energy costs
incurred throughout the equipment life time. More details on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) are given in Section 4 and Appendix 4.

Overview of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Table 2-1: Lighting Terminologies and Basic Units

Term Quantity is a Symbol English Metric Denition of Unit


Measure of Unit Unit

Ability of source to Approximately equal to the


Luminous I candela (cd)
produce light in a luminous intensity produced
Intensity
given direction by a standard candle

Luminous flux emitted in a


Luminous solid angle of 1 steradian
Total amount of light lumens (lm)
Flux by a 1 candela uniform
point source
Amount of light
One lumen equally
Illuminance received on a unit
E fc=lm/ft2 lx=lm/m2 distributed over one unit
(Illumination) area of surface
area of surface
(density)
Intensity of light per A surface reflecting or
Luminance unit area reflected or 2 2 emitting light at the rate of
L cd/ft cd/m
(Brightness) transmitted from a 1 candela per unit of
surface project area
Note: 1 meter (m) = 3.28 ft; 1fc = 10.76 lux

2.3 Standards, Regulations and Recommendations for Street Lighting


The International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de LEclairage - CIE) has
published various technical reports, recommended practices, and developed design guides and
guidelines for roadway lighting applications. These include:
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The above-mentioned documents provide ways of improving nighttime visibility, and enhancing night-
time road safety. These CIE publications also give recommendations concerning average illuminance
levels and overall uniformity of illuminance for different classes of roads, as well as measurement of
street lighting illumination quality. CIE technical reports and recommendations have been referenced
by regional and national standards agencies around the world in the formulation of specific lighting
standards, including ones for roadway lighting applications.

The AMS-II.L CDM methodology on demand-side activities for outdoor and street efficient lighting
technologies, (approved by UNFCCC Executive Board in 2011) also references the aforementioned
CIE documents.

Keeping in line with recognized international recommendations and standards for roadway lighting,
this document references the recommendations for average illuminance levels and overall uniformity
(U0
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used in these guidelines, are fully consistent with the AMS-II.L CDM methodology. Detailed recom-
mendations concerning illumination and uniformity, as well as measurement guidelines, are discussed
in Section 4 of this document. For other applicable recommendations pertaining to street lighting lumi-
naires and their components, please see relevant recommended standards, published by the Interna-
tional Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 3.

3 The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), founded in 1906, is the worlds leading organization for the preparation and publica
tion of International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These are known collectively as electrotechnology.

 Overview of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
3
COMPONENTS OF
STREET LIGHTING
The components of a street lighting system are classified based on their respective functions. They are
generally described as:
rOptical Systems: consisting of lamps, control gears and luminaires
rStructural Systems: consisting of poles and pole bases (foundations)
rElectrical Systems: consisting of control systems (which include service cabinets)

During the design phase, these systems, and their component parts should be selected in order to
meet all road and lighting recommendations at a minimum life-cycle cost. To achieve an effective,
energy efficient design, it is essential to select the proper optical system. Careful selection of
lamp/ballast and luminaire combinations will yield higher system efficiency while meeting design
requirements and minimizing both glare and light pollution.

3.1 Optical Systems


The optical system consists of the lamp, (also referred to as the electric light source) control gears,
and the luminaire body. These three components are described in more detail below.

3.1.1 Lamps
The lamp is the most important component of the illumination system because it is largely responsible
for determining the quality of light, system efficiency, and operating costs of the overall illumination
system. The lamp transforms electrical energy into visible electromagnetic radiation, or light (lumens).
The rate at which this conversion takes place is called luminous efficacy, and is measured in lumens
per watt (see Appendix 1 for more details).

The lamps luminous efficacy, the color and distribution of its light, the depreciation 4 of light output
over the lamps lifespan, and the lamps overall lifespan are all factors that affect the cost and effective-
ness of its installation and maintenance. As such, these factors should all be considered when select-
ing a given light source.

Various types of lamp technologies are currently available for street lighting application. These tech-
nologies vary greatly in their luminous efficacy, color rendering properties, lamp life, etc. (Please see
Appendix 2 for description of terms). Most roadway lighting installations over the past decades use
one of three types of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp: high-pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide
(MH) or mercury vapor (MV) lamps. Light-emitting diodes (LED) technologies have recently become
more popular and affordable for roadway lighting, and these solid-state lighting technologies are more
energy efficient than their predecessors, particularly in terms of the efficiency of overall optical system.

A brief description of the different types of lamp technologies that can be used for street and outdoor
lighting are provided in Table 3-1.

4 Depreciation refers to the degradation of light quality over a luminaires lifespan. Such depreciation occurs to all luminaires; however, the
rate at which this process occurs varies both by make, and individual unit.

Components of Street Lighting



Table 3-1: Types of Lamp Technologies


Lighting Colour CRI (Colour
Lifespan Lumens Ignition
Technology Temperature Rendering Issues to Consider
(hours) per watt Time
Index)

Mercury Vapor Very inefficient, UV radiation, contains


Light 12,000 24,000 13 48 4,000K 15 55 up to 15 min mercury

Metal Halide up to 15 min UV radiation, contains mercury and


Light 10,000 15,000 60 100 3,000 4,300K 80
lead, risk of bursting at the end of life

High Pressure Low CRI with yellow light, contains


12,000 24,000 45 130 2,000K 25 up to 15 min mercury and lead
Sodium Light

Components of Street Lighting


Low Pressure 10,000 18,000 up to 15 min Low CRI with yellow light, contains
Sodium Light 80 180 1,800K 0
mercury and lead

Fluorescent UV radiation, contains mercury, prone


10,000 20,000 60 100 2,700 6,200K 70 90 up to 15 min to glass breaking, low wattage
Light
Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Compact Low life / burnout, dimmer in cold


12,000 20,000 50 72 2,700 6,200K 85 up to 15 min weather (failure to start), contains
Fluorescent Light
mercury, low wattage

instant Higher initial cost, contains lead,


Induction Light 60,000 100,000 70 90 2,700 6,500K 80 negatively affected by heat

LED Light 50,000 100,000 70 - 150 3,200 6,400K 85 90 instant Relatively higher initial cost

Source: adapted from www.grahlighting.eu/learning-centre/street-lighting-technology-comparison


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.2 Control Gears


The control gear generally serves the following three functions:
r Provides initial voltage and current to start the lamp.
r Keeps the lamp operating within its design parameters (input current and voltage). This prevents it
from reaching high levels and getting destroyed during normal operation.
r Adapts the lamp to any supply voltages available, for example 240 volts or 120 volts which are
commonly used by South and North Pacific Island countries respectively.

In the case of HID and fluorescent lighting, ballasts are the main component of the control gear. Some
HID lamps require an additional igniter to achieve proper starting voltage and current. For LED lighting,
a small electronic power supply, called an LED driver, converts the supply voltage into low voltage
direct current.

Figure 3-1: Typical HID Lamp and Control Gear Circuit

Ballast
Phase

Capacitor Lamp
Igniter
Capacitor Igniter

Neutrol
Ballast

Photograph Courtesy of Lumitron Lighting


International Co.,Ltd. , www.lumitronlighting.com

Figure 3-2: Typical LED Array and Driver Circuit

Phase LED Array LED Driver


+

LED
Driver
LED Array
_
Neutrol

Photograph Courtesy of Lumitron Lighting


International Co.,Ltd. , www.lumitronlighting.com

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.3 Luminaire
The term luminaire can be defined as a complete lighting apparatus consisting of the housing and all
integral parts necessary for both mounting, and function. This includes the light source (lamps), optical
control parts, control gears, wiring assembly, and structure. Luminaires for roadway lighting are
typically made of metal or plastic, and are shaped in the "cobra head" style, high mast style, verti-
cal head style or shoebox" style (see Figure 3-3 to Figure 3-6). LED luminaires (Figure 3-7) are avail-
able in various designs and shapes. Most LED luminaires are available in modern flat rectangular
designs, and others look similar to luminaires for HID lamps (such as the cobra head design).

3.1.3.1 Luminaire Design and Construction Features


The housing for luminaires is generally made of heat-treated, die-cast aluminum or aluminum-alloy,
and is painted with an electro-coated grey paint finish. Luminaires should be corrosion-proof or be
protected by finishes approved for corrosion-resistance. In generally, no special tools should be
needed for inserting and withdrawing lamps from the luminaire body. The common test standard for
luminaires referenced by luminaire manufacturers is IEC 60598 5, which specifies general recommen-
dations for luminaires, covering: classification of luminaire, marking, mechanical construction and
electrical construction. This test standard should be referenced when purchasing street lighting lumi-
naires. Below are common luminaire designs for HID lamps and LED for street and outdoor lighting.

Figure 3-3: Cobra Head Style Luminaires

Figure 3-4: High Mast Style Luminaires

5 The specic IEC standard for luminaires for road and street lighting is IEC 60598-2-3 Particular requirements Luminaires for road and
street lighting.

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 3-5: Vertical Mount Style


S y Luminaire

Figure 3-6: Shoebox Style Luminaires

Figure 3-7: LED Style Luminaire

3.1.3.2 Optical Control


The optical element of a luminaire, (such as the reflectors, refractors and lenses) controls the light
output distribution of a luminaire. It does so by reflecting and refracting the light output in order to
obtain the desired distribution. These optical elements absorb light or redirect it in such a way that only
a percentage of light emitted by the lamp escapes the luminaire. This percentage is the efficiency of
the luminaire.

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 3-8: Basic Functions of Reector, Refractor and Lens in Street Lighting Luminaires

Reector

Lens

Refractor

3.1.3.2.1 Reector
A reflector is used to change the direction of the light output. Its purpose is to redirect the otherwise
wasted light output in the desired direction. The reflector is intended to efficiently direct the light into
the required directions, while reducing it in directions where it might cause discomfort from glare.

Figure 3-9: Reectors used in HID and LED Luminaires


HID Luminaire LED Luminaire

Reector

Refractor

Photograph Courtesy of Lumitron Lighting International Co.,Ltd. , www.lumitronlighting.com

3.1.3.2.2 Refractors
Refractors are a type of lens that use a prismatic shape to redirect both the light emitted by the
systems lamp, and the light coming off the reflector. Refractors are often referred to as prismatic
lenses. Refractors are most often used in cobra head luminaires, and have the double function of help-
ing to protect the lamp from external damage.

Figure 3-10: Refractor of a Cobra Type HID Luminaire

Refractor

Photograph Courtesy of Lumitron Lighting International Co.,Ltd. , www.lumitronlighting.com

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.3.2.3 Lenses
Light from LEDs can be focused and shaped by lenses. Such lenses are being used with increasing
frequency in street lighting applications, as they can be used to redirect light, reduce glare, and even
serve to protect the LEDs from water and ingress. Lenses in LED luminaires are usually classified as
secondary optics and are fitted directly on the LED. Lighting manufacturers claim that LED lenses offer
an optical efficiency of more than 90%, while luminaires with traditional HID lamps generally offer
reflector efficiency of around 70%. Lenses allow light to be directed to exactly where it is needed,
reducing light pollution and dramatically improving system performance compared to conventional
light sources.
Figure 3-11: How LED Lenses Control Light Distribution
Type I Type II Type III

Type IV Type V

Source: Khatod - Optical Solutions for LED Lighting Photograph Courtesy of Lumitron Lighting International Co.,Ltd. ,
www.lumitronlighting.com

3.1.3.3 Photometric Distribution


Luminaires with different combination of optical control elements offer different patterns of light distri-
bution. The basic characteristics of vertical (cutoff) and horizontal light distribution of luminaires are
discussed below. (See Appendix 1 for description of lighting terminology).

3.1.3.3.1 Cutoff Characteristics


Full Cutoff
A luminaires light distribution is considered to be a full cutoff when the candlepower per 1,000 lamp
lumens does not numerically exceed 0 (0%, at or above a vertical angle of 90 above nadir (horizontal)
and 100 (10%) at or above vertical angle of 80 above nadir. This applies to any lateral angle around
the luminaire.

Figure 3-12: Cutoff Characteristics Full Cutoff


Full Cutoff

80o
90o

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tMJHIUBCPWFP

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Cutoff
A luminaires light distribution is considered to be a cutoff when the candlepower per 1,000 lamp
lumens does not numerically exceed 25 (2.5%) at or above a vertical angle of 90 above nadir
(horizontal) and 100 (10%) at or above a vertical angle of 80 above nadir. This applies to any lateral
angle around the luminaire.

Figure 3-13: Cutoff Characteristics Cutoff


Cutoff

80o
90o

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tMJHIUBCPWFP

Semi-cutoff
A luminaires light distribution is considered to be a semi-cutoff when the candlepower per 1,000 lamp
lumens does not numerically exceeds 50 (5%) at or above a vertical angle of 90 above nadir
(horizontal) and 200 (20%) at or above a vertical angle of 80 above nadir. This applies to any lateral
angle around the luminaire.

Figure 3-14: Cutoff Characteristics Semi-cutoff

Semi-Cutoff

80o
90o

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tMJHIUBCPWF
tMJHIUBCPWFP

Non-cutoff
When there is no candlepower limitation in the zone above maximum candlepower, the light distribu-
tion is considered to be non-cutoff.

Figure 3-15: Cutoff Characteristics Non-cutoff

Non-Cutoff
360o

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PGMJHIUBUBOZBOHMF

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.3.3.2 Lateral Light Distributions


As with vertical light distribution, lateral light distribution is also a characteristic of the given luminaire.
The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) established a series of lateral distribu-
tion patterns. They are labeled: Types I, II, III, IV, and V (see Figure 3-16). Type I and V luminaires are
regularly mounted over the center of the area to be lighted. Type I is used more often on rectangular
patterns over narrow streets, while Type V is more frequently used in areas where light needs to be
distributed evenly in all directions. As a result, High Mast lighting systems tend to use types V, and
modified Type Is.

Types II, III and IV are regularly mounted at the edge of areas needing light. Type II luminaires are used
on narrow streets; type IIIs are used on medium width streets, and type IVs are used on wider streets.

Figure 3-16: IESNA Lateral Light Distribution Classication Types

Type I Type II Type III

Type IV Type V

3.1.3.4 Luminaire Protection


International standards and recommendations have been used to classify luminaires according to the
degree of protection they have against the ingress of dust, solid objects and moisture.

3.1.3.4.1 Ingress Protection


Ingress Protection Ratings, or IP codes (sometimes referred to as the luminaires International Protec-
tion Rating) are published in IEC 60529 6. They are commonly used by street lighting luminaire manu-
facturers and lighting designers to define the ability of a given luminaire to protect itself from the intru-
sion of dust, water, and other objects (such as hands and fingers).

Figure 3-17 illustrates how IP Codes work. Different ratings are assigned to different levels of protec-
tion against threats of intrusion a higher rating indicates a higher degree of protection from harmful
intrusion, and a 0 or X rating indicates no protection at all. For example, IP54 refers to protection
against dust (no harmful deposits), and protection against water splashing in all directions.

6 IEC 60529 .- Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code) describes a system for classifying the degrees of protection provided
by the enclosures of electrical equipment. The current edition at the time of preparation of the guidelines was published in September 2013.

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 3-17: Ingress Protection (IP)

First Number Second Number


1SPUFDUJPOBHBJOTUTPMJECPEJFT 1SPUFDUJPOBHBJOTUMJRVJET

IP IP
0 /PQSPUFDUJPO
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N

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VOEFSXBUFS

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.3.4.2 Impact Protection


The Mechanical Impact (IK) ratings indicate the degree to which a luminaires enclosure or casing
protects it from external impact. Different IK ratings relate to the ability of an enclosure to resist impact
energy (measured in joules (J)). IK ratings are published in IEC 62262 standards.

Figure 3-18 illustrates how IK Ratings work. Each number indicates a corresponding degree of protec-
tion against external impact a higher rating indicates a higher degree of protection, and 0 or x
rating indicates no protection.

Figure 3-18: Mechanical or Impact Protection

IK Code IK Code
.FDIBOJDBMQSPUFDUJPO .FDIBOJDBMQSPUFDUJPO

IK IK

H

0 /PQSPUFDUJPO 06 DN
*NQBDUFOFSHZ
+


H

H
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 LH
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+

L
 H
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+

L
H

H
DN *NQBDUFOFSHZ *NQBDUFOFSHZ
04 + 10 DN

+


H

DN *NQBDUFOFSHZ
05 +

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.1.4 Photoelectric Controls


Roadway lighting systems need to have a means of efficiently controlling the overall system. Most
roadway lighting systems use photoelectric controls these can either affixed on luminaires or external
to tem. Photoelectric controls are capable of automatically turning lighting systems on and off
whenever necessary, and are able to operate in all weather conditions. Photoelectric controls should
reliably provide the ability to switch on and off all types of light sources that form part of a given
roadway lighting system. Photoelectric controls should be easy to remove and replace as a single unit,
without the need for special tools. It is also important that they can easily be connected and
disconnected from the electrical control gear, and that all of their terminals are easily accessible.

Figure 3-19: Internal and External Installation of Photoelectric Control

3.2 Structural Systems

3.2.1 Poles

3.2.1.1 Type of Pole and Height


In most cases, the poles used for mounting luminaires are owned by the local electricity distribution
utility. These poles are primarily installed to support distribution and/or service wires, and are typically
made of concrete, wood or steel. Since the poles are designed to accommodate additional loads, they
are normally capable of supporting installation of additional lighting equipment and luminaires. In
cases where dedicated (or independent) lighting poles are used, they should be made of hot-dip
galvanized iron and steel products with matte or dull finished surfaces in order to prevent glare.

The poles have an average luminaire mounting height of 8-10 meters for the single and double arm
installation, and high mast poles have an average luminaire mounting height of 20 meters. Pole height
affects the illumination intensity, uniformity of brightness, area covered, and relative glare of the unit.
Higher mounted units provide greater coverage, more uniformity, and a reduction of glare, but provide
a lower light level. Pole height should be based on recommended values for average luminance and
uniformity for the target area (See Table 4-1). Since regulations are sometimes imposed by electricity
distribution utilities, nearby airports and residential neighborhoods, it is important to coordinate with
relevant officials before purchasing or installing posts.

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.2.1.2 Pole Placement


Pole placement is an engineering decision, which should be based on geometry, characteristics of the
roadway, soil conditions, physical features of poles, environmental requirements, available mainte-
nance space, available budget, aesthetics, and overall local lighting objectives. Figure 3-20 to Figure
3-23 illustrate some prevalent pole placements/configurations.

(a) Single-sided. In this arrangement, all luminaires are located on one side of the road. This is the
most common type of arrangement employed by electric utilities.

Figure 3-20: Single-sided Conguration

Photograph Courtesy of ledlampinchina.wordpress.com

(b) Staggered. In this layout, lights are installed in an alternating pattern, on each side of the road in
zigzagging, or staggered locations.

Figure 3-21: Staggered Conguration

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

(c) Opposite. In this configuration, streetlight poles are placed directly opposite each other along the
road.
Figure 3-22: Opposite Conguration

Photograph Courtesy of ICS Engineering Inc, icsenggroup.com

(d) Twin Central. A twin central arrangement is usually adopted on dual carriageways. The luminaires
are mounted on T-shaped masts in the center islands of the road. In essence, this is a two (2)
single-sided arrangement, placed back-to-back with the two mast arms mounted on a shared
steel pole.

Figure 3-23: Twin Central Conguration

Photograph Courtesy of Philips, wrtl.co.uk

(e) Twin Central in Combination with Opposite Arrangement. In certain instances, where adequate
illumination cannot be met, a single-sided arrangement is integrated with twin central or staggered
arrangements.

Typically, streetlights along major roadways are staggered on single-sided posts, on opposite sides of
the road. Pole-mounted street lights are typically installed 30-40 meters apart, but this distance can
reach 100 meters when using high masts.

Roadside conditions may require that pole spacing be adjusted. Such adjustments should be
determined based on the recommended levels of illumination, as indicated in the guidelines (see Table
4-1). Higher levels of illumination than the base levels are justified when overhead structures, safety,
and object clearance restrict the placement of poles. It is also advisable to provide higher illumination
levels at diverging and merging areas.

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.2.2 Mast Arms (Mounting Brackets)


Mast arms, mounting brackets, or horizontal brackets are used to support the luminaire at a lateral
dimension from the pole. The mast arm length is usually 2-4 meters. The length of the mast arm should
have a length that is coordinated with the proper photometric distribution of the luminaire.

Figure 3-24: Mast Arms (Mounting Brackets)

Photograph Courtesy of nongkhainewsonline.blogspot.com, forgotten-ny.com, millerberndmfg.com (left to right)

3.2.3 Bases and Foundations


The base or foundation of a lighting system is its central point of contact with the ground. These
structures can have various designs (see Figure 3-25) but must always be capable of supporting the
weight of luminaire, while remaining resistant to wind, vibrations, and other local variables.

Figure 3-25: Base and Foundation for Lighting Pole

Steel Base Concrete Base

Tower Type Base

Components of Street Lighting



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

3.3 Electrical Systems

3.3.1 Grounding
The metal ground box lids, exposed metal conduit, metal poles, and supplemental ground rods at pole
foundations should be connected to the grounding conductor.

3.3.2 Voltage Drop


Voltage drop due to resistance in electric wires and cables is an important consideration when
installing new or retrofitting street lighting systems because it helps ensure that voltage at all luminaires
is sufficient for proper operation. High voltage drop also indicates inefficient operation of the electrical
system, resulting from excessive losses over distribution lines.

Street lighting systems should be organized to account for all components, ensuring that even the
furthest luminaires in the lighting circuit are able to receive their minimum required level of voltage
supply. The amount of voltage drop between the power supply connection point (or feed point) and the
furthest luminaires should not excess 3% of the system voltage.

3.3.3 Energy Metering


In cases where lighting systems are not owned by the electric utility, energy meters should be provided
and installed in accordance with local utility standards. In cases where utilities do own local lighting
systems, end users have the right to request the installation of energy meters.

3.3.4 Service Cabinets


There are two primary kinds of service cabinets pad, and pole mounted. These cabinets serve as the
electrical service point (feed point) from electric utility to lighting systems. These service cabinets
should be sized to accommodate the number of lights as desired, provided that the voltage drop does
not exceed 3%.

Street lighting service cabinets should include the following accessories and features:
r$JSDVJUCSFBLFSTGPSNBJOBOECSBODIDJSDVJUT
r"DPODSFUFGPVOEBUJPOPSXPPEQPMFGPSNPVOUJOH
r&MFDUSJDBMDPOOFDUJPOTUPUIFQPXFSDPNQBOZTFSWJDFDPOEVDUPST
r1SPWJTJPOTGPSHSPVOEJOH
r"NFUFSBOENFUFSTPDLFUXIFOOFDFTTBSZ
r"QIPUPFMFDUSJDDPOUSPMTPDLFU

Service cabinet structures should be rain-tight enclosures with a pad-mounting gasket. The cabinets
roof should extend beyond the outer edge of the front door and back wall of the cabinet in order to
reduce water build-up in and around sealed areas, such as the cabinets door.

 Components of Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 3-26: Pad Mounted Service Cabinet

Figure 3-27: Pole Mounted Service Cabinet

Components of Street Lighting



4 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

DESIGNING AN ENERGY
EFFICIENT STREET
LIGHTING PROJECT
The design and planning process is an important step in implementing any street lighting project. It is
very important to coordinate the interest of municipality, utility and other stakeholders, as it helps
provide an effective public service while avoiding ineffective investment. Project designers must
understand street lighting recommendations and evaluate the area to be lit in order to make informed
decisions on the kinds of lighting technologies to be used, and where luminaires should be placed.

Implementing an effective street lighting project is largely dependent on a strong project design.
Analyzing local needs, existing infrastructure, and available technology will give project designers a
clear understanding of the potential cost and energy savings to be achieved by the overall project. This
section provides guidelines on how to design an EE street lighting system it can be applied to both
new and retrofitting project designs.

The following flowchart in Figure 4-1 illustrates the steps to be taken when designing a street lighting
project. Each box in the following chart is marked with a number that corresponds to sections in this
chapter (Section 4). Please refer to the flowchart and the corresponding sections for detailed
information on how to design a street lighting project.

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 4-1: Designing an Energy Efcient Street Lighting Project Flowchart

4.1 Understanding Roadway Categories and


Lighting Recommendations
4.1.1 Classifying Roadways by Category
4.1.2 Understanding Lighting Quality Recommendations

Retrofitting 4.1.3 New


4.4 Systems Determining 4.2
Systems
Measuring and Calculating Actions Short Listing the Appropriate
Average Illuminance of Retrofits or Lighting Technologies
Exiting Systems New Systems

4.2.1
4.2 Advantages of LEDs and
Short Listing the Appropriate HPS Lamps
Lighting Technologies

4.2.1
Advantages of LEDs and
HPS Lamps

4.2.2
A Quick Guide for Replacing
FL and MV Lamps with LED
and HPS Lamps (Retrofit
Projects)

4.3
Simulating Lighting Design and
Calculating Costs
4.3.1 Design Components to Consider
4.3.2 Simulating Lighting Design with
Computer Programs
4.3.3 Conducting a Life Cycle Cost
Analysis (LCCA)

4.4
Measuring and Calculating Average
Illuminance of Retrofitting / New Systems

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

4.1 Understanding Roadway Categories and Lighting Recommendations


Designers should take three key points into consideration when researching and forming their design
for EE street lighting systems. First, they must understand the current and predicted needs of the area
to be lit. Second, they must understand lighting quality recommendations and how they apply to the
given roadway. Third, they must evaluate the financial ability of the owner to meet and address these
needs in order to assess whether the project will proceed with retrofits or a completely new system.

In cases where recommended lighting standards cannot be met with the available budget, it is gener-
ally accepted that some lighting is better than no lighting. Retrofits are generally directed at increasing
efficiency to reduce costs and energy use with better (or at least equivalent) lighting quality. Implement-
ing new lighting systems, by contrast, should aim to meet applicable lighting recommendations while
achieving cost effective EE.

4.1.1 Classifying Roadways by Category


Roadway categories are mainly defined by their functions, designed layouts and traffic conditions. CIE
115:2010 outlines parameters to be evaluated for determining roadway categories. These include:
traffic speed; traffic volume; traffic compositions (types of vehicles); separation of roadways;
intersection density; parked vehicles (along the roadway); and traffic control. Note that project
designers should evaluate both the current and predicted traffic volumes of a given roadway for
sustainable results to project design. These guidelines refer to 5 main roadway categories (as
recommended by CIE 180:2007).
1. Residential Areas, Pedestrians and many non-motor vehicles
2. Largely Residential, but some motorized vehicles
3. Major Access Roads, Distributors and Minor Main Roads
4. Important Rural and Urban Traffic Routes
5. High-Speed Roads, Dual Carriage Ways

4.1.2 Understanding Lighting Quality Recommendations


The second step is to understand the lighting quality recommendations that apply to each roadway
classification. Lighting quality recommendations have several components, and project designers
should consider each category when planning their lighting project. The primary quality factors to
assess include:
1. Average Illuminance Level: This is the measurement in lux of average levels of light distributed
across the area being lit. Average illuminance level is among the most important factors to consider
when determining lighting because it has implications on roadway safety as well as requisite elec-
tricity requirements and operating costs.
2. Overall Uniformity of Luminance, or Illuminance: This is the degree to which light is distributed
across the overall roadway. Overall uniformity of illuminance is measured by dividing the minimum
point of illuminance by the roadways average illuminance. This average is important for safety
reasons because it ensures that overall visibility between luminaires is adequate. This figure is
described by U0 in the Table 4-1.
3. Uniformity of Luminance, or Illuminance: Defined as the ratio of the minimum to the maximum,
and designated U1. This ratio indicates whether light distribution is even over the given area; it helps
project planners ensure that lighting isnt too dim in any particular point of the roadway.
4. Lighting on Footpath and Surrounding Area: This considers portions of the roadway that are not
in direct use. It takes into account a two strips 5 meters wide (one in the road, the other alongside),
the illuminance on the off-road strip should be at least 50% of the other.

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

5. Glare: In highly motorized countries a 10% maximum (of direct luminance) is recommended on
highways, while a range between 5% and 30% is acceptable for general traffic routes. These
percentages are determined by the amount of light the luminaires project near the horizontal.
Decreased glare results in decreased nighttime glow (or light pollution).
6. Guidance: Although glare should be kept low, a small amount of direct light from the luminaires
gives a useful sense of the "run" of the road ahead, and can forewarn drivers of upcoming junctions
or roundabouts.

With an understanding of both the roadways function and the lighting quality recommendations,
project designers can determine the relative lighting needs of their roadway. Recommended illumina-
tion levels for different roadways are given in Table 4-1, and can be used to determine respective light-
ing needs.

Table 4-1: Recommended Illumination Level for Different Classication of Roads


Average U00 U11
Category
Lighting Level

Residential Areas, Pedestrians and many Non-motor Vehicles 1-2 lux 0.2 n/a

Largely Residential, but some Motorized Vehicles 4-5 lux 0.2 n/a
0.5 cd/m2
Major Access Roads, Distributors and Minor Main Roads 8 lux 0.4 0.5

1.0 cd/m2
Important Rural and Urban Traffic Routes 15 lux 0.4 0.6

High-Speed Roads, Dual Carriage Ways 1.5 cd/m2 0.4 0.7


25 lux
Source: CIE 180:2007

4.1.3 Determining Actions Retrots or New Systems


When financially viable, implementing a new lighting system allows for a greater degree of flexibility in
the selection of different lighting technologies, and in turn provides greater opportunities for increasing
light quality, and enhancing efficiency. Though the above lighting quality recommendations should be
met whenever possible, some light is still better than no light. Although retrofitting allows for less
flexibility and light-quality improvement, it normally requires lower initial investment, and can still be
used to enhance system efficiency.

In cases where sufficient funding for new lighting systems is not available (and when existing infra-
structure already exists), retrofit projects are an effective way of enhancing energy efficiency while
maintaining current light quality. When funding is available and new infrastructure is being built, it is
important that project designers implement projects that both meet current and anticipated future
needs while optimizing installation and system costs by considering high-efficiency luminaires.

IMPORTANT NOTE: In the case of retrofitting projects, designers should carefully measure existing
lighting quality levels prior to implementation. This provides a quality baseline against which to com-
pare project results. Detailed instruction on how to conduct measurements can be found in Section
4.4. See flowchart at the beginning of this section (Figure 4-1) to understand how measurement should
be factored into the project planning process.

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

4.2 Shortlisting the Appropriate Lighting Technologies


After determining the recommended lighting quality for the given roadway, and whether changes are to
be made by retrofits or new lighting systems, it is necessary to determine the kinds of lighting
technology to be used. Selecting the appropriate lamps and luminaires will have a substantial effect on
improving overall system efficiency, while lowering costs, and energy consumption. As such, selecting
two or three appropriate lighting technologies and using available tools and software to simulate
design options and optimum quality solutions is an important step in the project designing process.

Most street lighting installations use one of three types of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps;
high-pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide (MH) and mercury vapor (MV) lamps. HPS is the most
commonly used light source for street lighting due to its high efficiency and long service lamp life. MH
lamps provide efficiency values often equivalent to those of HPS, but have a significantly shorter
lifespan. MV lamps are the least efficient technology for street lighting applications; however they are
inexpensive to purchase, and have a relatively long service life. As a result, MV lamps are still prevalent
in many Pacific Island Countries.

When making street lighting purchasing decisions, it is important to consider more than initial
investment costs; this means factoring in luminaire lifecycle and post-installation costs, such as
operation, maintenance, and replacement. Higher efficiency and longer expected service life results in
considerable reductions to maintenance and operation costs. In many cases, this means that a higher
up front investment in durable, high efficiency lighting systems, will result in lower overall costs than
cheaper, lower efficiency counterparts. Having factored in current trends and future predictions about
efficiency, lifetime cycles, and the supply of commercially available lighting technologies in the Pacific,
these guidelines recommend using HPS and LED lighting technologies. Section 4.3 outlines ways to
simulate different options of selected lighting technologies and conduct life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

4.2.1 Advantages of LEDs and HPS Lamps


On average, LED luminaires have the longest lifespan, and tend to provide the highest efficiency;
however, HPS lamps also provide relatively long lifespans and good overall system efficiency. As a
result, both LED and HPS systems have the potential to increase municipal lighting efficiency while
reducing costs and energy consumption. The following two boxes consider some key features of each
lighting technology. It is advisable to conduct detailed simulation and lifecycle cost analysis (described
in Section 4.3 below) prior to making a final selection of lighting systems.

Basic minimum technical requirements and specifications pertaining to HPS and LED luminaires can
be found in Appendix 2 these should be referred to as part of the procurement process. Box1 and
Box2 give further information pertaining to HPS and LED lamps.

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Box 1: Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)


LED lamps have been commercially available since 1960, and their overall quality has steadily
improved since initial release onto the market. In relation to street lighting application, LEDs provide
two primary benefits: long service life, and high energy efficiency. The average LED lifespan for street
lighting application is around 50,000 hours approximately 13 years at standard 10-hour/day
operations. Although purchasing costs of LEDs are generally 2 - 4 times higher than those of standard
HID lamps, their service life is 3-5 times longer than conventional lighting technologies. On average,
LEDs consume less than half of the energy of standard lighting systems (with lowest efficiency starting
at 90 lumens per watt), and require less maintenance and cleaning. These factors make LED lamps a
cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable choice for municipal application, while their high color
rendering make them desirable models for street lighting purposes, where high visibility is a requisite
feature of lighting.

Box 2: High Pressure Sodium Lamps (HPS)


HPS lamps are a kind of Sodium Vapor Lamp that provide higher quality light rendering than their
low-pressure counterparts. For street lighting applications, HPS are frequently used due to their
relatively long lifespan and high energy efficiency. Although average lifespan and energy efficiency
ratings are generally lower than those of LEDs, HPS lamps can deliver competitive features. Average
lamp lifespans range between 15,000 and 40,000 hours, and deliver a high efficiency of 65-140
lumens/watt at the beginning of the lamps lifespan. These features make HPS a cost and service-
competitive option when considering lamp selection for street lighting application.

4.2.2 A Quick Selection Guide for Replacing FLs and MVs with LED and HPS Lamps (for
Retrot Projects)
When selecting LED or HPS lamps/luminaires, project designers should ensure that the downward
lighting output of new luminaires is equivalent to (or better than) the existing ones. Table 4-2 provides
recommendations on HPS lamp wattages and LED luminaire wattages for replacing existing
fluorescent and MV street lighting in order to achieve energy savings while maintaining similar or better
lighting quality.

Table 4-2: Recommended HPS Lamp Wattage and LED Luminaire for EE Retrots
Estimated
Existing Typical Average Downward Recommended Recommended
Lighting Wattage Efcacy Luminaire Light HPS Lamp LED Luminaire
22
Technology (W) (lm/W)
Output (lm) 11 Wattage Wattage 33

Fluorescent 40 80 2,080 35 30
Fluorescent 80 80 4,160 70 50

Mercury Vapor 50 45 1,463 35 30

Mercury Vapor 80 45 2,340 35 30

Mercury Vapor 125 45 3,656 70 45

Mercury Vapor 250 45 7,313 100 90


Mercury Vapor 400 45 11,700 150 140
Note:
1 Estimated based on luminaire efciency of 65%.
2 Estimated based on lamp efcacy of 100lm/watt and luminaire efciency of 70%; the total HPS luminaire wattage shall consider power
losses in control gear.
3 Estimated based on LED efcacy of 100lm/watt and luminaire efciency of 90%; Power losses in LED driver already included.

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

4.3 Simulating Lighting Design and Calculating Costs

4.3.1 Design Components to Consider


Achieving desired lighting quality is largely dependent on the luminaires selected; however, their place-
ment and configuration along the roadway are also of major importance to lighting appearance, and in
turn to public safety. Below is a list of the key parameters to be considered by the project designer in
order to meet the desired lighting quality recommendations:
1. Mounting Height: The greater the height the more light/power will be needed to achieve a given
illuminance, but a more uniform result will be obtained.
2. Layout: Lighting poles can be on just one side of the road or both; pairs of lighting poles can be
either opposite each other or staggered (see Section 3).
3. Spacing: The longer the spacing between luminaires, the lower the level of illuminance and the
more uneven/patchy; however, small spacing result in greater cost and is not always practical.
4. Lamp Type: These guidelines recommend the use of long service life and high efficacy HPS lamps
or new Light-Emitting Diodes (LED).
5. Luminaire: The actual luminaire chosen has to be suitable for the lamp type and power; the detailed
information provided by commercial suppliers can be relied upon for this.

To further illustrate these design parameters, below is a diagram illustrating street lighting geometry:

Figure 4-2: Geometry of Street Lighting

Mast Arms
(Mounting Brackets) Luminaire

Mounting
Height

Edge of
Spacing
Roadway

Width of Roadway

After having selected several viable options for luminaires and luminaire layouts (based on Figure 4-2),
it is necessary to evaluate the functionality and overall life cycle costs of each respective option before
making any final selection and proceeding with procurement and installation. The final selection should
be made based on a clear understanding of how each respective system will look, and how much it
will cost for the duration of its life cycle. These two factors allow the project designer to make informed
purchasing choices, and to provide municipalities and utilities with estimates concerning performance,
economic, and environmental costs

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

4.3.2 Simulating Lighting Design with Computer Programs


A number of computer-based programs can help project designers to simulate projected illuminance
outcomes in order to preview different project designs. Due to the large amount of calculation required
in this process, it is highly recommended that project designers use one of the many available
computer programs to assist in simulating the different options and configurations available to them.
Table 4-3 describes the different software available to project designers, and indicates where they can
be found.

Table 4-3: Lighting Design Software Tools


Lighting
Design Description License
Software Tool
AGI32 AGI32 is a 3D lighting design and rendering software package for Commercial
electric lighting and daylight analysis. AGI32 produces full-color
renderings and predictive lighting system calculations simultane-
ously for all applications of electric lighting and day lighting in
interior and exterior design projects. Complex architectural
environments are easily created internally, or externally created 3D
environments can be imported via DWG or DXF format files. A
comprehensive library of manufacturers lighting product data is
included. (www.agi32.com)

Calculux Calculux Road is a software tool that can help lighting designers Free
Road select and evaluate lighting systems. The software is relatively
easy to use. Although the built-in choices of luminaires are only
limited to products from Philips Lighting, the software can read
additional photometric files in IES and other formats.
(http://www.lighting.philips.com/gb_en/
connect/tools_literature/software.wpd)

DIALux DIALux is a free and complete software developed by DIAL GmbH Free
for professional light planning is open to luminaires of all manufac-
turers for calculation and visualization of indoor and outdoor lighting
systems. DIALux can calculate daylight, interior and exterior
lighting, road lighting and emergency lighting. DIALux can import
from and export to all CAD programs (e.g. DXF, DWG, SAT) and has
photorealistic visualization with an integrated ray tracer. More than
66 free electronic catalogues and photometric files (e.g. IES,
EULUMDAT, CIBSE) can be read in. (www.dial.de)

SEAD The SEAD Street Lighting Tool is a free, easy-to-use calculator Free
that can help purchasers make more informed choices regarding
street lighting fixtures to help achieve up to 50 percent in energy
savings. Supported by Mexico's National Commission for Energy
Efficiency, India's Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources
Canada, Swedish Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy,
the tool is designed to make the fixture evaluation process easier
by assisting street light purchasers with evaluating light quality,
energy use and costs for the most common road layouts.
(www.superefficient.org/sltool)

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

4.3.3 Conducting a Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)


An LCCA is a calculation that provides the total cost of a lighting system over its lifetime (from
purchase to disposal).The two primary functions of LCCA are to compare different lighting technolo-
gies (or other energy-consuming products), and to determine the cost efficacy of corresponding
system selection. Conducting an LCCA helps guide purchasing decisions by showing the actual value
of a given lighting system from purchase to disposal, allowing cost comparison based on real value as
opposed to initial investment costs. A system requiring lower initial investment may use more energy
(higher operating cost), require frequent luminaire cleaning, (higher maintenance costs) and have a
shorter lifespan (require replacement). Conversely, a system requiring higher initial investment may
cost significantly less over the course of its lifespan for inverse reasons.

NOTE: Light quality (color) is not factored in to LCCA. LCCA is a tool for comparing economic, and not
visual value. As a result, it should be conducted in congruence with aforementioned computer simula-
tions.

Box 3: The LCCA Formula


Life Cycle Costs = Cost to buy + Cost to maintain it (if any maintenance is required) + cost of
energy to run it for its life + Replacement costs - Any salvage value

An alternate configuration of the LCCA formula and a practical example which may be useful for
engineering staff can be found in Appendix 4.

4.3.4 Calculating Financial Payback Periods


In addition to an LCCA, a preliminary analysis of a simple financial payback period of a retrofit/new
project can be conducted using the below formula:

Simple Financial Payback (year) = Initial cost of the retrofit/new project


Annual savings in energy and maintenance costs

Example: The ABC municipality is considering replacing 100 sets of 250 watts mercury vapor (MV)
luminaires with 100 sets of 90 watts LED street lighting luminaires. The electricity cost is $0.3 per kWh.
The yearly operating hours of the system is 4,300 hours.

Estimated Initial cost:


r$PTUPGOFX-&%MVNJOBJSFTTFUYTFUT 
r$PTUPGJOTUBMMBUJPOTFUYTFUT 
r$PTUPGBENJOJTUSBUJPOFRVJQNFOU 
5PUBMFTUJNBUFEJOJUJBMDPTU      

Estimated Annual Savings:


r4BWJOHTQFSMVNJOBJSF87 - 90 W = 200 W
r.BJOUFOBODFDPTUTBWJOHTZFBSEVFUPMFTTNBJOUFOBODF SFMBNQJOH 
per luminaire cleaning, changing igniters, ballasts, etc) required by
LED luminaires
r"OOVBMFOFSHZTBWJOHTMVNJOBJSFTY IPVSTY8TBWJOHTQFSMVNJOBJSFY
QFSL8I 
r"OOVBMNBJOUFOBODFTBWJOHTMVNJOBJSFTYTBWJOHTQFSMVNJOBJSF 
5PUBM"OOVBM4BWJOHT    
4JNQMF1BZCBDL  ZFBST
7 Each 250W MV luminaire consumes about 290W due to additional losses in control gear which are estimated at 15% of lamp wattage.

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

In general, a simple financial payback under 3 to 5 years is considered favorable. In case a more
rigorous financial analysis is required to determine financial Return On Investment (ROI) of the project
before the final investment decision can be made, many online tools are available for helping with the
calculations, for example: http://energy.gov/eere/ssl/financial-analysis.

4.4 Measuring and Calculating Average Illuminance


The following procedure should be used in two circumstances. First, in cases where retrofits are being
undertaken, the measurement process should be conducted PRIOR to replacements. This provides a
quality baseline against which post-installation measurements can be compared. The second point at
which the Measurement process should be employed is after the installation process. In both cases,
the methodology laid out by CIE 140:2000 should be used.

Roadway Illuminance is a measure of the amount of luminous flux falling per unit area lumens/m2, or
lux (lx) and can be used as a method of comparing and verifying illuminance. In the case of retrofits,
the baseline measurement taken before replacement of systems should be compared to illuminance
present after retrofits. In the case of new roadway lighting systems, this measurement should be com-
pared to the projected illuminance levels anticipated during the simulation process. This measurement
and calculation process should be based on specifications provided in CIE 140:2000.

CIE 140:2000 provides the basis for determining fields of calculation, the location of measurement or
simulation points for lighting calculations, and calculation methods for average illuminance values, as
well as uniformity and glare values across the field of calculation as described below.
(a) The field of calculation should be typical of the area of the road or intersection that is of interest to
the driver and pedestrian, and may include the footways, cycle-ways, and verges. As shown in
Figure 4-3, adapted from CIE 140:2000. It should be bound by the edges of the roadway and by
transverse lines through two consecutive luminaires.

Figure 4-3: Illustration of Illuminance Field of Calculation and Measurement

D/2 D=S/N
Edges of lane

Centre-line of lane
WL

d=WL/3

Field of calculation
d/2

First luminaire in Last luminaire in


calculation eld calculation eld

Source: CIE 140:2000

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

(b) For staggered installations, consecutive luminaires will be on opposite sides of the road.

(c) The calculation points should be evenly spaced in the field of calculation (see Figure 4-3) and their
number should be chosen as follows.

(d) In the longitudinal direction, the spacing in the longitudinal direction should be determined from
the equation.

D = S/N

where:
D is the spacing between points in the longitudinal direction (m);
S is the spacing between luminaires (m);
N is the number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction with the following values:

for S 30 m, N = 10
for S > 30 m, the smallest integer giving D 3 m.
The first row of calculation points is spaced at a distance D/2 beyond the first luminaire (m).

(e) In the transverse direction.

d = Wr /3

where:
d is the spacing between points in the transverse direction (m);
Wr is the width of the carriageway or relevant area (m).

The spacing of points from the edges of the relevant area is D/2 in the longitudinal direction, and d/2
in the transverse direction, as indicated in Figure4-3.
(f) Luminaires that are situated within five times the mounting height from the calculation point should
be included in the calculation.

Calculation of average illuminance based on the measurement data can be performed using any
spreadsheet tools. Illustrated in Figure4-4. is calculation of lighting quality parameters (average
maximum, and minimum illuminance, and uniformity) of measurement data using Excel. A sample of
lighting measurement sheet is given in Appendix 3.

 Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 4-4: Calculation of Lighting Quality Parameters using an Excel Spread Sheet

7.0

5.9 15 13 10 8 6 5.3 4.5 4.7 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.9 10.4 13.8 15.3

3.5 24 17 14 10 6.8 5.5 4.8 4.7 4.7 5.4 6.7 9.1 14.5 18.5 21.5

1.1 25.7 16.6 11.4 7 3.6 4.7 3.9 4.5 3.7 4.9 7 10.1 15.7 21.7 22.7

0.0 Shade of tree

0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 39.0 42.0

Maximum Average Minimum


Illuminance (Lux) 25.7 10.2 3.6

Uniformity (min/avg) 0.35

Illumination Contour (Lux)


5.
9

3.
5

1.
1
0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 39.0

0
0-2.5 2
2.5-5 5
5.75 7
7.5-10 1
10-12.5 1
12
12.5-15 15
15-17.5 17
17.5-20 20
20-22.5 2
22.5-25

Designing an Energy Efficient Street Lighting Project



5 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

MAINTENANCE OF
EE STREET LIGHTING
Street lighting is a necessary but costly public service, requiring a great deal of investment in the
overall design, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance of street lighting systems. In
order to maximize the value while keeping costs at a minimum, it is important to carry out regular
maintenance projects to ensure cost effective, and energy efficient lighting services. The scope of such
maintenance projects should include: cleaning luminaires and all corresponding parts (including
refractors/lenses, reflectors, lamps, and control gear components); inspection of electrical wiring;
measurement of input voltage; and replacement of broken or dysfunctional luminaires lamp, and
component of the control system (such as photoelectric controls). The frequency of maintenance must
be based on the degree of local pollution, and take into account pedestrian and vehicular traffic, safety,
security, and economic constraints.

5.1 Cleaning Luminaires


Over time, dirt and airborne pollutants reduce effectiveness of each luminaires light output. The
amount of time this will take, and the degree of light obstruction will depend on local pollution levels
and the luminaires level of sealing or protection from the elements. Loss of light output, and respective
luminaire cleaning should be taken into account from the start of project design.

5.2 Lamp Replacement


Lamps themselves gradually give less light output as they age this is known as lamp light
depreciation. In addition, for any large number of lamps installed, there will be a fraction that fail
prematurely. In order to address lamp light depreciation and premature failure, lamp replacement is a
necessary component to any lighting project. There are two (2) commonly used approaches to lamp
replacement: spot re-lamping and group re-lamping.
r In the case of spot re-lamping, individual lamps are replaced if and only if they fail. While this
method has an intuitive appeal, it can be significantly more expensive (particularly in areas where
labor costs are high).
r In the case of group re-lamping, all lamps within a specific group are replaced regularly, based on a
predetermined replacement schedule. This is usually the most cost-effective approach, but should
be adjusted to exclude lamps that have recently been replaced as a result of random failure.

5.3 Electrical Wiring Inspection


All internal and external wiring installations should be inspected to check for broken or cracked
terminal lugs, frayed or deteriorated conductor insulations, and the tightness of screws and loose
connections. Loose electrical connection may cause overheating and damaged to the lighting system.

5.4 Measurement of Voltage Input


Measurement should be conducted to determine input voltage to the luminaire. The required voltage
input is necessary for all the electrical components of the luminaires (e. g., ballast, driver, and ignitor)
to operate properly. Lower voltage input may damage the luminaire prematurely, causing a shorter
lifetime.

 Maintenance of EE Street Lighting


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

As shown in Figure 5-1, HID lamps require more frequent replacement than LEDs due to shorter
average lamp life.

Figure 5-1: Comparison of Lamp Replacement Frequency of HID Lamp and LED

100

10+yrs
HID
80
% Initial Lumens

75% Output
70 LED
70% Output
2yrs

60 L70
HID Relamping

HID Relamping

LED Life Rating


40

20

0
1000 12,500 25,500 37,500 50,000
(2.8) (5.5) (8.4) (11.2)
Hours
(Years)

Maintenance of EE Street Lighting



6 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

APPENDIX 1: LIGHTING
TERMINOLOGIES AND BASIC UNITS
Ballast. A device designed to operate electric-discharge lamps by providing a starting voltage and
current, and limiting the current from reaching a level high enough to destroy the lamp during normal
operation.

Color Rendering. A term used to describe the effect that a light source has on the apparent
(conscious or unconscious) color of an object when it is compared to a reference light source.

Color Rendering Index or CRI (of a Light Source). This is measurement system used to evaluate
color rendering. This measures the degree to which the apparent color of a single object changes from
one light source to another. It makes this measurements based on reference to a single light source,
emitting a particular color temperature. Subsequent ratings are based on variance from apparent color
from the constant light source. Values assigned to common light sources tend to vary between 20 to
100 CRI units, in which 100 indicates no color shift, and a low CRI rating suggests that the color of an
object will appear unnatural under the particular source.

Color Temperature. A form of specifying the color appearance of a light source, relating the color to
a reference source heated to a particular temperature, measured by the thermal unit Kelvin. The meas-
urement can also be described as the warmth or coolness of a light source. Generally, sources
below 3,200 K are considered warm, while those above 4,000 K are considered cool sources.

Distribution Utility. An electric cooperative, private corporation, government-owned utility, or exist-


ing local government unit, that has an exclusive franchise to operate a distribution system.

Electric Utility. A private or government corporation, mainly responsible for the distribution of elec-
tricity to end-users or consumers.

Efcacy. The number of lumens produced by a lamp for each watt of electrical power it consumes.
The unit for measuring efficacy is lumens per watt.

Illuminance. The density of luminous flux on a surface, measured in footcandles, fc (or lux, lx). One
footcandle is the illumination of a surface one square foot in area on which there is a uniformly distrib-
uted luminous ux of one lumen. One footcandle is 10.76 lux.

Illumination. Illumination is the density of luminous flux per unit area on an intercepting surface at any
given point.

Light. Visually evaluated radiant energy.

 Appendix 1: Lighting Terminologies and Basic Units


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Lumen. This is the unit used to describe the quantity of light radiated from a light source. The lumen
is the unit for measuring luminous flux, or light flow. It is the amount of luminous flux of light radiated
into a solid angle of one steridian by the uniform light source of one candela used to describe the quan-
tity of light radiated from a light source.

Luminaires. Luminaires are complete lighting systems: they consist of the lamps, lens, wiring, and
reflective materials used to direct light.

Luminaire Efciency. The ratio of total lumen output of a luminaire and the lumen output of the
lamps, expressed as percentage.

Luminance (Photometric Brightness). This describes the property of light we can see with our
eyes. It is the quantity of luminous flux emitted, reflected, or transmitted from a surface in a particular
direction, and is measured in candelas (cd) per unit area cd/ft2 or cd/m2.

Luminous Flux. Time rate flow of light, measured in lumens (lm). One lumen is the amount of light
which falls on an area of one square foot, every point of which is one foot from the source of one
candela. A light source of one candela emits a total of 12.57 lumens.

Luminous Intensity. The force of luminous flux in a specified direction, measured in candela (cd).

Lux (lx). The illuminance produced by a luminous flux of one lumen, uniformly distributed over a
surface of one (1) square meter.

Visibility. The degree to which something can be detected by the eye.

Appendix 1: Lighting Terminologies and Basic Units



7 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

APPENDIX 2: LAMP
REQUIREMENTS AND SAMPLE
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
7.1 HPS Luminaire Requirements

Table 7-1: HPS Luminaire Requirements


No. Requirement Specications

1 Design and Structure r The luminaire shall be architecturally stylish in appearance,


provided that the optical requirement is met and suitable
for the usage area, and powder painted with high corrosion
resistance.
r Luminaire shall be so designed such that installation and
maintenance shall necessitate only minimal tools, prefer-
ably no tools.
r Material for the housing of the luminaire shall be made of
die cast aluminum.
r The luminaire shall have appropriate lamp socket and
suitable space provision for the lamp.
r All bolts and other fastening parts shall be corrosion
resistant, preferably 300 series stainless steel.

2 Optical Assembly r The optical reflectors shall be made of high-purity alumi-


num reflector.
r The optical assembly shall have a provision for easy lamp
replacement.

3 Wiring r The luminaire shall be pre-wired internally and externally in


case an electronic photovoltaic control is required.

4 Protection Class r IP 55 (for the entire luminaire, inclusive of the cable entry
(IP rating) and gland).

5 Supply Voltage r 220V - 240V, 50Hz (or the nominal system voltage used in
the country).

6 Lamp and Control Gear r Lamp Color Temperature (CCT): not less than 2100K
r Lamp Color Rendering Index (CRI): a minimum of 21
r The lamp shall have a rated average life of 24,000 burning
hours
r Lamp shall be clear, elliptical or tubular glass envelope
r Lamp dimensions shall conform to the requirements of
either IEC standard, latest revision

 Appendix 2: Lamp Requirements and Sample Technical Specifications


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

No. Requirement Specications

r Screw caps (bases) shall be E27 for 70-watt and E40 for
150-watt and 250-watt high-pressure sodium lamps.
r All lamps shall be externally ignited and designed to
operate in a universal burning position.
r The following information shall be distinctly and durably
marked on each lamp:
a. Mark of Origin in the form of trademark or the
manufacturers mark.
b. Rated wattage and voltage.
r The electronic ballast shall be equipped with thermal
protection with a max Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of
15%.
r All tests on lamp and control gear shall be performed in
accordance with applicable testing procedures and accept-
ance criteria of IEC standard, latest edition.

7 Test Report r IEC 60598 Luminaires Part 1: General requirements and


tests
r IEC 62035 Discharge lamps (excluding fluorescent lamps)
Safety specifications
r IEC 60662 High pressure sodium vapour lamps
r IEC 60923 Auxiliaries for lamps Ballasts for discharge
lamps (excluding tubular fluorescent lamps) Performance
requirement
r IEC 61347-1 Lamp controlgear Part 1: General and safety
requirements
r IEC 61347-2-9 Lamp controlgear Part 2-9: Particular
requirements for ballasts for discharge lamps (excluding
fluorescent lamps)
r Equivalent national standards or latest edition of IEC
standards shall be referenced. Testing laboratory/ies must
be accredited according to ISO17025 and recognized by
ILAC/APLAC for testing of HPS lamps, control gears and
luminaires

8 Additional Documents r Product specification sheet listing the brand name,


model/type, type of coating, length and width (dimensions)
r Photometric data of the proposed luminaire

9 Quality of Production r ISO 9001-2000 or equivalent

10 Warranty r Minimum 1 year

Appendix 2: Lamp Requirements and Sample Technical Specifications



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

7.2 LED Luminaire Requirements

Table 7-2: LED Luminaire Requirements


No. Requirement Specications

1 Design and Structure r Shall primarily be constructed of metal.


r Finish shall be powder color coated and rust resistant.
r In case the LED driver unit is mounted internally, it shall be
replaceable and accessible without tools.
r Any parts constructed of polycarbonate or acrylic shall be
UV stabilized, any lens discoloration shall be considered a
failure under warranty.
r Luminaire shall consist of heat sink with no fans, pumps or
liquids and shall not degrade heat dissipation performance.
r Adjustable mounting socket shall be provided for mounting
with existing mast arms diameter 48-60 mm.

2 LED Modules/Arrays r Color Temperature: a minimum 4000K


r Color Rendering Index (CRI): a minimum of 70

3 LED Driver r Driver unit(s) shall be of constant current or constant


voltage type with sufficient capacity to supply rated power
required by LED module(s)/array(s) installed in the
luminaire.
r Power factor: 0.9
r Surge protection > 2 kV (Line-Neutral).

4 Luminaire Efciency r 90 lm/W

5 Lumen Maintenance r At least 70% lumen maintenance at 50,000 hours (L70).

6 Protection Class (IP r IP 66 (for the entire luminaire, inclusive of the cable entry
rating) and gland)

7 Supply Voltage r 220V to 240V, 50Hz (or the nominal system voltage used in
the country)

8 Test Report r IEC 60598-1 Luminaires General Requirements and Tests


r IEC 60598-2-3 Part 2-3: Particular Requirements
Luminaires for Road and Street Lighting
r IEC 62722-2-1 Luminaire performance - Part 2-1: Particular
requirements for LED luminaires
r IEC 61347-1: General safety requirements
r IEC 61347-2-13: Particular requirements for DC or AC
supplied electronic control gear for LED module
r IEC 62384: DC or AC supplied electronic control gear for
LED module
r IEC 62493 Assessment of lighting equipment related to
human exposure to electromagnetic fields.
r EN 55015: 2006 and 2007 Limits and methods of radio
disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting.

 Appendix 2: Lamp Requirements and Sample Technical Specifications


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

No. Requirement Specications

r EN 61547:1995 / +A1:2000 Equipment for general lighting


purpose EMC immunity requirements.
r EN 61000-3-2:2006 Limitation of harmonic current
emission.
r EN 61000-3-3:2008 Limitation of voltage fluctuation and
flicker.
r IESNA LM 80 LED test report
r Equivalent national standards or latest edition of IEC
standards shall be referenced. Testing laboratory/ies must
be accredited according to ISO17025 and recognized by
ILAC/APLAC for testing of LED luminaire and its compo-
nents

9 Additional Documents r Product specification sheet listing the brand name,


model/type, type of coating, length and width (dimensions)
r Photometric data of the proposed luminaire
r Salt spray test report
r Vibration test report

10 Quality of Production r ISO 9001-2000 or equivalent

11 Warranty r Minimum 5 years (a full replacement of


equipment/components and accessories)

Appendix 2: Lamp Requirements and Sample Technical Specifications



8 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE OF
LIGHTING MEASUREMENT SHEET
Figure 8-1: Sample of Lighting Measurement Sheet
PROJECT: PEEP2

Place: Bypass Road, Maufanga (60m from the corner of Salote Road), Nuku'Alofa, Tonga

Luminaire: Lamp: BRP371 LED86/CW 90W 220-240V DM2E MSP


Spacing between luminaires: 42.0 meters
Street width: 7.0 meters
Height: 9.0 meters
Tilt angle: 3.0 Degrees

Measurement Grid
D = 3.0 meters
d = 2.4 meters

Site Picture:

Condition:
Date: 28 May 2014 Moon Phase: New Moon
Time: 2100-2130 hours Sky condition: Clear

Result:
7.0

5.9 15 13 10 8 6 5.3 4.5 4.7 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.9 10.4 13.8 15.3

3.5 24 17 14 10 6.8 5.5 4.8 4.7 4.7 5.4 6.7 9.1 14.5 18.5 21.5

1.1 25.7 16.6 11.4 7 3.6 4.7 3.9 4.5 3.7 4.9 7 10.1 15.7 21.7 22.7

0.0 Shade of tree

0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 39.0 42.0

Maximum Average Minimum


Illuminance (Lux) 25.7 10.2 3.6

Uniformity (min/avg) 0.35

 Appendix 3: Sample of Lighting Measurement Sheet


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific
9
APPENDIX 4: LCCA
ALTERNATE FORMULA REPRESEN-
TATION, AND EXAMPLE
Formula:
The following formula can be used to calculate the estimated Lifecycle Cost of a given luminaire
system.

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) = C i + Cm + Ce + Cr - S

Where
Ci ($) = the initial cost of the bulbs or the systems
Cm ($) = the cost incurred to maintain it in good operating condition.
Ce ($) = the total cost of electricity/ fuel required to run the bulb for its lifetime (usually
cost per kWh ($/kWh))
Cr ($) = the cost to replace the bulb (labor and equipment costs)
S ($) = the value that the bulb/ luminaires can be sold for after its lifetime is over

Example:
The following example shows how this formula might be applied:

Example: The ABC municipality is considering replacing 100 sets of street lighting. They conduct the
LCCA between a set of 250 watts mercury vapor (MV) and 90 watts LED street lighting set. The cost
of a single set of LED lamp and mercury vapor is $700 and $100, respectively. The electricity cost is
$0.3 per kWh. The yearly operating hours of the system is 4,300 hours.

Estimated Initial Cost (for replacement the same housing):


r$PTUPGOFX-&%BOENFSDVSZWBQPSMVNJOBJSFBOE
r$PTUPGJOTUBMMBUJPO FTUJNBUFMVNJOBJSFTQFSIPVSJOTUBMMFEBUQFSIPVSGPS
two-person crew) = $50100
r$PTUPGBENJOJTUSBUJPOFRVJQNFOU 
Total estimated initial cost = $78,000 (LED) and $18,000 (MV)

Appendix 4: LCCA Alternate Formula Representation, and Example



Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Table 9-1: Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Mercury Vapor Luminaire vs. LED Luminaires
Mercury Vapor Luminaire LED luminaire

Lamp wattage: 250 Watts


Rating (W) 90 Watts
Luminaire wattage: 290 Watts 1

Luminaire Lumen Output 7,313 Lumens 7,313 Lumens

Est. Initial Cost of the $18,000 $78,000


System ($) (Ci)

Life of each Bulb (h) 15,000 50,000

Lamp Replacement
333 lamps = $16,650 2 No replacement = $0
needed for 50,000 h (Cr)

Energy Consumption per 290 Watts 1 x 50,000 h 90 Watts x 50,000 h


Luminaire (kWh) 14,500,000 Wh = 14,500 kWh 4,500,000 Wh = 4,500 kWh

Est. Maintenance Cost $10/5,000 h = $1010100 $10/5,000 h = $1010100


(Cm) ($) = $10,000 = $10,000

Price of Electricity $0.30 $0.30

Cost of Electricity 14,500 kWh X 0.30/kWh X 100 4,500 kWh X 0.30/kWh X 100
needed for 50,000 h
= $435,000 = $135,000
(100 luminaires) (Ce)

Est. Salvage Cost (S) 0 0

Total Cost (Life Cycle Costs) Ci+Cm+Ce+Cr-S Ci+Cm+Ce+Cr-S


to Own and Operate the
Systems for 50,000 h. = $479,650 = $223,000
Note:
1 Each MV luminaire consumes about 290W due to additional losses in control gear which are estimated at 15% of lamp wattage.
2 Based on USD 50 per replacement (labor and equipment costs)

In this example, the initial cost of LED luminaires is clearly higher than that of the MV system; however,
after an approximate 13,000 hours (3 years period, 4,300 hours. of usage per year), the MV systems
overall costs exceed that of the LEDs due to higher energy consumption costs of the MV system.

 Appendix 4: LCCA Alternate Formula Representation, and Example


Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

Figure 9-1: Example of LCCA between 100 Sets of MV and LED Street Lighting Systems

LCCA between 100 sets of MV and LED lighting systems


$500,000
Mercury
M y Vapor ((MV),
$450,000
$479,650
7
$400,000

$350,000

$300,000
LED,
$250,000
2 0
$223,000
$200,000

$150,000

$100,000

$50,000

$
0 10,000 0
20,000 30,000
0 40
40,000 50,000
0

4,300 8,600 12,900 17,200 21,500 25,800 30,100 34,400 38,700 43,000 47,300 51,600 55,900

hours

Appendix 4: LCCA Alternate Formula Representation, and Example



10 Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific

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2007. www.cie.co.at/publ/freepubs/cie180-2007.pdf.
IESNA. "American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting." The Illuminating Engineering
Society of North America. June 27, 2000.
IESNA. Lighting Education: Fundamental Level. New York: Illuminating Engineering Society of North
America, 1999.
IIEC. Asia, Case Study Report - 1.3 Public Lighting Retrot Program: Retrotting of MMDA Street
Light within Metro Manila. Case Study Report, Bangkok : International Institute for Energy
Conservation, 2013.
IIEC. EE Street Lighting in Pacic Developing Members Countries (PDMCs) - Cook Islands, papua
New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga and Vanuatu, Promoting Energy Efciency in the Pacic-Phase 2.
Bangkok: International Institute for Energy Conservation, 2013.
IIEC. Energy Efcient Lighting and Pumping Implementation and Financing Solutions. Bangkok:
International Institute for Energy Conservation, 2014.
IIEC. India Energy Efcient Street Lighting Implementation and Financing Solutions. Final draft report,
Bangkok: International Institute for Energy Conservation, 2014.
Lighting Research Center. "Recommendations for Evaluating Street and Roadway Luminaires."
Lighting Research Center. April 2011.
www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/assist/pdf/ar-roadwayevaluation.pdf.
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Energy Efficiency Guidelines for Street Lighting in the Pacific